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viral inactivation of human osteochondral grafts with methylene blue and light.cartilage injury is one of the most common disorders of synovial joints. fresh osteochondral allografts are becoming a standard treatment; however, they are supply constrained with a potential risk of disease transmission. there are no known virucidal processes available for osteochondral allografts and most methods presently available are detrimental to cartilage. methylene blue light treatment has been shown to be successful in the literature for viral inactivation of fresh frozen plasma. the ...026069682
transplacental infection of piglets with a porcine parvovirus. 19715169329
transformation of murine cells by two "slow viruses," visna virus and progressive pneumonia virus.visna and progressive pneumonia virus (ppv), two antigenically related, non-oncogenic "slow viruses" which have ribonucleic acid (rna)-dependent deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) polymerase activity, were examined for their ability to transform cells. murine cells which had been exposed to either visna or ppv developed foci of altered, spindle-shaped cells 3 to 4 weeks after infection. visna and ppv transformed lines were established from these cultures. there was no evidence that other oncogenic dna ...19714998321
porcine parvovirus infection in vitro: a study model for the replication of parvoviruses. i. replication at different temperatures. 1. 19725066576
porcine parvovirus: properties and prevalence of a strain isolated in the united states. 19724628211
biological and physicochemical properties of porcine parvovirus recovered from stillborn piglets. 19724639067
isolation of porcine parvovirus from commercial trypsin.the isolation of porcine parvovirus from a lot of commercial 1:250 trypsin is reported and the method is described.19734584585
antigenic and biochemical characterization of the c-type particle of the stable porcine kidney cell line pk-15.the c-type particles observed by electron microscopy in pk-15 cells were demonstrated to have biochemical and biophysical properties associated with the oncornavirus group: density of 1:16 in a sucrose gradient, 70s rna, and the rna-dependent dna polymerase. the group-specific interspecies antigen, gs-3, was not present. evidence of a latent infection with a porcine parvovirus was also obtained.19734128828
porcine parvovirus: natural and experimental infections of the porcine fetus and prevalence in mature swine.antibodies against porcine parvovirus were detected in 17 of 116 prenursing pig sera. antibodies against transmissible gastroenteritis or ecpo-6 (an enterovirus) were not detected in prenursing sera of the pigs tested. seventy-seven percent of 129 serum samples from 23 ohio farms and 82% of 96 samples from slaughter plants in ohio were serologically positive for porcine parvovirus. mummies or other abnormalities were not observed in newly born pigs exposed to porcine parvovirus by the transuteri ...19744426705
genital infection of pigs with porcine parvovirus. 19744480374
letter: serological evidence of porcine parvovirus in new zealand. 19744527881
pathogenesis of in utero infection: experimental infection of five-week-old porcine fetuses with porcine parvovirus.injection of porcine parvovirus (ppv) into the allantoic fluid of 3 or 4 fetuses of each of 4 litters of ppv-immune gilts early in gestation (34 to 36 days) resulted in fetal maceration and mummification. a high concentration of virus demonstrated in many tissues of fetuses collected 1 week after initial intraallantoic exposure indicated extensive viral replication. progressively lesser amounts of virus were isolated from tissues of macerated and mummified fetuses collected after longer interval ...19751098529
experimentally induced infection of neonatal swine with porcine parvovirus.one-day-old pigs were exposed to porcine parvovirus (ppv) and killed at postinoculation day (pid) 3 or 7. signs of illness and lesions were not seen. hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) antibodies for ppv were present in the serums of pigs killed on pid 7. as detected by viral isolation and immunofluorescence, ppv was mainly located in rapidly proliferating tissues. heaviest concentration of viral antigen was in the germinal centers of lymph nodes and lightest concentration of antigen was in the ce ...19751098530
histopathological changes of the brain in swine fetuses naturally infected with procine parvovirus.during a period from 1971 to 1972, some cases of stillbirth and abortion associated with porcine parvovirus infection were recognized in swine herds in japan. the brain was examined histopathologically in five stillborn piglets and four dead fetuses from which the parvoviruses had been isolated. similar histological changes were observed in all the piglets and fetuses, except one piglet which was free from recognizable lesions. the brain lesions were considered to belong to the category of menin ...19751121331
reproductive failure in swine associated with maternal seroconversion for porcine parvovirus.reproductive failure occurred in a swine herd in which the epizootiology of enteroviruses and the porcine parvovirus were being studied. three virgin boars that were seropositive for the parvovirus were mated to seronegative, previously unmated gilts. the 11 gilts that farrowed had small litters, with high perinatal mortality. the remaining 12 gilts were marketed because of infertility, and the reproductive tracts were examined. pathologic findings included early embryonal death attributed to vi ...19751126861
fetal mummification associated with porcine parvovirus infection.a crossbred gilt farrowed 2 mummified fetuses at term, but subsequently developed uterine inertia and became listless. the remaining 5 fetuses of the litter (4 mummified and 1 normal appearing) were collected by hysterectomy. porcine parvovirus (ppv) was isolated from tissues of the mummified fetuses, and masses of viral antigen were detected throughout the same tissues when cryostat sections were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy. serum from the normal-appearing fetus of this litter had ...19751126862
experimental in utero infection of fetal pigs with a porcine parvovirus.in utero infection of fetuses of six specific-pathogen-free large white sows at 35, 48, 55, 72, 99, and 105 days was studied. the fetuses were infected by direct inoculation of porcine parvovirus into the amniotic sac. the inoculation consisted of 0.25 ml of tissue culture fluid containing 10(5.5) mean tissue culture infective doses per ml of porcine parvovirus strain g10/1. fetuses of one uterus horn were infected, whereas fetuses in the opposite horn were given 0.25 ml of noninfected cell cult ...19751165118
a microneutralization test for the assay of porcine parvovirus antibody. 19751169929
pathogenesis of in utero infection: experimental infection of eight- and ten-week-old porcine fetuses with porcine parvovirus.selected numbers of fetuses in each of 4 pregnant gilts were exposed to a porcine parvovirus by injecting the virus into the allantoic fluid at gestation day 56 or 70. the fetuses were examined on postexposure day 7 or 14. when pregnancy was terminated, 2 of 15 exposed fetuses were dead. several fetuses tested at post-exposure day 14 had hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies to porcine parvovirus. virus was detected most frequently and in highest concentration in the parenchymatous organs of th ...19751200446
porcine parvovirus in pig herds in southern africa.evidence of the presence of porcine parvovirus in southern africa is given and the diagnostic significance of this finding is discussed. minor abnormalities in the replication of the virus were observed.19751219104
[porcine parvovirus infection and stillbirth in swine. i. virus isolation from stillborn piglets (author's transl)]. 19751241628
[porcine parvovirus infection and stillbirth in swine. ii. sero-epizootiological survey (author's transl)]. 19751241629
[examinations concerning the range of host plants of the plum pox virus (ppv) (author's transl)]. 19751242553
[experiments to verify the plum pox virus (ppv) by communicating it on chenopodium foetidum schrad. (author's transl)]. 19751242554
porcine parvovirus: frequency of naturally occurring transplacental infection and viral contamination of fetal porcine kidney cell cultures.the frequency of naturally occurring transplacental infection of swine with porcine parvovirus (ppv) and one of the possible consequences of such infection--the presence of ppv in cell cultures prepared from fetal tissues--were investigated. transplacental infection was indicated by the presence of high titers of hemagglutination inhibiting (hi) antibody for ppv in serums of 0-day-old, hysterectomy-derived, colostrum-deprived pigs of 3 of 82 litters. all letters were farm-raised dams. moreover, ...1975163603
virus-like particles in buffy coat cells of normal goats and goats infected with progressive pneumonia virus.by electron microscopy, virus-like particles (vlp) were seen in neutrophils and lymphocytes from buffy coats prepared from 5 goats inoculated with progressive pneumonia virus (ppv) and 3 noninoculated goats. the vlp were 80 to 120 nm in diameter, limited by a unit membrane, and resembled ppv, visna virus, and other members of the oncornavirus family. some vlp seemed to have electron-dense nucleoids and external spikes. in neutrophils, vlp were observed budding into vacuoles; rarely, intravacuola ...1975167620
prevalence of antibodies to porcine enteroviruses and porcine parvovirus in body fluids of fetal pigs from small vs large litters. 1976175042
letter: rapid diagnostic techniques for detection of porcine parvovirus infection in mummified foetuses. 1976944570
antibody to porcine, feline and rat parvoviruses in various animal species.porcine, feline and rat parvoviruses were shown to be antigenically distinct. specific antibody to feline and rat parvoviruses was shown in a high proportion of porcine sera, and to the porcine parvovirus in sera from cattle, sheep, cats, guinea-pigs, mice and rats, but not from horse, dog, rabbit, chicken or human.1976951520
observations on the epidemiology of porcine parvovirus.evidence presented suggests that porcine parvovirus is highly stable and infective. introduction of virus to susceptible herds results in 100% infection rate within the following 3 months. active immunity is associated with high persistent levels of haemagglutination-inhibitating (hi) antibody (greater than 256), piglets suckling immune sows acquiring hi titres between 10,000 and 40,000. loss of passive immunity, measured by hi, occurs in a majority of pigs between 14 and 26 weeks of age (mean 2 ...1976985234
porcine parvovirus infection in vitro: a study model for the replication of parvoviruses. ii. kinetics of virus and antigen production. 1976986740
observations on the pathogenesis of porcine parvovirus infection.differences in the pathogenesis of porcine parvovirus (ppv) were shown when pregnant gilts were infected by the oral and intramuscular (i.m.) routes. by the oral route, ppv took 23-32 days to cross the placenta following infection of the dam, as compared to 15 days by the i.m. route, successful transplacental infection occurred following oral infection of dams only in the second third of gestation, whilst i.m. infection resulted in infection of foetuses in both first and second thirds of gestati ...1976986801
reproductive disease experimentally induced by exposing pregnant gilts to porcine parvovirus.porcine parvovirus (ppv) was administered intravenously or intranasally and orally between the 22nd and the 81st days of gestation to 20 pregnant gilts that were free of hemagglutination-inhibiting (hi) antibody for ppv. gilts were exposed to 1 or both of 2 strains (nadl-7, nadl-2) of ppv and were killed 21 or more days later. fetal and maternal fluids and tissues collected at necropsy were tested for ppv, viral antigen, and hi antibody. transplacental infection occurred with 11 of 12 gilts give ...1976999067
a standardised haemagglutination inhibition test for porcine parvovirus antibody.basic variables of the haemagglutination inhibition (hi) test for porcine parvovirus antibody were investigated. nonspecific serum inhibitors were satisfactorily removed without loss of specific antibody when undiluted serum was adsorbed with 25 percent kaolin in borate saline at ph 9.0. natural haemagglutinins in test serums could be completely removed using 0.1 ml of packed erythrocytes to 0.6 ml of kaolin treated serums. adsorption of prediluted serum resulted in a depression of specific anti ...19761016168
immunoglobulins in porcine umbilical cord blood and maternal placenta.studies were made of the immunoglobulin (ig) in serums from umbilical cord of newborn pigs and maternal placenta. the neutralization test for porcine parvovirus and japanese encephalitis virus was carried out with the serum of the sow and that of the umbilical cord of the newborn pig. comparative studies of the serums from the dam and the umbilical cord were also done with gel filtration. of 20 umbilical cord serum samples, igg was seen in 5 samples (25%), iga in 1 sample (5%), and igm in 9 samp ...19761275337
isolation of porcine parvovirus from aborted piglets. 1977275675
pathogenesis of porcine parvovirus infection: pathology and immunofluorescence in the foetus. 1977332722
experimental porcine parvovirus infection of foetal pigs resulting in abortion, histological lesions and antibody formation. 1977591653
the effect on reproductive performance of porcine parvovirus infection in a susceptible pig herd.an acute episode of reproductive failure occurred following natural introduction of porcine parvovirus to a susceptible herd of 48 breeding sows. serological data gave a close estimate of the time that infection spread through the herd, and enabled a correct forecast of the reproductive failure that followed. severe fetal mummification was seen over a three-week period. epidemiological data is presented strongly linking in utero parvovirus infection with the mummification that occurred, and the ...1977560744
serological responses in pigs vaccinated with inactivated porcine parvovirus.the safety and immunogenicity of inactivated porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccines were investigated. both beta-propiolactone and formalin successfully inactivated virus without destroying immunogenicity, which was considerably enhanced by incorporation of a gel adjuvant in the vaccine. using the formalised-gel vaccine, initial antibody responses were demonstrated in susceptible piglets and adult pigs at 7 days after vaccination. these antibody responses persist at significant levels for at least 6 ...1977565631
an outbreak of swine foetal mummification associated with porcine parvovirus. 1977856144
observations on rapid diagnosis of porcine parvovirus in mammified foetuses. 1977856145
elimination of porcine parvovirus from infected cell cultures by inclusion of homologous antiserum in the nutrient medium.cell cultures of porcine fetal kidney and porcine adult thyroid gland were freed of infection with porcine parvovirus by adding homologous viral antiserum to their nutrient medium. the use of antiserum appeared practical and effective for eliminating the virus from contaminated cell lines.1978629467
immunoglobulins in blood serum of foetal pigs.a total of 1,147 samples of blood serum, collected from porcine foetuses, were examined for the presence of immunoglobulin. the foetuses, from 182 sows, were sampled at abattoirs in queensland during 1975. for detection and measurement of immunoglobulins, rabbit anti-pig serum and monospecific anti-pig igg, anti-pig igm and anti-pig iga were employed in immunoelectrophoresis, double diffusion and single radial immuno-diffusion assays. twenty-four foetuses (from 7 litters) had detectable igg or i ...1978655968
prevalence of porcine parvovirus-induced reproductive failure: an abattoir study. 1978659307
[verification of the plum pox virus (ppv) using the tray test (author's transl)].a comparison of 6 host plants reacting by local lesion if infected by the plum pox virus (ppv) demonstrated that beside chenopodium foetidum schrad. also nicandra physaloides (l). gärtner, nicardra physaloides violacea bitter and verbena officinalis l. are pretty well suitable to verify the ppv serving as locally reacting test plants. using the tray test, the ppv was verifiable by separated leaves of c. foetidum schrad., n. physaloides violacea bitter, n. physaloides (l.) gärtner and v. officina ...1978664936
serological procedures to determine time of infection of pigs with porcine parvovirus.it was found possible to correlate serological responses to porcine parvovirus (ppv) with the time after infection. two procedures were used for ppv antibody measurement: an immunodiffusion technique to measure precipitating antibody and a haemagglutination inhibition (hi) procedure to measure concentration of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-me) sensitive antibody. both procedures successfully related antibody titres to time post-infection, but it was considered that a 2 m 2-me hi procedure showed the grea ...1978687263
experimental infection of 35, 50 and 60 day old pig foetuses with porcine parvovirus.foetuses of six seronegative gilts, two of which each respectively 35, 50 and 60 days pregnant, were inoculated intrauterinely with porcine parvovirus (ppv) and examined 7 and 11 days after inoculation. hi antibody was not detected in any of the foetuses although all but one gilt developed low levels of antibody. all but one of the foetuses inoculated with ppv died in utero prior to examination at 11 days after inoculation. infection also spread to non-inoculated litter mates. histological chang ...1978743053
demonstration of parvovirus in canadian swine and antigenic relationships with isolates from other countries.a canadian isolate of porcine parvovirus, isolated from cultured pig thyroid cells, was shown to be antigenically indistinguishable from a british (59e/63) and a german (g10/1) strain when treated by the modified direct complement-fixation, the hemagglutination-inhibition and the fluorescent antibody tests. these tests also revealed that antibodies to parvoviruses were detectable in a large proportion of the conventionally raised pigs in the provinces of quebec and ontario. cell cultures, prepar ...1978356941
prenatal infection following maternal exposure to porcine parvovirus on either the seventh or fourteenth day of gestation.intranasal and oral exposure of two gilts to porcine parvovirus on either the seventh or 14th day of gestation resulted in prenatal infection. normal appearing fetuses and necrotic remnants of what were believed embryos and extraembryonic membranes were found when the gilts were necropsied seven weeks after exposure. the presence of masses of porcine parvovirus antigen throughout necrotic tissues of six of seven embryos, but not in any of the nine normal appearing fetuses suggested that embryoni ...1979427636
effect of porcine parvovirus on development of fertilized pig eggs in vitro. 1979435962
efficacy of an inactivated virus vaccine for prevention of porcine parvovirus-induced reproductive failure.gilts vaccinated im either once (4 gilts) or twice (2 gilts) with an acetylethyleneimine-inactivated porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccine before they were bred were subsequently exposed intranasally and orally to virulent ppv at about the 40th day of gestation (from 37 to 43 days). at 2 weeks after vaccination, all had hemagglutination-inhibiting (hi) titers for ppv (from 20 to 80) which decreased by the time the immunity was challenged with virulent virus (from 10 to 40), but increased thereafter ( ...1979464358
effect of inseminating seropositive gilts with semen containing porcine parvovirus. 1979487052
porcine parvovirus infection in ontario: incidence and diagnosis in herds with reproductive failures. 1979526907
replication of porcine parvovirus in peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes, and peritoneal macrophages.porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl), peripheral blood monocytes, and peritoneal macrophages were examined for their ability to support porcine parvovirus (ppv) replication. the cell cultures were infected with the nadl-2 strain of ppv at 0.1 multiplicity of infection. pbl cultures were stimulated with the following phytomitogens: phytohemagglutinin m, concanavalin a, and pokeweed mitogen. unstimulated pbl cultures infected with ppv and uninfected pbl stimulated with phytomitogens served a ...1979574124
elevated concentrations in serum immunoglobulins due to infection by ovine progressive pneumonia virus.sixty-seven serum samples were obtained from 2 sheep flocks. agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) was used to separate progressive pneumonia virus (ppv)-infected sheep from noninfected sheep by the presence of precipitating antibodies. immunoglobulin (ig), total protein, and albumin concentrations were then measured from all 67 sera to determine whether differences existed between ppv-infected and non-infected sheep. a significant difference (p less than 0.0005) was found in both total protein and ig ...1979110182
antibody response of pigs to inactivated monovalent and bivalent vaccines for porcine parvovirus and pseudorabies virus.groups of pigs vaccinated with an inactivated bivalent vaccine containing porcine parvovirus (ppv) and pseudorabies virus (prv) developed geometric mean titers (gmt) of humoral antibody for each of the viruses as high or slightly higher than those of other groups of pigs that were vaccinated with inactivated monovalent vaccines containing one or the other of the same viruses. an increase in gmt after challenge exposure of vaccinated pigs to live virus indicated that vaccination did not prevent v ...19806261613
assay for antibody in pig fetuses infected with porcine parvovirus. 19807004146
evaluation of a modified live-virus vaccine for the prevention of porcine parvovirus-induced reproductive disease in swine.each of 5 gilts was vaccinated im with modified live-virus (mlv) vaccine for porcine parvovirus (ppv), and 5 gilts were used as nonvaccinated controls. vaccinated gilts developed hemagglutination-inhibiting (hi) antibodies to ppv (titer of 320 to 1,280) by 2 weeks after vaccination. all gilts wee bred, and at about 40 days of gestation their immunity was challenged by intranasal and oral administration of a virulent strain of ppv. gilts were killed at about 84 days of gestation and their litters ...19807212434
lesions resulting from inoculation of porcine foetuses with porcine parvovirus.in utero inoculation of 15 sows at various stages of gestation with a local strain of porcine parvovirus (ppv) resulted in resorption, abortion or the birth of weak, dead, or mummified foetuses. histopathological lesions observed in foetuses of sows slaughtered at various post-inoculation intervals consisted of a perivascular inflammatory reaction primarily observed in the brain and kidneys. the presence and extent of the inflammatory reaction were dependent upon the age of the foetus at the tim ...19807231923
transplacental infection and embryonic death following maternal exposure to porcine parvovirus near the time of conception.each of 20 gilts (principals) from a commercial swine herd free of antibody for porcine parvovirus (ppv) was exposed intranasally and orally to ppv at the onset of gestation. the gilts were killed and necropsied 22 +/- 1 days later to determine the effect of the virus on their embryos. an equal number of gilts (controls of the same status, from the same herd, and bred to the same boars, were treated similarly except for exposure to ppv. the following data were obtained at necropsy and from subse ...19807425850
response of conventionally raised weanling pigs to experimental infection with a virulent strain of porcine parvovirus.conventionally raised 6-week-old pigs were inoculated intranaslly and orally with porcine parvovirus. the pigs remained clinically normal for up to 17 days. they were viremic between 2 and 6 days after inoculation and had detectable hemagglutination-inhibiting titers to porcine parvovirus at 5 or 6 days after inoculation. virus was isolated from multiple tissues of pigs killed between 3 and 17 days after inoculation. viral antigen was demonstrated mainly in lymphoid tissues of these pigs. gross ...19807447115
effect of vaccinal and passive immunity on experimental infection of pigs with porcine parvovirus.one group of 5 pigs was vaccinated twice at 6 and 8 weeks of age with an inactivated porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccine. a 2nd group of 5 pigs was passively immunized at 9 weeks of age, and a 3rd group of 5 pigs served as nonimmunized controls. the immunity of all pigs was challenged with live ppv at 10 weeks of age. four vaccinated pigs with hemagglutinating-inhibiting (hi) antibody titer of 160 to 640 and 3 passively immunized pigs with hi titer of 80 to 160 were resistant to ppv infection. neit ...19807447129
antibody to porcine parvovirus in warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus).haemagglutination inhibiting antibody to porcine parvovirus was shown to be widespread in all but one of the warthog populations sampled from south africa and zimbabwe rhodesia. in some instances titres as high as greater than or equal to 1/20 000 were detected.19807454234
enzyme linked immunoassay and fluorescent antibody techniques in the diagnosis of viral diseases using staphylococcal protein-a instead of anti-gamma-globulins.staphylococcal protein-a (spa) is known to interact with the crystallizable fragment (fc) of igg molecules from several species. in the present study, spa coupled to either fluorescein isothiocyanate (fitc) or peroxidase was used in place of antisera to igg for the fluorescent antibody (fa) techniques and the enzyme linked immunoassay (elisa). the spa conjugates produced low background staining when applied in these techniques, and provide a rapid, highly specific and sensitive means for the ide ...198015612263
comparison of antibody titers to porcine parvovirus in serum and ovarian follicular fluid. 19817196717
accidental introduction of porcine parvovirus and talfan virus into a group of minimal disease gilts and their effects on reproduction. 19817248733
survey of porcine parvovirus infection in swine fetuses and their dams at a minnesota abattoir.reproductive tracts were recovered from 209 sow and 32 gilt carcasses at slaughter; animals had been pregnant not less than 27 days. of 241 litters examined, 28 (11.6%) contained one or more porcine parvovirus (ppv)-infected fetuses, as determined by immunofluorescent microscopy. the frequencies in sow and gilt litters were 12.0% and 9.4%, respectively. the ppv antigen was detected in 219 of 334 (65.6%) dead or mummified fetuses and in 12 of 2,172 (0.5%) live fetuses examined. the 18 litters whi ...19817258807
fetal infection with porcine parvovirus in herds with reproductive failure. 19817304357
vaccination against porcine parvovirus infection. 19817304358
ovine progressive pneumonia: experimental intrathoracic, intracerebral, and intra-articular infections.three groups of 4 lambs each were experimentally infected with an isolate of progressive pneumonia virus (ppv) by intracerebral, intra-articular, or intrathoracic routes of inoculation. an additional control group was sham-inoculated by all 3 routes with identically prepared, noninfected inoculum. sheep were killed 12 to 42 days after inoculation. a mild generalized leptomeningitis was found in 2 of the 4 lambs inoculated intracerebrally. a severe, proliferative synovitis with massive infiltrati ...19817325465
reproductive performance of gilts exposed to porcine parvovirus at 56 or 70 days of gestation.a total of 18 pregnant gilts, which were free of antibody for porcine parvovirus (ppv), were exposed oronasally to ppv on either the 56th day (9 gilts) or 70th day (9 gilts) of the gestation to determine whether infection at these times would affect their reproductive performance. the gilts were either necropsied late in gestation or allowed to farrow, and their fetuses and pigs were tested for evidence of infection. gilts remained clinically healthy throughout the experiment, and none farrowed ...19817340578
laboratory evaluation of selected disinfectants as virucidal agents against porcine parvovirus, pseudorabies virus, and transmissible gastroenteritis virus.of a variety of disinfectants evaluated, only sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide inactivated porcine parvovirus (ppv) after a 5-minute incubation period. after the same incubation time, pseudorabies and transmissible gastroenteritis viruses were inactivated by all of the disinfectants tested. when the incubation time was increased to 20 minutes, 2% glutaraldehyde and a double-strength concentration of a commercial formaldehyde preparation also inactivated ppv. formaldehyde vapor and ultrav ...19816269467
ovine progressive pneumonia: pathologic and virologic studies on the naturally occurring disease.pathologic and virologic studies were conducted on 13 mature ewes with serum precipitin antibodies to progressive pneumonia virus (ppv). pulmonary lesions of ovine progressive pneumonia were found in 4 sheep, a meningoencephalitis resembling visna in 1 sheep, chronic proliferative carpal arthritis in 2, and massive lymphoid proliferation in the mammary gland in 3. virus producing cytopathic effect typical of ppv was isolated from the lungs, mediastinal lymph node, spleen, and choroid plexus of 4 ...19816275756
immunogenicity of bivalent vaccine for reproductive failure of swine induced by pseudorabies virus and porcine parvovirus. 19816277213
morphological and immunological comparison of caprine arthritis encephalitis and ovine progressive pneumonia viruses.caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (caev) causes a variety of pathological conditions ranging from mild to very severe and from acute to chronic, depending upon the age of initial infection and other variables. although the virus has been reported to have properties of characteristic of retroviruses and to be related to maedi-visna virus (also called progressive pneumonia virus [ppv]), relatively little information about its morphological and immunological characteristics has been reported. we ...19816169845
role of the rat in the transmission of porcine parvovirus.rats experimentally inoculated with porcine parvovirus (ppv) shed virus in excreta from 3 to 21 days. rats inoculated subcutaneously with ppv responded serologically with hemagglutination-inhibition titers (512-1,024). the ppv antigen was readily detected in lung and spleen 2 and 3 days after rats were inoculated and in liver and intestine, 4 days. the rats remained clinically healthy. rats given ppv orally or in drinking water either with ppv-infected cell culture fluid or swine fetal homogenat ...19827073064
establishment of an attenuated strain of porcine parvovirus by serial passage at low temperature.to prepare a live virus vaccine strain for the prevention of porcine parvovirus infection, the 90hs strain, isolated from the brain of a stillborn porcine fetus, was subjected to the first 45 serial passages in swine kidney established (esk) cells of porcine kidney origin at 30-35 degrees c and to the 46th and later serial passages in the same cells as these at 32 degrees c. when swine were inoculated with the strain at the 38th passage level possessing such properties as expressed with rct/37+ ...19827078658
immunity to infection with porcine parvovirus in pigs inoculated with the attenuated ht- strain.swine were inoculated once with the attenuated ht- strain of porcine parvovirus. several months later they were challenged by oral inoculation with a field strain of the virus to examine an ability to prevent infection. after challenge inoculation unimmunized control swine exhibited an increase in antibody titer, viremia, and virus discharge. the virus was recovered from many organs. the swine preinoculated with the attenuated ht- strain, however, manifested none of these symptoms and were negat ...19827078661
effect of porcine parvovirus serostatus on the reproductive performance of mated gilts in an infected herd.gifts from 2 commercial swine operations (farm a and farm b) that were bred each week were tested for porcine parvovirus antibody. on farm a, 21.9% (weekly, 2% to 35%) of the 657 gilts tested over a 16-week period were seronegative within 1 week of mating. on farm b, 17.7% (weekly, o to 40%) of the 164 gilts tested over a 10 week period were seronegative within 1 week of mating. eighty-one gilts from farm a which were seronegative at time of mating were retested at the end of the gestation. of t ...19827103183
duration and biological half-life of passively acquired colostral antibodies to porcine parvovirus.the duration of passive immunity and biological half-lives of passively acquired antibodies to porcine parvovirus (ppv) were determined in 4 pigs from each of 10 litters. all sows were randomly selected from a herd naturally infected with ppv. at parturition, blood and colostral samples from the 10 sows contained hemagglutination-inhibiting (hi) antibodies to ppv; the hi titers of colostrum were about 5 times higher than that of serum. the hi antibodies in serum and colostrum of sows were resist ...19827103222
studies on the multiplication of a porcine parvovirus.a porcine parvovirus has been characterized with regard to its replication in foetal porcine kidney cells and certain biophysical properties. electron microscopy of infected cells at selected times postinfection revealed that porcine parvovirus replication took place within or near a series of granular intranuclear inclusions which may be contiguous with cellular heterochromatin. developing virions were observed to aggregate into a nucleolar-like amorphous mass which gradually disrupted as cellu ...19827112892
porcine parvovirus: serological examinations in pig breeding herds and ai boar centres.from several reports ppv is known to be world wide disseminated in pig herds. only few reports, however, are concerned about the prevalence of ppv infection among breeding animals within individual pig breeding herds. in the present work 1858 sows and boars from 53 conventional pig breeding herds and 731 sows from 73 spf pig breeding herds were examined for antibody to ppv, and the herds were grouped according to the prevalence of ppv antibody positive animals. more than 90% of the animals exami ...19827177795
a comparative survey using the gel diffusion precipitin and haemagglutination-inhibition tests for porcine parvovirus antibody. 19826805458
farm studies of porcine parvovirus infection.epizootics of reproductive failure associated with porcine parvovirus infection were investigated on 38 farms. mummification was common to all epizootics. the mean number of mummified fetuses per affected litter was 3.1. mean number of pigs born alive for gilts and sows farrowing litters with mummified fetuses was 5.0, but for sows without mummified litters on the same farms it was 9.0. mummified fetuses were observed in aborted litters on 8 (21.1%) farms. gilts and sows that appeared pregnant b ...19836833101
porcine parvovirus: virus purification and structural and antigenic properties of virion polypeptides.porcine parvovirus (ppv) was extensively purified from infected swine fetal homogenates by cacl2 precipitation followed by cscl density centrifugation. two species of particles possessing ppv-specific hemagglutinating activity were observed banding at densities of 1.39 and 1.30 g/ml, representing full and empty 20-nm virion particles, respectively. both classes of particles contained three major polypeptides. a, b, and c, with respective molecular weights of 83,000, 64,000, and 60,000. the amoun ...19836834473
the pattern of endemic parvovirus infection in four pig herds.serological surveys were conducted on the gilts and adult sows in 4 herds endemically infected with porcine parvovirus. the study assessed the influence of the type of management of breeders on the spread of virus infection and the influence of endemic parvovirus infection on reproductive parameters of the herd. the practice of holding gilts and sows in groups did not reliably promote infection or maintain a 100% level of active immunity amongst adult sows in 2 of 3 group husbandry herds. in the ...19836626062
increased litter size in gilts by intrauterine infusion of seminal and sperm antigens before breeding.three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of exposure of the uterus to semen at least 3 wk before breeding on subsequent reproductive performance. in exp. 1, uterine exposure to semen was performed three times. at least 3 wk elapsed between each treatment. control gilts received saline infusion. all gilts were bred by artificial insemination using semen from the same boars used for semen treatment. at farrowing, significantly more (10.35 vs 8.39) pigs/litter were produced by semen- ...19836682857
isolation of porcine parvovirus (ppv) from swine herds affected by reproductive failure, and serologic evidence of infection in hungarian large swine herds. 19836331141
evaluation of a gel diffusion precipitin test for porcine parvovirus.the use of a gel diffusion precipitin (gdp) test for the detection of porcine parvovirus (ppv) infection in pigs is described. the close correlation between gel diffusion precipitin and haemagglutination inhibiting (hi) antibody titres indicates that, with careful standardisation, a high level of sensitivity can be achieved with the gdp test and that it is a simple and relatively inexpensive alternative to the more commonly used hi test. experimental infection of 2 groups of pigs showed that gdp ...19836414450
pseudorabies virus, porcine parvovirus, and porcine enterovirus interactions with the zona pellucida of the porcine embryo.porcine embryos (n = 93) were incubated on cell monolayers that had been previously inoculated with pseudorabies virus, porcine parvovirus (ppv), or each of 2 porcine enteroviruses. after 2, 24, or 48 hours of incubation, the embryos were fixed in glutaraldehyde and examined by electron microscopic procedures. it was found that pseudorabies virus adsorbed to the zona pellucida (zp) and entered sperm tracks in the zp. the ppv and both enteroviruses entered pores in the zp and were associated with ...19836307093
porcine parvovirus infection: review and diagnosis in a sow herd with reproductive failure.in a commercial swine herd a rise was noted during the summer of 1981 in the number of repeat breeders, mostly four to eight weeks after serving. during the autumn there was a decrease in the litter size at birth and an increase in the number of stillborn and mummified piglets. several gilts and sows showed a seroconversion against porcine parvovirus (ppv), determined by the haemagglutination inhibition test (hi-test). characteristic pathological findings were seen in some maturely stillborn and ...19836314634
porcine parvovirus (p.p.v.): infection in boars. i. possibility of a genital localization in the boar after oronasal infection. 19836316695
experimental infection of sheep by caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and goats by progressive pneumonia virus.the lentiviruses, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) and progressive pneumonia virus (ppv) of sheep, cause major diseases in their respective hosts; however, the infectivity of these viruses for closely related species has not been determined. experiments were conducted to determine whether caev would infect sheep and whether ppv would infect goats. upon inoculation with caev, lambs developed a nonsuppurative arthritis and antibody to caev, and the virus was isolated up to 4 months late ...19836318613
an inactivated, oil-emulsion vaccine for the prevention of porcine parvovirus-induced reproductive failure.pig fetuses inoculated at 45 days gestation with virulent porcine parvovirus (ppv) were harvested 10 days later. virus was extracted, inactivated with binary ethylenimine and the antigen suspension emulsified with mineral oil adjuvant. one dose of this vaccine, or two doses with a 14 day interval, stimulated high and long lasting serum antibody titres in gilts. vaccination caused no clinical reactions and lesions at injection sites were minor. vaccination of seronegative gilts at 40 days gestati ...19846326214
tissue culture infectivity assay for porcine parvovirus. 19846474785
swine diseases transmissible with artificial insemination.the transport of fresh and frozen semen to be used for artificial insemination creates a mode of disease transmission between farms. normally, semen contains a number of nonpathogenic bacterial contaminants; however, excessive bacterial contamination can result in infertile matings. contamination with a known pathogen, eg, brucella suis, could initiate a serious outbreak of disease in a recipient herd. methods to minimize bacterial contamination of semen include sanitary collecting and processin ...19846090372
porcine parvovirus dna: characterization of the genomic and replicative form dna of two virus isolates.the genomic and replicative form (rf) dna of porcine parvovirus (ppv) have been characterized. ppv isolate nadl-8 was found to have a 5000-base single-stranded genome, and a unique strand was encapsidated in virus particles. the rf dna of isolate nadl-8 was found to be an infectious 5000-base pair (bp) molecule. select restriction endonuclease sites were mapped along the rf dna of ppv (nadl-8), and oriented with respect to the viral genomic dna. the rf dna of a second isolate of ppv, the less pa ...19846091327
porcine parvovirus infection in boars: ii. influence on fertility. 19846091372
[parvovirus infection in pigs: incidence and prevention. the diessen group veterinarian practice].a trial is reported, which was carried out to find an answer to two questions: to which extent do parvovirus-infections occur and what is the effect of a single porcine parvovirus vaccination? parvovirus was found to be enzootic on the farms included in the trial, whereas a singled vaccination was shown to be effective with regard to the prevention of lesions due to porcine parvovirus infections.19846095485
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