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monoclonal antibodies to the gp5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus are more effective in virus neutralization than monoclonal antibodies to the gp4.the arterivirus porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) contains six structural proteins the roles of which are not completely understood. in a preceding study, immunization with the dutch isolate i10 of prrsv had led to the development of mabs against four structural proteins [wieczorek-krohmer, m., 1994. herstellung und charakterisierung von monoklonalen antikörpern gegen das virus des porzinen reproduktiven und respiratorischen syndroms (prrsv). inaugural-dissertation, lud ...199910227120
properties of a virus causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of celosia argentea l. in nigeria.a sap transmissible virus, causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of celosia argentea, was isolated at vegetable farms in amuwo odofin, tejuoso, and abule ado, lagos, nigeria. the virus had a restricted host range confined to a few species of the amaranthaceae, chenopodiaceae and solanaceae families. it failed to infect several other species of the aizoaceae, brassicaceae, cucurbitaceae, fabaceae, lamiaceae, malvaceae, poaceae and tiliaceae families. the virus was transmitted in a non-persistent m ...19989842442
comparison of the safety and immunogenicity of a pneumococcal conjugate with a licensed polysaccharide vaccine in human immunodeficiency virus and non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.to compare the safety and immunogenicity of a 5-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to a licensed 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine in hiv-infected and non-hiv-infected children > or = 2 years old.19968852905
validation of the heat treatment step used in the production of diaspirin crosslinked hemoglobin (dclhb) for viral inactivation.a series of experiments was performed to assess the ability of the heat treatment step used in the manufacture of diaspirin crosslinked hemoglobin (dclhb) to inactivate viruses. in-process solutions (reaction mixtures after the crosslinking process) from six different manufacturing lots were used as test media in a 1:680 scaled down system in which the key process parameters used in the large scale production were duplicated. the inactivation of five different viruses (bovine viral diarrhea viru ...19989844723
determination of adequate moisture content for efficient dry-heat viral inactivation in lyophilized factor viii by loss on drying and by near infrared spectroscopy.a requirement for a minimal threshold level of moisture in order for efficient virus inactivation to occur during dry heat treatment of freeze-dried coagulation factor concentrates is described. techniques used to determine moisture content during heating were loss on drying and karl fischer. the loss on drying was suspected to have occasional errors as a result of sample preparation being influenced by interference from atmospheric moisture. therefore, a non-invasive, non-destructive method for ...19989811517
inactivation of viruses by beta-propiolactone in human cryo poor plasma and igg concentrates.virus inactivation by cold treatment with beta-propiolactone (bpl) was investigated in human cryo poor plasma and purified igg concentrates spiked with relevant human viruses or appropriate animal model viruses. the samples were treated with 0.1 or 0.25% bpl for 300 or 480 min, respectively. residual infectivity was determined by standard microtitration assays on tissue culture cells. the inactivation of all viruses tested was more effective in igg than in plasma. igg: r1=4-5.5 log10 for vesicul ...19989811521
serosurvey of selected viral and bacterial diseases in wild swine from oklahoma.blood samples collected from 120 wild swine (sus scrofa) in thirteen oklahoma (usa) counties during 1996 were tested for antibodies against six viral and two bacterial diseases. no antibodies to swine brucellosis, pseudorabies, transmissible gastroenteritis, and vesicular stomatitis were detected. antibody titers to one or more leptospiral serovars were found in 44% of the samples, the two most frequent serovars being leptospira interrogans serovars bratislava (29%) and pomona (27%). antibody ag ...19989813859
removal of viruses from human intravenous immune globulin by 35 nm nanofiltration.viral safety is an important prerequisite for clinical immunoglobulin preparations. a common manufacturing practice is to utilize several virus removal/inactivation process steps to ensure the safety of human intravenous immunoglobulin (ivig). in this regard, we examined the use of planova 35 nm filters to reduce potential loads of both non-enveloped and enveloped viruses prior to end-stage solvent detergent treatment. the nanofiltration process was validated for removal of a variety of envelope ...199810403036
nucleotide sequence of the putative replicase gene of the sour cherry strain of plum pox potyvirus.the complete nucleotide sequence of the nib coding region of the sour cherry strain of plum pox potyvirus (ppv-soc) has been determined. it consists of 1554 nucleotides and encodes a putative replicase protein of 518 amino acids. sequence identity scores between nib of ppv-soc and other isolates of ppv are significantly low (c. 78%). many of the nucleotide substitutions, however, are silent. ppv-soc differs from isolates of ppv-d, ppv-m and ppv-e1 amar at multiple amino acid positions that are c ...19989856106
development of a pcr-based method coupled with a microplate colorimetric assay for the detection of porcine parvovirus and application to diagnosis in piglet tissues and human plasma.a new method for porcine parvovirus (ppv) diagnosis was developed. the method is based on polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification followed by hybridization and colorimetric detection of pcr products in microwell plates. a highly specific and sensitive amplification step was ensured by primers carefully selected in the vp2 structural gene and optimized pcr conditions. uracyl-dna-glycosylase (udg) in combination with dutp was used to avoid false-positive results, and 100 copies of internal c ...19989843658
strain variability of plum pox virus isolates from western slovakia.leaf tissues of stone fruit trees (plum, apricot, peach and myrobalan) carrying symptoms of plum pox virus (ppv) infection and of peach gf 305 seedlings and nicotiana benthamiana infected experimentally with ppv were assayed for ppv by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the expected 243 bp pcr products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis with restriction endonucleases alui and rsai. all of the pcr products contained the alui site. the rsai restriction profile ...19989770072
virus safety of avital bone tissue transplants: evaluation of sterilization steps of spongiosa cuboids using a peracetic acid-methanol mixture.the aim of this study was to validate the virus-inactivating/eliminating capacity of the manufacturing process of spongiosa cuboids. both the sterilization step with peracetic acid (paa)/ethanol and the defatting step of bones with chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v) were investigated. relevant enveloped, non-enveloped, and model viruses belonging to different virus families were included in the investigation: human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (hiv-2), hepatitis a virus (hav), poliovirus (pv-1), ps ...199910652175
mutations in the coat protein gene of plum pox virus suppress particle assembly, heterologous encapsidation and complementation in transgenic plants of nicotiana benthamiana.two different motifs in the coat protein (cp) of plum pox virus (ppv) (r(3015)q(3016), d(3059)) were mutated by replacing the respective amino acids with others possessing different chemical properties. the mutated cp genes were introduced into an infectious full-length clone of ppv (p35ppv-nat) to investigate their influence on systemic infection of transgenic wild-type ppv cp-expressing and non-transgenic plants of nicotiana benthamiana. all mutants failed to establish systemic infections in n ...200010675394
reproduction of lesions of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome by infection of conventional pigs with porcine circovirus type 2 alone or in combination with porcine parvovirus.post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) has recently emerged as an important disease of pigs in north america, europe and asia. porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) and porcine parvovirus (ppv) have been isolated from affected pigs. to investigate the pathogenicity of these isolates, groups of colostrum-deprived conventional pigs were inoculated with pcv2 alone (n=4), ppv alone (n=3) or dually with pcv2 and ppv (n=7) and examined post mortem between 21 and 26 days post-infection (dpi). tw ...200010627387
identification of a pathogenicity determinant of plum pox virus in the sequence encoding the c-terminal region of protein p3+6k(1).a full-length genomic cdna clone of a plum pox potyvirus (ppv) isolate belonging to the m strain (ppv-ps) has been cloned downstream from a bacteriophage t7 polymerase promoter and sequenced. transcripts from the resulting plasmid, pgppvps, were infectious and, in herbaceous hosts, produced symptoms that differed from those of virus progeny of pgppv, a full-length genomic cdna clone of the d strain ppv-r. viable ppv-r/-ps chimeric viruses were constructed by recombination of the cdna clones in v ...200010675393
prenatal diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection.we report here the results of a study on the prenatal diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (cmv) infection. the study was carried out by both pcr and virus isolation from amniotic fluid (af) for 82 pregnant women at risk of transmitting cmv for the detection of (i) seroconversion to cmv immunoglobulin g (igg) positivity during the first trimester of pregnancy, (ii) symptomatic cmv infection in the mother during the first trimester of pregnancy or intrauterine growth retardation detected by ul ...19989817869
recombinant parvovirus-like particles as an antigen carrier: a novel nonreplicative exogenous antigen to elicit protective antiviral cytotoxic t cells.to develop a strategy that promotes efficient antiviral immunity, hybrid virus-like particles (vlp) were prepared by self-assembly of the modified porcine parvovirus vp2 capsid protein carrying a cd8(+) t cell epitope from the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus nucleoprotein. immunization of mice with these hybrid pseudoparticles, without adjuvant, induced strong cytotoxic t lymphocyte (ctl) responses against both peptide-coated- or virus-infected-target cells. this cd8(+) class i-restricted cyt ...19979207121
preservation of 5'-end integrity of a potyvirus genomic rna is not dependent on template specificity.full-length in vitro transcripts of plum pox potyvirus (ppv) genomic rna with mutations altering the number of 5'-terminal adenosine residues were able to infect nicotiana clevelandii plants, whereas a mutant with a substitution of adenosine in position 2 by guanosine failed to infect. the genomic 5' end was template-independently repaired during in vivo rna synthesis producing wild-type viral progeny. putative models of replication initiation are discussed.200010753716
new methods for inactivation of lipid-enveloped and non-enveloped viruses.two new methods are described for inactivating lipid-enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in plasma-derived products such as coagulation factors and intravenous immunoglobulin (igiv). iodine/sephadex delivers iodine to igiv solutions in a slow, controlled way and allows for inactivation of > or = 4 logs of porcine parvovirus (ppv), a hardy non-enveloped virus, under conditions which do not measurably damage the structural or functional properties of the igiv, and with essentially no iodination of ...19989873761
detection of human cytomegalovirus pp67 late gene transcripts in cerebrospinal fluid of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.this study examined the clinical correlation between the presence of human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) pp67 mrna in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) and active hcmv central nervous system (cns) disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1). in total, 76 csf specimens collected from 65 hiv-1-positive patients diagnosed with hcmv cns disease, other non-hcmv-related cns diseases, or no cns disease were tested for the presence of hcmv pp67 mrna using the nuclisens cytomegalovirus (cmv) pp ...200010790122
biotechnological aspects of plum pox virus.plum pox potyvirus (ppv), the causal agent of a devastating disease that affects stone fruit trees, is becoming a target of intense studies intended both to fight against viral infection and to develop practical applications based on the current knowledge of potyvirus molecular biology. this review focuses on biotechnological aspects related to ppv, such as novel diagnostic techniques that facilitate detection and typing of virus isolates, strategies to implement pathogen-derived resistance thro ...200010656327
porcine circoviruses: a review.porcine circoviruses (pcv) are small nonenveloped dna viruses containing a unique single-stranded circular genome. previously, no recognized link was found between pcv infection of pigs and disease, and pcv was considered a nonpathogenic agent. over the last 5 years, a "novel" pcv, designated pcv2, has been associated with various disease syndromes in pigs, primarily postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws). pigs with pmws have a variety of clinical signs, including debility, dyspnea, p ...200010690769
susceptibility to recombination rearrangements of a chimeric plum pox potyvirus genome after insertion of a foreign gene.infectious rna transcripts were generated from a chimeric cdna clone of the plum pox potyvirus (ppv) genome containing the bacterial beta-glucuronidase (gus) gene inserted between the sequences coding for the p1 and hc proteins. an artificial cleavage site specific for the nia viral proteinase was engineered between the gus and hc sequences to produce free gus and hc proteins. the resulting virus ppvgus/ was stably maintained during the first round of infection, although plants remained symptoml ...19989870586
in vivo induction of a high-avidity, high-frequency cytotoxic t-lymphocyte response is associated with antiviral protective immunity.many approaches are currently being developed to deliver exogenous antigen into the major histocompatibility complex class i-restricted antigen pathway, leading to in vivo priming of cd8(+) cytotoxic t cells. one attractive possibility consists of targeting the antigen to phagocytic or macropinocytic antigen-presenting cells. in this study, we demonstrate that strong cd8(+) class i-restricted cytotoxic responses are induced upon intraperitoneal immunization of mice with different peptides, chara ...200010846055
trial-of-antibiotic algorithm for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in a district hospital in a developing country with high hiv prevalence.to evaluate a diagnostic algorithm for pulmonary tuberculosis based on smear microscopy and objective response to trial of antibiotics.200010864181
viral wasting syndrome of swine: experimental reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in gnotobiotic swine by coinfection with porcine circovirus 2 and porcine parvovirus.one-day-old gnotobiotic piglets were inoculated intranasally with in vitro passaged porcine circovirus 1 (pcv-1), pcv-2, and porcine parvovirus (ppv) alone or in combination (pcv-1/pcv-2, pcv-1/ppv, and pcv-2/ppv). piglets were evaluated for 1) the development of porcine postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws), 2) distribution of viral antigens by immunochemistry, and 3) viremia and the presence of viral dna in nasal and ocular secretions and feces. all single agent-infected piglets an ...200010810990
combined pap smear, cervicography and hpv dna testing in the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer.the sensitivity of the pap smear (pap) continues to be the subject of debate. during the past several years, cervicography (cer) and hpv dna testing have been suggested as optional tools in the screening of cervical cancer precursors.200010833984
transgenic or plant expression vector-mediated recombination of plum pox virus.different mutants of an infectious full-length clone (p35ppv-nat) of plum pox virus (ppv) were constructed: three mutants with mutations of the assembly motifs rq and df in the coat protein gene (cp) and two cp chimeras with exchanges in the cp core region of zucchini yellow mosaic virus and potato virus y. the assembly mutants were restricted to single infected cells, whereas the ppv chimeras were able to produce systemic infections in nicotiana benthamiana plants. after passages in different t ...200010906199
reproduction of lesions of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in gnotobiotic piglets.neonatal gnotobiotic piglets were inoculated with tissue homogenates and low- and high-passage cell culture material to determine if the lesions of the newly described porcine postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) could be reproduced. for this, 17 3-day-old gnotobiotic piglets were inoculated intranasally with pelleted chloroform-treated, filtered extracts from cell cultures, filter-sterilized homogenates of lymphoid tissue from pmws-affected piglets, or control materials. piglets we ...19999925205
a sequential study of experimental infection of pigs with porcine circovirus and porcine parvovirus: immunostaining of cryostat sections and virus isolation.the sequential tissue distribution of virus was investigated using virus isolation and immunofluorescence tests in 1-day-old piglets inoculated with porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2) and/or porcine parvovirus (ppv). enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were seen in the pig inoculated with pcv2 alone and killed at 26 days post-inoculation (pi). one of the pigs inoculated with pcv2 and ppv and killed at 21 days pi had an enlarged liver. the pig killed at 26 days pi in this group had enlarged liver, kidneys a ...200010763376
sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of oral opportunistic infections in adults with hiv/aids as markers of immune suppression and viral burden.the purpose of this study was to assess the use of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-related oral opportunistic infections as markers of immune suppression and viral burden in adults with hiv/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids).200010936837
episomal expression of a hammerhead ribozyme directed against plum pox virus.two related antisense rnas directed against plum pox virus (ppv) were expressed episomally in nicotiana clevelandii by infection with recombinant potato virus x (pvx). one recombinant pvx expressed an ordinary ppv antisense rna of about 400 nucleotides, while the other expressed a related antisense rna that carried the catalytic domain of a hammerhead ribozyme. inoculation with the latter recombinant pvx resulted in the accumulation of ribozyme rna that was catalytically active when tested in vi ...200010930659
occupational risk of infection by varicella zoster virus in belgian healthcare workers: a seroprevalence study.to assess the prevalence of varicella zoster virus (vzv) antibodies in flemish (belgian) healthcare workers, to investigate the association between seronegativity and selected variables, and to assess the reliability of recall about disease as a predictor of immunity.200010935943
evaluation and validation of virus removal by ultrafiltration during the production of diaspirin crosslinked haemoglobin (dclhb).virus retention during ultrafiltration through a/g technology filter cartridges was investigated to characterize the removal process and validate the degree of virus titre reduction during the filtration of red blood cell haemolysates performed as part of the production of diaspirin crosslinked haemoglobin (dclhb). when viruses were suspended in phosphate buffered saline solution, retention was greater with larger sized viruses and smaller filter pore size. virus titre was maintained at starting ...200010885615
experimental transmission of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) in weaned pigs: a sequential study.weaned specific pathogen-free pigs were inoculated intranasally with porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) and killed in groups of two or three animals at 6, 13, 20, 27 and 34 days post-inoculation (dpi), together with appropriate uninfected controls, for examination by histopathological, immunohistochemical (immunogold silver staining; igss), polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and viral isolation techniques. serum samples were also collected for detection of antibodies. no major clinical signs were obs ...200011041995
distribution of porcine parvovirus in porcine circovirus 2-infected pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome as shown by in-situ hybridization.in-situ hybridization with a nonradioactive digoxigenin-labelled probe was used to study the distribution of porcine parvovirus (ppv) in formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissues from 10 porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2)-infected weaned pigs with naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws). a 226 base pair dna fragment from a vp2 structural gene was generated by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and used as a probe. lymph node, spleen, thymus and tonsil were positive by pcr, ...200011042001
effect of different baculovirus inactivation procedures on the integrity and immunogenicity of porcine parvovirus-like particles.we have demonstrated earlier the usefulness of recombinant porcine parvovirus (ppv) virus-like particles (vlps) as an efficient recombinant vaccine for ppv. here, we have demonstrated that preparations of ppv vlps could be contaminated by recombinant baculoviruses. since these baculoviruses can be a problem for the registration and safety requirements of the recombinant vaccine, we have tested different baculovirus inactivation strategies, studying simultaneously the integrity and immunogenicity ...200011115693
the use of transgenic fruit trees as a resistance strategy for virus epidemics: the plum pox (sharka) model.sharka or plum pox, caused by plum pox virus (ppv: genus potyvirus; family potyviridae), is the most serious disease of prunus. most cultivated prunus species are highly susceptible and conventional breeding has not produced highly resistant and commercially acceptable varieties. success in developing virus-resistant herbaceous crops through genetic engineering led us to investigate this approach for resistance to ppv. our programme aims to develop a biotechnological approach to ppv control that ...200011137162
protection of rabbits against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus by immunization with the vp60 protein expressed in plants with a potyvirus-based vector.a new plum pox potyvirus (ppv)-based vector has been constructed for the expression of full-length individual foreign proteins. the foreign sequences are cloned between the nib replicase and capsid protein (cp) cistrons. the heterologous protein is split from the rest of the potyviral polyprotein by cleavage at the site that originally separated the nib and cp proteins and at an additional nia protease recognition site engineered at its amino-terminal end. this vector (ppv-nk) has been used to c ...200111162842
plum pox virus capsid protein mobility in sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.slovak plum pox virus (ppv) isolates bor-3 and kr-4 behaved atypically in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds-page) of their capsid proteins (cps). whereas other tested ppv isolates could be sorted by sds-page into groups corresponding to the m or d strains, as controlled by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis, the two above mentioned isolates behaved as the m strain according to rflp analysis but not sds-page. slight mobility di ...199910749373
native electrophoresis and western blot analysis (neweb): a method for characterization of different forms of potyvirus particles and similar nucleoprotein complexes in extracts of infected plant tissues.a combination of native electrophoresis and immunodetection (western blot) was used for the characterization of nucleoprotein particles of the potyvirus plum pox virus (ppv). virus particles were electrophoresed directly from plant extracts in agarose or mixed acrylamide-agarose gels under native conditions, blotted on nitrocellulose membranes, and characterized with the aid of a coat protein-specific antibody. using this combined methodology, called neweb (native electrophoresis and western blo ...200010950988
mineral nutrition of plum trees as an important factor of protection against plum pox virus disease.the experimental results obtained from a fruit garden at krajné pointed out a different content of macrobiogenic elements in the leaves of plum trees infected with plum pox virus (ppv) as compared to healthy ones. mineral nutrition of diseased trees was characteristic by lower relational values of topical levels of macrobiogenic elements especially those of n/p, n/k, (ca + mg)/k, and (n/p)/(n/k).199810073227
reproductive tract infections in primary healthcare, family planning, and dermatovenereology clinics: evaluation of syndromic management in morocco.to determine where and with what symptoms women seek care for reproductive tract infections (rti) in morocco and to guide allocation of resources for training and treatment for rtis.199810023358
preparation of diagnostic monoclonal antibodies against two potyviruses.diagnostic monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against bean yellow mosaic virus (bymv) and plum pox virus (ppv) were prepared, characterized and used for detection of these viruses in infected plants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), immunoblot analysis and tissue print immunoblot assay (tpiba).199910749372
pilot study of expedited hiv-1 testing of women in labor at an inner-city hospital in new york city.to evaluate the feasibility of offering voluntary counseling and expedited human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) testing to women in labor, and to assess the characteristics of two rapid hiv assays compared with results from an expedited standard enzyme immunoassay (eia), with western blot confirmation, as indicated, we undertook a pilot study immediately prior to enactment of new york state regulations (august 1999) requiring expedited testing of laboring women (or newborns) with undocumented hiv ...200111321245
localization of plum pox virus in stem and petiole tissues of apricot cultivars by immuno-tissue printing.localization of plum pox virus (ppv) in stem and petiole tissues of four susceptible and four resistant apricot cultivars has been studied. consecutive 1-mm spaced transverse sections were taken from the tissues and were printed onto nitrocellulose membrane in duplicate. for virus-specific detection, one series of prints was probed with an antibody to ppv coat and the density of stains was evaluated by light microscopy. another series of prints was treated with a substrate but not with the antib ...200011332274
efficiency of inoculation of peach gf305 seedlings with plum pox virus by different methods.peach gf305 is frequently used as rootstock in experiments to evaluate the resistance of different species of prunus to plum pox virus (ppv) because of its extreme susceptibility. however, transmission of ppv in prunus species is sometimes problematic due to its low concentration or uneven distribution in these species. to determine the most effective way of transmitting the virus, different infection methods (by aphids, grafting, mechanical infection and injection) were tested using dideron ppv ...200011332275
identification of an n-terminal domain of the plum pox potyvirus ci rna helicase involved in self-interaction in a yeast two-hybrid system.potyvirus ci rna helicase is a protein involved in rna genome replication and virus movement. the protein aggregates in the cytoplasm of infected cells to form typical cylindrical inclusions. a yeast two-hybrid system was used to analyse interactions of the ci rna helicase from plum pox potyvirus (ppv) with itself and with other viral proteins. no interactions could be detected of full-length ci protein with itself or with ppv p3/6k1, nia, nib or cp proteins. however, positive self-interactions ...200111172111
investigation of porcine parvovirus among persons with hemophilia receiving hyate:c porcine factor viii concentrate.porcine clotting factor has been used for more than 15 years to treat severe bleeding episodes in persons with hemophilia who have antibodies to human clotting factor. in 1996, qc procedures revealed for the first time the presence of porcine parvovirus (ppv) in the product. this report describes an investigation to determine the extent of product contamination and to evaluate past recipients of porcine clotting factor (hyate:c, speywood biopharm) for evidence of ppv infection.200010864993
clinical diagnosis of influenza virus infection: evaluation of diagnostic tools in general practice.with the development of new antiviral agents for influenza, the urge for rapid and reliable diagnosis of influenza becomes increasingly important. respiratory virus infections are difficult to distinguish on clinical grounds. general practitioners (gps) however, still depend on their clinical judgement.200111510391
virological response to interferon therapy of chronic hepatitis b as measured by a highly sensitive assay.in the interferon (ifn) treatment of chronic hepatitis b, there is no accepted definition of virological response as measured by highly sensitive hbv dna assays. in the present study of 98 patients given ifn (10 mu/day for 1 week, then 10 mu tiw for 11 weeks) with or without prednisolone priming, a virological response was identified as log hbv dna/ml below 6.0 (by amplicor monitor, roche) 6 months post-treatment. at this time, 92% (33/36) of the sustained responders (sr) still had detectable vi ...200111555192
preliminary report on the apparent breaking of resistance of a transgenic plum by chip bud inoculation of plum pox virus ppv-s.five transgenic clones of prunus domestica l. containing plum pox virus (ppv) coat protein (cp) gene and one non-transformed control clone were challenged with ppv-s in the field. symptoms developed on c2, c3, c4, c6 and b70146 but not c5 trees inoculated by chip budding (cbi) (2/2, 2/2, 1/1, 2/2 and 2/2, positive/inoculated) in the first summer after inoculation. however, in the second year, symptoms appeared on cbi c5 trees. the presence of the virus in the plants was confirmed by enzyme-linke ...199810073228
response of antioxidative enzymes to plum pox virus in two apricot cultivars.recent evidence has indicated that activated oxygen species (aos) may function as molecular signals in the induction of defence genes. in the present work, the response of antioxidative enzymes to the plum pox virus (ppv) was examined in two apricot (prunus armeniaca l.) cultivars, which behaved differently against ppv infection. in the inoculated resistant cultivar (goldrich), a decrease in catalase (cat) as well as an increase in total superoxide dismutase (sod) and dehydroascorbate reductase ...200111240915
budding of fowlpox and pigeonpox viruses at the surface of infected cells.chick embryo fibroblasts and chorioallantoic membranes infected with fowlpox virus (fwpv) or pigeonpox virus (ppv) were examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. immature virus particles were observed in finely granular areas, i.e. virus factories, of the cytoplasm. these particles had various forms depending on their stages of development. many tubular structures were also seen in these regions. mature virus particles with ellipsoidal or brick-shaped forms enclosing electron-de ...200111347712
the capsid protein of a plant single-stranded rna virus is modified by o-linked n-acetylglucosamine.plum pox virus (ppv) is a member of the potyvirus genus of plant viruses. labeling with udp-[3h]galactose and galactosyltransferase indicated that the capsid protein (cp) of ppv is a glycoprotein with n-acetylglucosamine terminal residues. mass spectrometry analysis of different ppv isolates and mutants revealed o-linked n-acetylglucosamination, a modification barely studied in plant proteins, of serine and/or threonine residues near the amino end of ppv cp. cp of ppv virions is also modified by ...200211606576
post-transcriptional gene silencing in plum pox virus resistant transgenic european plum containing the plum pox potyvirus coat protein gene.transgenic plums containing the plum pox potyvirus coat protein (ppv-cp) gene were inoculated with ppv. infection was monitored by evaluating symptoms, elisa, and ic-rt-pcr. transgenic clone c5 was highly resistant to ppv during four years of testing and displayed characteristics typical of post-transcriptional gene silencing (ptgs), including a high level of transgene transcription in the nucleus, low levels of transgene mrna in the cytoplasm, a complex multicopy transgene insertion with aberra ...200111437277
experimental reproduction of severe disease in cd/cd pigs concurrently infected with type 2 porcine circovirus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.three-week-old cesarean-derived colostrum-deprived (cd/cd) pigs were inoculated with porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2, n = 19), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv, n = 13), concurrent pcv2 and prrsv (pcv2/prrsv, n = 17), or a sham inoculum (n = 12) to compare the independent and combined effects of these agents. necropsies were performed at 7, 10, 14, 21, 35, and 49 days postinoculation (dpi) or when pigs became moribund. by 10 dpi, pcv2/prrsv-inoculated pigs had severe dy ...200111572560
a viral phospholipase a2 is required for parvovirus infectivity.sequence analysis revealed phospholipase a2 (pla2) motifs in capsid proteins of parvoviruses. although pla2 activity is not known to exist in viruses, putative pla2s from divergent parvoviruses, human b19, porcine parvovirus, and insect gmdnv (densovirus from galleria mellonella), can emulate catalytic properties of secreted pla2. mutations of critical amino acids strongly reduce both pla2 activity and, proportionally, viral infectivity, but cell surface attachment, entry, and endocytosis by pla ...200111702787
the structure of porcine parvovirus: comparison with related viruses.the structure of baculovirus-expressed porcine parvovirus (ppv) capsids was solved using x-ray crystallography and was found to be similar to the related canine parvovirus (cpv) and minute virus of mice (mvm). the ppv capsid protein has 57 % and 49 % amino acid sequence identity with cpv and mvm, respectively, but the degree of conservation of surface-exposed residues is lower than average. consequently, most of the structural differences are on the surface and are the probable cause of the know ...200211827486
pathogenicity determinants in the complex virus population of a plum pox virus isolate.several subisolates were separated from a single plum pox virus (ppv) isolate, ppv-ps. in spite of an extremely high sequence conservation (more than 99.9% similarity), different subisolates differed largely in pathogenicity in herbaceous hosts and infectivity in woody plants. the severity of symptomatology did not seem to correlate with virus accumulation. sequence analysis and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that single amino acid changes in the helper component (hc) protein caused a dr ...200111277425
porcine factor viii: current status and future developments.high-purity porcine factor viii (pfviii) (hyate:c, ipsen, uk), with a specific activity of > 125 u mg(-1) protein, has been shown to be effective in up to 90% of bleeds in patients with fviii inhibitors. these inhibitors have been shown to have a median 15% cross-reactivity to pfviii, and even less cross-reactivity in patients with acquired haemophilia. its use is sometimes associated with a transient fall in platelet count and with transfusion reactions. furthermore, it is not virally attenuate ...200211882080
clinical and pathological observations on pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.the aim of this work was to characterise the lesions and agents present in clinically normal and clinically affected pigs on a farm during an outbreak of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws), and to evaluate the diagnostic techniques for detecting porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv-2) and other microorganisms. four pigs in the early stage and 11 pigs in the late stage of the disease, and eight clinically normal pigs were necropsied. samples of lymphoid tissue and serum were also obtaine ...200111594382
new results concerning the plum pox virus epidemiology and resistance of plum cultivars, hybrids and rootstocks.our recent results on the plum pox virus (ppv) epidemiology show that ppv spreads very rapidly in plum tree plantations in the contaminated areas. a clearing of the ppv-infected trees reduces significantly the spread of the virus but does not eliminate the disease. some plum tree cultivars, hybrids and rootstocks (scoldus, alina, cristi, bn 1/8fl, bn 2gr. etc) showing field resistance could not be infected with ppv by natural way. however, they could be infected with ppv by artificial inoculatio ...199810073229
parapoxviruses: from the lesion to the viral genome.viruses of the genus parapoxvirus from the family poxviridae cause widespread but localized diseases of small and large ruminants. the economically most important disease is contagious pustular dermatitis or contagious ecthyma among sheep and goats, often simply called orf. the parapoxviruses (ppv) can be transmitted to man leading to localized lesions that are named pseudocowpox or milkers' node as being mostly restricted to the hands and fingers. in cattle two forms of ppv manifestation are co ...200211911596
generation of recombinant parapoxviruses: non-essential genes suitable for insertion and expression of foreign genes.orf virus (ov) is an epitheliotropic poxvirus and belongs to the genus parapoxvirus (ppv). ppv, especially ov, is regarded as a promising candidate for an expression vector. among available live vaccines only strain d1701 represents a highly attenuated ov strain with clearly reduced pathogenicity. therefore, we started to identify potentially non-essential genes or regions of d1701, which might be suitable for insertion and expression of foreign genes. the present contribution reviews some of th ...200011000469
process for the preparation of pathogen-inactivated rbc concentrates by using pen110 chemistry: preclinical studies.a pathogen-inactivation process for rbc concentrates is being developed by using pen110 chemistry (inactine, v.i. technologies). the objective of this study was to characterize the quality of rbcs prepared by using the pen110 process and to measure the virucidal effect achieved against two viruses.200211896326
host-specific involvement of the hc protein in the long-distance movement of potyviruses.plum pox virus (ppv) is a member of the potyvirus genus that, in nature, infects trees of the prunus genus. although ppv infects systemically several species of the nicotiana genus, such as n. clevelandii and n. benthamiana, and replicates in the inoculated leaves of n. tabacum, it is unable to infect systemically the last host. the long-distance movement defect of ppv was corrected in transgenic tobacco plants expressing the 5"-terminal region of the genome of tobacco etch virus (tev), a potyvi ...200211799187
simultaneous detection of porcine circovirus 2 and porcine parvovirus in naturally and experimentally coinfected pigs by double in situ hybridization.a technique for double in situ hybridization to simultaneously detect porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2) and porcine parvovirus (ppv) in the same tissue section was developed and applied to lymph node and spleen from 8 pigs experimentally coinfected with pcv2 and ppv and 20 pigs with naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. for double labeling studies, the tissue samples were processed sequentially, first for ppv in situ hybridization using a digoxigenin-labeled probe and then fo ...200212033680
molecular variability of the p3-6k1 genomic region among geographically and biologically distinct isolates of plum pox virus.to evaluate molecular variability in the 5' region of the plum pox virus (ppv) genome, a fragment spanning the c-terminal part of p3, the complete 6k1 and start of the ci gene in 12 slovak and french ppv isolates was amplified in ic-rt-pcr and sequenced. computer analysis of obtained and previously published sequences showed rather substantial differences among isolates of ppv-m and d subgroups (percentage of nucleotide identity ranged from 85.65 to 87.68%). there was a relatively low percentage ...200211958455
persistent parapoxvirus infection in cattle.the possibility of persistent parapoxvirus (ppv) infection was investigated by serologically and genetically using cattle infected with the virus experimentally and naturally. three cattle were inoculated with the virus subcutaneously at several spots in the lips and abdominal regions. small papules developed in the inoculated regions, and antibodies to the virus developed and continued persistently. one animal, from which one ppv had been previously isolated, was also subjected to serological a ...200212061631
large scale production and downstream processing of a recombinant porcine parvovirus vaccine.porcine parvovirus (ppv) virus-like particles (vlps) constitute a potential vaccine for prevention of parvovirus-induced reproductive failure in gilts. here we report the development of a large scale (25 l) production process for ppv-vlps with baculovirus-infected insect cells. a low multiplicity of infection (moi) strategy was efficiently applied avoiding the use of an extra baculovirus expansion step. the optimal harvest time was defined at 120 h post-infection at the moi used, with the cell c ...200212073130
a longitudinal study of cell-mediated immunity in pigs infected with porcine parvovirus.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is an ubiquitous pathogen causing reproductive failure in swine. protection against reproductive failure caused by acute ppv infection has commonly been related to the presence of specific antibodies in the dam. however, the role of cell-mediated immunity during chronic ppv infection remains to be elucidated, and may be relevant to the pathogenesis of novel diseases such as postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws), which may be triggered by coinfection with ppv ...200212081019
incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis and hiv coinfection in the province of seville, spain, 1998.using the national notifiable disease surveillance system (nndss) and minimum basic data set (mbds) for hospital discharges we evaluated pulmonary tuberculosis (ptb) surveillance and estimated real ptb incidence and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) coinfection in seville in 1998. in addition, we assessed the sensitivity and the positive predictive value (ppv) of the surveillance system. real incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was estimated by the capture-recapture method. in 1998, the provinc ...200112086091
experimental infection of colostrum deprived piglets with porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) potentiates pcv2 replication.experimental infection of colostrum-deprived (cd) pigs with a combined inoculum of porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) potentiated the replication and distribution of pcv2 virus, when compared with pigs inoculated with pcv2 alone. the replication and distribution of prrsv in dually infected pigs was not enhanced, when compared to pigs inoculated with prrsv alone. the mechanisms involved in the potentiation of pcv2 replication in pcv2/prrsv ...200011205128
how successfully do general practitioners diagnose herpetic gingivo-stomatitis clinically?herpetic gingivo-stomatitis is a common, often painful affliction of young children. recently, aciclovir treatment has been found to be effective in hospital-referred cases, an approach limited in general practice where laboratory diagnosis is invariably impractical. this study demonstrated that 49 out of 63 clinical diagnoses of herpetic gingivo-stomatitis [ppv = 78%] made by 27 gps were subsequently validated by laboratory virus culture. this suggests that herpetic gingivo-stomatitis might be ...200212051213
production of a monoclonal antibody specific to the el amar strain of plum pox virus.plum pox virus (ppv) isolates are grouped into three clusters differentiated by biological, serological, molecular and epidemiological characteristics: marcus (m), dideron (d) and cherry (c). the el amar (ea) isolate that does not fit any of the above groups is also known. monoclonal antibodies (mabs) that specifically recognize m, d, and c strains of ppv are already available. to complete the set of ppv strain-specific serological reagents, mabs against the ea isolate were raised by immunizing ...199810073230
insect cell culture medium supplementation with fetal bovine serum and bovine serum albumin: effects on baculovirus adsorption and infection kinetics.the effects of insect cell culture medium supplementation with fbs were investigated. bsa was found to be the factor responsible for the increased baculovirus infection rate of fbs-supplemented cultures in a concentration-dependent form up to 25 g l(-)(1). lower rates of baculovirus binding to cells were observed with fbs- and bsa-supplemented cultures compared with infections carried out in serum-free media. virus attachment constants were found to depend on medium matrix composition. an effici ...200212153321
the evidence behind inhibitor treatment with porcine factor viii.factor viii auto- and alloantibodies neutralise porcine factor viii to a lesser extent than factor viii of human origin. the reduced reactivity of the porcine molecule, predominantly due to sequence variation in the a2 and c2 domains, has been the rationale for using porcine factor viii to secure haemostasis for patients with factor viii inhibitors. porcine factor viii has been shown to provide effective haemostatic control particularly for patients with intermediate inhibitor titres with limite ...200212214138
infectious agents identified in pigs with multifocal interstitial nephritis at slaughter.one kidney was taken from each of 100 pigs at slaughter; 50 had gross lesions of multifocal interstitial nephritis and 50 had no gross lesions. forty-nine of the affected kidneys had lesions that were characterised by the presence of either a few randomly distributed or numerous widely disseminated pale foci, 1 to 3 mm in diameter, on the cortical surface (white-dotted kidneys). microscopically, these focal inflammatory lesions often had a distinct lymphofollicular pattern (follicular nephritis) ...200211871667
antibodies to selected viral and bacterial pathogens in european wild boars from southcentral spain.serum samples from 78 european wild boars (sus scrofa) harvested during the 1999-2000 hunting season were tested for antibodies to brucella spp., classical swine fever virus, erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, haemophilus parasuis, leptospira interrogans serovar pomona, mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, pseudorabies virus (prv), porcine parvovirus (ppv), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, salmonella serogroups b, c, and d, streptococcus suis, and swine influenza virus (siv) serotypes h1n1 a ...200212238391
cd8alpha- cd11b+ dendritic cells present exogenous virus-like particles to cd8+ t cells and subsequently express cd8alpha and cd205 molecules.recombinant porcine parvovirus virus-like particles (ppv-vlps) are particulate exogenous antigens that induce a strong, specific cytotoxic t lymphocyte (ctl) response in the absence of adjuvant. in the present report, we demonstrate in vivo that dendritic cells (dcs) present ppv-vlps to cd8+ t cells after intracellular processing. ppv-vlps are captured by dcs with a high efficacy, which results in the delivery of these exogenous antigens to 50% of the whole spleen dc population. in vivo, a few h ...200212021304
detection and serotyping of mediterranean plum pox virus isolates by means of strain-specific monoclonal antibodies.plum pox virus (ppv) is a major threat to the expanding mediterranean stone fruit industry. in order to control the plum pox disease it is of utmost importance to detect early ppv foci and to identify the ppv isolates involved. a survey was therefore carried out in albania, cyprus, egypt, greece, italy and turkey by a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (das-elisa) with the following monoclonal antibodies (mabs): 5b (universal), 4dg5 (ppv-d-specific), al (ppv-m-specific), ...199810073231
molecular variability of czech plum pox virus isolates.seventy-two czech plum pox virus (ppv) isolates from different hosts were tested by double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (das-elisa). in addition, the coat protein mobility and the rsai restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) pattern of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-(rt-pcr) amplified coat protein (cp) gene fragment of the isolates were analysed. both ppv-d and ppv-m serotypes were found in the czech republic. the results obtained by these differen ...199810073232
testing of plum germplasm for sensitivity to plum pox.a long-term orchard experiment with a broad assortment of plum cultivars aimed to screen their sensitivity to plum pox virus (ppv) was established in 1991. for this purpose, 207 cultivars to be artificially infected with ppv at a permanent site were chosen. the serotype m of ppv from a tree of cv. domestic prune, which had not been contaminated by other viruses, was used as a source of the infection. three buds infected with ppv were budded on 1-year-old trees. in the course of experiment the fo ...199810073233
detection of plum pox virus in apricot seeds.twelve different apricot selection trees from a germplasm collection naturally infected with plum pox virus (ppv) were chosen to investigate the role of seeds in the epidemiology of this dangerous pathogen. all the considered plants showed typical symptoms on leaves and fruits and were positive in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the virus was characterized by immunocapture reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (ic-rt-pcr) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism ...199810073234
relative concentration of plum pox virus in leaves and flowers of some prunus species and cultivars.the relative concentration of plum pox virus (ppv) in leaves and flowers of plum, damson, myrobalan, blackthorn, apricot and peach trees was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and expressed as the lowest dilution with positive reaction. significant differences in relative ppv concentration were found in leaves among individual prunus species naturally or artificially infected with the virus. the highest relative ppv concentration was found in blackthorns (7.81 x 10(-4)), com ...199810073235
restriction fragment length polymorphism differentiation of plum pox virus isolates.reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) technique and restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis were used to analyse six isolates of plum pox virus (ppv). whole coat protein (cp) gene was amplified in four isolates using the unipoty-polyt primer pari. ppv-d was identified by rflp analysis using sfui and drai enzymes in two of the isolates. two isolates of ppv-m strain yielded rt-pcr products which could not be digested by the two enzymes. other isolates were subje ...199810073236
characterization of phenotype resistance to plum pox of transgenic plums expressing plum pox virus capsid gene.resistance to plum pox virus (ppv) infection can be obtained in transgenic plants that express the virus capsid gene. an agrobacterium-mediated transformation was used to introduce the ppv capsid gene into prunus domestica plants. over 11 regenerated plants (clones) were observed for the development of the disease symptoms and analysed for the presence of ppv by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) through ...199810073237
agroclimatical analysis of plum pox virus spread in slovakia.in this report, the plum pox virus (ppv) spread from the point of view of agroclimatical conditions on the territory of slovakia is analysed. the worst condition for the ppv spread was found in a warm macroregion. the air temperature sum in this macroregion during vegetative period ranged from 2400 to 3100 degrees c. the worst condition for the ppv spread was found in dry subregions of the macroregion. these were defined by differences between potential evapotranspiration and rainfall sums which ...199810073238
intranasal delivery of recombinant parvovirus-like particles elicits cytotoxic t-cell and neutralizing antibody responses.we previously demonstrated that chimeric porcine parvovirus-like particles (ppv:vlp) carrying heterologous epitopes, when injected intraperitoneally into mice without adjuvant, activate strong cd4(+) and cd8(+) t-cell responses specific for the foreign epitopes. in the present study, we investigated the immunogenicity of ppv:vlp carrying a cd8(+) t-cell epitope from the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (lcmv) administered by mucosal routes. mice immunized intranasally with recombinant ppv:vlp, ...199910074120
modified indirect porcine circovirus (pcv) type 2-based and recombinant capsid protein (orf2)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies to pcv.postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome of swine associated with porcine circovirus (pcv) is a recently reported and economically important disease. simple and reliable diagnostic methods are needed for detecting antibodies to pcv type 2 (pcv2) for monitoring of pcv infection. here, we report the development of two modified indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas): a pcv2 elisa based on cell-culture-propagated pcv2 and an orf2 elisa based on recombinant major capsid protein. pcv2 ...200211777826
virus safety of a porcine-derived medical device: evaluation of a viral inactivation method.the goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a virus-inactivating process for use during the preparation of porcine-derived extracellular matrix biomaterials for human clinical implantation. porcine small intestine, the source material for the tissue-engineered, small intestinal submucosa (sis) biomaterial, was evaluated. relevant enveloped, non-enveloped, and model viruses representative of different virus families were included in the investigation: porcine parvovirus (ppv), porcine ...200212115437
exudative epidermitis and porcine circovirus-2 infection in a swedish spf-herd.an outbreak of exudative epidermitis (ee) among piglets in a swedish spf-herd initiated a survey for indications as to the cause of disease. the herd was established by caesarean section and has been closed to all new animal material, with the exception of semen for artificial insemination (ai). the study comprised serum samples from the spf-herd over a 10-year period (n=109) and a close monitoring of animals in the herd during the period after the ee outbreak. serum samples from conventional bo ...200211955778
[comparative investigations of a combined vaccine against parvovirus and erysipelas and corresponding monovaccines in different vaccination schedules. 1: field trial].in a field trial, the development of antibodies of a combined vaccine against the porcine parvovirus (ppv) as well as against swine erysipelas was compared with corresponding mono vaccines. furthermore, these vaccines were used in different vaccination schedules. the tests were carried out on 109 gilts in three closed farms. in all gilts, a basic immunization repeated twice was carried out at the age of six months and at intervals of three weeks. the revaccination was carried out four months aft ...199910384706
endemic hepatitis c virus infection in a sicilian town: further evidence for iatrogenic transmission.the prevalence of and risk factors for hcv and hbv infections in the general population and the predictive value of alt screening in identifying anti-hcv positive subjects have been evaluated in a small sicilian town. a random 1:4 sampling from the census of the general population was performed. anti-hcv, hcv-rna, hcv genotype, hbsag, and anti-hbc were tested. the linkage between hcv infection and potential risk factors was evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. among 721 subjects s ...200212116024
molecular and structural basis of the evolution of parvovirus tropism.parvoviruses have small genomes and, consequently, are highly dependent on their host for various functions in their reproduction. since these viruses generally use ubiquitous receptors, restrictions are usually intracellularly regulated. a lack of mitosis, and hence absence of enzymes required for dna replication, is a powerful block of virus infection. allotropic determinants have been identified for several parvoviruses: porcine parvovirus, canine parvovirus (cpv), feline parvovirus (feline p ...199910497831
effective use of gamma irradiation for pathogen inactivation of monoclonal antibody preparations.gamma irradiation has been used for decades as an effective method of pathogen inactivation of relatively inert materials. until recently, its application to biologicals has resulted in unacceptable losses in functional activity. in this report we demonstrate that the damaging secondary effects of gamma irradiation can be controlled while maintaining the pathogen inactivation properties due to damage by primary effects. control is achieved by a combination of protection from free radical damage ...200212217345
use of parvovirus-like particles for vaccination and induction of multiple immune responses.expression of the vp2 gene of autonomous parvoviruses in insect cells with the use of the baculovirus system has led to the production of virus-like particles (vlps) formed by the self-assembly of vp2. these vlps are expressed at high levels and can easily be purified by salt fractionation. they are highly immunogenic in the corresponding host, being fully protective at doses as low as 1-2 microg of purified material per animal. no special adjuvants are required. an interesting property of these ...199910075910
coinfection by porcine circoviruses and porcine parvovirus in pigs with naturally acquired postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) is an emerging disease in swine. recently, the disease has been reproduced with inocula containing a newly described porcine circovirus (pcv), designated pcv 2, and porcine parvovirus (ppv). in order to determine if these viruses interact in naturally acquired pmws, affected tissues from field cases were examined by immunohistochemistry (ihc) and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for pcv 2 and ppv, as well as by pcr for the other recognized porcine ...200010690771
predictive value of alt levels for histologic findings in chronic hepatitis c: a european collaborative study.the aim of this retrospective study was to determine the predictive value of alanine aminotransferase (alt) levels for histologic findings in patients with chronic hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection. data on 864 hcv rna-positive patients were collected. alt values were obtained at the time of biopsy (before treatment), and normal alt values were defined as normal values obtained at serial evaluations during a 6-month period. histologic results were scored using the metavir system. among all patie ...200212297846
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