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experimental squalene adjuvant. i. preparation and testing of its effectiveness.the authors prepared experimental lipoid adjuvant of the oil-in-water (o/w) type, based on squalene (esa: experimental squalene adjuvant), intended for liquid inactivated veterinary vaccines. the final concentration of squalene in the vaccine was 5% (w/v). detergents poloxamer 105 in the concentration of 4% (w/v) and abil-care in the concentration of 2% were used as emulsifiers. the water component was inactivated virus suspension. emulsification at decreased temperatures (up to 37 degrees c) fa ...200415308373
serum levels of hepatitis c virus core antigen as a marker of infection and response to therapy.hepatitis c virus (hcv) core antigen is a recently developed marker of hepatitis c infection. we compared the predictive power of hcv core antigen with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and branched dna assay for hcv-rna as markers of infection and response to interferon therapy.200415330912
inhibitory effects of cystatins on proteolytic activities of the plum pox potyvirus cysteine proteinases.in an effort to develop new antiviral strategies effective against potyviruses, several cystatins were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the cysteine proteinases of plum pox potyvirus (ppv) using in vitro proteolytic assays. the following cystatins were purified as gst fusion proteins and shown to be active against papain:oryzacystatins i and ii (oci and ocii), corn cystatin ii (ccii), human stefin a (hsa), the domain 8 of tomato multicystatin (tmc-8) and a large 24kda tomato cystatin (ltcy ...200415351491
p16(ink4a) expression is related to grade of cin and high-risk human papillomavirus but does not predict virus clearance after conization or disease outcome.the role of p16(ink4a) as a marker of hr-hpv and in the diagnosis of cin has been well established, but its predictive value in the clearance of the virus after cin treatment and its use as a prognostic marker of cervical cancer has not been studied. a series of 302 archival samples, including 150 squamous cell carcinomas (sccs) and 152 cin lesions, were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for p16(ink4a) and hpv testing using pcr with three primer sets (my09/11, gp5/gp6, spf). follow-up da ...200415381905
human papillomavirus (hpv) testing in the management of women with abnormal pap smears. experience of a colposcopy referral clinic.several detailed algorithms for the appropriate use of human papillomavirus (hpv) testing in the management of women with abnormal pap (papanicolaou) smears have been launched, but their direct country-to-country adoption is difficult. this necessitates their testing in individual settings, which is ongoing in our colposcopy referral clinic.200415493169
the predictive value of p16(ink4a) and hybrid capture 2 human papillomavirus testing for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.we performed p16(ink4a) immunocytochemical analysis and hybrid capture 2 (hc2; digene, gaithersburg, md) high-risk hpv testing on 210 abnormal surepath (tripath imaging, burlington, nc) papanicolaou specimens diagnosed as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (lsil) or high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (hsil). the results were compared with 121 follow-up biopsy specimens. p16(ink4a) was positive in 57.9% of women with lsil compared with 97.1% of women with hsil. in contrast, hc2 tes ...200415539381
stability of gene silencing-based resistance to plum pox virus in transgenic plum (prunus domestica l.) under field conditions.plum pox virus (ppv) is one of the most devastating diseases of prunus species. since few sources of resistance to ppv have been identified, transgene-based resistance offers a complementary approach to developing ppv-resistant stone fruit cultivars. c5, a transgenic clone of prunus domestica l., containing the ppv coat protein (cp) gene, has been described as highly resistant to ppv in greenhouse tests, displaying characteristics typical of post-transcriptional gene silencing (ptgs). we show in ...200415587267
a simplified rt-pcr-based detection of recombinant plum pox virus isolates.closely related natural plum pox virus (ppv) isolates derived from homologous rna recombination between ppv-d and ppv-m have been recently identified and shown naturally spread in several european countries. as their serological properties were identical with those of conventional ppv-m isolates, they could be detected only by combined analysis of at least two different genome parts. to simplify the detection of such recombinants primers specific to ppv-m and ppv-d sequences with binding sites l ...200415595211
simultaneous detection of six stone fruit viruses by non-isotopic molecular hybridization using a unique riboprobe or 'polyprobe'.a new strategy for the simultaneous detection of plant viruses by molecular hybridization has been developed. two, four or six viral sequences were fused in tandem and transcribed to render unique riboprobes and designated as 'polyprobes'. the 'polyprobe four' (poly 4) covered the four ilarviruses affecting stone fruit trees including apple mosaic virus (apmv), prunus necrotic ringspot virus (pnrsv), prune dwarf virus (pdv), and american plum line pattern virus (aplpv) whereas the 'polyprobe two ...200415664050
properties of a virus isolated from vernonia amygdalina del. in lagos, nigeria.a previously uncharacterized virus tentatively named vernonia green vein-banding virus (vgvbv) was isolated from vernonia amygdalina del. ("bitterleaf") from lagos, nigeria. the virus was mechanically transmissible but had a narrow host range restricted to nicotiana benthamiana, chenopodium quinoa and c. amaranticolor. it was also transmissible in a non-persistent manner by myzus persicae. the virus was purified from n. benthamiana and about 750 nm long flexuous rod-shaped particles were observe ...200415745049
concurrent presence of porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine parvovirus in retrospective cases of exudative epidermitis in pigs. 200414623159
genomes of the parapoxviruses orf virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus.bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv) and orf virus (orfv), members of the genus parapoxvirus of the poxviridae, are etiologic agents of worldwide diseases affecting cattle and small ruminants, respectively. here we report the genomic sequences and comparative analysis of bpsv strain bv-ar02 and orfv strains ov-sa00, isolated from a goat, and ov-ia82, isolated from a sheep. parapoxvirus (ppv) bv-ar02, ov-sa00, and ov-ia82 genomes range in size from 134 to 139 kbp, with an average nucleotide com ...200414671098
scale-up of virus-like particles production: effects of sparging, agitation and bioreactor scale on cell growth, infection kinetics and productivity.the baculovirus-insect cells expression system was used for the production of self-forming porcine parvovirus (ppv) like particles (virus-like particles, vlps) in serum-free medium. at 2l bioreactor scale an efficient production was achieved by infecting the culture at a concentration of 1.5 x 10(6)cells/ml using a low multiplicity of infection of 0.05 pfu per cell. in a continuous bioreactor, it was shown that the uninfected insect cells were not sensitive to local shear stress values up to 2.2 ...200414687971
evaluation of virus decontamination techniques for porcine embryos produced in vitro.the objective of this study was to explore approaches to decontaminate embryos either contaminated naturally or under experimental conditions with different viruses. embryos were obtained from in vitro maturation and fertilisation of porcine oocytes. after 7 days of development, morula and blastocyst stages were exposed for 1 h to the following viruses: encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), porcine parvovirus (ppv), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome vir ...200515910918
is alanine aminotransferase a good marker of histologic hepatic damage in renal transplant patients with hepatitis c virus infection?renal transplant (rtx) patients with hepatitis c frequently show normal levels of alanine aminotransferase (alt) and the significance of alt in this group has not been established.200516146553
validation of a simple model for predicting liver fibrosis in hiv/hepatitis c virus-coinfected patients.recently, several models incorporating laboratory measurements have been validated for use as surrogate markers for liver fibrosis in hepatitis c virus (hcv) mono-infection, the simplest of these being the aspartate aminotransferase (ast) to platelet ratio index (apri). we evaluated how well the apri predicts significant hepatic fibrosis in patients with hiv/hcv coinfection.200516268817
herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) western blot confirmatory testing among men testing positive for hsv-2 using the focus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a sexually transmitted disease clinic.the objective of this study was to define the positive predictive value (ppv) of the focus herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) in a low hsv-2 prevalence population and to develop a new test interpretation algorithm.200516314775
cost-efficacy analysis of peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis c.combination therapy with pegylated interferon (peg) and ribavirin (rbv) is the standard of care for the treatment of chronic hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection. this analysis compares the cost efficacy of treatment with pegylated interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin (peg-2b plus rbv) with pegylated interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin (peg-2a plus rbv) in hypothetical cohorts of 100 chronic hcv patients comprised 75% of genotype 1.200516194133
aphid (hemiptera: aphididae) species composition and potential aphid vectors of plum pox virus in pennsylvania peach orchards.plum pox, an invasive disease recently identified in pennsylvania stone fruit orchards, is caused by the aphid-transmitted plum pox virus (genus potyvirus, family potyviridae, ppv). to identify potential vectors, we described the aphid species communities and the seasonal dynamics of the dominant aphid species within pennsylvania peach orchards. aphids were trapped weekly in 2002 and 2003 from mid-april through mid-november within two central pennsylvania orchards by using yellow and green water ...200516334309
influenza-like illness criteria were poorly related to laboratory-confirmed influenza in a sentinel surveillance study.to analyze the most related clinical data for influenza and the utility of influenza-like illness criteria as the clinical threshold for sampling in an influenza sentinel surveillance over a 3-year period.200515768487
prevalence of antibodies to porcine parvovirus in wild boars (sus scrofa) in croatia.serologic evidence of exposure to porcine parvovirus (ppv) in the wild boar (sus scrofa) in croatia was investigated. serum samples from 219 wild boars captured during 2003 from 12 different locations in the republic of croatia were tested by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (elisa) and a hemagglutination inhibition (hi) test. antibodies to ppv were detected in 91 (41.6%) of tested samples and positive results were detected in wild boar from all sample locations. adults had a signifi ...200516456171
prediction of the hepatitis c viremia using immunoassay data and clinical expertise.detection of anti-hepatitis c virus (anti-hcv) antibodies may yield a high frequency of false-positive results in people at low risk. to date, no clinical rule had been developed to predict viremia in hcv-seropositive patients. therefore, we aimed to generate a prediction rule on the basis of clinical and serologic data, which can be used in outpatient care. we selected 114 seropositive patients without antiviral treatment or hepatitis b coinfection. subsequently we identified independent predic ...200516010243
analogues of virus resistance genes map to qtls for resistance to sharka disease in prunus davidiana.plum pox virus (ppv), the causative agent of sharka disease in prunoideae, is one of the most serious problems affecting stone fruit production in europe and america. resistance to ppv was previously described in a prunus davidiana clone, p1908, and introduced into peach (prunus persica) genotypes. genetic resistance to ppv displays a complex pattern of quantitative inheritance. an analysis of quantitative trait loci (qtls) for resistance was performed on an f1 interspecific peach population obt ...200515666162
partial sequence analysis of an atypical turkish isolate provides further information on the evolutionary history of plum pox virus (ppv).a variety of techniques, such as typing with subgroup-specific monoclonal antibodies, restriction length polymorphism (rflp) analysis or subgroup-specific rt-pcr are available for the discrimination of plum pox virus (ppv) isolates. however, the existence of ppv isolates showing abnormal typing properties has been observed in the past [candresse, t., cambra, m., dallot, s., lanneau, m., asensio, m., gorris, m.t., revers, f., macquaire, g., olmos, a., boscia, d., quiot j.b., dunez, j., 1998. comp ...200515681071
early hepatitis c virus changes and sustained response in patients with chronic hepatitis c treated with peginterferon alpha-2b and ribavirin.interferon-based therapy induces changes in viral dynamics in chronic hepatitis c (chc) patients.200515698404
review of treatment of bronchiolitis related apnoea in two centres.to determine whether the use of negative pressure ventilation (npv) was associated with a lower rate of endotracheal intubation in infants with recurrent apnoea secondary to acute bronchiolitis.200515723920
detection of porcine circovirus type 2, porcine parvovirus and porcine pseudorabies virus from pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome by multiplex pcr.multiplex pcr was established to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv-2), porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine pseudorabies virus (prv) and applied to samples from 137 piglets exhibiting clinical signs of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws). pcv-2 dna was detected from all samples. moreover, 43 samples were positive for ppv but negative for prv; 11 samples were positive for prv but negative for ppv; and 35 samples were positive both for ppv and prv. these results suggests that pcv ...200515736858
experimental reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) in pigs in sweden and denmark with a swedish isolate of porcine circovirus type 2.an experimental model using 3-day-old snatch-farrowed colostrum-deprived piglets co-infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) and porcine parvovirus (ppv) is at present one of the best methods to study factors affecting development of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws). a swedish isolate of pcv2 (s-pcv2) retrieved in 1993 from a healthy pig has been used in this model to reproduce pmws in pigs from northern ireland. this virus has been present in the swedish pig population fo ...200515737473
cross-priming of t cell responses by synthetic microspheres carrying a cd8+ t cell epitope requires an adjuvant signal.controlling the cross-presentation of exogenous ags to cd8+ t cells represents a major step for designing new vaccination strategies. whereas several recombinant pseudo-viral particles have been used as delivery systems for triggering potent ctl responses to heterologous exogenous ags, the adjuvant properties of virus-like particles (vlps) themselves were little questioned. here, we analyzed the contribution of the porcine parvovirus (ppv)-vlps to the induction of protective cellular responses t ...200515749877
identification of viral pathogens in aborted fetuses and stillborn piglets from cases of swine reproductive failure in spain.the objective of the present study was to determine the presence of recognised abortifacient viruses such as porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (prrsv), aujeszky's disease virus (adv), porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), in tissues from aborted fetuses and stillborn neonates in cases of late reproductive failure in swine. a total of 293 specimens (fetuses aborted in the last third of gestation and stillborn piglets) from 100 different cases of late-term abortio ...200515848788
determination of the six major human herpesviruses in cerebrospinal fluid and blood specimens of children.to detect and differentiate six major human herpesviruses in the cerebrospinal fluid (csf) and blood of children by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp).200515858958
suppression of proliferation of poliovirus and porcine parvovirus by novel phenoxazines, 2-amino-4,4 alpha-dihydro-4 alpha-7-dimethyl-3h-phenoxazine-3-one and 3-amino-1,4 alpha-dihydro-4 alpha-8-dimethyl-2h-phenoxazine-2-one.the present study aimed at investigating the antiviral effects of 2-amino-4,4alpha-dihydro-4alpha-7-dimethyl-3h-phenoxazine-3-one (phx-1) and 3-amino-1,4alpha-dihydro-4alpha-8-dimethyl-2h-phenoxazine-2-one (phx-2) on 6 representative viruses: poliovirus, porcine parvovirus, simian virus 40 (sv-40), herpes simplex virus-1 (hsv-1), sindbis virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv). phx-1 and phx-2 suppressed the proliferation of poliovirus in vero cells and that of porcine parvovirus in esk cell ...200515863903
adenosine deaminase activity--more than a diagnostic tool in tuberculous pericarditis.to improve the understanding of factors that influence adenosine deaminase ( ada) activity in large pericardial effusions.200516049586
detection and differentiation of plum pox virus using real-time multiplex pcr with sybr green and melting curve analysis: a rapid method for strain typing.a real-time multiplex pcr procedure with melting curve analysis, using the green fluorescence dye sybr green i, was developed for rapid and reliable identification of plum pox virus (ppv) isolates of strains d and m. members of the different strains were identified by their distinctive melting temperatures (t(m)s); 84.3-84.43 degrees c for d isolates, and 85.34-86.11 degrees c for m isolates. the associated amplicon sizes were 114 and 380 bp, respectively. the procedure was used for detection an ...200515620404
viruses in boar semen: detection and clinical as well as epidemiological consequences regarding disease transmission by artificial insemination.many viruses have been reported to be present in boar semen, particularly during the viremic phase of the diseases. some of them, such foot-and-mouth disease virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, swine vesicular disease virus, porcine parvovirus, picornaviruses, adenoviruses, enteroviruses, japanese encephalitis virus, pseudorabies virus, african swine fever virus and reoviruses are of particular importance and accurate monitoring prior to and during the presence of boars i ...200515626416
high porcine parvovirus antibodies in sow herds: prevalence and associated factors.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is widespread among swine. our objective was to determine the prevalence of loosely housed sow herds in finland with at least one animal with high (infection level) ppv antibodies and to gather basic knowledge about vaccination practices. in addition, selected factors associated with high antibody levels found in sows were examined. altogether, 247 animals were sampled in 21 randomly chosen loosely housed sow herds. samples were analysed with the haemagglutination inhibi ...200515655002
aetiology of sexually transmitted disease (std) and comparison of std syndromes and aetiological diagnosis in taipei, taiwan.between july 2002 and july 2004, all male patients (n=307) presenting to a sexually transmitted disease (std) clinic who reported unprotected sex were enrolled in the study. of these, 63 (20.5%), 19 (6.2%) and one (0.3%) were infected with one, two and three pathogens, respectively. the prevalences of chlamydial infection, gonorrhoea, syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus infection and trichomoniasis were 14.3%, 10.1%, 6.8%, 2.2% and 0%, respectively. the sensitivities of urethral discharge syn ...200516216108
sat: a late ns protein of porcine parvovirus.the genomes of all members of the parvovirus genus were found to contain a small open reading frame (orf), designated sat, with a start codon four or seven nucleotides downstream of the vp2 initiation codon. green fluorescent protein or flag fusion constructs of sat demonstrated that these orfs were expressed. although the sat proteins of the different parvoviruses are not particularly conserved, they were all predicted to contain a membrane-spanning helix, and mutations in this hydrophobic stre ...200516189014
efficacy of spray-drying to reduce infectivity of pseudorabies and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (prrs) viruses and seroconversion in pigs fed diets containing spray-dried animal plasma.three experiments were conducted to evaluate viral inactivation by the spray-drying process used in the production of spray-dried animal plasma (sdap). in exp. 1, bovine plasma was inoculated with pseudorabies virus (prv) grown in pk 15 cells. three 4-l batches were spray-dried in the same manner and conditions of industrial sdap production but with laboratory spray-drying equipment. presence of infectivity was determined before and after spray-drying by microtiter assay in pk 15 cell cultures. ...200516024714
the role of human telomerase catalytic subunit mrna expression in cervical dysplasias.telomerase activity and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (htert) mrna expression were investigated in cervical specimens and were correlated with cytologic findings and the presence of human papilloma virus (hpv) infection. telomerase activity was evaluated by the telomeric repeat protocol assay and htert mrna expression was evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (pcr). hpv dna was detected by pcr, as well as restriction endonuclease digestion. hpv dna was detected in ...200515792948
predictive value of early virological response to treatment with different interferon-based regimens plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis c.early virological response (evr) to different interferon-based regimens plus ribavirin and its ability to predict the outcome of therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis c were investigated. the study design was as follows: 64 naive patients were considered, 32/64 received pegylated interferon alpha-2b (peg-ifn-alpha2b) plus ribavirin and the remaining 32 received leucocyte interferon alpha (ifn-alpha) plus ribavirin. at week 4 of treatment, evr was present in 68.7% and 37.5% of patients treat ...200515782622
conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in hiv-infected ugandans and the effect of past receipt of polysaccharide vaccine.we investigated the immunogenicity of a 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (cpv) in human immunodeficiency virus-infected ugandan adults and measured the effect of past pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (ppv) receipt given as part of a controlled trial. two doses of cpv, 4 weeks apart, were given to 54 past ppv recipients and 55 past placebo recipients (84% female; median cd4 cell count, 251 cells/ microl [range, 1-936 cells/ microl]). postvaccination anticapsular immunoglobulin g (igg) c ...200516235180
clinical validation of the neuroscreen.the neuroscreen comprises two easily administered components: the brief neurocognitive screen (bncs), designed to estimate the frequency of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-associated cognitive disorders; and the brief peripheral neuropathy screen (bpns), for distal sensory polyneuropathy (dspn) in hiv. in this study, both the neuroscreen and a more extensive standardized validation neurodiagnostic evaluation were administered to hiv-positive subjects (n = 301) enrolled in two large cohort stu ...200516338744
pathogen control in complex fluids with water-coupled excimer lamps at 282 and 308 nm.water-coupled excimer lamp systems have been developed to inactivate microorganisms within complex, low-optical quality, fluids. monochromatic lamps were selected to minimize uv-b and uv-c absorption within the carrier fluids while maximizing deposition within specific chemical targets. fundamentals, system scaling and power supply design are discussed. this work used two large-surface area excimer lamps as intense sources of near monochromatic radiation at 308 and 282 nm. data are presented for ...200516149853
the rb1 fraction of ginseng elicits a balanced th1 and th2 immune response.porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccines containing different adjuvants were evaluated for inducing th1 or th2 type of immunity in mice. isotypes of antigen specific antibodies and levels of cytokines in serum and in lymphocyte culture supernatants measured by elisa and the gyrolab bioaffy were used to determine the polarisation of the immune response. enumeration of cytokine secreting cells was carried out by elispot assays. vaccines containing the ginseng-fraction rb1 induced serum-detectable amounts ...200516286158
acute respiratory failure due to pneumocystis pneumonia in patients without human immunodeficiency virus infection: outcome and associated features.to examine outcome and associated factors of acute respiratory failure (arf) in non-hiv-related pneumocystis pneumonia (pcp) in patients admitted to a medical icu between 1995 and 2002.200516100140
hepatitis c virus rna kinetics during the initial 12 weeks treatment with pegylated interferon-alpha 2a and ribavirin according to virological response.summary: to optimize treatment of chronic hepatitis c early identification of patients who will not achieve a sustained virological response (svr) is desirable. we investigated hepatitis c virus (hcv) rna kinetics at day 1 (in 15 patients; genotypes 1 and non-1, 9 and 6 respectively) at weeks 1, 4 and 12 (in 53 patients; genotypes 1 and non-1, 19 and 34, respectively) during treatment with pegylated interferon alpha-2a and ribavirin. patients with svr had a significantly more pronounced mean log ...200516108761
cirrhosis in hepatitis c virus-infected patients can be excluded using an index of standard biochemical serum markers.assessment of liver histology is pivotal in prognostication and decision-making regarding therapeutic intervention in patients with chronic hepatitis c virus (hcv). being an invasive procedure, the liver biopsy is associated with complications, and a non-invasive alternative would be preferable.200516109665
[prevalence and association of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) in aborted fetuses, mummified fetuses, stillborn and nonviable neonatal piglets].porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) seems to cause reproductive failure in sows not only in experimental studies. a retrospective study was made with a total of 252 aborted fetuses, mummified fetuses, stillborn and nonviable neonatal piglets to determine the presence of pcv2, porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (prrsv) by pcr. pcv2 was found in all stages of gestation in 27.1 percent of samples examined. a statistically significant association could be s ...200516240914
noninvasive assessment of liver steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation in chronic hepatitis c virus infection.duplex-doppler ultrasound is a noninvasive method for the assessment of hepatic hemodynamics beyond conventional gray-scale imaging. the clinical value of the method for the grading and staging of chronic hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection and the prediction of hepatic steatosis still has to be determined. this study aimed to compare duplex-doppler and ultrasound with the histologic staging and the estimation of hepatic steatosis in chronic hcv infection.200516343065
hairpin rna-mediated silencing of plum pox virus p1 and hc-pro genes for efficient and predictable resistance to the virus.we report the application of the hairpin-mediated rna silencing technology for obtaining resistance to plum pox virus (ppv) infection in nicotiana benthamiana plants. four sequences, covering the p1 and silencing suppressor hc-pro genes of an italian ppv m isolate, were introduced into n. benthamiana plants as two inverted repeats separated by an intron sequence under the transcriptional control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter. in a leaf disk infection assay, 38 out of 40 t0 transge ...200516315100
dry-heat sensitivity of human b19 and porcine parvoviruses. 200516181226
accumulation of the long class of sirna is associated with resistance to plum pox virus in a transgenic woody perennial plum tree.we investigated the hallmarks of posttranscription gene silencing (ptgs) in mature plants, embryos, and seedlings of the transgenic plum trees (prunus sp.) that are resistant to plum pox virus (ppv). we previously demonstrated that the transgene insert and resistance to ppv were mutually inherited in progeny of line c5. we show here that c5 constitutively produces a short (22 nt) and a long (25 to 26 nt) species of short interfering (si)rna from embryo to mature plant in the absence of ppv inocu ...200516134891
tissue distribution of two field isolates and two vaccine strains of porcine parvovirus in foetal organs after experimental infection of pregnant sows as determined by real-time pcr.the aim of this study was to investigate the tissue distribution of two different field isolates and two vaccine strains of porcine parvoviruses (ppv) in infected piglets after transplacental infection. the viral load in 10 different foetal organs was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction assays with sybr green targeting the viral vp2 gene and the genomic c-myc gene in 12 foetuses. the viral load in foetal tissues differed greatly among the different parvoviruses. between one virulen ...200516316393
identification of secret agent as the o-glcnac transferase that participates in plum pox virus infection.serine and threonine of many nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins are posttranslationally modified with o-linked n-acetylglucosamine (o-glcnac). this modification is made by o-linked n-acetylglucosamine transferases (ogts). genetic and biochemical data have demonstrated the existence of two ogts of arabidopsis thaliana, secret agent (sec) and spindly (spy), with at least partly overlapping functions, but there is little information on their target proteins. the n terminus of the capsid protein (cp) ...200516014901
application of gfp-tagged plum pox virus to study prunus-ppv interactions at the whole plant and cellular levels.the sharka disease caused by the potyvirus plum pox virus (ppv) is one of the most serious viral diseases affecting stone fruit trees. the study of ppv/prunus interaction under greenhouse controlled conditions is space, time, labor consuming. while the ppv/prunus interactions are now quite well known at the whole plant level, few data however are available on the interactions between the virus and the prunus host plants at the cellular level. using a green fluorescent protein (gfp)-tagged m type ...200515993953
real-time assay for quantitative detection of non-persistently transmitted plum pox virus rna targets in single aphids.a taqman real-time rt-pcr was developed to detect and quantify rna-targets from the non-circulative, non-persistently transmitted plum pox virus (ppv) in individual fresh or aphids captured previously and squashed on paper. reliable quantitation ranged from 40 up to 4 x 10(8) copies of control transcripts. this technique was applied successfully to plant material and to individual ppv vector (myzus persicae) and non-vector of ppv (aphis nerii) aphid species demonstrating acquisition of viral tar ...200515964640
effects of lyophilization on the infectivity of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in bone tissue.recently reported qualitative experiments proved that retroviral infectivity is not destroyed by lyophilization performed on systemically infected bone and tendon. the now accomplished quantitative determination of residual infectivity for enveloped and non-enveloped viruses allows a validation of the production process regarding viral safety in freeze-dried bone transplants. the lyophilization effect on the infectivity of two non-enveloped viruses (maus elberfeld virus, mev; porcine parvovirus, ...200515946737
experimental infection of 3-week-old conventional colostrum-fed pigs with porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine parvovirus.this report describes an experimental infection with porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) in combination with porcine parvovirus (ppv) in 3-week-old conventional colostrum-fed pigs with maternal antibodies to both viruses. two groups of four pigs each were inoculated with pcv2 and ppv. one of the groups received also a commercial inactivated vaccine against porcine pleuropneumonia to evaluate possible effects of the stimulation of the immune system of pigs on the infection. another group of four pig ...200515916871
analysis of recombinant plum pox virus (ppv) isolates from serbia confirms genetic homogeneity and supports a regional origin for the ppv-rec subgroup.the recent observation of the frequent occurrence of natural recombinant plum pox virus (ppv) isolates has led to the identification of a distinct ppv subgroup, named ppv-rec. the diversity, origin and geographical spread of the recombinant ppv isolates belonging to this subgroup remain, however, relatively poorly known. in an effort to further our understanding of these isolates, eight ppv isolates from serbia, the country from which the first such recombinant (ppv-o6) originated, were characte ...200515906106
nucleotide sequence analysis of plum pox virus isolate w3174: evidence of a new strain.the nucleotide sequence of plum pox virus (ppv) isolate w3174 was determined. the virus genome consists of 9788 nucleotides (nt), excluding the poly(a) tail at the 3'-terminus, with 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (utrs) of 146 and 219 nt, respectively. the deduced polyprotein consists of 3141 amino acid (aa) residues, with the coat protein region consisting of 993 nt (331 aa). in comparisons with ppv-d, -m, -ea and -c isolates, nucleotide identity levels ranged from 79 to 80% for the entire gen ...200515845265
a single amino acid mutation in the plum pox virus helper component-proteinase gene abolishes both synergistic and rna silencing suppression activities.abstract the effects on symptom expression of single amino acid mutations in the central region of the plum pox virus (ppv) helper component-proteinase (hc-pro) gene were analyzed in nicotiana benthamiana using potato virus x (pvx) recombinant viruses. pvx recombinant virus expressing the wild-type variant of ppv hc-pro induced the expected enhancement of pvx pathogenicity, manifested as necrosis and plant death. recombinant virus expressing a variant of ppv hc-pro containing a single point muta ...200518944411
interference between d and m types of plum pox virus in japanese plum assessed by specific monoclonal antibodies and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.abstract the dynamics of virus interference between two isolates of plum pox virus (ppv) belonging to the main ppv types, d and m, were analyzed in japanese plum (prunus salicina) by challenge inoculations. to assess the consequences of a ppv-m infection on plum already infected with ppv-d, and vice versa (predominance of one of the strains, recombination, synergism, symptoms aggravation, and so on), 30 japanese plum trees were graft inoculated with ppv-d or ppv-m isolates in quarantine conditio ...200618944448
control of antigen mass transfer via capture substrate rotation: an absolute method for the determination of viral pathogen concentration and reduction of heterogeneous immunoassay incubation times.immunosorbent assays are commonly employed as diagnostic tests in human healthcare, veterinary medicine and bioterrorism prevention. these assays, however, often require long incubation times, limiting sample throughput. as an approach to overcome this weakness, this paper examines the use of rotating capture substrates to increase the flux of antigen to the surface, thereby reducing the incubation time. to assess the capability of this approach, porcine parvovirus (ppv) was selectively extracte ...200617034870
pathological and aetiological studies of multifocal interstitial nephritis in wasted pigs at slaughter.multifocal interstitial nephritis in pigs has been associated with several infectious agents. the objective of the present study was to investigate several different potential infectious agents associated with "white-spotted" kidneys in pigs suffering from wasting at slaughter (aged 6-8 months). twenty-nine case kidneys (with a "white-spotted" gross appearance) classified into 3 macroscopic lesional grades, and 15 control kidneys (lacking gross lesions), were obtained from a pig abattoir. labora ...200616332382
immune complex-based vaccine for pig protection against parvovirus.the insoluble immune complexes (ics) were prepared under the conditions of double immunodiffusion in gel, using the suspension of the ultrasound treated pk-15 cell-line infected with porcine parvovirus (ppv) containing both viral particles and viral proteins, as well as pig or rabbit anti-ppv polyclonal immune sera. the immunodiffusion performed in an agarose gel allows only viral subunits with a molecular mass equal to or less than 1000 kda, rather than the viral particles, to diffuse through t ...200616460351
a serological survey of selected pathogens in wild boar in slovenia.serum samples collected from 178 shot wild boars (sus scrofa) were tested for the presence of antibodies against classical swine fever virus, aujeszky's disease virus (adv), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, porcine respiratory coronavirus (prcv), transmissible gastroenteritis virus, swine influenza virus, porcine parvovirus (ppv), swine vesicular disease virus, actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (app), mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, salmonella spp., brucella spp. and haemophilus para ...200616460352
prediction of liver fibrosis in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis c virus coinfected patients by simple non-invasive indexes.liver biopsy is an invasive technique with associated major complications. there is no information on the validity of five non-invasive indexes based on routinely available parameters, estimated and validated in hepatitis c virus (hcv) monoinfected patients, in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)/hcv coinfected patients.200616118349
real-time rt-pcr and sybr green i melting curve analysis for the identification of plum pox virus strains c, ea, and w: effect of amplicon size, melt rate, and dye translocation.real-time rt-pcr and sybr green i melt curve analysis of a 74 bp amplicon enabled identification of plum pox virus strains c, ea, and w, with distinct t(m)'s associated with each strain. this test is a useful supplement to a real-time rt-pcr test described earlier that was used to distinguish ppv strains d and m. a longer fragment of 155 bp was not effective for strain identification. a simplified one-tube protocol, with dithiothreitol eliminated from the reaction, showed similar sensitivity whe ...200616293321
parvovirus antibodies in vaccinated gilts in field conditions--results with hi and elisa tests.this study was conducted to determine the antibody response for porcine parvovirus (ppv) of 39 gilts in field conditions after vaccination. gilts from four herds endemically infected with ppv were injected twice with a commercial vaccine of inactivated ppv and erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. the ppv antibodies were analysed both with haemagglutination inhibition (hi) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) in order to study the agreement between these methods. the possible association betwee ...200616420335
seroprevalence of six reproductive pathogens in european wild boar (sus scrofa) from spain: the effect on wild boar female reproductive performance.we studied the seroprevalence of six reproductive pathogens in spanish hunter-harvested wild boar females. the sample was representative of the hunting harvest in the studied hunting estates. mean antibody prevalences were: 60.6+/-0.06% for aujeszky's disease virus (adv), 56.6+/-0.09% for porcine parvovirus (ppv), 51.8+/-0.06% for porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), 29.7+/-0.09% for brucella spp. and 36.3+/-0.1% for toxoplasma gondii. we did not detect antibodies against porcine reproductive and r ...200616076482
asian prunus viruses: new related members of the family flexiviridae in prunus germplasm of asian origin.serological reactivity to plum pox virus (ppv) antisera has been described in several prunus sources of asian origin that are free of ppv infection. using polyvalent or specific pcr assays, the presence of three closely related agents in two of these sources, prunus mume cv. bungo and p. persica cv. ku chu'a hung, was demonstrated. similarities in genome organization and sequence comparisons indicate that these agents should be regarded as members of the genus foveavirus, their only singular tra ...200616621102
multiple resistance traits control plum pox virus infection in arabidopsis thaliana.twelve arabidopsis accessions were challenged with plum pox potyvirus (ppv) isolates representative of the four ppv strains. each accession supported local and systemic infection by at least some of the ppv isolates, but high variability was observed in the behavior of the five ppv isolates or the 12 arabidopsis accessions. resistance to local infection or long-distance movement occurred in about 40% of all the accession-isolate combinations analyzed. except for nd-1, all accessions showed resis ...200616673941
[risk factors for clinical signs of pmws and pdns in pigs in the netherlands: a case-control study].potential risk factors for clinical signs of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (pdns) in pigs in the netherlands were investigated in a matched case-control study using a questionnaire (personal interview). eighty-two pig farmers were questioned about management, hygiene, husbandry systems, disease history, and preventive health care. in this study, 30 pig herds with (cases) and 30 pig herds without (controls) characteristic clinic ...200616711565
assessment of the performance of a definition of a suspected measles case: implications for measles surveillance.to assess the performance, in brazil, of the definition of a suspected measles case among patients with rash diseases that has been adopted in brazil and many other countries.200616723063
detection of individual microbial pathogens by proximity ligation.nucleic acid amplification allows the detection of single infectious agents. protein-based assays, although they provide information on ongoing infections, have substantially less detection sensitivity.200616723682
parvovirus variation for disease: a difference with rna viruses?the parvoviridae, a family of viruses with single-stranded dna genomes widely spread from invertebrates to mammal and human hosts, display a remarkable evolutionary capacity uncommon in dna genomes. parvovirus populations show high genetic heterogeneity and large population sizes resembling the quasispecies found in rna viruses. these viruses multiply in proliferating cells, causing acute, persistent or latent infections relying in the immunocompetence and developmental stage of the hosts. some ...200616568906
the complete genome sequence of an el amar isolate of plum pox virus (ppv) and its phylogenetic relationship to other ppv strains.the genomic sequence of an el amar isolate of plum pox virus (ppv) from egypt was determined by sequencing overlapping cdna fragments. this is the first complete sequence of a member of the el amar (ea) strain of ppv. the genome consists of 9791 nt, excluding a poly(a) tail at the 3' terminus. the complete nt sequence of ppv ea is 79-80%, 80%, 77%, and 77% homologous with isolates of strains d/m, rec (bor3), c, and w, respectively. the polyprotein identity ranged from 87-91%. phylogenetic analys ...200616397750
identification of a plum pox virus ci-interacting protein from chloroplast that has a negative effect in virus infection.the cylindrical inclusion (ci) protein of potyviruses is involved in virus replication and cell-to-cell movement. these two processes should rely on multiple plant-virus interactions; however, little is known about the host factors that are involved in, or that may interfere with, ci functions. by using a yeast two-hybrid system, the ci protein from plum pox virus (ppv) was found to interact with the photosystem i psi-k protein, the product of the gene psak, of nicotiana benthamiana. coexpressio ...200616570664
single-assay combination of epstein-barr virus (ebv) ebna1- and viral capsid antigen-p18-derived synthetic peptides for measuring anti-ebv immunoglobulin g (igg) and iga antibody levels in sera from nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients: options for field screening.assessment of immunoglobulin a (iga) antibody responses to various epstein-barr virus (ebv) antigen complexes, usually involving multiple serological assays, is important for the early diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc). through combination of two synthetic peptides representing immunodominant epitopes of ebna1 and viral capsid antigen (vca)-p18 we developed a one-step sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the specific detection of ebv reactive igg and iga antibodies in ...200616597877
prevalence of human papilloma virus infection of the uterine cervix in women with abnormal cervical cytology.to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (hpv) using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in women with abnormal cytology results.200616620054
a colorimetric assay for viral agents that produce cytopathic effects.many animal viruses produce cytopathic effects in their host cells during a productive infection. while some virus infections can be assayed by the production of plaques, many viruses, while producing cytotoxicity, do not easily form plaques, or do not form plaques at all. additionally, viruses within families such as the parvoviruses may have different preferred forms of titration making comparative virology difficult even among related groups. porcine parvovirus (ppv), canine parvovirus (cpv), ...200616516983
microrna-guided processing impairs plum pox virus replication, but the virus readily evolves to escape this silencing mechanism.since the discovery of microrna (mirna)-guided processing, a new type of rna silencing, the possibility that such a mechanism could play a role in virus defense has been proposed. in this work, we have analyzed whether plum pox virus (ppv) chimeras bearing mirna target sequences (mir171, mir167, and mir159), which have been reported to be functional in arabidopsis, were affected by mirna function in three different host plants. some of these ppv chimeras had clearly impaired infectivity compared ...200616474149
genetic analysis of the function of the plum pox virus ci rna helicase in virus movement.the ci protein forms the cylindrical inclusions typical of potyviral infections and is involved in genome replication and virus movement. in this work, we have analyzed the effect of a series of point mutations at the n-terminal region of the ci protein of plum pox virus (ppv) on the enzymatic activities and the self-interaction ability of the protein, and on virus replication and movement. dd3,4aa mutation, which had no apparent effects on atpase and rna helicase activities in vitro, and on vir ...200616256236
a novel recombinant virus-like particle vaccine for prevention of porcine parvovirus-induced reproductive failure.a novel vaccine against porcine parvovirus (ppv), composed of recombinant virus-like particles (ppv-vlps) produced with the baculovirus expression vector system (bevs) at industrial scale, was tested for its immunogenicity and protective potency. a formulation of submicrogram amounts of ppv-vlps in a water-in-mineral oil adjuvant evoked high serum antibody titres in both guinea pigs, used as reference model, and target species, pigs. a single immunisation with 0.7microg of this antigen yielded c ...200616730104
[construction of the eukaryotic expression vector with il-2 gene and vp2 gene of ppv and research on immunogenicity].to construct gene vaccine of ppv and to investigate the effects of interleukin 2 (il-2) as an adjuvant on immune responses in mouse, the recombinant expression plasmid of pcineo-il2-vp2 was constructed and transfected into pk-15 cells by lipofectamine, the expressed product was detected by immunofluore assay. to study the immune effects of dna vaccine in vitro and in vivo, mice were used as the animal model. the recombinant plasmid pcineo-il2-vp2, the control plasmid pci-neo and the ppv live vac ...200616755922
transfection of arabidopsis protoplasts with a plum pox virus (ppv) infectious clone for studying early molecular events associated with ppv infection.the development of novel strategies against plant viral diseases relies on a better understanding of molecular virus-host interactions. here, we report an easy, efficient and reproducible protocol for arabidopsis protoplast isolation and transfection to study the infection and replication of a potyvirus, plum pox virus (ppv). macerozyme and cellulose were used to release protoplasts from arabidopsis leaf tissues, and polyethylene glycol-mediated dna uptake was employed for transfection of a ppv ...200616777241
real-time pcr protocol for the detection of porcine parvovirus in field samples.this report describes a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay with sybr green for detection of a broad range of porcine parvoviruses (ppv) and accurate virus quantification in porcine tissues. the assay targets the vp2 gene of ppv and the porcine genomic c-myc gene for normalization. the detection limit of the sybr green reaction was shown to be equivalent to 6 x 10(0) to 6 x 10(1) ppv copies/reaction and the overall detection limit equivalent to 0.1 tcid(50)/100 microl. the assay was linear ...200616472875
upregulation of telomerase (htert) is related to the grade of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, but is not an independent predictor of high-risk human papillomavirus, virus persistence, or disease outcome in cervical cancer.telomerase activation and telomere maintenance are essential for cell immortalization and represent a rate-limiting step in cancer progression. the e6 oncoprotein of high-risk human papillomavirus (hpv) is known to activate telomerase, but its expression in cin lesions and its prognostic value in cervical cancer (cc) are still incompletely understood. as part of our hpv-pathogeniss study, a series of 150 ccs and 152 cin lesions were examined using immunohistochemical (ihc) staining for htert (te ...200617041957
ppv long-distance movement is occasionally permitted in resistant apricot hosts.the interactions between plum pox virus (ppv), a member of the potyvirus genus, and prunus host plants are, up to now, poorly understood. in the current paper, fluorescence stereomicroscopy, in situ hybridisation and immunogold detection were performed in order to evaluate the virus transport and cellular distribution. the behavior of ppv in several susceptible (cv. "moniqui" and "screara") and resistant apricot genotypes (cv. "harlayne", "henderson", "harcot", "goldrich", "stella" and "stark ea ...200616504333
plum pox virus induces differential gene expression in the partially resistant stone fruit tree prunus armeniaca cv. goldrich.we investigated the changes in the expression profiles of the partially resistant apricot (prunus armeniaca l.) cultivar goldrich following inoculation with plum pox virus (ppv) using cdna-amplification fragment length polymorphism (aflp). altered expression patterns were detected and twenty-one differentially expressed cdna had homologies with genes in databases coding for proteins involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense, stress and intra/intercellular connections. seven of the mod ...200616564142
sensitivity and specificity of current diagnostic tests for gill-associated virus in penaeus monodon.this study reports the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (ppv), negative predictive value (npv) and accuracy between a reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction (rt-npcr) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of gill-associated virus (gav) from a sample of 120 penaeus monodon. subsequently, the same comparisons were applied to the elisa and haemagglutination (ha) assays for detection of gav from a second 120 prawns. the optical density ...200617169111
detection of adventitious viruses in biologicals--a rare occurrence.adventitious virus assays are performed as part of raw materials testing, cell-line characterization, and lot-release testing of biologicals such as monoclonal antibodies, gene therapy vectors, recombinant proteins, and vaccines. the testing methods follow guidance provided in the 9 cfr (bovine and porcine raw materials testing, and certain vaccine products) or points to consider documents (cell line characterization and evaluation of the majority of biologicals). the methodologies used and the ...200616566443
viral kinetics and early prediction of nonresponse to peg-ifn-alpha-2b plus ribavirin in hcv genotypes 1/4 according to hiv serostatus.to evaluate, among 70 hepatitis c virus (hcv)-monoinfected and 36 human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-coinfected naïve patients with genotypes 1/4 receiving weight-adjusted pegylated interferon-alpha-2b/ribavirin, viral kinetics and the feasibility to predict treatment failure measuring early hcv-rna decreases. hcv-rna was assessed at baseline, weeks 4, 12 and 24. receiver operating characteristic (roc) curves were calculated to determine the most sensitive cut-off values of viral decrease at wee ...200616792540
oral candidosis and oral hairy leukoplakia as predictors of haart failure in brazilian hiv-infected patients.oral candidosis (oc) and hairy leukoplakia (ohl) are important markers of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection immune status.200616792726
characterization of the recombinant forms arising from a potato virus x chimeric virus infection under rna silencing pressure.recombination is a frequent phenomenon in rna viruses whose net result is largely influenced by selective pressures. rna silencing in plants acts as a defense mechanism against viruses and can be used to engineer virus resistance. here, we have investigated the influence of rna silencing as a selective pressure to favor recombinants of pvx-hct, a chimeric potato virus x (pvx) vector carrying the helper-component proteinase (hc-pro) gene from plum pox virus (ppv). all the plants from two lines ex ...200616903356
different viral kinetics between hepatitis c virus genotype 1 and 2 as on-treatment predictors of response to a 24-week course of high-dose interferon-alpha plus ribavirin combination therapy.to elucidate the genotype-specific virus-host-drug interaction and the on-treatment viral kinetics in predicting sustained virologic response (svr), serial serum hepatitis c virus (hcv) ribonucleic acid (rna) levels at baseline, treatment week 2 (w2), treatment week 4 (w4), and treatment week 12 (w12) were measured in 199 chronic hcv-infected taiwanese patients receiving interferon-alpha (inf-alpha) 6 million units (mu) three times weekly plus 1000 to 1200 mg/day of ribavirin for 24 weeks. the s ...200616938649
potentiation of porcine circovirus 2-induced postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome by porcine parvovirus is associated with excessive production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha.this study investigated the potentiation of porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2)-induced postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome by porcine parvovirus (ppv) and found it was associated with excessive production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha). colostrum-deprived conventional pigs were inoculated intranasally with pcv2 or ppv alone or in combination (pcv2 and ppv). in vitro assay of tnf-alpha, obtained from alveolar macrophages coinfected with pcv2 and ppv, showed a significant increase in t ...200616966450
a slide latex agglutination test for the rapid detection of antibodies in serum against porcine parvovirus.a slide latex agglutination test (lat) was developed and evaluated to detect serum antibodies against porcine parvovirus. porcine parvovirus antigen was obtained by 10% peg-6000 and 0.5 mol/l sodium chloride precipitation, and inactivated by 0.1% methanal. two per cent suspensions of latex particles (0.5-0.8 microm) were coated by adding an equal volume of porcine parvovirus antigen at 0.34 microg/ml. repeatability of latex agglutination test was evaluated with a panel of 100 sera using the same ...200616626400
immunogenicity, safety, and predictors of response after a pneumococcal conjugate and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine series in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.the immunogenicity and safety of 2 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (pcv) and 1 dose of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (ppv) were evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart).200617006288
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