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the complete nucleotide sequence of plum pox potyvirus rna.the complete nucleotide sequence of the plum pox virus (ppv) rna genome has been determined. the rna sequence is 9786 nucleotides in length, excluding the 3'-terminal poly(a) tail. an aug triplet at position 147-149 was assigned as the initiation codon for the translation of the genome size viral polyprotein which would consist of 3140 amino acid residues. the nucleotide sequence of the non-coding regions and the predicted amino acid sequence of the polyprotein of ppv were compared with those pr ...19892773595
a solid phase fluorescent immunoassay for the rapid detection of virus antigen or antibodies in fetuses infected with porcine parvovirus.a solid phase fluorescent immunoassay using polyacrylamide beads coated with rabbit anti-porcine parvovirus antibodies has been developed and utilized in the diagnosis of porcine parvovirus infection. the antibody-coated beads (immunobeads) were used both to detect virus in mummified fetal tissues and to demonstrate specific antibodies in serum and ovarian follicular fluid. the immunobeads assay (iba) was as sensitive as elisa but more sensitive than virus isolation using tissue culture and haem ...19863006641
porcine parvovirus: dna sequence and genome organization.we have determined the nucleotide sequence of an almost full-length clone of porcine parvovirus (ppv). the sequence is 4973 nucleotides (nt) long. the 3' end of virion dna shows a y-shaped configuration homologous to rodent parvoviruses. the 5' end of virion dna shows a repetition of 127 nt at the carboxy terminus of the capsid proteins. the overall organization of the ppv genome is similar to those of other autonomous parvoviruses. there are two large open reading frames (orfs) that almost enti ...19892794971
pathogenicity of a skin isolate of porcine parvovirus in swine fetuses.the pathogenic properties of a skin isolate of porcine parvovirus (ppv), designated kresse isolate, were compared with nadl-8 isolate, a prototype isolate of ppv, by in utero inoculation of mid-term and late-term gestation swine fetuses. fetuses from pregnant sows of mid-gestation were inoculated with either nadl-8 or kresse virus. both isolates were highly pathogenic to mid-gestation fetuses. in contrast, dramatic differences in pathogenicity between these 2 isolates were observed in fetuses in ...19872830705
the genome-linked protein and 5' end rna sequence of plum pox potyvirus.the infectivity of plum pox potyvirus (ppv) rna was decreased by treatment with proteases. ribonuclease digestion of iodinated ppv rna yielded material which had an electrophoretic mobility corresponding to mr 22,000. this protein presumably corresponds to the protease-sensitive structure needed for infectivity. a protein-linked rnase t1-resistant oligonucleotide, 38 nucleotides long, was sequenced and shown to correspond to the 5' terminus of the rna by sequence comparison to the rnas of two ot ...19892794981
the complete nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of porcine parvovirus, strain nadl-2.the complete nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of porcine parvovirus, strain nadl-2, was determined. the nucleotide sequence organization of the viral genome was found to be similar to that of the other autonomous parvoviruses, such as canine parvovirus and minute virus of mice.19902219713
antigenic and structural variation of the p28 core polypeptide of goat and sheep retroviruses.the p28 core polypeptides of four isolates of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) from goats was compared with those of visna virus (vv) and progressive pneumonia virus (ppv) from sheep. monoclonal antibodies recognized p28 epitopes common to all six retrovirus isolates, a p28 epitope on four caev isolates, but not vv and ppv isolates, a p28 epitope on four caev isolates and vv, but not ppv and a p28 epitope unique to the caev isolate used for immunizing the mouse spleen donor. compariso ...19872440985
field trials of an inactivated, oil-emulsion porcine parvovirus vaccine in british pig herds.inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccines have been available commercially in britain since 1984 and are now widely used in breeding herds. to investigate their value in cost benefit terms an oil-emulsion vaccine developed at weybridge was used in trials on 1243 gilts in 12 herds during the period 1984 to 1986. in each herd approximately half the gilts were given the vaccine before breeding and the remainder were left unvaccinated. blood samples were taken at vaccination and two to four weeks late ...19882839927
polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification for the detection of porcine parvovirus.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification method was developed and evaluated to detect porcine parvovirus (ppv). a pair of 20-base primers and an oligonucleotide probe were derived from the dna sequences common to two isolates of ppv, nadl-8 and nadl-2. the primers flanked 118-bp nucleotides within the region coding for the major structural protein vp2. after dna amplification of ppv replicative form (rf), a 158-bp fragment was detected in agarose gels. this amplified fragment was shown to ...19911874916
an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to porcine parvovirus.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for detection of antibodies to porcine parvovirus (ppv). antisera to ppv were raised in pigs, for which ppv grown on pk15 cells was used for primary intranasal inoculations, and ppv cultured on autologous kidney cells for booster immunisations. a competition elisa was developed, based on the principle of a double antibody sandwich assay, using immunoglobulin fractions prepared from these sera. the elisa was compared with a haemagglutinat ...19892542351
in vitro assessment of viral antigen content in inactivated aluminum hydroxide adjuvanted vaccines.antigen capture enzyme immunoassays (elisa) were developed to assess the antigenic content of inactivated aluminum hydroxide (ah) adjuvanted porcine parvovirus, pseudorabies, and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis vaccines. reference preparations of these viruses were constructed as a basis for comparison. because ah-associated elisa interference was largely circumvented, the need for isotopic or complex antigen-adjuvant desorption methods was eliminated. a 4-parameter logistic model related opti ...19892550498
a serological survey of swine parvovirus infection in italy.a serological survey to detect the presence of porcine parvovirus (ppv) infection in italy and its geographic distribution was conducted. 1,332 samples of serum collected in 1983/1984/1985 were taken from pig breeding herds and, to a lesser extent, from fattening piggeries of representative regions of italy. they were tested using the hemagglutination inhibition test (hit). the results of the serological study indicate that parvovirus infection is widespread in italian herds having 70.3% of sera ...19892550741
nucleotide sequence analysis of the capsid genes and the right-hand terminal palindrome of porcine parvovirus, strain nadl-2.the genome of the porcine parvovirus, strain nadl-2, has been cloned and the sequence of map units 28 to 100, which is 3670 bp in length and contains the capsid coding regions and the right-hand terminal palindrome, has been determined. the sequence shows extensive homology with other parvoviruses such as mvm, h-1, cpv, and fpv in the capsid coding region. given the information available from these sequences, the regulatory and capsid coding regions for ppv have been proposed and the amino acid ...19892596019
[experimental studies on maedi-visna].in order to study pathogenicity of sheep lentiviruses, to obtain monospecific sera and to perfect elisa, 3 experiments with different strains were carried out for 4 yr. in expt 1, one clone only of a french maedi-visna strain (564-79) elicits a clear seroconversion in inoculated sheep. in expt 2, k1514 is more immunogenic than k796 and ppv: intratracheal route seems more efficient than intracerebral route. sheep infected by ts mutants (expt 3) are early positive as wild strain k796. nevertheless ...19882838220
absence of porcine parvovirus transmission to man. 19853001979
porcine parvovirus: a serological survey in the united kingdom january 1984 to january 1985. 19853001999
antigenic relationships among autonomous parvoviruses.the antigenic relatedness of minute virus of mice (mvm), kilham rat virus (kr), h-1 virus (h-1), haemorrhagic encephalopathy of rats virus (her), porcine parvovirus (ppv), canine parvovirus (cpv), feline panleukopenia virus (fpv), goose parvovirus (gpv) and bovine parvovirus (bpv) was studied by immunofluorescence microscopy (fa) and by serum neutralization (sn). an antigenically related group comprising mvm, kr, her, ppv, cpv and fpv was recognized by fa and most reactions within the group were ...19862432167
temperature dependent replication of porcine parvovirus isolates.the replication of four porcine parvovirus isolates, nadl-8, nadl-2, kbsh, and kresse, in swine testes cells were compared at temperatures of 32, 37, and 39 degrees c. replication of the kresse isolate was restricted at 32 and 37 degrees c as evidenced by progeny virus, virus polypeptide and viral dna synthesis, but not at 39 degrees c. in contrast, replication of kbsh was restricted at 39 degrees c, but not at 37 or 32 degrees c. findings from this study support the contention that replication ...19892596974
experience of vaccination against porcine parvovirus in pig-breeding herds: serological status and reproductive performance. 19872841834
parvovirus infection in pigs with necrotic and vesicle-like lesions.porcine parvovirus was isolated from many visceral organs and also from the brain, serum and skin specimens of swine with vesicular-like conditions. severe lesions were reported to have occurred in the mouth, on the tongue and snout, on the coronary band and in the interdigital spaces. also, parvoviral antigens were demonstrated, by immunofluorescence, in the outer layers of hair follicles in skin adjacent to coronary band lesions.19853006323
some epidemiological features and effects on reproductive performance of endemic porcine parvovirus infection.the time of development of demonstrable antibody to porcine parvovirus (ppv) was determined for 661 gilts entering the breeding herd in a 2800 sow intensive piggery; 13.2% of these gilts did not have detectable antibody to ppv when first introduced into the breeding herd at 25 to 26 weeks of age. exposure to ppv was found to vary in different sheds and even in different areas within a shed. gilts that developed antibody to ppv during the first third of pregnancy were not adversely affected. thos ...19863008694
efficacy of porcine parvovirus vaccines.three inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccines were tested for efficacy in 66 susceptible gilts. the gilts were challenged with virulent virus on the 40th day of gestation. all the vaccines provided excellent protection against fetal mortality despite insignificant serological responses to one of them. good protection was obtained with two of the vaccines even when the dose was substantially reduced. unvaccinated controls had very few viable fetuses.19863020765
radioimmunoassay of adjuvant-associated porcine parvovirus using a monoclonal antibody in a nitrocellulose membrane system.a quantitative and simple indirect radioimmunoassay (iria) was developed for porcine parvovirus (ppv), employing a monoclonal antibody directed against ppv adsorbed to nitrocellulose membrane. the iria was equally sensitive to live or inactivated ppv. there was a linear relationship between membrane-bound radioactivity and ppv quantity within a range of 10-80 hemagglutinating (ha) units of virus. two commercially used adjuvants, aluminum hydroxide (ah) and carboxyvinyl polymer (cp), reduced boun ...19853009510
replication of two porcine parvovirus isolates at non-permissive temperatures.previous studies have shown that replication in vitro of the porcine parvovirus (ppv) isolate, kbsh, was restricted at 39 degrees c but not at 37 degrees c. in contrast, replication of the kresse isolate was restricted at 37 degrees c but not at 39 degrees c. in this study, kresse and kbsh isolates were passaged up to ten times in swine testicle (st) cells at non-permissive temperatures, and at subsequent passage viral protein synthesis, viral dna synthesis, and progeny virus were evaluated. kbs ...19902222184
establishment of the attenuated strain of porcine parvovirus for the live vaccine and its biological-immunological characteristics. 19863012173
use of an inactivated vaccine for prevention of parvovirus-induced reproductive failure in gilts.gilts from dams that had been inoculated with inactivated porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccine before breeding became seronegative to ppv by 26 weeks of age. vaccination of these gilts with inactivated ppv vaccine at 32 weeks of age resulted in an antibody response that peaked at about 2 weeks after vaccination, with -log10 mean hemagglutination inhibiting (hi) antibody titers of less than 2. in the first-year group (82 gilts), hi titers gradually decreased, 20% of the gilts being seronegative by 6 ...19873028999
expression of the plum pox virus coat protein region in escherichia coli.a cdna complementary to the 3' end of plum pox virus (ppv) rna was sequenced. the sequence was investigated for the presumable coat protein cistron by computer-aided translation. a fragment containing the stop codon of the polyprotein gene and a putative virus-specific protease cleavage site was subcloned into an e. coli expression vector. it is shown by immunological analysis that the coat protein cistron is located within the subcloned region.19892655276
porcine parvovirus vaccination. 19882842932
porcine parvovirus vaccination. 19882844016
porcine parvovirus vaccination. 19882845629
persistence of passive immunity to porcine parvovirus. 19852998320
desorption of porcine parvovirus from aluminum hydroxide adjuvant with subsequent viral immunoassay or hemagglutination assay.cell culture fluids containing porcine parvovirus were adjuvanted with varying concentrations of aluminum hydroxide gel. adsorption of virus and total protein to adjuvant was proportional to adjuvant concentration. desorption of virus and protein from the adjuvant in substantial, reproducible quantities was achieved by washing adjuvanted preparations with 1.2 m potassium phosphate, followed by dialysis and concentration of wash fluids. sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of ...19873033874
comparison of porcine parvovirus to other parvoviruses by restriction site mapping and hybridization analysis of southern blots.the genomic relationship between porcine parvovirus (ppv) and several other autonomous parvoviruses was examined by restriction site and hybridization analysis. restriction site maps of the ppv genome were prepared by digesting the double-stranded replicative form of the viral dna with each of eight restriction enzymes. subsequent comparison of such maps with those previously reported for ppv, canine parvovirus (cpv), feline panleukopenia virus (fpv), minute virus of mice (mvm), h-1 virus (h-1) ...19873029312
interepizootic survival of porcine parvovirus.porcine parvovirus (ppv) was transmitted by direct contact between experimentally infected and susceptible pigs at 1 and 2 weeks, but not at 4, 8, 16, or 25 weeks, after experimental infection. in contrast, ppv was found to remain infectious for at least 14 weeks in uncleaned rooms previously vacated by experimentally infected pigs. these findings suggest that facilities contaminated by secretions and excretions of infected pigs may provide the major means by which ppv survives between episodes ...19863013820
[effect of maternal antibodies on the vaccination of young swine against porcine parvovirus (ppv)]. 19863021118
study of the efficacy of an inactivated virus vaccine against porcine parvovirus.the efficacy of an inactivated virus vaccine against porcine parvovirus has been studied by immunizing 4 sows during pregnancy. a parvovirus virulent strain has been inoculated to these sows and to two other unvaccinated sows used as controls. the infection was performed between the 52nd and the 57th day of gestation. in the litters born from the vaccinated sows, 82% of the piglets were alive and normal. neither ppv antibodies nor antigen could be revealed in the stillborn fetuses born from the ...19863030182
polarized entry of canine parvovirus in an epithelial cell line.the binding and uptake of canine parvovirus (cpv) in polarized epithelial cells were investigated by growing the cells on a permeable support and inoculating with the virus either from the apical or basolateral surface. binding of radiolabeled cpv occurred preferentially on the basolateral surface. in contrast, when a similar experiment was carried out on nonpolarized a72 cells, virus binding occurred regardless of the direction of virus input. binding appeared to be specific for cpv and could n ...19892657102
artificial cleavage site recognized by plum pox potyvirus protease in escherichia coli.a synthetic plum pox virus (ppv) nib-cp cleavage site was recognized by a ppv protease in an in vivo escherichia coli expression system. the presence of the natural nib-cp cleavage site did not affect processing at the artificial one. however, although both the proteases and the cleavage sites of ppv and tobacco etch virus show high sequence homology, a similar cassette from the tobacco etch virus nib-cp junction was not efficiently recognized by the ppv protease.19892657098
precipitating antibodies in experimental visna and natural progressive pneumonia of sheep.serological responses of icelandic sheep experimentally infected with visna virus (vv) were contrasted with responses in american targhee sheep naturally infected with progressive pneumonia virus (ppv). precipitating antibodies assayed by immunodiffusion were compared with the neutralising and complementing fixing antibody response. in experimental infections with vv, complement fixing and neutralising antibodies appeared early after infection and rose to high levels in all sheep, while precipit ...19852988088
plaque formation and replication of porcine parvovirus in embryonic swine kidney cell line, esk cells. 19883210492
size and antigenic comparisons among the structural proteins of selected autonomous parvoviruses.the size and antigenic relationships among structural proteins (vps) of canine parvovirus (cpv), feline parvovirus (fpv), porcine parvovirus (ppv), minute virus of mice (mvm) and bovine parvovirus (bpv) were determined by sds-page of radiolabelled, purified virus and immunoprecipitated viral proteins. mature virions of cpv, fpv, ppv and mvm were composed of three vps designated vp1, vp2 and vp3. the corresponding proteins of each virus were similar in molecular weight [79,000 to 82,500 (vp1), 65 ...19883356979
porcine parvovirus: replication in and inhibition of selected cellular functions of swine alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood lymphocytes.the ability of four isolates of porcine parvovirus (nadl-8, nadl-2, kbsh, and kresse) to replicate in and affect the functions of swine peripheral blood lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages was studied in vitro. v-strand and c-strand viral dna was present in both concanavalin a- and non-treated lymphocytes as well as alveolar macrophages following infection with all four isolates. indirect fluorescent antibody assays on swine testis cells, inoculated with cell lysates of nadl-8-infected peripher ...19883046562
cultivation of a pig parvovirus in various cell cultures.the susceptibility of several established cell lines of pig (llc-pk1 = pig kidney; mpk = minipig kidney; pk15 = pig kidney; esk = embryonic swine kidney), bovine (ebtr = embryonic bovine trachea), monkey (ma-104 = fetal rhesus monkey kidney) and human (hel-299 = embryonic human lung) origin to porcine parvovirus was studied. the primary pig kidney cell cultures (ppk) were included in the study as the reference cell system. from the results it appeared that the virus only replicated in cell lines ...19873626887
prenatal and preweaning deaths caused by pseudorabies virus and porcine parvovirus in a swine herd.sequential outbreaks of pseudorabies virus and porcine parvovirus infections were documented at a swine farm in southern minnesota. data for the prevalence of mummified fetuses born and the preweaning mortality were recorded over a 3-year-period. the farm was a farrow-to-finish facility, with breeding females housed in 4 groups according to their stage of pregnancy. the herd consisted of approximately 130 breeding females in december 1981, and expanded to 220 females during the 12 months of 1982 ...19852997093
the complete nucleotide sequence of plum pox virus rna.the complete nucleotide sequence of the rna of an aphid non-transmissible plum pox virus (ppv-nat) isolate has been determined from five overlapping cdna clones. cdna prepared by primer extension was used to determine the 5' terminus. the assembled rna is 9741 nucleotides in length, excluding a 3' terminal poly(a) sequence. one large open reading frame starts at nucleotide positions 36 to 38 and is terminated with an uag codon at positions 9522 to 9524. the putative start codon is located at pos ...19892732699
kbsh parvovirus: comparison with porcine parvovirus.we compared the molecular, antigenic, and pathogenic properties of kbsh parvovirus to those of porcine parvovirus (ppv) isolate nadl-8. kbsh, propagated in swine testes cells in culture, possessed two major capsid polypeptides of 83 and 64 kilodaltons that were similar in size to those of ppv. kbsh-infected cells also contained an 86-kilodalton nonstructural polypeptide that was identical in size to the ppv nonstructural polypeptide (ns-1). the kbsh polypeptides were structurally similar but not ...19852991553
[restriction analysis of the genome of swine abortion parvovirus and cloning of its psti-ecori fragment].the cultured pig kidney cells infected by the porcine parvovirus (ppv) produced the virions and viral dna. the latter was used as a matrix to synthesize the double stranded dna. the obtained preparation is more homogenic than the natural replicative form and was used for restriction analysis of porcine parvovirus genome and for molecular cloning of its fragment. the isolated recombinant plasmids contained the psti-ecori fragment of ppv dna, containing 70% of the viral genome. the restriction ana ...19873037360
inhibition of porcine parvovirus replication by empty virus particles.the influence of empty porcine parvovirus (ppv) particles on viral replication was examined in cell cultures and in swine. following extensive purification, homogeneous preparations of full and empty ppv preparations were obtained and used for in vitro and in vivo analyses. in the first in vitro experiment, swine testes cells were infected with mixtures of various ratios of empty and full (e/f) particles. the production of both intracellular and extracellular virus was markedly inhibited in the ...19873039947
transformation of murine cells by two "slow viruses," visna virus and progressive pneumonia virus.visna and progressive pneumonia virus (ppv), two antigenically related, non-oncogenic "slow viruses" which have ribonucleic acid (rna)-dependent deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) polymerase activity, were examined for their ability to transform cells. murine cells which had been exposed to either visna or ppv developed foci of altered, spindle-shaped cells 3 to 4 weeks after infection. visna and ppv transformed lines were established from these cultures. there was no evidence that other oncogenic dna ...19714998321
porcine parvovirus: properties and prevalence of a strain isolated in the united states. 19724628211
the ability by different preparations of porcine parvovirus to enhance humoral immunity in swine and guinea pigs.the capacity of different preparations of inactivated porcine parvovirus to stimulate antibody response was studied. the adjuvants chosen were aluminium hydroxide gel [al(oh)3, 30-50%], water-in-mineral-oil emulsion (w/mo, 50%) alone or combined with al(oh)3, and two synthetic products known as dimethyldioctadecylammoniumbromide (dda, 0.16%) and an acrylic acid polymer resin (carbopol 934p, 0.02%) respectively. for each preparation, swine and guinea pigs devoid of antibody to porcine parvovirus ...19883216795
biological and physicochemical properties of porcine parvovirus recovered from stillborn piglets. 19724639067
efficacy of an inactivated porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccine under field conditions. 19883256229
clinical, virologic, and histopathologic observations of induced porcine parvovirus infection in boars.twelve 8- to 12-month-old crossbred boars were inoculated with a virulent strain (nadl-8) of porcine parvovirus (ppv). hemicastrations were performed on 6 boars 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days after an im injection of 10(8) median cell culture infectious dose (ccid50) of ppv (n = 3) or injection of 10(7.4) ccid50 given intratesticularly (it, n = 3). noninfected cell culture medium (0.25 ml) was injected into each testicle of a 7th boar (it inoculated control). virus or viral antigen was detected i ...19873035971
hormonal changes in sows after induced porcine parvovirus infection in early pregnancy.hormonal changes, lesions, and virus isolation studies were determined in sows after uterine artery inoculation with porcine parvovirus [( ppv], strain nadl-8) in early pregnancy. two sows were given ppv on days 14 or 16 and were euthanatized and necropsied on day 35 after twice daily plasma collection for hormone measurement. parvovirus was given to 4 sows on day 14 and to 4 sows on day 21 with 5 times daily plasma samples collected for 1 week. sows were examined on days 21 and 28, respectively ...19873035969
maternally-derived antibodies to porcine parvovirus and their effect on active antibody production after vaccination with an inactivated oil-emulsion vaccine.two sows which had been vaccinated with an oil-emulsion porcine parvovirus vaccine, and had developed high haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody levels to the virus, farrowed three successive litters each, a total of 74 piglets. serum samples from these piglets were tested for haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody at birth, three and 17 days after birth, and at monthly intervals thereafter to study the decline of maternally-derived antibody. regression curves were constructed from the data to sh ...19873603999
uptake of porcine parvovirus into host and nonhost cells suggests host specificity is determined by intracellular factors.the uptake of porcine parvovirus (ppv) into host cells, permissive or nonpermissive for ppv replication, was monitored by autoradiography, immunofluorescent microscopy, and dual parameter flow cytometry. while both permissive and nonpermissive cells selectively took up the light (activated) form of the virus from a mixed population of heavy and light infectious virions, the virus was only replicated in the permissive cell cultures. transfection of permissive and nonpermissive cells with purified ...19883376550
antigenic and biochemical characterization of the c-type particle of the stable porcine kidney cell line pk-15.the c-type particles observed by electron microscopy in pk-15 cells were demonstrated to have biochemical and biophysical properties associated with the oncornavirus group: density of 1:16 in a sucrose gradient, 70s rna, and the rna-dependent dna polymerase. the group-specific interspecies antigen, gs-3, was not present. evidence of a latent infection with a porcine parvovirus was also obtained.19734128828
porcine parvovirus: propagation in microcarrier cell culture and immunogenic evaluation in pregnant gilts.porcine parvovirus was propagated in pk-15 cells cultured in roller bottles or on microcarrier beads. after inactivation, the virus was used as antigen in the preparation of vaccines. the immunogenic potency and safety of the vaccines were evaluated in specific pathogen free pregnant gilts and guinea pigs. experimental challenge tests determined the efficacy of the vaccine in preventing porcine parvovirus transplacental infection. neither viral antigens nor specific antibodies were detected in f ...19863809732
pasteurization of antihemophilic factor and model virus inactivation studies.heating sterilized albumin preparations at 600 degrees c for 10 hours has historically been shown to yield a hepatitis-free, efficacious product. we have evaluated such a pasteurization procedure with ahf preparations. procoagulant activity and fibrinogen stability were dependent on the amount of sucrose used as a stabilizer. flash pasteurization at 72 degrees c was evaluated and was found to be detrimental to ahf. effect of sucrose concentration was shown on the inactivation kinetics of porcine ...19853931293
genital infection of pigs with porcine parvovirus. 19744480374
vaccination of swine with an inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccine in the presence of passive immunity.a study was conducted to determine whether low hemagglutination inhibiting (hi) titers (1:5) for porcine parvovirus (ppv) block the development of immune response to a ppv vaccine. pigs with low (1:5), medium (1:10 or 1:20), or high (1:40 or 1:80) titers were obtained by iv injections with various amounts of ppv immune serum. pigs were inoculated with 1 or 2 doses of vaccine and were monitored for serum hi antibodies to ppv. pigs with low titers responded to vaccine just as well as did the seron ...19863949618
isolation of porcine parvovirus from commercial trypsin.the isolation of porcine parvovirus from a lot of commercial 1:250 trypsin is reported and the method is described.19734584585
potentiating effect of adjuvants on humoral immunity to porcine parvovirus vaccines in guinea pigs.fourteen different adjuvants, given either in single or combined form with another compound were compared in guinea pigs for their ability to potentiate humoral immunity to porcine parvovirus (ppv) antigen after 2 vaccinations. two injections were given, the second 3 weeks following the initial vaccination. antibody concentrations to ppv in sera from injected animals were measured over a 5-week period by the hemagglutination inhibition test. at the conclusion of the experiment, guinea pigs injec ...19854002607
porcine parvovirus: natural and experimental infections of the porcine fetus and prevalence in mature swine.antibodies against porcine parvovirus were detected in 17 of 116 prenursing pig sera. antibodies against transmissible gastroenteritis or ecpo-6 (an enterovirus) were not detected in prenursing sera of the pigs tested. seventy-seven percent of 129 serum samples from 23 ohio farms and 82% of 96 samples from slaughter plants in ohio were serologically positive for porcine parvovirus. mummies or other abnormalities were not observed in newly born pigs exposed to porcine parvovirus by the transuteri ...19744426705
[2 strains of swine parvoviruses isolated from aborted fetuses].two hemagglutinating virus strains were isolated (in primary cell cultures of pig kidneys) from viscera of aborted swine fetuses. a number of serologic, cytologic, physico-chemical, and laboratory investigations with the strains revealed that they belonged to the group of porcine parvovirus (ppv). the isolation of spv from aborted fetuses pointed to the fact that the disease had been widespread among the swine population and plays a part in reproduction disturbances that have come to be known re ...19873617471
morphological and immunological comparison of caprine arthritis encephalitis and ovine progressive pneumonia viruses.caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (caev) causes a variety of pathological conditions ranging from mild to very severe and from acute to chronic, depending upon the age of initial infection and other variables. although the virus has been reported to have properties of characteristic of retroviruses and to be related to maedi-visna virus (also called progressive pneumonia virus [ppv]), relatively little information about its morphological and immunological characteristics has been reported. we ...19816169845
letter: serological evidence of porcine parvovirus in new zealand. 19744527881
laboratory evaluation of selected disinfectants as virucidal agents against porcine parvovirus, pseudorabies virus, and transmissible gastroenteritis virus.of a variety of disinfectants evaluated, only sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide inactivated porcine parvovirus (ppv) after a 5-minute incubation period. after the same incubation time, pseudorabies and transmissible gastroenteritis viruses were inactivated by all of the disinfectants tested. when the incubation time was increased to 20 minutes, 2% glutaraldehyde and a double-strength concentration of a commercial formaldehyde preparation also inactivated ppv. formaldehyde vapor and ultrav ...19816269467
immunogenicity of bivalent vaccine for reproductive failure of swine induced by pseudorabies virus and porcine parvovirus. 19816277213
transplacental infection of piglets with a porcine parvovirus. 19715169329
porcine parvovirus dna: characterization of the genomic and replicative form dna of two virus isolates.the genomic and replicative form (rf) dna of porcine parvovirus (ppv) have been characterized. ppv isolate nadl-8 was found to have a 5000-base single-stranded genome, and a unique strand was encapsidated in virus particles. the rf dna of isolate nadl-8 was found to be an infectious 5000-base pair (bp) molecule. select restriction endonuclease sites were mapped along the rf dna of ppv (nadl-8), and oriented with respect to the viral genomic dna. the rf dna of a second isolate of ppv, the less pa ...19846091327
porcine parvovirus infection in vitro: a study model for the replication of parvoviruses. i. replication at different temperatures. 1. 19725066576
pseudorabies virus, porcine parvovirus, and porcine enterovirus interactions with the zona pellucida of the porcine embryo.porcine embryos (n = 93) were incubated on cell monolayers that had been previously inoculated with pseudorabies virus, porcine parvovirus (ppv), or each of 2 porcine enteroviruses. after 2, 24, or 48 hours of incubation, the embryos were fixed in glutaraldehyde and examined by electron microscopic procedures. it was found that pseudorabies virus adsorbed to the zona pellucida (zp) and entered sperm tracks in the zp. the ppv and both enteroviruses entered pores in the zp and were associated with ...19836307093
porcine parvovirus infection in boars: ii. influence on fertility. 19846091372
antibody response of pigs to inactivated monovalent and bivalent vaccines for porcine parvovirus and pseudorabies virus.groups of pigs vaccinated with an inactivated bivalent vaccine containing porcine parvovirus (ppv) and pseudorabies virus (prv) developed geometric mean titers (gmt) of humoral antibody for each of the viruses as high or slightly higher than those of other groups of pigs that were vaccinated with inactivated monovalent vaccines containing one or the other of the same viruses. an increase in gmt after challenge exposure of vaccinated pigs to live virus indicated that vaccination did not prevent v ...19806261613
experimental infection of sheep by caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and goats by progressive pneumonia virus.the lentiviruses, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) and progressive pneumonia virus (ppv) of sheep, cause major diseases in their respective hosts; however, the infectivity of these viruses for closely related species has not been determined. experiments were conducted to determine whether caev would infect sheep and whether ppv would infect goats. upon inoculation with caev, lambs developed a nonsuppurative arthritis and antibody to caev, and the virus was isolated up to 4 months late ...19836318613
[isolation of conjugated sera for the immunofluorescence demonstration of swine parvovirus].high-titer, specific serum against porcine parvovirus was obtained via hyperimmunization of rabbits, with the use of a bulgarian isolate that had been partially purified after a known, modified technique. a specific, high-titer conjugate was produced for the immunofluorescence diagnosis of porcine parvoviruses. the microscopic observation of the lamellae of cell cultures, treated with the conjugate, revealed the presence of a specific, typically granulated perinuclear (mostly unilaterally) and, ...19873314114
swine diseases transmissible with artificial insemination.the transport of fresh and frozen semen to be used for artificial insemination creates a mode of disease transmission between farms. normally, semen contains a number of nonpathogenic bacterial contaminants; however, excessive bacterial contamination can result in infertile matings. contamination with a known pathogen, eg, brucella suis, could initiate a serious outbreak of disease in a recipient herd. methods to minimize bacterial contamination of semen include sanitary collecting and processin ...19846090372
identification and characterization of a porcine parvovirus nonstructural polypeptide.sera from porcine parvovirus (ppv)-infected swine fetuses immunoprecipitated and 84- to 86-kilodalton polypeptide in addition to the a and b virion structural proteins. this polypeptide, designated ns-1, was present in ppv-infected cell lysates but not in purified virions. partial proteolysis mapping revealed that ns-1 was not related to the a and b viral structural proteins. all three proteins in infected cells were phosphorylated at serine residues, and ns-1 also contained phosphothreonine. fr ...19854020958
porcine parvovirus infection: review and diagnosis in a sow herd with reproductive failure.in a commercial swine herd a rise was noted during the summer of 1981 in the number of repeat breeders, mostly four to eight weeks after serving. during the autumn there was a decrease in the litter size at birth and an increase in the number of stillborn and mummified piglets. several gilts and sows showed a seroconversion against porcine parvovirus (ppv), determined by the haemagglutination inhibition test (hi-test). characteristic pathological findings were seen in some maturely stillborn and ...19836314634
isolation of porcine parvovirus (ppv) from swine herds affected by reproductive failure, and serologic evidence of infection in hungarian large swine herds. 19836331141
porcine parvovirus (p.p.v.): infection in boars. i. possibility of a genital localization in the boar after oronasal infection. 19836316695
ovine progressive pneumonia: pathologic and virologic studies on the naturally occurring disease.pathologic and virologic studies were conducted on 13 mature ewes with serum precipitin antibodies to progressive pneumonia virus (ppv). pulmonary lesions of ovine progressive pneumonia were found in 4 sheep, a meningoencephalitis resembling visna in 1 sheep, chronic proliferative carpal arthritis in 2, and massive lymphoid proliferation in the mammary gland in 3. virus producing cytopathic effect typical of ppv was isolated from the lungs, mediastinal lymph node, spleen, and choroid plexus of 4 ...19816275756
[study of porcine parvovirus antibodies on a breeding farm].serological examination of porcine parvovirus (ppv) haemagglutinating antibodies is reported in replacement gilts after a ppv infection on a large farm. it seems that ppv is no longer active on the farm after ppv infection.19854082161
biological assay of attenuated strain nadl-2 and virulent strain nadl-8 of porcine parvovirus.attenuated strain nadl-2 and virulent strain nadl-8 of porcine parvovirus (ppv) were titrated in vivo and in vitro under similar conditions to provide a better understanding of some of the factors involved in virulence of ppv in causing maternal reproductive failure of swine. both strains cause fetal death when they are injected directly into fetal fluids, but only strain nadl-8 does so when administered to pregnant swine. the strains were tested for their hemagglutinating activity (ha), median ...19846098200
oronasal and intramuscular vaccination of swine with a modified live porcine parvovirus vaccine: multiplication and transmission of the vaccine virus.an attenuated strain nadl-2 of porcine parvovirus (ppv) has been used at the 54th cell culture passage as a modified live-virus (mlv) vaccine. the present study was conducted to determine the minimum immunizing dose of mlv, the extent of mlv multiplication in swine tissues, and its transmission from swine administered mlv oronasally or intramuscularly. immune response to mlv was dose dependent and swine responded to as little as 10(2) median cell-culture infective doses (ccid50). a 10(5) ccid50 ...19846098202
vaccination against porcine parvovirus infection. 19817304358
porcine parvovirus: virus purification and structural and antigenic properties of virion polypeptides.porcine parvovirus (ppv) was extensively purified from infected swine fetal homogenates by cacl2 precipitation followed by cscl density centrifugation. two species of particles possessing ppv-specific hemagglutinating activity were observed banding at densities of 1.39 and 1.30 g/ml, representing full and empty 20-nm virion particles, respectively. both classes of particles contained three major polypeptides. a, b, and c, with respective molecular weights of 83,000, 64,000, and 60,000. the amoun ...19836834473
antibody responses of guinea-pigs, rabbits and pigs to inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccines.antibody responses were compared in guinea-pigs, rabbits and pigs following vaccination with inactivated porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccines. mean ppv hemagglutination inhibition (hi) antibody titers of 52, 56 and 36 at 1 week after first vaccination and 896, 640 and 512 at 2 weeks after second vaccination were detected in guinea-pigs, rabbits and pigs, respectively. ppv vaccines prepared with greater concentrations of virus, as determined by hemagglutination (ha) units, and of aluminum hydroxide ...19846719818
[parvovirus infection in pigs: incidence and prevention. the diessen group veterinarian practice].a trial is reported, which was carried out to find an answer to two questions: to which extent do parvovirus-infections occur and what is the effect of a single porcine parvovirus vaccination? parvovirus was found to be enzootic on the farms included in the trial, whereas a singled vaccination was shown to be effective with regard to the prevention of lesions due to porcine parvovirus infections.19846095485
an inactivated, oil-emulsion vaccine for the prevention of porcine parvovirus-induced reproductive failure.pig fetuses inoculated at 45 days gestation with virulent porcine parvovirus (ppv) were harvested 10 days later. virus was extracted, inactivated with binary ethylenimine and the antigen suspension emulsified with mineral oil adjuvant. one dose of this vaccine, or two doses with a 14 day interval, stimulated high and long lasting serum antibody titres in gilts. vaccination caused no clinical reactions and lesions at injection sites were minor. vaccination of seronegative gilts at 40 days gestati ...19846326214
fetal infection with porcine parvovirus in herds with reproductive failure. 19817304357
role of the rat in the transmission of porcine parvovirus.rats experimentally inoculated with porcine parvovirus (ppv) shed virus in excreta from 3 to 21 days. rats inoculated subcutaneously with ppv responded serologically with hemagglutination-inhibition titers (512-1,024). the ppv antigen was readily detected in lung and spleen 2 and 3 days after rats were inoculated and in liver and intestine, 4 days. the rats remained clinically healthy. rats given ppv orally or in drinking water either with ppv-infected cell culture fluid or swine fetal homogenat ...19827073064
[occurrence of porcine parvovirus infection in switzerland and a new method of virus demonstration using immune electron microscopy]. 19846098102
tissue culture infectivity assay for porcine parvovirus. 19846474785
reproductive performance of gilts exposed to porcine parvovirus at 56 or 70 days of gestation.a total of 18 pregnant gilts, which were free of antibody for porcine parvovirus (ppv), were exposed oronasally to ppv on either the 56th day (9 gilts) or 70th day (9 gilts) of the gestation to determine whether infection at these times would affect their reproductive performance. the gilts were either necropsied late in gestation or allowed to farrow, and their fetuses and pigs were tested for evidence of infection. gilts remained clinically healthy throughout the experiment, and none farrowed ...19817340578
ovine progressive pneumonia: experimental intrathoracic, intracerebral, and intra-articular infections.three groups of 4 lambs each were experimentally infected with an isolate of progressive pneumonia virus (ppv) by intracerebral, intra-articular, or intrathoracic routes of inoculation. an additional control group was sham-inoculated by all 3 routes with identically prepared, noninfected inoculum. sheep were killed 12 to 42 days after inoculation. a mild generalized leptomeningitis was found in 2 of the 4 lambs inoculated intracerebrally. a severe, proliferative synovitis with massive infiltrati ...19817325465
the pattern of endemic parvovirus infection in four pig herds.serological surveys were conducted on the gilts and adult sows in 4 herds endemically infected with porcine parvovirus. the study assessed the influence of the type of management of breeders on the spread of virus infection and the influence of endemic parvovirus infection on reproductive parameters of the herd. the practice of holding gilts and sows in groups did not reliably promote infection or maintain a 100% level of active immunity amongst adult sows in 2 of 3 group husbandry herds. in the ...19836626062
evaluation of a gel diffusion precipitin test for porcine parvovirus.the use of a gel diffusion precipitin (gdp) test for the detection of porcine parvovirus (ppv) infection in pigs is described. the close correlation between gel diffusion precipitin and haemagglutination inhibiting (hi) antibody titres indicates that, with careful standardisation, a high level of sensitivity can be achieved with the gdp test and that it is a simple and relatively inexpensive alternative to the more commonly used hi test. experimental infection of 2 groups of pigs showed that gdp ...19836414450
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