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chances and limitations of non-invasive tests in the assessment of liver fibrosis in liver transplant patients.because fibrosis progression resulting in liver cirrhosis represents the main reason for graft lost in patients after liver transplantation, an early detection of liver fibrosis is crucial. in recent years, several non-invasive tests for the assessment of liver fibrosis have been developed. we prospectively assessed the stage of liver fibrosis of 135 liver transplant patients (94 hepatitis c virus [hcv], 41 alcoholic cirrhosis) using liver biopsy, transient elastography, and serum markers. in th ...201019925459
development and validation of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of prrsv.to establish a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) method for rapid detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), four primers specific to six regions of the n gene were designed. after amplification in an isothermal water bath for 1 h, samples containing prrsv generated the expected ladder-like products while porcine parvovirus, porcine circovirus, classic swine fever virus, pseudorabies virus, and swine testis cells generated no pr ...201019911264
immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (il-10) is up-regulated in high-grade cin but not associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (hpv) at baseline, outcomes of hr-hpv infections or incident cin in the lams cohort.bypassing the local immunological defense reactions in the cervix is one of the prerequisites for human papillomaviruses (hpv) infections to progress to intraepithelial neoplasia (cin). the role of potent immunosuppressive cytokines, e.g., interleukin-10 (il-10), depressing these local virus-specific immunological responses is incompletely studied. to assess, whether il-10 expression in cervical hpv lesions has any implications in the outcome of hpv infections or disease progression to cin. base ...200919908064
igg antibodies against measles, rubella, and varicella zoster virus predict conversion to multiple sclerosis in clinically isolated syndrome.multiple sclerosis (ms) is characterized by a polyspecific b-cell response to neurotropic viruses such as measles, rubella and varicella zoster, with the corresponding antibodies measurable in csf as the so-called "mrz reaction" (mrzr). we aimed to evaluate the relevance of mrzr to predict conversion of patients with clinically isolated syndrome (cis) to ms, and to compare it to oligoclonal bands (ocb) and mri.200919890384
viral causes of influenza-like illness: insight from a study during the winters 2004-2007.limited information is available on the viral etiology of influenza-like illness in southern european countries, and it is still a matter of debate whether certain symptoms can be used to distinguish among the specific viruses that cause influenza-like illness. the main objective of the present study was to identify the demographic and clinical predictors of influenza-like illness due to specific viral agents. the study, which was observational in design, was conducted in rome and naples, italy. ...200919856468
porcine parvovirus- and porcine circovirus 2-associated reproductive failure and neonatal mortality in crossbred indian pigs.the objective of this study was to detect the presence of porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2) in a farm showing reproductive failure and increased mortality in neonatal piglets by histopathological examination, polymerase chain reaction, and demonstration of viral antigen and nucleic acid. out of 594 piglets farrowed by 70 first-parity gilts, nine (1.51%) mummified fetuses, 13 (2.19%) stillborn, and 572 (96.3%) live-born piglets were recorded. the average litter size at birt ...201019763866
prediction of significant liver fibrosis in kidney transplant patients with chronic hepatitis c virus infection: the tx-3 index.hcv infection is highly prevalent among kidney transplant (kt) recipients. the natural history and management of these patients are controversial. we sought to assess the diagnostic value of noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis in kt hcv-infected patients. this cross-sectional study included 102 kt individuals with positive hcv-rna. bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify variables associated with significant fibrosis (metavir > or = f2). significant fibrosis was observed in 2 ...201019758273
baseline predictors of virological response for chronic hepatitis b patients.to determine which baseline factors of chronic hepatitis b patients are predictive of virological response to peginterferon alpha-2b therapy.200919750575
detection of a novel porcine boca-like virus in the background of porcine circovirus type 2 induced postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv-2) has been found to be the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws). however, pcv-2 is a ubiquitous virus in the swine population and a majority of pigs infected with pcv-2 do not develop the disease. different factors such as age, maintenance, the genetics of pcv-2, other pathogens, etc. have been suggested to contribute to the development of pmws. however, so far no proven connection between any of these factors and the disease develo ...200919748534
antigen-capture blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a baculovirus recombinant antigen to differentiate transmissible gastroenteritis virus from porcine respiratory coronavirus antibodies.a new commercially available antigen-capture, blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (antigen-capture b-elisa), based on baculovirus truncated-s recombinant protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) and 3 specific monoclonal antibodies, was developed and evaluated by examining a panel of 453 positive porcine respiratory coronavirus (prcov), 31 positive tgev, and 126 negative field sera by using another commercially available differential coronavirus b-elisa as the reference techn ...200919737754
the determinant of potyvirus ability to overcome the rtm resistance of arabidopsis thaliana maps to the n-terminal region of the coat protein.in arabidopsis thaliana columbia (col-0) plants, the restriction of tobacco etch virus (tev) long-distance movement involves at least three dominant rtm (restricted tev movement) genes named rtm1, rtm2, and rtm3. previous work has established that, while the rtm-mediated resistance is also effective against other potyviruses, such as plum pox virus (ppv) and lettuce mosaic virus (lmv), some isolates of these viruses are able to overcome the rtm mechanism. in order to identify the viral determina ...200919737103
cloning, in vitro expression, and bioactivity of interleukin-18 isolated from a domestic porcine breed found in henan.to evaluate the effects of recombinant porcine interleukin-18 (rpil-18) on the replication of viruses in host cells and proliferation of lymphocytes, porcine il-18 (pil-18) isolated from a domestic big-white porcine breed found in the henan province (hn) was cloned using a reverse transcriptase-pcr. the cloned hn pil-18 contained an orf of 579 base pairs encoding a 192-amino-acid precursor protein. the amino acid sequence of hn pil-18 was compared with all the other pil-18 amino acid sequences a ...200919732142
effects of ultraviolet radiation on marine virus-phytoplankton interactions.abstract ambient ultraviolet radiation (uvr) is harmful to many biological systems and increased uvr, due to a reduced ozone layer, may have many unforeseen consequences. viruses are the most abundant biological particles in the sea and are thought to play an important role in the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. although an increasing number of studies have been published during the last 15 years, aquatic viral ecology is still in its infancy and little is known about the effect ...200319719609
[establishment of rt- lamp for rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus].a rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was established by using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) method, meanwhile its specificity and sensitivity were assessed. the results showed that the fmdv rna could be amplified by incubation at 65degrees c for only 1h using six primers designed based on fmdv polyprotein gene and the amplification products could be detected easily by naked-eye. there is no cross reaction with other virus such as svdv, ...200919678569
disinfection efficacy against parvoviruses compared with reference viruses.some virus species can resist harsh environmental conditions, surviving on surfaces for long periods with the possibility of being transmitted to susceptible hosts. studies are limited on the efficacy of disinfectants against viruses dried onto surfaces, in particular, with the identification of new pathogenic non-enveloped viruses that are expected to have high resistance to disinfection, such as parvoviruses. in this study a range of commonly used biocides, including heat, was tested against p ...200919646784
influence of peptide ligand surface density and ethylene oxide spacer arm on the capture of porcine parvovirus.in previous work, we identified two trimeric peptide ligands (designated wrw and kyy), which bound specifically to porcine parvovirus (ppv) and demonstrated their ability to capture and remove the virus from solutions containing 7.5% human blood plasma. this article examines the influences of peptide density and the presence of an ethylene oxide spacer arm on the efficiency of virus capture using these two ligands. the wrw peptide bound the most virus from plasma solutions at the lowest peptide ...200919634175
clinical evaluation of nuclisens magnetic extraction and nuclisens analytical specific reagents for the real-time detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in paediatric respiratory specimens.to evaluate the combination of nuclisens magnetic extraction and nuclisens analytical specific reagents (biomérieux, marcy l'etoile, france) for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) from a variety of respiratory samples.200919625288
predictability of sustained virological response to pegylated interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin therapy by week-8 viral response in hiv-positive patients with chronic hepatitis c virus infection.chronic hepatitis c is frequent and aggressive in hiv-positive patients. identification of early predictors of response to anti-hcv therapy is needed for a lower rate of response and higher discontinuations, compared to hcv mono-infected subjects. the aim of our study was to evaluate the predictive value of virological response (vr) at week 4-8-12 of pegylated interferon alpha-2b (peg-ifn) plus ribavirin (rbv) on sustained virological response (svr) in hiv-hcv co-infected patients. 100 patients ...200919601782
meld exceptions and new predictive score of death on long waiting lists for liver transplantation.cirrhosis related complications, considered meld exceptions, proved to add prognostic value to the meld score in predicting waiting list mortality.200919601457
quantitative estimation of plum pox virus targets acquired and transmitted by a single myzus persicae.the viral charge acquired and inoculated by single aphids in a non-circulative transmission is estimated using plum pox virus (ppv). a combination of electrical penetration graph and taqman real-time rt-pcr techniques was used to establish the average number of ppv rna targets inoculated by an aphid in a single probe (26,750), approximately half of the acquired ones. this number of ppv targets is responsible for a systemic infection of 20% on the inoculated receptor plants. no significant differ ...200919597934
use of different inhibitory quotients to predict early virological response to tipranavir in antiretroviral-experienced human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.information about the relationship between pharmacological parameters and an early virological response to tipranavir (tpv) is scarce. human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected patients who had received tpv as part of a salvage regimen were analyzed retrospectively. a virological response was defined as a decline in the hiv rna level of > or = 1 log unit or to <50 copies/ml between weeks 4 and 12 of therapy. the virtual inhibitory quotient (viq) was calculated as the ratio of the tpv plasma tr ...200919596874
evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic device for the detection of igm & igg antibodies to dengue viruses (denv) in a tertiary care hospital in south india.this study has evaluated the performance of a rapid immunochromatographic test (ict) device in detecting antibodies to dengue virus (denv) in a tertiary hospital in south india. sera from hospital attendees, with requests for denv antibody testing, were tested with the panbio dengue duo cassette and a reference antibody capture assay for the detection of igm (dengue igm capture elisa-national institute of virology, india) and igg (dengue igg capture elisa-panbio diagnostics inc., australia) anti ...200919584509
virological response at 4 weeks to predict outcome of hepatitis c treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin.viral kinetics during therapy provides information on how to individualize treatment. to determine the benefit of assessing positive predictive values (ppvs) and negative predictive values (npvs) of rapid virological responses (rvrs) and early virological responses (evrs), on-treatment outcomes in chronic hepatitis c patients were examined.200919578235
control of antigen mass transport via capture substrate rotation: binding kinetics and implications on immunoassay speed and detection limits.in conventional heterogeneous immunoassays, assay speed is usually limited by the rate of mass transport, i.e., diffusion of antigen to an antibody-coated surface. we previously demonstrated that assay speed can be significantly increased, without losing analytical sensitivity, by rapidly rotating the capture substrate, which decreases the thickness of the diffusion layer. in this work, we raised the rotation speed and observed that the capture of antigens deviates from the mass transport-limite ...200919572706
[viral factors influencing histological changes of hbeag-negative chronic hepatitis b patients with persistently normal serum alt levels].to investigate the correlation between viral factors and liver histological changes of hbeag-negative chronic hepatitis b patients with persistently normal serum alt levels (pnal).200919567022
prevalence of feline coronavirus antibodies in cats in bursa province, turkey, by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.feline sera from bursa province (turkey) were assayed for coronavirus antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the study was performed on 100 sera collected from cats belonging to catteries or community shelters and to households. the serum samples were initially tested with the virus neutralisation (vn) test and the results were then compared with the elisa. the vn yielded 79 negative and 21 positive sera but the elisa confirmed only 74 as negative. the elisa-negative sera w ...200919560387
expression of porcine parvovirus vp2 gene requires codon optimized e. coli cells.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is a widespread infectious virus that causes serious reproductive diseases of swine and death of piglets. the gene coding for the capsid protein vp2 of ppv was amplified and inserted into the plasmid pet-32a (+), which was then used to transform escherichia coli rosetta, the capsid protein of ppv was fused to a polyhistidine tag, and the position of the affinity tag is in n-terminus. vp2 was expressed using different expression host bacteria, including e. coli bl21, and ...200919543964
vaccination against porcine parvovirus protects against disease, but does not prevent infection and virus shedding after challenge infection with a heterologous virus strain.the demonstration of field isolates of porcine parvovirus (ppv) that differ genetically and antigenically from vaccine strains of ppv raises the question of whether the broadly used inactivated vaccines can still protect sows against the novel viruses. ten specific-pathogen-free primiparous sows were assigned to three groups and were vaccinated with one of two vaccines based on the old vaccine strains, or served as non-vaccinated controls. after insemination, all sows were challenged with the pr ...200919535504
prospective evaluation of liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis c infection using the sabadell nihced (non-invasive hepatitis-c-related cirrhosis early detection) index.liver disease resulting from chronic hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection follows an asymptomatic course towards cirrhosis and its complications in 20-40% of cases. earlier studies demonstrated that advanced fibrosis is a prognostic factor. the "gold standard" for the evaluation of fibrosis grade is liver biopsy. our group validated a predictive index - nihced - based on demographic, laboratory parameters, and echographic data to determine the presence of cirrhosis.200919527078
individual risk factors for post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) in pigs: a hierarchical bayesian survival analysis.risk factors for post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) at the pig level were identified using data from a longitudinal study in seven pmws-affected farms in france. in each farm, a representative sample of 120 pigs (180 in one farm) was randomly selected after farrowing and followed from birth to slaughter. individual information included serological status for porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv-2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (prrs) virus, and porcine parvovirus (ppv) ...200919477031
multiplex pcr and multiplex rt-pcr for inclusive detection of major swine dna and rna viruses in pigs with multiple infections.multiplex pcr and multiplex rt-pcr were developed to identify nine viruses in pigs with multiple infections. these viruses are: porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), suid herpesvirus 1, porcine parvovirus (ppv), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), japanese encephalitis virus, porcine rotavirus a (porv-a), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (pedv), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), and getah virus. these methods were shown to be high specificity and sensitivity. in the ...200919467264
direct sample preparation methods for the detection of plum pox virus by real-time rt-pcr.direct systems to process plant materials allowed high-throughput testing of plum pox virus (ppv) by real-time reverse transcription (rt)-pcr without nucleic acids purification. crude plant extracts were diluted in buffer or spotted on membranes to be used as templates. alternatively, immobilized ppv targets were amplified from fresh sections of plant tissues printed or squashed onto the same supports, without extract preparation. spot real-time rt-pcr was validated as a ppv diagnostic method in ...200919440977
nitric oxide inhibits the replication cycle of porcine parvovirus in vitro.this study investigated the inhibitory effect and mechanism of nitric oxide (no) on porcine parvovirus (ppv) replication in pk-15 cells. the results showed that two no-generating compounds, s-nitroso-l-acetylpenicillamine (snap) and l-arginine (la), at a noncytotoxic concentration could reduce ppv replication in a dose-dependent manner and that this anti-ppv effect could be reversed by the no synthase (nos) inhibitor n-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-name). by assaying the steps of the ppv life ...200919437101
further characterization of a new recombinant group of plum pox virus isolates, ppv-t, found in orchards in the ankara province of turkey.sixteen plum pox virus (ppv) isolates collected in the ankara region of turkey were analyzed using available serological and molecular typing assays. surprisingly, despite the fact that all isolates except one, which was a mix infection, were typed as belonging to the ppv-m strain in four independent molecular assays, nine of them (60%) reacted with both ppv-m specific and ppv-d specific monoclonal antibodies. partial 5' and 3' genomic sequence analysis on four isolates demonstrated that irrespe ...200919428744
rapid detection of porcine parvovirus dna by sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification.a method of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) was employed to develop a rapid and simple detection system for porcine parvovirus (ppv) dna. the amplification could be finished in 45 min under isothermal condition at 62 degrees c by employing a set of four primers targeting vp2 gene of ppv. lamp assay showed higher sensitivity than pcr, with a detection limit of 5 copies of ppv genomic dna per reaction. no cross reactivity was observed from the samples of other related viruses includi ...200919428576
detection and phylogenetic analysis of orf virus from sheep in brazil: a case report.orf virus (orfv), the prototype of the genus parapoxvirus (ppv), is the etiological agent of contagious ecthyma, a severe exanthematic dermatitis that afflicts domestic and wild small ruminants. although south american orfv outbreaks have occurred and diagnosed there are no south american ppv major membrane glycoprotein b2l gene nucleotide sequences available.200919413907
quantitative trait loci meta-analysis of plum pox virus resistance in apricot (prunus armeniaca l.): new insights on the organization and the identification of genomic resistance factors.plum pox virus (ppv) is responsible for sharka disease, one of the most detrimental stone fruit diseases affecting prunus trees worldwide. only a few apricot cultivars have been described as resistant, most originating from north american breeding programmes. several ppv resistance quantitative trait loci (qtls) have been mapped in various progenies, consistently highlighting the contribution to the resistance of the upper part of linkage group 1 (lg1). however, to date, no consensus has been re ...200919400838
real-time pcr to detect and analyze virulent ppv loads in artificially challenged sows and their fetuses.to establish a real-time polymerase chain reaction with sybr green for detection and quantification of porcine parvovirus (ppv) in porcine tissues, two primers specific for the non-structural protein 1 gene were designed. the detection limit of this assay was 3-23 gene copies/reaction, equivalent to 0.001 tcid(50)/ml. the assay was linear over a 10(6) dilution range of template concentrations. other porcine pathogens involved in reproductive disorders (porcine circovirus 2, porcine reproductive ...200919345523
comparison of cd4 cell count, viral load, and other markers for the prediction of mortality among hiv-1-infected kenyan pregnant women.there are limited data regarding the relative merits of biomarkers as predictors of mortality or time to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (art).200919317628
differentiation of plum pox virus isolates by single-strand conformation polymorphism and low-stringency single specific primer pcr analysis of hc-pro genome region.single-strand conformation polymorphism (sscp) and low-stringency single specific primer (lssp)-pcr were assessed for suitability and reliability in genotyping of plum pox virus (ppv) isolates. examined ppv isolates included 16 ppv-d, 12 ppv-m, and 14 ppv-rec isolates collected in czech republic. the analysis was performed on the helper component protease (hc-pro) region of the ppv genome. sscp and lssp-pcr allowed the differentiation of ppv strain, but sscp was not able to distinguish isolates ...200919301952
predictors of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in hiv-infected patients, battambang, cambodia.retrospective data analysis of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infected patients attending an hiv clinic (referral hospital), cambodia. chest x-rays (cxrs) were read independently by onsite and offsite physicians.200919275795
[technics of inactivating/removing medical chitosan pathogen].to verify the technics of inactivating/removing pathogens in medical chitosan derived from shrimp shell.200919275109
swine torque teno virus detection in pig commercial vaccines, enzymes for laboratory use and human drugs containing components of porcine origin.torque teno viruses (ttvs) are vertebrate infecting, single-stranded circular dna viruses. two genetically distinct ttv genogroups (ttv1 and ttv2) infect swine worldwide with high prevalence. currently, swine ttvs are considered non-pathogenic, although ttv2 has been linked to post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, a porcine circovirus disease. on the other hand, pig materials are an important source of components used in porcine vaccine manufacturing, human drugs and commercial enzyme pro ...200919218210
a multiplex pcr for rapid and simultaneous detection of porcine circovirus type 2, porcine parvovirus, porcine pseudorabies virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in clinical specimens.a multiplex pcr (mpcr) assay was developed and evaluated for its ability to simultaneously detect multiple viral infections of swine. specific primers were designed for each of the following four dna or rna viruses: porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), porcine parvovirus (ppv), pseudorabies virus (prv), and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv). each target produced a specific amplicon with a size of 353 bp (pcv2), 271 bp (ppv), 194 bp (prv), or 434 bp (prrsv). the assay was s ...200919214728
virodynamic predictors of response to pegylated interferon and lamivudine combination treatment of hepatitis b e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis b.early identification of non-responders to interferon-alpha and development of stopping rules are needed in patients with chronic hepatitis b to reduce treatment-related costs and morbidity.200819195328
[identification of porcine parvovirus and virus-specific antibodies by polymerase chain reaction and enzyme immunoassay].porcine parvovirus infection (ppvi) caused by a small non-enveloped virus (porcine parvovirus, ppv) is responsible for serious reproductive dysfunctions in sows. in the russian federation, the approved diagnostic methods for determination of parvovirus antigen and virus-specific antibodies are hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition tests, respectively. the present paper gives the results of developing diagnostic tests to reveal porcine parvovirus by polymerase chain reaction and its an ...200819172907
efficacy of hpv dna testing with cytology triage and/or repeat hpv dna testing in primary cervical cancer screening.primary cervical screening with both human papillomavirus (hpv) dna testing and cytological examination of cervical cells with a pap test (cytology) has been evaluated in randomized clinical trials. because the vast majority of women with positive cytology are also hpv dna positive, screening strategies that use hpv dna testing as the primary screening test may be more effective.200919141778
serologic detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies among pregnant women using a point-of-care test from focus diagnostics.serologic assays that identify herpes simplex type 2 (hsv-2) type-specific antibodies have been commercially available for more than a decade. greater acceptance of these tests is hindered by uncertainty regarding their performance in real-world clinical settings.200919131273
simultaneous detection of porcine circovirus type 2, classical swine fever virus, porcine parvovirus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs by multiplex polymerase chain reaction.a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was designed for the simultaneous detection of four viruses involved in reproductive and respiratory failure in pigs: porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv-2), porcine parvovirus (ppv), classical swine fever virus (csfv) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv). each of the four pairs of oligonucleotide primers exclusively amplified the targeted fragment of the specific viruses. the sensitivity of the multiplex pcr using purified plasmi ...201019131259
viral lysis of phaeocystis pouchetii: implications for algal population dynamics and heterotrophic c, n and p cycling.a model ecosystem with two autotrophic flagellates, phaeocystis pouchetii and rhodomonas salina, a virus specific to p. pouchetii (ppv) and bacteria and heterotrophic nanoflagellates was used to investigate effects of viral lysis on algal population dynamics and heterotrophic nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization. lysis of p. pouchetii by ppv had strong positive effects on bacterial and hnf abundance, and the mass balance of c, n and p suggested an efficient transfer of organic material from p. ...200919129863
compromised virus-induced gene silencing in rdr6-deficient plants.rna silencing in plants serves as a potent antiviral defense mechanism through the action of small interfering rnas (sirnas), which direct rna degradation. sirnas can be derived directly from the viral genome or via the action of host-encoded rna-dependent rna polymerases (rdrs). plant genomes encode multiple rdrs, and it has been demonstrated that plants defective for rdr6 hyperaccumulate several classes of virus. in this study, we compared the effectiveness of virus-induced gene silencing (vig ...200919129420
evaluation of the who clinical case definition of aids among children in india.the need of a clinical case definition (ccd) for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) was felt by public health agencies to monitor diseases resulting from human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection. to test the statistical significance of the existing world health organization (who) ccd for the diagnosis of aids in areas where diagnostic resources are limited in india, a prospective study was conducted in the paediatrics department at dr. ram manohar lohia hospital, new delhi. 360 cases ...200819127663
early serum hbsag drop: a strong predictor of sustained virological response to pegylated interferon alfa-2a in hbeag-negative patients.pegylated interferon alfa-2a (peg-ifn) may induce sustained virological response (svr) in 20% of hepatitis b e antigen (hbeag)-negative chronic hepatitis b (chb) patients. in addition, loss of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) is achieved with a 10% yearly rate after treatment cessation in sustained responders. the aim of this study was to assess on-treatment serum hbsag kinetics to predict svr in hbeag-negative patients treated with peg-ifn. forty-eight consecutive patients were treated with ...200919115222
rapid pre-clinical detection of classical swine fever by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.the usefulness of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) for rapid pre-clinical detection of classical swine fever virus (csfv) infection was evaluated. the rt-lamp reaction could be finished in 60 min under isothermal condition at 65 degrees c by employing a set of four primers targeting the 5' untranslated region of csfv. the rt-lamp assay of csfv showed higher sensitivities than that of rt-pcr, with a detection limit of 5 copies per reaction. no cross-reactivit ...200919103283
expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant ns-1, the porcine parvovirus non-structural protein.the non-structural protein ns-1 of porcine parvovirus (ppv) could be a useful antigen for differentiating pigs infected with ppv from those vaccinated with inactivated whole virus. ns-1 was expressed in escherichia coli using the pet-32a (+) vector. the fusion protein, which was expressed at a high level, was similar antigenically to the native ns-1 protein as determined by western blot assay using polyclonal antibodies from pigs vaccinated with alive ppv vaccine. a simple procedure was used to ...200919101593
abbott realtime hepatitis c virus (hcv) and roche cobas ampliprep/cobas taqman hcv assays for prediction of sustained virological response to pegylated interferon and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis c patients.two commercial real-time pcr assays are currently available for sensitive hepatitis c virus (hcv) rna quantification: the abbott realtime hcv assay (art) and roche cobas ampliprep/cobas taqman hcv assay (cap/ctm). we assessed whether the two real-time pcr assays were more effective than roche cobas amplicor hcv monitor test, v.2.0 (cam) for prediction of the sustained virological response (svr) to pegylated interferon (peg-ifn) plus ribavirin (rbv) in chronic hepatitis c. sixty patients chronica ...200919091819
characterization of a natural plum pox virus isolate bearing a truncated coat protein.plum pox virus (ppv) isolates were collected in hungary from plum varieties. pcr targeting the 3' genomic region resulted in a shorter pcr product in the case of the b1298 isolate bearing a 135-nucleotide deletion in frame in the n-terminal part of the coat protein (cp). the isolate was aphid-transmissible and the virion diameter was reduced compared to ppv-sk68. detectability of this isolate by western blot varied according to the antibody used. integration of the deleted cp gene into an infect ...200919082685
phylogeny and evolution of the ns1 and vp1/vp2 gene sequences from porcine parvovirus.the objective of the present study was to gain new insights on the evolution and phylogeny of the ppv genome, specifically on the ns1 and vp1/vp2 genes. moreover, two new complete sequences from ppv isolates from china (bq and zj strains) were generated and included in the study. the data set studied contained available ns1 and vp1/vp2 sequences at the genbank database, plus those corresponding to the mentioned chinese isolates. ppv sequences were divided into two major groups, with one group se ...200919047005
a taqman-based real-time polymerase chain reaction for the detection of porcine parvovirus.a real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using a taqman probe was developed to detect porcine parvovirus (ppv). real-time pcr was optimized to quantify ppv using a detection system (rotor gene 2000 detector) and a dual-labeled fluorogenic probe. the gene-specific labeled fluorogenic probe for the vp2 gene of ppv was used to detect ppv. quantitation of ppv was accomplished by a standard curve plotting cycle threshold values (ct) against each dilution of standard plasmids. when the specificity ...200919041671
real-time intraoperative detection of melanoma lymph node metastases using recombinant vaccinia virus glv-1h68 in an immunocompetent animal model.there is a clinical need for improved intraoperative detection of lymph node metastases from malignant melanoma (mm). we aimed to investigate the use of recombinant vaccinia virus glv-1h68, expressing green fluorescent protein (gfp), for real-time intraoperative detection of melanoma lymph node metastases in an immunocompetent animal model. mice bearing foot pad tumors received intratumoral injections of glv-1h68, and 48 hr later were evaluated for popliteal lymph node metastasis using noninvasi ...200919035444
endocervical cytobrush for the detection of cervical dysplasia before large loop excision of the transformation zone (lletz).we aimed to identify the number of histologically verified cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (cin)/cervical cancer lesions detected by endocervical cytobrush (ec) which have been missed by repeat pap smear and colposcopy before large loop excision of the transformation zone (lletz).200819031969
comparison of the liver stiffness measurement by transient elastography with the liver biopsy.to compare the liver stiffness (ls) measurement by transient elastography (te) to the liver biopsy (lb)-considered the "gold standard" in the evaluation of patients with chronic hepatitis c.200819030204
detection of porcine parvovirus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.loop-mediated isothermal amplification is a novel method for rapid amplification of dna. it has been adopted widely for the detection of virus because of its simplicity, rapidity, and specificity. a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay was developed for the detection of porcine parvovirus. four primers specific for six regions of ppv non-structural protein 1 gene were designed with an online software. after amplifying at a constant temperature of 59-65 degrees c by bst enzyme, a clear re ...200918996150
liver stiffness in the hepatitis b virus carrier: a non-invasive marker of liver disease influenced by the pattern of transaminases.to investigate the usefulness of transient elastography by fibroscan (fs), a rapid non-invasive technique to evaluate liver fibrosis, in the management of chronic hepatitis b virus (hbv) carriers.200818985805
reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs by prenatal porcine circovirus 2 infection and postnatal porcine parvovirus infection or immunostimulation.postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) was reproduced in prenatally porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2)-infected pigs by either postnatal infection with porcine parvovirus (ppv) or by immunostimulation. twenty-four randomly selected piglets from 3 sows, which had been experimentally infected during gestation with pcv2, were randomly divided into 3 groups; group 1 (prenatal pcv2 infection, with postnatal ppv infection), group 2 (prenatal pcv2 infection, with postnatal keyhole limpet hemocyanin ...200818984787
an evaluation of saliva as an alternative to plasma for the detection of hepatitis c virus antibodies.seroepidemiological studies on the prevalence of hepatitis c virus (hcv) in india have been hampered by reluctance of subjects to provide blood samples for testing. we evaluated the use of saliva as an alternate specimen to blood for the detection of antibodies to hcv.200818974484
comparison of monoclonal antibodies and polymerase chain reaction assays for the typing of isolates belonging to the d and m serotypes of plum pox potyvirus.abstract plum pox potyvirus (ppv) isolates may be divided into four groups separated by serological, molecular, and epidemiological differences. monoclonal antibodies specific for the two major groups of isolates, represented by the d and m serotypes of the virus, have been obtained. polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based assays allowing the direct detection and differentiation of ppv isolates have also been developed. we now report on a large-scale comparison of these two typing approaches. the ...199818944965
interference between d and m types of plum pox virus in japanese plum assessed by specific monoclonal antibodies and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.abstract the dynamics of virus interference between two isolates of plum pox virus (ppv) belonging to the main ppv types, d and m, were analyzed in japanese plum (prunus salicina) by challenge inoculations. to assess the consequences of a ppv-m infection on plum already infected with ppv-d, and vice versa (predominance of one of the strains, recombination, synergism, symptoms aggravation, and so on), 30 japanese plum trees were graft inoculated with ppv-d or ppv-m isolates in quarantine conditio ...200618944448
a single amino acid mutation in the plum pox virus helper component-proteinase gene abolishes both synergistic and rna silencing suppression activities.abstract the effects on symptom expression of single amino acid mutations in the central region of the plum pox virus (ppv) helper component-proteinase (hc-pro) gene were analyzed in nicotiana benthamiana using potato virus x (pvx) recombinant viruses. pvx recombinant virus expressing the wild-type variant of ppv hc-pro induced the expected enhancement of pvx pathogenicity, manifested as necrosis and plant death. recombinant virus expressing a variant of ppv hc-pro containing a single point muta ...200518944411
identification of plum pox virus determinants implicated in specific interactions with different prunus spp.abstract the characterization of pathogenic properties of two infectious clones of plum pox virus (ppv) isolates, pgppv (d group) and pgppvps (m group), was investigated in their woody hosts (seedlings of prunus spp.). the two clones differed in their ability to infect plum and peach cultivars, from no infection to local and systemic infection. the phenotype determinants were located with a set of chimeric viruses from the two clones. in plum, determinants of systemic infection were located in a ...200118944389
factors affecting the spread of plum pox virus strain m in peach orchards subjected to roguing in france.abstract we evaluated the impact of roguing on the spread and persistence of the aggressive plum pox virus strain m (ppv-m) in 19 peach orchard blocks in southern france. during a 7- to 10-year period, orchards were visually inspected for ppv symptoms, and symptomatic trees were removed every year. disease incidence was low in all orchards at disease discovery and was <1% in 16 of the 19 orchard blocks. the spread of sharka disease was limited in all 19 blocks, with an annual disease incidence b ...200418943711
spatial pattern analysis of sharka disease (plum pox virus strain m) in peach orchards of southern france.abstract the spatial pattern of sharka disease, caused by plum pox virus (ppv) strain m, was investigated in 18 peach plots located in two areas of southern france. ppv infections were monitored visually for each individual tree during one to three consecutive years. point pattern and correlation-type approaches were undertaken using the binary data directly or after parsing them in contiguous quadrats of 4, 9, and 16 trees. ordinary runs generally revealed a low but variable proportion of rows ...200318943618
plum pox in north america: identification of aphid vectors and a potential role for fruit in virus spread.abstract thirteen aphid species were tested for their ability to transmit pennsylvania isolates of plum pox virus (ppv) collected in columbia (penn-3), franklin (penn-4), and york (penn-7) counties, pa. four species, aphis fabae, a. spiraecola, brachycaudus persicae, and myzus persicae, consistently transmitted ppv in preliminary transmission tests. two species, metopolophium dirhodum and rhopalosiphum padi, were occasional inefficient vectors. toxoptera citricida, from florida, also was an effe ...200418943108
performance of indirect immunofluorescence assay, immunochromatography assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for detecting human respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate samples.comparison of the use of indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa), immunochromatography assay (ica-bd) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) for detecting human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) in 306 nasopharyngeal aspirates samples (npa) was performed in order to assess their analytical performance. by comparing the results obtained using ica-bd with those using ifa, we found relative indices of 85.0% for sensitivity and 91.2% for specificity, and the positive (ppv) and ...200818797759
consensus recommendations on immunization, 2008.justification: there is a need to formulate recommendations regarding use of new vaccines which have become recently available/will soon be available and to review/revise recommendations about existing vaccines in light of recent information.200818723905
use of luminex xmap-derived bio-plex bead-based suspension array for specific detection of ppv w and characterization of epitopes on the coat protein of the virus.a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against the n-terminus region of the coat protein (cp) of strain ppv w (isolate 3174) was generated by immunizing mice with recombinant peptides. the best performing mabs were identified as 2c3 and 10g7. mab 2c3 was selected for comparison of a standard tas-elisa protocol with a luminex xmap technology-derived bead-based suspension array system described as a triple antibody sandwich-microsphere immunoassay (tas-mia). tas-mia was as sensitive as t ...200818722476
host-specific effect of p1 exchange between two potyviruses.the potyviruses plum pox virus (ppv) and tobacco vein mottling virus (tvmv) have distinct host ranges and induce different symptoms in their common herbaceous hosts. to test the relevance of the p1 protein in host compatibility and pathogenicity, hybrid viruses were constructed in which the p1 coding sequence of ppv was completely or partially replaced by the corresponding sequences from tvmv. infections induced by these chimeric viruses revealed that the tvmv p1 and a ppv/tvmv hybrid p1 protein ...200818705848
hepatitis vaccination in patients with hepatitis c: practice and validation of codes at a large veterans administration medical centre.hepatitis vaccination is recommended in patients with chronic liver disease.200818691350
identification of restriction endonuclease with potential ability to cleave the hsv-2 genome: inherent potential for biosynthetic versus live recombinant microbicides.herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 are enveloped viruses with a linear dsdna genome of approximately 120-200 kb. genital infection with hsv-2 has been denoted as a major risk factor for acquisition and transmission of hiv-1. developing biomedical strategies for hsv-2 prevention is thus a central strategy in reducing global hiv-1 prevalence. this paper details the protocol for the isolation of restriction endunucleases (reases) with potent activity against the hsv-2 genome and models two biomedic ...200818687114
improvement of virus safety of an antihemophilc factor ix by virus filtration process.viral safety is an important prerequisite for clinical preparations of plasma-derived pharmaceuticals. one potential way to increase the safety of therapeutic biological products is the use of a virus-retentive filter. in order to increase the viral safety of human antihemophilic factor ix, particularly in regard to non-enveloped viruses, virus removal process using a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane filter (viresolve nfp) has been optimized. the most critical factor affecting the filtration eff ...200818667862
dry-heat treatment process for enhancing viral safety of an antihemophilic factor viii concentrate prepared from human plasma.viral safety is a prerequisite for manufacturing clinical antihemophilic factor viii concentrates from human plasma. with particular regard to the hepatitis a virus (hav), a terminal dry-heat treatment (100 degrees for 30 min) process, following lyophilization, was developed to improve the virus safety of a solvent/detergent-treated antihemophilic factor viii concentrate. the loss of factor viii activity during dry-heat treatment was of about 5%. no substantial changes were observed in the physi ...200818633304
altered gene expression changes in arabidopsis leaf tissues and protoplasts in response to plum pox virus infection.virus infection induces the activation and suppression of global gene expression in the host. profiling gene expression changes in the host may provide insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie host physiological and phenotypic responses to virus infection. in this study, the arabidopsis affymetrix ath1 array was used to assess global gene expression changes in arabidopsis thaliana plants infected with plum pox virus (ppv). to identify early genes in response to ppv infection, an arab ...200818613973
plum pox virus variability detected by the advanced analytical methods.plum pox virus (ppv) infects stone-fruit trees with important economical impact mainly in europe and mediterranean region. the data about ppv intra-species variability accumulated markedly in the last two decades. six ppv strains have been recognized using different approaches including serology, protein analysis, specific amplification, and genome sequencing. reliable and sensitive diagnostics is the most important requirement for application of early control and safety measures. therefore, man ...200818564894
molecular basis for porcine parvovirus detection in dead fetuses.reproductive failures are still common grounds for complaint by commercial swine producers. porcine parvovirus (ppv) is associated with different clinical reproductive signs. the aim of the present study was to investigate ppv fetal infection at swine farms having ongoing reproductive performance problems. the presence of virus in fetal tissues was determined by nested-polymerase chain reaction assay directed to the conserved ns1 gene of ppv in aborted fetuses, mummies and stillborns. fetuses sh ...200818561384
alteration in the chloroplastic metabolism leads to ros accumulation in pea plants in response to plum pox virus.in this work, a recombinant plum pox virus (ppv, sharka) encoding green fluorescent protein is used to study its effect on antioxidant enzymes and protein expression at the subcellular level in pea plants (cv. alaska). ppv had produced chlorotic spots as well as necrotic spots in the oldest leaves at 13-15 d post-inoculation. at 15 d post-inoculation, ppv was present in the chlorotic and necrotic areas, as shown by the fluorescence signal produced by the presence of the green fluorescent protein ...200818535298
a laboratory study of survival of selected microorganisms after heat treatment of biowaste used in biogas plants.the aim of the study was to assess the effect of pasteurisation, as set by the european regulation ec 1774/2002, on selected pathogens and indicator organisms. unpasteurised substrate (biowaste), including animal by-products from a full-scale biogas plant was heat treated under laboratory conditions at 70 degrees c and 55 degrees c for 30 min and 60 min. heat treatment at 55 degrees c for 60 min was not sufficient to achieve a hygienically acceptable product. heat treatment at 70 degrees c for 3 ...200818513960
monitoring of bk virus replication in the first year following renal transplantation.bk virus-associated nephropathy (bkvan) is one of the most common viral diseases affecting renal allografts. screening for viral replication may allow for earlier intervention with reduced allograft loss. a plasma viral load >10(4) copies/ml of bkv dna is recommended for a presumed diagnosis of bkvan.200818503098
performance characteristics of a new rapid immunochromatographic test for the detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) types 1 and 2.diagnostic kits for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) antibodies have reached an unprecedented number. but choice of an ideal, cost-effective, and rapid test for hiv infection is of immense value for use in developing countries like india, where resources are limited. in this study we have evaluated the performance characteristics of the rapid immunochromatographic hiv test kit first response hiv 1-2.o. first, the laboratory archived 450 characterized plasma/serum specimens, wh ...200818484656
rapid immunoassay for the detection of genital herpes infection.we evaluated a new affinity membrane strip test for the diagnosis of herpetic genital infections. test strip results, which are available by immunoassay in 30 min without the need for special equipment, were compared with the results of viral culture.199418475363
identification of trimeric peptides that bind porcine parvovirus from mixtures containing human blood plasma.virus contamination in human therapeutics is of growing concern as more therapeutic products from animal or human sources come into the market. all biopharmaceutical processes are required to have at least two distinct viral clearance steps to remove viruses. most of these steps work well for enveloped viruses and large viruses, whether enveloped or not. that leaves a class of small non-enveloped viruses, like parvoviruses and hepatitis a, which are not easily removed by these typical steps. in ...200818470993
evaluation of the performance of four rapid tests for detection of hepatitis b surface antigen in antananarivo, madagascar.four rapid immunochromatographic assays--determine hbsag, virucheck hbsag, cypress hbsag dipstick and hexagon hbsag--for human hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) detection in human serum were evaluated. a collection of reference serum samples (91 hbsag positive and 109 hbsag negative) stored at -80 degrees c was used. sensitivity and positive predictive value (ppv) exceeded 95%, and specificity and negative predictive value (npv) exceeded 96% for all tests. the determine hbsag test performed be ...200818462816
[meta-analysis for the pooled sensitivity and specificity of hepatitis b surface antigen rapid tests].although hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) rapid test based on immunochromatographic assay (ica) is now widely used, the test has not been evaluated sufficiently enough to validate its performance. thus, it is important to summarize the clinical performance of the test kits. in this study, we performed meta-analysis for the performance of the hbsag rapid tests.200818458514
evaluation of commercial ebv recombline assay for diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.in recent years a number of epstein-barr virus (ebv) proteins were defined as being immunodominant for either igm, igg or iga immune responses, yielding promising markers for diagnostic serology. specific reactivity patterns to these proteins have been described for infectious mononucleosis (im), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc), various types of lymphoma, and healthy ebv carriers.200818455473
the predictive value of cerebrospinal fluid epstein-barr viral load as a marker of primary central nervous system lymphoma in hiv-infected persons.the presence of epstein-barr virus (ebv) dna in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) is used as a marker of hiv-associated primary central nervous system lymphoma (pcnsl). in our setting, ebv dna is frequently detected in the csf of hiv-infected patients with miscellaneous neurological diseases and thus its presence is a poor predictor of pcnsl.200818455472
impact of pneumococcal vaccination on the incidence of pneumonia by hiv infection status among patients enrolled in the veterans aging cohort 5-site study.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected persons have a high incidence of pneumonia and pneumococcal disease. benefits of vaccination with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (ppv) among these patients continue to be debated.200818444830
[short communication: the sensitivity of measles diagnosis by physicians and families during an intraepidemic period in edirne: implications for measles surveillance].measles is still a leading cause of death among young children, despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine for the past 40 years. euro region of world health organisation including turkey has targeted elimination of measles by the year 2010. it is concluded that there must be a sensitive surveillance system to investigate all suspicious measles cases, and diagnosis should be based on both standardized case definition and laboratory confirmation. standardized case definition based n ...200818444573
epstein-barr virus (ebv)-encoded rna: automated in-situ hybridization (ish) compared with manual ish and immunohistochemistry for detection of ebv in pediatric lymphoproliferative disorders.detection of epstein-barr virus (ebv) may be achieved by various methods, including ebv-encoded rna (eber) in-situ hybridization (ish) and immunohistochemistry (ihc) for latent membrane protein (lmp-1). we compared novel automated ish and ihc techniques in pediatric lymphoproliferative disorders with results obtained by manual ish. thirty-seven pediatric cases previously studied by manual eber ish (including 18 eber-positive, 15 eber-negative, and 4 eber-equivocal cases) were used for the study. ...200918442302
des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin, alpha-fetoprotein and afp-l3 in patients with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) is a common complication in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. detection of hcc at an early stage is critical for a favorable clinical outcome. the study aim was to: (i) compare the levels of des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin (dcp), alpha-fetoprotein (afp) and afp-l3 in hcc patients and in chronic viral hepatitis patients without hcc; (ii) define the level of each tumor marker with the best sensitivity and specificity for hcc diagnosis; and (iii) to correlate the le ...200818422961
development of recombinant porcine parvovirus-like particles as an antigen carrier formed by the hybrid vp2 protein carrying immunoreactive epitope of porcine circovirus type 2.virus-like particles (vlps) are non-replicative vectors for delivery of heterologous epitopes and induction of immune responses. in this study, a self-assembled porcine parvovirus (ppv) vp2 capsid protein [ppv:vlp-(pcv2)] carrying immunoreactive epitopes, residues 165-200 from the porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2) virus nucleoprotein was constructed. immunogenicity study was carried out with hybrid vlps derived from hek-293 cells infected with recombinant adenovirus vectors. to our knowledge, this stu ...200818378364
kinetics of inactivating human parvovirus b19 and porcine parvovirus by dry-heat treatment. 200818366462
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