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the effect of porcine parvovirus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on porcine reproductive performance.from a worldwide perspective, porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) are the most common viral causes of porcine reproductive failure. a typical epidemic of ppv-induced reproductive failure is presented as an increased number of mummified fetuses and sometimes, entire litters are mummified. if infection with ppv is very early in gestation, the number of liveborn pigs may be further reduced as a result of embryonic death and resorption. during the ...200010844195
in vivo induction of a high-avidity, high-frequency cytotoxic t-lymphocyte response is associated with antiviral protective immunity.many approaches are currently being developed to deliver exogenous antigen into the major histocompatibility complex class i-restricted antigen pathway, leading to in vivo priming of cd8(+) cytotoxic t cells. one attractive possibility consists of targeting the antigen to phagocytic or macropinocytic antigen-presenting cells. in this study, we demonstrate that strong cd8(+) class i-restricted cytotoxic responses are induced upon intraperitoneal immunization of mice with different peptides, chara ...200010846055
trial-of-antibiotic algorithm for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in a district hospital in a developing country with high hiv prevalence.to evaluate a diagnostic algorithm for pulmonary tuberculosis based on smear microscopy and objective response to trial of antibiotics.200010864181
investigation of porcine parvovirus among persons with hemophilia receiving hyate:c porcine factor viii concentrate.porcine clotting factor has been used for more than 15 years to treat severe bleeding episodes in persons with hemophilia who have antibodies to human clotting factor. in 1996, qc procedures revealed for the first time the presence of porcine parvovirus (ppv) in the product. this report describes an investigation to determine the extent of product contamination and to evaluate past recipients of porcine clotting factor (hyate:c, speywood biopharm) for evidence of ppv infection.200010864993
evaluation and validation of virus removal by ultrafiltration during the production of diaspirin crosslinked haemoglobin (dclhb).virus retention during ultrafiltration through a/g technology filter cartridges was investigated to characterize the removal process and validate the degree of virus titre reduction during the filtration of red blood cell haemolysates performed as part of the production of diaspirin crosslinked haemoglobin (dclhb). when viruses were suspended in phosphate buffered saline solution, retention was greater with larger sized viruses and smaller filter pore size. virus titre was maintained at starting ...200010885615
transgenic or plant expression vector-mediated recombination of plum pox virus.different mutants of an infectious full-length clone (p35ppv-nat) of plum pox virus (ppv) were constructed: three mutants with mutations of the assembly motifs rq and df in the coat protein gene (cp) and two cp chimeras with exchanges in the cp core region of zucchini yellow mosaic virus and potato virus y. the assembly mutants were restricted to single infected cells, whereas the ppv chimeras were able to produce systemic infections in nicotiana benthamiana plants. after passages in different t ...200010906199
episomal expression of a hammerhead ribozyme directed against plum pox virus.two related antisense rnas directed against plum pox virus (ppv) were expressed episomally in nicotiana clevelandii by infection with recombinant potato virus x (pvx). one recombinant pvx expressed an ordinary ppv antisense rna of about 400 nucleotides, while the other expressed a related antisense rna that carried the catalytic domain of a hammerhead ribozyme. inoculation with the latter recombinant pvx resulted in the accumulation of ribozyme rna that was catalytically active when tested in vi ...200010930659
occupational risk of infection by varicella zoster virus in belgian healthcare workers: a seroprevalence study.to assess the prevalence of varicella zoster virus (vzv) antibodies in flemish (belgian) healthcare workers, to investigate the association between seronegativity and selected variables, and to assess the reliability of recall about disease as a predictor of immunity.200010935943
sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of oral opportunistic infections in adults with hiv/aids as markers of immune suppression and viral burden.the purpose of this study was to assess the use of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-related oral opportunistic infections as markers of immune suppression and viral burden in adults with hiv/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids).200010936837
native electrophoresis and western blot analysis (neweb): a method for characterization of different forms of potyvirus particles and similar nucleoprotein complexes in extracts of infected plant tissues.a combination of native electrophoresis and immunodetection (western blot) was used for the characterization of nucleoprotein particles of the potyvirus plum pox virus (ppv). virus particles were electrophoresed directly from plant extracts in agarose or mixed acrylamide-agarose gels under native conditions, blotted on nitrocellulose membranes, and characterized with the aid of a coat protein-specific antibody. using this combined methodology, called neweb (native electrophoresis and western blo ...200010950988
detection of porcine enteroviruses by nrt-pcr: differentiation of cpe groups i-iii with specific primer sets.porcine enteroviruses (pev) comprising at least 13 serotypes grouped into three species are described as causative agents of neurological disorders, fertility disorders, and dermal lesions of swine. despite their well-documented acid stability, enteric infection route, and similarity of clinical symptoms, most of the porcine enterovirus (pev) serotypes are set apart from the genus enterovirus of the picornaviridae. hence, pcr procedures used commonly to detect enteroviruses are not applicable to ...200010960708
generation of recombinant parapoxviruses: non-essential genes suitable for insertion and expression of foreign genes.orf virus (ov) is an epitheliotropic poxvirus and belongs to the genus parapoxvirus (ppv). ppv, especially ov, is regarded as a promising candidate for an expression vector. among available live vaccines only strain d1701 represents a highly attenuated ov strain with clearly reduced pathogenicity. therefore, we started to identify potentially non-essential genes or regions of d1701, which might be suitable for insertion and expression of foreign genes. the present contribution reviews some of th ...200011000469
experimental transmission of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) in weaned pigs: a sequential study.weaned specific pathogen-free pigs were inoculated intranasally with porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) and killed in groups of two or three animals at 6, 13, 20, 27 and 34 days post-inoculation (dpi), together with appropriate uninfected controls, for examination by histopathological, immunohistochemical (immunogold silver staining; igss), polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and viral isolation techniques. serum samples were also collected for detection of antibodies. no major clinical signs were obs ...200011041995
distribution of porcine parvovirus in porcine circovirus 2-infected pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome as shown by in-situ hybridization.in-situ hybridization with a nonradioactive digoxigenin-labelled probe was used to study the distribution of porcine parvovirus (ppv) in formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissues from 10 porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2)-infected weaned pigs with naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws). a 226 base pair dna fragment from a vp2 structural gene was generated by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and used as a probe. lymph node, spleen, thymus and tonsil were positive by pcr, ...200011042001
effect of different baculovirus inactivation procedures on the integrity and immunogenicity of porcine parvovirus-like particles.we have demonstrated earlier the usefulness of recombinant porcine parvovirus (ppv) virus-like particles (vlps) as an efficient recombinant vaccine for ppv. here, we have demonstrated that preparations of ppv vlps could be contaminated by recombinant baculoviruses. since these baculoviruses can be a problem for the registration and safety requirements of the recombinant vaccine, we have tested different baculovirus inactivation strategies, studying simultaneously the integrity and immunogenicity ...200011115693
the use of transgenic fruit trees as a resistance strategy for virus epidemics: the plum pox (sharka) model.sharka or plum pox, caused by plum pox virus (ppv: genus potyvirus; family potyviridae), is the most serious disease of prunus. most cultivated prunus species are highly susceptible and conventional breeding has not produced highly resistant and commercially acceptable varieties. success in developing virus-resistant herbaceous crops through genetic engineering led us to investigate this approach for resistance to ppv. our programme aims to develop a biotechnological approach to ppv control that ...200011137162
virus safety of avital bone tissue transplants: evaluation of sterilization steps of spongiosa cuboids using a peracetic acid-methanol mixture.the aim of this study was to validate the virus-inactivating/eliminating capacity of the manufacturing process of spongiosa cuboids. both the sterilization step with peracetic acid (paa)/ethanol and the defatting step of bones with chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v) were investigated. relevant enveloped, non-enveloped, and model viruses belonging to different virus families were included in the investigation: human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (hiv-2), hepatitis a virus (hav), poliovirus (pv-1), ps ...199910652175
parapoxviruses: potential alternative vectors for directing the immune response in permissive and non-permissive hosts.parapoxvirus (ppv) represents a genus of the poxviridae, and particularly ppv ovis (orf virus, ov) seems to offer several potential advantages for the use of vector vaccine. therefore, we started to investigate the genome of the highly attenuated ov strain d1701, which was only poorly characterised until now. due to recombination of non-homologous sequences, part of the right hand end of the d1701 genome was duplicated and translocated to the opposite end of the genome. as a consequence gene del ...199910486932
molecular and structural basis of the evolution of parvovirus tropism.parvoviruses have small genomes and, consequently, are highly dependent on their host for various functions in their reproduction. since these viruses generally use ubiquitous receptors, restrictions are usually intracellularly regulated. a lack of mitosis, and hence absence of enzymes required for dna replication, is a powerful block of virus infection. allotropic determinants have been identified for several parvoviruses: porcine parvovirus, canine parvovirus (cpv), feline parvovirus (feline p ...199910497831
engineering parvovirus-like particles for the induction of b-cell, cd4(+) and ctl responses.an antigen delivery system based on hybrid recombinant parvovirus-like particles (vlps) formed by the self-assembly of the capsid vp2 protein of porcine (ppv) or canine parvovirus (cpv) expressed in insect cells with the baculovirus system has been developed. ppv:vlps containing a cd8(+) epitope from the lcmv nucleoprotein evoked a potent ctl response and were able to protect mice against a lethal infection with the virus. also, ppv:vlps containing the c3:t epitope from poliovirus elicited a cd4 ...199910506659
intranasal delivery of recombinant parvovirus-like particles elicits cytotoxic t-cell and neutralizing antibody responses.we previously demonstrated that chimeric porcine parvovirus-like particles (ppv:vlp) carrying heterologous epitopes, when injected intraperitoneally into mice without adjuvant, activate strong cd4(+) and cd8(+) t-cell responses specific for the foreign epitopes. in the present study, we investigated the immunogenicity of ppv:vlp carrying a cd8(+) t-cell epitope from the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (lcmv) administered by mucosal routes. mice immunized intranasally with recombinant ppv:vlp, ...199910074120
use of parvovirus-like particles for vaccination and induction of multiple immune responses.expression of the vp2 gene of autonomous parvoviruses in insect cells with the use of the baculovirus system has led to the production of virus-like particles (vlps) formed by the self-assembly of vp2. these vlps are expressed at high levels and can easily be purified by salt fractionation. they are highly immunogenic in the corresponding host, being fully protective at doses as low as 1-2 microg of purified material per animal. no special adjuvants are required. an interesting property of these ...199910075910
detection of porcine parvovirus dna by the polymerase chain reaction assay using primers to the highly conserved nonstructural protein gene, ns-1.porcine parvovirus (ppv) infection is associated with reproductive losses in swine and its causative agent, the ppv, has been isolated worldwide. serological surveys and virus isolation studies throughout brazil confirm the occurrence of ppv infection in this country. the most common methods to detect ppv infection are fluorescent antibody staining of fetal tissues, hemagglutination assay of tissue extracts and virus isolation from fetal tissues. non-specificity and low sensitivity are the major ...199910204709
monoclonal antibodies to the gp5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus are more effective in virus neutralization than monoclonal antibodies to the gp4.the arterivirus porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) contains six structural proteins the roles of which are not completely understood. in a preceding study, immunization with the dutch isolate i10 of prrsv had led to the development of mabs against four structural proteins [wieczorek-krohmer, m., 1994. herstellung und charakterisierung von monoklonalen antikörpern gegen das virus des porzinen reproduktiven und respiratorischen syndroms (prrsv). inaugural-dissertation, lud ...199910227120
experimental reproduction of severe wasting disease by co-infection of pigs with porcine circovirus and porcine parvovirus.colostrum-deprived pigs were infected intranasally with a recent isolate of porcine circovirus (pcv2) and a porcine parvovirus (ppv), both from canadian pigs with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws). four pigs were inoculated with pcv2 alone, three with ppv alone, five with a combined pcv2/ppv inoculum, and two with a chloroform-treated combined pcv2/ppv inoculum. pigs were killed 21-26 days after infection and tissue samples examined for gross and microscopical lesions and for th ...199910373289
[comparative investigations of a combined vaccine against parvovirus and erysipelas and corresponding monovaccines in different vaccination schedules. 1: field trial].in a field trial, the development of antibodies of a combined vaccine against the porcine parvovirus (ppv) as well as against swine erysipelas was compared with corresponding mono vaccines. furthermore, these vaccines were used in different vaccination schedules. the tests were carried out on 109 gilts in three closed farms. in all gilts, a basic immunization repeated twice was carried out at the age of six months and at intervals of three weeks. the revaccination was carried out four months aft ...199910384706
preparation of diagnostic monoclonal antibodies against two potyviruses.diagnostic monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against bean yellow mosaic virus (bymv) and plum pox virus (ppv) were prepared, characterized and used for detection of these viruses in infected plants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), immunoblot analysis and tissue print immunoblot assay (tpiba).199910749372
plum pox virus capsid protein mobility in sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.slovak plum pox virus (ppv) isolates bor-3 and kr-4 behaved atypically in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds-page) of their capsid proteins (cps). whereas other tested ppv isolates could be sorted by sds-page into groups corresponding to the m or d strains, as controlled by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis, the two above mentioned isolates behaved as the m strain according to rflp analysis but not sds-page. slight mobility di ...199910749373
myocarditis and abortion associated with intrauterine infection of sows with porcine circovirus 2.porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2) is a recently identified agent that has been associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) in swine populations. in this report, the potential spectrum of disease associated with pcv2 is expanded by evidence of vertical transmission and associated reproductive failure. pcv2 was isolated from a litter of aborted piglets from a farm experiencing late-term abortions and stillbirths. severe, diffuse myocarditis was present in 1 piglet associated with e ...199912968736
enumeration of marine viruses in culture and natural samples by flow cytometryflow cytometry (fcm) was successfully used to enumerate viruses in seawater after staining with the nucleic acid-specific dye sybr green-i. the technique was first optimized by using the phaeocystis lytic virus ppv-01. then it was used to analyze natural samples from different oceanic locations. virus samples were fixed with 0.5% glutaraldehyde and deep frozen for delayed analysis. the samples were then diluted in tris-edta buffer and analyzed in the presence of sybr green-i. a duplicate sample ...19999872758
reproduction of lesions of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in gnotobiotic piglets.neonatal gnotobiotic piglets were inoculated with tissue homogenates and low- and high-passage cell culture material to determine if the lesions of the newly described porcine postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) could be reproduced. for this, 17 3-day-old gnotobiotic piglets were inoculated intranasally with pelleted chloroform-treated, filtered extracts from cell cultures, filter-sterilized homogenates of lymphoid tissue from pmws-affected piglets, or control materials. piglets we ...19999925205
mitotic stability of infection-induced resistance to plum pox potyvirus associated with transgene silencing and dna methylation.plum pox potyvirus (ppv) infection of transgenic nicotiana benthamiana plants that expressed the ppv nib rna replicase carrying a gly to val mutation at the gdd motif (nibv lines) induced a phenotype of virus resistance and transgene silencing, which was not transmissible to the progeny after self-fertilization (h. s. guo and j. a. garcía, mol. plant-microbe interact. 10:160-170, 1997). here, we demonstrate that the induced resistance of nibv plants is mitotically stable after plant propagation ...19999926412
reproductive tract infections in primary healthcare, family planning, and dermatovenereology clinics: evaluation of syndromic management in morocco.to determine where and with what symptoms women seek care for reproductive tract infections (rti) in morocco and to guide allocation of resources for training and treatment for rtis.199810023358
some results of 50 years of research on the resistance to plum pox virus.over 300 references on the resistance of stone fruit species to plum pox virus (ppv) have been utilized for the summarization of relevant information in this review. methods of testing ppv resistance, procedures of evaluation and characterization of ppv resistance as well as breeding of ppv-resistant cultivars are briefly discussed. altogether 370 cultivars, hybrids and clones of plum, peach, apricot, nectarine and wild prunus species are tabulated together with the authors who have reported on ...199810073219
relationship between concentration of plum pox virus and content of pigments in virus-infected symptomatic apricot leaves.besides other factors, occurrence of plum pox virus (ppv)-caused spots and mosaic symptoms on leaves of stone fruits are known to influence important physiological functions including production of assimilates. apricot (prunus armeniaca l.) seedlings were used as a test material for typical manifestation of symptoms of the disease on the foliage. the relations of the abovementioned visual symptoms to the virus and pigments concentrations in leaves have so far not been known sufficiently. we dete ...199810073220
comparison of different methods of rna isolation for plum pox virus detection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.the diagnosis of plum pox virus (ppv) is still considered one of the most important aspects of the "sharka" problem. in fact, different studies demonstrated an uneven distribution of the virus in infected trees due to a high variability in virus concentration. these aspects complicate the ppv diagnosis. to date, biological, serological and molecular assays have been successively developed in order to obtain sensitive and efficient ppv detection techniques. in particular, the polymerase chain rea ...199810073221
investigation on the plum pox virus resistance in different apricot genotypes.in our three-year investigation, 164 apricot trees of different old german varieties cultivated in the mansfelder land region were tested for the plum pox virus (ppv) resistance by double grafting in greenhouse conditions using an isolate of ppv d strain from our region. we selected 25 genotypes with quantitative resistance and two with immunity. the first results of field trials are comparable with those from greenhouse. with cvs. virosia and brevira, two local quantitatively resistant varietie ...199810073222
characterization of plum pox virus isolates from slovakia.plum pox virus (ppv) isolates from stone-fruit trees (plums, myrobalans, apricots and peaches) from orchards and gardens were characterized. to characterize their biological properties, several ppv isolates were transmitted by chip budding to gf 305 seedlings and mechanically to selected herbaceous test plants. the isolates differed in severity of infection, host range and symptomatology. a subgroup differentiation of 43 isolates from 22 localities of western and middle slovakia was accomplished ...199810073223
aphid species--vectors of plum pox virus.plum pox virus (ppv) is widely spread by natural vectors present in plum orchards. the efficiency of transmission is dependent on the frequency of the occurrence of vectors and the cultivar susceptibility to this pathogen. having in view that ppv has a wide range of annual and multiannual host plants and vectors, there is great concern for obtaining ppv-resistant cultivars. this report deals with the following vectors: hyalopterus pruni, brachycaudus cardui, brachycaudus helichrysi. myzus persic ...199810073225
high resistance and control of biological risks in transgenic plants expressing modified plum pox virus coat protein.transgenic plums transformed with the plum pox virus coat protein (ppv cp) gene displayed a resistance to the sharka disease (ravelonandro et al., 1997). however, the expression of ppv cp in transgenic plants may lead to complementation of deficient characteristic of an incoming potyvirus. indeed, an aphid-intransmissible strain of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv-nat) could be transmitted when encapsidated by the engineered ppv cp (lecoq et al., 1993). to control such a risk, new ppv cp const ...199810073226
mineral nutrition of plum trees as an important factor of protection against plum pox virus disease.the experimental results obtained from a fruit garden at krajné pointed out a different content of macrobiogenic elements in the leaves of plum trees infected with plum pox virus (ppv) as compared to healthy ones. mineral nutrition of diseased trees was characteristic by lower relational values of topical levels of macrobiogenic elements especially those of n/p, n/k, (ca + mg)/k, and (n/p)/(n/k).199810073227
preliminary report on the apparent breaking of resistance of a transgenic plum by chip bud inoculation of plum pox virus ppv-s.five transgenic clones of prunus domestica l. containing plum pox virus (ppv) coat protein (cp) gene and one non-transformed control clone were challenged with ppv-s in the field. symptoms developed on c2, c3, c4, c6 and b70146 but not c5 trees inoculated by chip budding (cbi) (2/2, 2/2, 1/1, 2/2 and 2/2, positive/inoculated) in the first summer after inoculation. however, in the second year, symptoms appeared on cbi c5 trees. the presence of the virus in the plants was confirmed by enzyme-linke ...199810073228
new results concerning the plum pox virus epidemiology and resistance of plum cultivars, hybrids and rootstocks.our recent results on the plum pox virus (ppv) epidemiology show that ppv spreads very rapidly in plum tree plantations in the contaminated areas. a clearing of the ppv-infected trees reduces significantly the spread of the virus but does not eliminate the disease. some plum tree cultivars, hybrids and rootstocks (scoldus, alina, cristi, bn 1/8fl, bn 2gr. etc) showing field resistance could not be infected with ppv by natural way. however, they could be infected with ppv by artificial inoculatio ...199810073229
production of a monoclonal antibody specific to the el amar strain of plum pox virus.plum pox virus (ppv) isolates are grouped into three clusters differentiated by biological, serological, molecular and epidemiological characteristics: marcus (m), dideron (d) and cherry (c). the el amar (ea) isolate that does not fit any of the above groups is also known. monoclonal antibodies (mabs) that specifically recognize m, d, and c strains of ppv are already available. to complete the set of ppv strain-specific serological reagents, mabs against the ea isolate were raised by immunizing ...199810073230
detection and serotyping of mediterranean plum pox virus isolates by means of strain-specific monoclonal antibodies.plum pox virus (ppv) is a major threat to the expanding mediterranean stone fruit industry. in order to control the plum pox disease it is of utmost importance to detect early ppv foci and to identify the ppv isolates involved. a survey was therefore carried out in albania, cyprus, egypt, greece, italy and turkey by a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (das-elisa) with the following monoclonal antibodies (mabs): 5b (universal), 4dg5 (ppv-d-specific), al (ppv-m-specific), ...199810073231
molecular variability of czech plum pox virus isolates.seventy-two czech plum pox virus (ppv) isolates from different hosts were tested by double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (das-elisa). in addition, the coat protein mobility and the rsai restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) pattern of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-(rt-pcr) amplified coat protein (cp) gene fragment of the isolates were analysed. both ppv-d and ppv-m serotypes were found in the czech republic. the results obtained by these differen ...199810073232
testing of plum germplasm for sensitivity to plum pox.a long-term orchard experiment with a broad assortment of plum cultivars aimed to screen their sensitivity to plum pox virus (ppv) was established in 1991. for this purpose, 207 cultivars to be artificially infected with ppv at a permanent site were chosen. the serotype m of ppv from a tree of cv. domestic prune, which had not been contaminated by other viruses, was used as a source of the infection. three buds infected with ppv were budded on 1-year-old trees. in the course of experiment the fo ...199810073233
detection of plum pox virus in apricot seeds.twelve different apricot selection trees from a germplasm collection naturally infected with plum pox virus (ppv) were chosen to investigate the role of seeds in the epidemiology of this dangerous pathogen. all the considered plants showed typical symptoms on leaves and fruits and were positive in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the virus was characterized by immunocapture reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (ic-rt-pcr) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism ...199810073234
relative concentration of plum pox virus in leaves and flowers of some prunus species and cultivars.the relative concentration of plum pox virus (ppv) in leaves and flowers of plum, damson, myrobalan, blackthorn, apricot and peach trees was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and expressed as the lowest dilution with positive reaction. significant differences in relative ppv concentration were found in leaves among individual prunus species naturally or artificially infected with the virus. the highest relative ppv concentration was found in blackthorns (7.81 x 10(-4)), com ...199810073235
restriction fragment length polymorphism differentiation of plum pox virus isolates.reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) technique and restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis were used to analyse six isolates of plum pox virus (ppv). whole coat protein (cp) gene was amplified in four isolates using the unipoty-polyt primer pari. ppv-d was identified by rflp analysis using sfui and drai enzymes in two of the isolates. two isolates of ppv-m strain yielded rt-pcr products which could not be digested by the two enzymes. other isolates were subje ...199810073236
characterization of phenotype resistance to plum pox of transgenic plums expressing plum pox virus capsid gene.resistance to plum pox virus (ppv) infection can be obtained in transgenic plants that express the virus capsid gene. an agrobacterium-mediated transformation was used to introduce the ppv capsid gene into prunus domestica plants. over 11 regenerated plants (clones) were observed for the development of the disease symptoms and analysed for the presence of ppv by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) through ...199810073237
agroclimatical analysis of plum pox virus spread in slovakia.in this report, the plum pox virus (ppv) spread from the point of view of agroclimatical conditions on the territory of slovakia is analysed. the worst condition for the ppv spread was found in a warm macroregion. the air temperature sum in this macroregion during vegetative period ranged from 2400 to 3100 degrees c. the worst condition for the ppv spread was found in dry subregions of the macroregion. these were defined by differences between potential evapotranspiration and rainfall sums which ...199810073238
detection of plum pox virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in some apricot and peach varieties and hybrids in romania.plum pox virus (ppv) is a potyvirus widely spread in many species of the prunus genus such as plum, apricot, peach, sweet cherry and others. this potyvirus causes great damage to stone fruit trees in romania and other european countries as hungary, italy, czech republic, france, spain, greece, turkey, and slovak republic. the research station for fruit tree growing baneasa in bucharest has realized many studies on the epidemiology and spread of ppv and also on the disease symptomatology and dete ...199810073239
new methods for inactivation of lipid-enveloped and non-enveloped viruses.two new methods are described for inactivating lipid-enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in plasma-derived products such as coagulation factors and intravenous immunoglobulin (igiv). iodine/sephadex delivers iodine to igiv solutions in a slow, controlled way and allows for inactivation of > or = 4 logs of porcine parvovirus (ppv), a hardy non-enveloped virus, under conditions which do not measurably damage the structural or functional properties of the igiv, and with essentially no iodination of ...19989873761
plum pox potyvirus resistance associated to transgene silencing that can be stabilized after different number of plant generations.nicotiana benthamiana plants were transformed with a fragment of the plum pox potyvirus (ppv) genome that encodes the nuclear inclusion a (nia) and b (nib) proteins and the n-terminus of the capsid protein (nia-nib-cp). lines transformed with this ppv genomic fragment harboring mutations in the gdd replicase-motif were also obtained. plants of niadeltav lines that carry a gdd to vdd mutation in the ppv transgene, were immune to ppv infection. the resistance was highly specific, since it was only ...19989469941
transport of viruses through fetal membranes: an in vitro model of perinatal transmission.a model system for perinatal transmission of viral infections was developed and transport of infectious virus particles through fetal membranes was investigated. viruses of different families known to cause serious intrauterine infections were selected, including relevant and model viruses: the dna-viruses hsv-1 and -2 as well as the animal herpes viruses bhv-1 and shv-1, the rna-virus bvdv as a model for hepatitis c virus, hiv-1 and -2, and ppv as a model for parvovirus b19. migration of infect ...19989557298
specific oligonucleotide primers for the direct detection of plum pox potyvirus-cherry subgroup.a specific polymerase chain reaction assay was developed for direct identification of the distinct subgroup of plum pox potyvirus (ppv) isolates from cherry trees (ppv-cherry, ppv-c) and its differentiation from other known subgroups of ppv. the specificity of the assay is based on using a pair of primers whose nucleotide sequences are located on the coat protein gene of ppv-sour cherry (soc) at regions of high nucleotide divergence between ppv-soc and other isolates of ppv. the technique will b ...19989562418
routine diagnosis of herpes simplex virus (hsv) encephalitis by an internal dna controlled hsv pcr and an igg-capture assay for intrathecal synthesis of hsv antibodies.the development of antiviral therapy increases the need for rapid, sensitive and reliable methods or combination of methods for diagnosis and monitoring herpes simplex encephalitis, hse.19989562858
detection of challenge virus in fetal tissues by nested pcr as a test of the potency of a porcine parvovirus vaccine.to estimate the potency of a porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccine, three vaccinated and three non-vaccinated pregnant gilts were infected with ppv and the distribution of the virus was studied in the tissues of their 51 fetuses. virus detection was attempted using haemagglutination (ha) and immunofluorescence (if) assays, as well as by standard (single) and nested polymerase chain reactions (pcr). none of the detection methods yielded positive results when used to test for the presence of virus in s ...19989563172
a recombinant virus-like particle system derived from parvovirus as an efficient antigen carrier to elicit a polarized th1 immune response without adjuvant.hybrid virus-like particles (vlp) were prepared by self-assembly of the modified porcine parvovirus (ppv) vp2 capsid protein carrying a cd8+ or cd4+ t cell epitope. immunization of mice with a single dose of these hybrid pseudo-particles, without adjuvant, induced strong cytotoxic t lymphocyte and t helper (th) responses against the reporter epitope. the th response was characterized by a th1 phenotype. we also analyzed in vitro the uptake mechanism of these parvovirus-like particles and the pro ...19989565380
development of an antigen presentation system based on plum pox potyvirus.the development of an antigen presentation system based on the plum pox potyvirus (ppv) is here described. the amino-terminal part of ppv capsid protein was chosen as the site for expression of foreign antigenic peptides. modifications in this site were engineered to avoid the capability of natural transmission by aphids of this ppv vector. as a first practical attempt, different forms of an antigenic peptide (single and tandem repetition) from the vp2 capsid protein of canine parvovirus (cpv) w ...19989607317
nicotiana benthamiana plants transformed with the plum pox virus helicase gene are resistant to virus infection.nicotiana benthamiana domin. plants were transformed with the cytoplasmic inclusion protein (ci) gene of plum pox potyvirus (ppv) to investigate, whether this non-structural protein would be able to confer resistance. the ci protein is an rna helicase, which contains a conserved nucleotide binding motif (ntbm) and plays an important role in viral replication. two gene constructions were developed for plant transformation. the first contains the original coding sequence of the ci gene under the c ...19989617773
mapping the antigenic structure of porcine parvovirus at the level of peptides.the antigenic structure of the capsid proteins of porcine parvovirus (ppv) was investigated. a total of nine linear epitopes were identified by pepscan using porcine or rabbit anti-ppv antisera. no sites were identified with a panel of neutralising monoclonal antibodies (mabs). all epitopes were located in the region corresponding to the major capsid protein vp2. based on this information, and on analogy to other autonomous parvoviruses, 24 different peptides were synthesised, coupled to keyhole ...19989620208
use of modified plum pox virus coat protein genes developed to limit heteroencapsidation-associated risks in transgenic plants.aphid transmission of a non-aphid-transmissible strain of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv-nat) occurs in transgenic plants expressing the plum pox potyvirus (ppv) coat protein (cp) gene. heteroencapsidation has been shown to be responsible for this modification in the epidemiological characteristics of the infecting virus. in order to prevent this biological risk, several modified ppv cp constructs were produced that were designed to interfere with heteroencapsidation itself or to block aphid ...19989634095
evidence for incomplete replication of a penguin poxvirus in cells of mammalian origin.the recent discovery of a novel poxvirus [penguin-pox virus (ppv)] from jackass penguins offers the potential of a unique candidate vaccine vector for use in mammals. infectivity studies were therefore undertaken using a number of mammalian cell lines and chick embryo fibroblasts (cef). it was shown that the simian cv-1 cell line was able to support replication of the ppv dna, but no infectious progeny virus could be recovered from the infected cells. electron microscopy was used to establish th ...19989680125
changing disease patterns in focal brain lesion-causing disorders in aids.to assess temporal trends of the different disorders causing focal brain lesions (fbl) in hiv-infected patients and to examine the reliability of the u.s. centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) criteria for presumptive diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis (te) for the years 1991 to 1996.19989704942
strain variability of plum pox virus isolates from western slovakia.leaf tissues of stone fruit trees (plum, apricot, peach and myrobalan) carrying symptoms of plum pox virus (ppv) infection and of peach gf 305 seedlings and nicotiana benthamiana infected experimentally with ppv were assayed for ppv by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the expected 243 bp pcr products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis with restriction endonucleases alui and rsai. all of the pcr products contained the alui site. the rsai restriction profile ...19989770072
analysis of genomic rearrangement and subsequent gene deletion of the attenuated orf virus strain d1701.the orf virus (ov) strain d1701 belongs to the genetically heterogenous parapoxvirus (ppv) genus of the family poxviridae. the attenuated ov d1701 has been licensed as a live vaccine against contagious ecthyma in sheep. detailed knowledge on the genetic structure and organization of this ppv vaccine strain is an important prerequisite to reveal possible genetic mechanisms of ppv attenuation. the present study demonstrates a genomic map of the approximately 158 kbp dna of ov d1701 established by ...19989784065
determination of adequate moisture content for efficient dry-heat viral inactivation in lyophilized factor viii by loss on drying and by near infrared spectroscopy.a requirement for a minimal threshold level of moisture in order for efficient virus inactivation to occur during dry heat treatment of freeze-dried coagulation factor concentrates is described. techniques used to determine moisture content during heating were loss on drying and karl fischer. the loss on drying was suspected to have occasional errors as a result of sample preparation being influenced by interference from atmospheric moisture. therefore, a non-invasive, non-destructive method for ...19989811517
inactivation of viruses by beta-propiolactone in human cryo poor plasma and igg concentrates.virus inactivation by cold treatment with beta-propiolactone (bpl) was investigated in human cryo poor plasma and purified igg concentrates spiked with relevant human viruses or appropriate animal model viruses. the samples were treated with 0.1 or 0.25% bpl for 300 or 480 min, respectively. residual infectivity was determined by standard microtitration assays on tissue culture cells. the inactivation of all viruses tested was more effective in igg than in plasma. igg: r1=4-5.5 log10 for vesicul ...19989811521
serosurvey of selected viral and bacterial diseases in wild swine from oklahoma.blood samples collected from 120 wild swine (sus scrofa) in thirteen oklahoma (usa) counties during 1996 were tested for antibodies against six viral and two bacterial diseases. no antibodies to swine brucellosis, pseudorabies, transmissible gastroenteritis, and vesicular stomatitis were detected. antibody titers to one or more leptospiral serovars were found in 44% of the samples, the two most frequent serovars being leptospira interrogans serovars bratislava (29%) and pomona (27%). antibody ag ...19989813859
prenatal diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection.we report here the results of a study on the prenatal diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (cmv) infection. the study was carried out by both pcr and virus isolation from amniotic fluid (af) for 82 pregnant women at risk of transmitting cmv for the detection of (i) seroconversion to cmv immunoglobulin g (igg) positivity during the first trimester of pregnancy, (ii) symptomatic cmv infection in the mother during the first trimester of pregnancy or intrauterine growth retardation detected by ul ...19989817869
properties of a virus causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of celosia argentea l. in nigeria.a sap transmissible virus, causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of celosia argentea, was isolated at vegetable farms in amuwo odofin, tejuoso, and abule ado, lagos, nigeria. the virus had a restricted host range confined to a few species of the amaranthaceae, chenopodiaceae and solanaceae families. it failed to infect several other species of the aizoaceae, brassicaceae, cucurbitaceae, fabaceae, lamiaceae, malvaceae, poaceae and tiliaceae families. the virus was transmitted in a non-persistent m ...19989842442
development of a pcr-based method coupled with a microplate colorimetric assay for the detection of porcine parvovirus and application to diagnosis in piglet tissues and human plasma.a new method for porcine parvovirus (ppv) diagnosis was developed. the method is based on polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification followed by hybridization and colorimetric detection of pcr products in microwell plates. a highly specific and sensitive amplification step was ensured by primers carefully selected in the vp2 structural gene and optimized pcr conditions. uracyl-dna-glycosylase (udg) in combination with dutp was used to avoid false-positive results, and 100 copies of internal c ...19989843658
validation of the heat treatment step used in the production of diaspirin crosslinked hemoglobin (dclhb) for viral inactivation.a series of experiments was performed to assess the ability of the heat treatment step used in the manufacture of diaspirin crosslinked hemoglobin (dclhb) to inactivate viruses. in-process solutions (reaction mixtures after the crosslinking process) from six different manufacturing lots were used as test media in a 1:680 scaled down system in which the key process parameters used in the large scale production were duplicated. the inactivation of five different viruses (bovine viral diarrhea viru ...19989844723
ultrastructural localization of nonstructural and coat proteins of 19 potyviruses using antisera to bacterially expressed proteins of plum pox potyvirus.antisera to the bacterially expressed nonstructural proteins (nsp) hc-pro, ci, nia, and nib and the coat protein (cp) of plum pox potyvirus (ppv) were used for analysing the composition of virus-induced cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions by electron microscopy. the antisera reacted with nsp and cp of ppv on immunogold-labelled ultrathin sections. antiserum to cp reacted with virions of seven out of 18 other potyviruses. cp was distributed throughout the cytoplasm of infected cells. antisera to p ...19989856098
nucleotide sequence of the putative replicase gene of the sour cherry strain of plum pox potyvirus.the complete nucleotide sequence of the nib coding region of the sour cherry strain of plum pox potyvirus (ppv-soc) has been determined. it consists of 1554 nucleotides and encodes a putative replicase protein of 518 amino acids. sequence identity scores between nib of ppv-soc and other isolates of ppv are significantly low (c. 78%). many of the nucleotide substitutions, however, are silent. ppv-soc differs from isolates of ppv-d, ppv-m and ppv-e1 amar at multiple amino acid positions that are c ...19989856106
susceptibility to recombination rearrangements of a chimeric plum pox potyvirus genome after insertion of a foreign gene.infectious rna transcripts were generated from a chimeric cdna clone of the plum pox potyvirus (ppv) genome containing the bacterial beta-glucuronidase (gus) gene inserted between the sequences coding for the p1 and hc proteins. an artificial cleavage site specific for the nia viral proteinase was engineered between the gus and hc sequences to produce free gus and hc proteins. the resulting virus ppvgus/ was stably maintained during the first round of infection, although plants remained symptoml ...19989870586
removal of viruses from human intravenous immune globulin by 35 nm nanofiltration.viral safety is an important prerequisite for clinical immunoglobulin preparations. a common manufacturing practice is to utilize several virus removal/inactivation process steps to ensure the safety of human intravenous immunoglobulin (ivig). in this regard, we examined the use of planova 35 nm filters to reduce potential loads of both non-enveloped and enveloped viruses prior to end-stage solvent detergent treatment. the nanofiltration process was validated for removal of a variety of envelope ...199810403036
comparison of monoclonal antibodies and polymerase chain reaction assays for the typing of isolates belonging to the d and m serotypes of plum pox potyvirus.abstract plum pox potyvirus (ppv) isolates may be divided into four groups separated by serological, molecular, and epidemiological differences. monoclonal antibodies specific for the two major groups of isolates, represented by the d and m serotypes of the virus, have been obtained. polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based assays allowing the direct detection and differentiation of ppv isolates have also been developed. we now report on a large-scale comparison of these two typing approaches. the ...199818944965
susceptibility of peach gf 305 seedlings and selected herbaceous plants to plum pox virus isolates from western slovakia.the susceptibility of peach gf 305 seedlings and herbaceous plants to five plum pox virus (ppv) isolates from orchards of western slovakia was investigated. ppv was isolated from diseased plum, apricot and peach trees, and transmitted by chip-budding to peach gf 305. the herbaceous plants were infected by mechanical inoculation. the transmission was analysed by symptomatology and double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (das-elisa). infected peaches developed leaf distortion, tissue cle ...19979607094
production of strain specific antibodies against a synthetic polypeptide corresponding to the n-terminal region of the plum pox potyvirus coat protein.comparison of the predicted coat protein amino acid sequence of the 'sweet cherry' strain of plum pox potyvirus (ppv-swc) with the corresponding regions of several other ppv strains indicated that the main differences are in the n-terminal region. polyclonal antibodies were produced against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 1-14 sequence of the n-terminal region of ppv-swc coat protein. they specifically detected ppv-swc in different immunochemical tests.19979504763
detection of antibodies against porcine parvovirus nonstructural protein ns1 may distinguish between vaccinated and infected pigs.the humoral antibody response against the nonstructural protein ns1 and the structural protein vp2 of porcine parvovirus (ppv) was evaluated by immuno-peroxidase test (ipt) and enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (elisa) using recombinant ppv antigens. the coding sequence for ns1 and vp2 was inserted into the baculovirus. autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (acnpv) genome resulting in two recombinant baculoviruses acnpv-ns1 and acnpv-vp2, respectively. sf9 cells (spodoptora frugidip ...19979050166
virucidal treatment of blood protein products with uvc radiation.the virus safety of blood derivatives continues to be of concern, especially with respect to nonenveloped and/or heat-stable viruses. previously, we demonstrated that treatment of whole plasma, ahf concentrate or fibrinogen with short wavelength ultraviolet light (uvc) results in the inactivation of > or = 10(6) infectious doses (id) of encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), hepatitis a virus (hav) and porcine parvovirus (ppv), each of which is nonenveloped. protein recovery was enhanced greatly by ...19979077126
nonaldehyde sterilization of biologic tissue for use in implantable medical devices.biologic tissue stabilized by dye-mediated photooxidation has found application in implantable devices. the desire to avoid aldehydes in the processing of photooxidized tissues led to the development of a nonaldehyde, iodine based sterilant. the interaction of tissue with iodine was indicated by a change in tissue shrinkage temperature, dependent upon solution and incubation parameters. the amino acid tyrosine also was altered, presumably because of aromatic ring iodination. transmission electro ...19979116349
identification of three distinct antigenic sites in parapoxviruses.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were generated in balb/c mice immunized with gradient-purified particles, envelopes and cores of intracellular mature orf virus d-1701. three distinct antigenic sites were identified in this virus strain. their topographical relationships was determined by pairwise epitope specificity studies in competition elisas. one mab (class igm) neutralized virus infectivity. four micrograms/ml purified igm gave a 50% reduction of 100 pfu of orf virus d-1701. as shown by immuno ...19979170506
long sequences in the 5' noncoding region of plum pox virus are not necessary for viral infectivity but contribute to viral competitiveness and pathogenesis.the 5'-terminal 31 nucleotides of the 146-nucleotides-long 5' noncoding region of plum pox potyvirus (ppv) are highly conserved in all the members of the potyvirus genus. to map the sequences of the 5' noncoding region that are necessary in vivo for infectivity, we have constructed a nested set of substitution and deletion mutants. while we were not able to infect nicotiana clevelandii plants with full-length ppv transcripts bearing mutations in the 5'-terminal 35 nucleotides of the viral genome ...19979201225
recombinant parvovirus-like particles as an antigen carrier: a novel nonreplicative exogenous antigen to elicit protective antiviral cytotoxic t cells.to develop a strategy that promotes efficient antiviral immunity, hybrid virus-like particles (vlp) were prepared by self-assembly of the modified porcine parvovirus vp2 capsid protein carrying a cd8(+) t cell epitope from the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus nucleoprotein. immunization of mice with these hybrid pseudoparticles, without adjuvant, induced strong cytotoxic t lymphocyte (ctl) responses against both peptide-coated- or virus-infected-target cells. this cd8(+) class i-restricted cyt ...19979207121
specific detection of d- and m-isolates of plum pox virus by immunoenzymatic determination of pcr products.molecular techniques based on the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) can provide rapid and sensitive diagnosis of plum pox virus (ppv), the causal agent of the devastating 'sharka' disease of stone fruit trees. the present study compared routine polymerase chain reaction (pcr) procedures against a new system, pcr-elisa (boehringer mannheim), which enables immunoenzymatic detection of pcr products. the results show that this hybridisation system ensures fast and more sensitive detection of ppv assoc ...19979300377
comparison of two different methods for inactivation of viruses in serum.in order to compare protocols for inactivation of viruses potentially present in biological specimens, three different model viruses were treated in bovine serum by two different inactivation methods: samples were subjected either to chemical inactivation with ethylenimine (el) at concentrations of 5 and 10 mm at 37 degrees c for periods up to 72 h or to electron-beam irradiation in frozen and liquid form with doses varying between 11 and 46 kgy. the chemical inactivation resulted in nonlinear t ...19979302195
a congenital persistent infection of bovine virus diarrhoea virus in pigs: clinical, virological and immunological observations.we report on a lifelong 'carrier' state of non-cytopathic bovine virus diarrhoea virus (bvdv) in an otherwise healthy pig. three out of 13 pigs of a litter congenitally infected with bvdv survived for more than 3 months. one pig was bvdv seropositive at 1 month, the second seroconverted between 6 and 8 months, and the third remained viraemic and bvdv-immunotolerant until slaughter at 26 months. the latter pig, a boar, excreted virus in oropharyngeal fluid, urine and semen. ejaculates, however, d ...19979323848
validation of the heat treatment step used in the production of diaspirin crosslinked hemoglobin (dclhb) for viral inactivation--effect of crosslinking.two experiments were performed to assess viral inactivation during the crosslinking and heat treatment steps of the dclhb manufacturing process. stroma free hemoglobin (sfhb) collected from a large scale manufacturing lot was tested in a 1:680 scaled down system in which the key parameters used in the manufacturing process were replicated. in the first study porcine parvovirus (ppv), a non-enveloped virus, was used to assess inactivation, while in the second study bovine viral diarrhea virus (bv ...19979352057
non-suppurative myocarditis in piglets associated with porcine parvovirus infection.the involvement of porcine parvovirus (ppv) in the aetiology of non-suppurative myocarditis in sucking piglets was investigated by a polymerase chain reaction (pcr), designed to assess the presence of viral genome in formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissue of diseased animals. myocardium and lung of stillborn piglets with a confirmed ppv infection were used to set up the pcr amplification method. subsequently, 20 myocardia with inflammatory lesions were examined in parallel with 20 myocardia ...19979352435
the motif v of plum pox potyvirus ci rna helicase is involved in ntp hydrolysis and is essential for virus rna replication.the plum pox potyvirus (ppv) protein ci is an rna helicase whose function in the viral life cycle is still unknown. the ci protein contains seven conserved sequence motifs typical of rna helicases of the superfamily sf2. we have introduced several individual point mutations into the region coding for motif v of the ppv ci protein and expressed these proteins in escherichia coli as maltose binding protein fusions. mutations that abolished rna helicase activity also disturbed ntp hydrolysis. no mu ...19979358154
simultaneous detection and typing of plum pox potyvirus (ppv) isolates by heminested-pcr and pcr-elisa.two techniques for simultaneous detection and typing of plum pox potyvirus (ppv) isolates belonging to the d or m serotypes, heminested pcr (h-pcr) and pcr-elisa, have been developed. ten ppv isolates typed using ppv-d and ppv-m specific monoclonal antibodies by elisa-dasi were used to validate these two methods. the results obtained show a complete coincidence of the nucleic acid-based techniques with the serological data. when serial dilutions of infected plant extracts were assayed, h-pcr and ...19979389402
financial evaluation of vaccination and testing alternatives for control of parvovirus-induced reproductive failure in swine.to identify the preferable testing and vaccination strategy for control of porcine parvovirus (ppv) during a 6-month period.19968617643
the use of respiratory-tract cultures in the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.to define the role of lower-respiratory-tract cultures in the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (ipa) in immunocompromised hosts.19968629651
genome organization of the kresse strain of porcine parvovirus: identification of the allotropic determinant and comparison with those of nadl-2 and field isolates.the kresse strain of porcine parvovirus (ppv) was cloned into puc19, and independent infectious clones were sequenced. the ppv kresse and nadl-2 strains, which have different pathogenicities, shared an identical genomic organization and a high degree of sequence identity. partial genomes (1.5 or 1.6 kb) of 15 field isolates were also amplified by pcr in regions with significant sequence differences between the laboratory strains. five amino acid differences were consistently present within the v ...19968642680
print-capture pcr: a simple and highly sensitive method for the detection of plum pox virus (ppv) in plant tissues. 19968668554
inactivation of virus during anaerobic digestion of manure in laboratory scale biogas reactors.reduction of porcine parvovirus, bovine enterovirus and faecal enterococci were measured in biogas reactors continuously run on manure and manure supplemented with household waste at 35 degrees c and 55 degrees c and in batch test run at 70 degrees c. the aim of the experiments was to study the sanitation effect of anaerobic digestion and to evaluate the use of faecal enterococci as an indicator of sanitation. parallel studies on the reduction of virus and faecal enterococci were done in physiol ...19968678476
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