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the apoplastic antioxidant system in prunus: response to long-term plum pox virus infection.this work describes, for the first time, the changes taking place in the antioxidative system of the leaf apoplast in response to plum pox virus (ppv) in different prunus species showing different susceptibilities to ppv. the presence of p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid (phmb)-sensitive ascorbate peroxidase (apx) (class i apx) and phmb-insensitive apx (class iii apx), superoxide dismutase (sod), peroxidase (pox), nadh-pox, and polyphenoloxidase (ppo) was described in the apoplast from both peach and ...200617043083
interference between d and m types of plum pox virus in japanese plum assessed by specific monoclonal antibodies and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.abstract the dynamics of virus interference between two isolates of plum pox virus (ppv) belonging to the main ppv types, d and m, were analyzed in japanese plum (prunus salicina) by challenge inoculations. to assess the consequences of a ppv-m infection on plum already infected with ppv-d, and vice versa (predominance of one of the strains, recombination, synergism, symptoms aggravation, and so on), 30 japanese plum trees were graft inoculated with ppv-d or ppv-m isolates in quarantine conditio ...200618944448
adenosine deaminase activity--more than a diagnostic tool in tuberculous pericarditis.to improve the understanding of factors that influence adenosine deaminase ( ada) activity in large pericardial effusions.200516049586
a single amino acid mutation in the plum pox virus helper component-proteinase gene abolishes both synergistic and rna silencing suppression activities.abstract the effects on symptom expression of single amino acid mutations in the central region of the plum pox virus (ppv) helper component-proteinase (hc-pro) gene were analyzed in nicotiana benthamiana using potato virus x (pvx) recombinant viruses. pvx recombinant virus expressing the wild-type variant of ppv hc-pro induced the expected enhancement of pvx pathogenicity, manifested as necrosis and plant death. recombinant virus expressing a variant of ppv hc-pro containing a single point muta ...200518944411
validation of a simple model for predicting liver fibrosis in hiv/hepatitis c virus-coinfected patients.recently, several models incorporating laboratory measurements have been validated for use as surrogate markers for liver fibrosis in hepatitis c virus (hcv) mono-infection, the simplest of these being the aspartate aminotransferase (ast) to platelet ratio index (apri). we evaluated how well the apri predicts significant hepatic fibrosis in patients with hiv/hcv coinfection.200516268817
the rb1 fraction of ginseng elicits a balanced th1 and th2 immune response.porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccines containing different adjuvants were evaluated for inducing th1 or th2 type of immunity in mice. isotypes of antigen specific antibodies and levels of cytokines in serum and in lymphocyte culture supernatants measured by elisa and the gyrolab bioaffy were used to determine the polarisation of the immune response. enumeration of cytokine secreting cells was carried out by elispot assays. vaccines containing the ginseng-fraction rb1 induced serum-detectable amounts ...200516286158
acute respiratory failure due to pneumocystis pneumonia in patients without human immunodeficiency virus infection: outcome and associated features.to examine outcome and associated factors of acute respiratory failure (arf) in non-hiv-related pneumocystis pneumonia (pcp) in patients admitted to a medical icu between 1995 and 2002.200516100140
hepatitis c virus rna kinetics during the initial 12 weeks treatment with pegylated interferon-alpha 2a and ribavirin according to virological response.summary: to optimize treatment of chronic hepatitis c early identification of patients who will not achieve a sustained virological response (svr) is desirable. we investigated hepatitis c virus (hcv) rna kinetics at day 1 (in 15 patients; genotypes 1 and non-1, 9 and 6 respectively) at weeks 1, 4 and 12 (in 53 patients; genotypes 1 and non-1, 19 and 34, respectively) during treatment with pegylated interferon alpha-2a and ribavirin. patients with svr had a significantly more pronounced mean log ...200516108761
cirrhosis in hepatitis c virus-infected patients can be excluded using an index of standard biochemical serum markers.assessment of liver histology is pivotal in prognostication and decision-making regarding therapeutic intervention in patients with chronic hepatitis c virus (hcv). being an invasive procedure, the liver biopsy is associated with complications, and a non-invasive alternative would be preferable.200516109665
accumulation of the long class of sirna is associated with resistance to plum pox virus in a transgenic woody perennial plum tree.we investigated the hallmarks of posttranscription gene silencing (ptgs) in mature plants, embryos, and seedlings of the transgenic plum trees (prunus sp.) that are resistant to plum pox virus (ppv). we previously demonstrated that the transgene insert and resistance to ppv were mutually inherited in progeny of line c5. we show here that c5 constitutively produces a short (22 nt) and a long (25 to 26 nt) species of short interfering (si)rna from embryo to mature plant in the absence of ppv inocu ...200516134891
is alanine aminotransferase a good marker of histologic hepatic damage in renal transplant patients with hepatitis c virus infection?renal transplant (rtx) patients with hepatitis c frequently show normal levels of alanine aminotransferase (alt) and the significance of alt in this group has not been established.200516146553
pathogen control in complex fluids with water-coupled excimer lamps at 282 and 308 nm.water-coupled excimer lamp systems have been developed to inactivate microorganisms within complex, low-optical quality, fluids. monochromatic lamps were selected to minimize uv-b and uv-c absorption within the carrier fluids while maximizing deposition within specific chemical targets. fundamentals, system scaling and power supply design are discussed. this work used two large-surface area excimer lamps as intense sources of near monochromatic radiation at 308 and 282 nm. data are presented for ...200516149853
dry-heat sensitivity of human b19 and porcine parvoviruses. 200516181226
sat: a late ns protein of porcine parvovirus.the genomes of all members of the parvovirus genus were found to contain a small open reading frame (orf), designated sat, with a start codon four or seven nucleotides downstream of the vp2 initiation codon. green fluorescent protein or flag fusion constructs of sat demonstrated that these orfs were expressed. although the sat proteins of the different parvoviruses are not particularly conserved, they were all predicted to contain a membrane-spanning helix, and mutations in this hydrophobic stre ...200516189014
cost-efficacy analysis of peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis c.combination therapy with pegylated interferon (peg) and ribavirin (rbv) is the standard of care for the treatment of chronic hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection. this analysis compares the cost efficacy of treatment with pegylated interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin (peg-2b plus rbv) with pegylated interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin (peg-2a plus rbv) in hypothetical cohorts of 100 chronic hcv patients comprised 75% of genotype 1.200516194133
aetiology of sexually transmitted disease (std) and comparison of std syndromes and aetiological diagnosis in taipei, taiwan.between july 2002 and july 2004, all male patients (n=307) presenting to a sexually transmitted disease (std) clinic who reported unprotected sex were enrolled in the study. of these, 63 (20.5%), 19 (6.2%) and one (0.3%) were infected with one, two and three pathogens, respectively. the prevalences of chlamydial infection, gonorrhoea, syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus infection and trichomoniasis were 14.3%, 10.1%, 6.8%, 2.2% and 0%, respectively. the sensitivities of urethral discharge syn ...200516216108
conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in hiv-infected ugandans and the effect of past receipt of polysaccharide vaccine.we investigated the immunogenicity of a 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (cpv) in human immunodeficiency virus-infected ugandan adults and measured the effect of past pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (ppv) receipt given as part of a controlled trial. two doses of cpv, 4 weeks apart, were given to 54 past ppv recipients and 55 past placebo recipients (84% female; median cd4 cell count, 251 cells/ microl [range, 1-936 cells/ microl]). postvaccination anticapsular immunoglobulin g (igg) c ...200516235180
[prevalence and association of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) in aborted fetuses, mummified fetuses, stillborn and nonviable neonatal piglets].porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) seems to cause reproductive failure in sows not only in experimental studies. a retrospective study was made with a total of 252 aborted fetuses, mummified fetuses, stillborn and nonviable neonatal piglets to determine the presence of pcv2, porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (prrsv) by pcr. pcv2 was found in all stages of gestation in 27.1 percent of samples examined. a statistically significant association could be s ...200516240914
cross-priming of t cell responses by synthetic microspheres carrying a cd8+ t cell epitope requires an adjuvant signal.controlling the cross-presentation of exogenous ags to cd8+ t cells represents a major step for designing new vaccination strategies. whereas several recombinant pseudo-viral particles have been used as delivery systems for triggering potent ctl responses to heterologous exogenous ags, the adjuvant properties of virus-like particles (vlps) themselves were little questioned. here, we analyzed the contribution of the porcine parvovirus (ppv)-vlps to the induction of protective cellular responses t ...200515749877
influenza-like illness criteria were poorly related to laboratory-confirmed influenza in a sentinel surveillance study.to analyze the most related clinical data for influenza and the utility of influenza-like illness criteria as the clinical threshold for sampling in an influenza sentinel surveillance over a 3-year period.200515768487
predictive value of early virological response to treatment with different interferon-based regimens plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis c.early virological response (evr) to different interferon-based regimens plus ribavirin and its ability to predict the outcome of therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis c were investigated. the study design was as follows: 64 naive patients were considered, 32/64 received pegylated interferon alpha-2b (peg-ifn-alpha2b) plus ribavirin and the remaining 32 received leucocyte interferon alpha (ifn-alpha) plus ribavirin. at week 4 of treatment, evr was present in 68.7% and 37.5% of patients treat ...200515782622
the role of human telomerase catalytic subunit mrna expression in cervical dysplasias.telomerase activity and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (htert) mrna expression were investigated in cervical specimens and were correlated with cytologic findings and the presence of human papilloma virus (hpv) infection. telomerase activity was evaluated by the telomeric repeat protocol assay and htert mrna expression was evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (pcr). hpv dna was detected by pcr, as well as restriction endonuclease digestion. hpv dna was detected in ...200515792948
nucleotide sequence analysis of plum pox virus isolate w3174: evidence of a new strain.the nucleotide sequence of plum pox virus (ppv) isolate w3174 was determined. the virus genome consists of 9788 nucleotides (nt), excluding the poly(a) tail at the 3'-terminus, with 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (utrs) of 146 and 219 nt, respectively. the deduced polyprotein consists of 3141 amino acid (aa) residues, with the coat protein region consisting of 993 nt (331 aa). in comparisons with ppv-d, -m, -ea and -c isolates, nucleotide identity levels ranged from 79 to 80% for the entire gen ...200515845265
identification of viral pathogens in aborted fetuses and stillborn piglets from cases of swine reproductive failure in spain.the objective of the present study was to determine the presence of recognised abortifacient viruses such as porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (prrsv), aujeszky's disease virus (adv), porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), in tissues from aborted fetuses and stillborn neonates in cases of late reproductive failure in swine. a total of 293 specimens (fetuses aborted in the last third of gestation and stillborn piglets) from 100 different cases of late-term abortio ...200515848788
determination of the six major human herpesviruses in cerebrospinal fluid and blood specimens of children.to detect and differentiate six major human herpesviruses in the cerebrospinal fluid (csf) and blood of children by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp).200515858958
suppression of proliferation of poliovirus and porcine parvovirus by novel phenoxazines, 2-amino-4,4 alpha-dihydro-4 alpha-7-dimethyl-3h-phenoxazine-3-one and 3-amino-1,4 alpha-dihydro-4 alpha-8-dimethyl-2h-phenoxazine-2-one.the present study aimed at investigating the antiviral effects of 2-amino-4,4alpha-dihydro-4alpha-7-dimethyl-3h-phenoxazine-3-one (phx-1) and 3-amino-1,4alpha-dihydro-4alpha-8-dimethyl-2h-phenoxazine-2-one (phx-2) on 6 representative viruses: poliovirus, porcine parvovirus, simian virus 40 (sv-40), herpes simplex virus-1 (hsv-1), sindbis virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv). phx-1 and phx-2 suppressed the proliferation of poliovirus in vero cells and that of porcine parvovirus in esk cell ...200515863903
analysis of recombinant plum pox virus (ppv) isolates from serbia confirms genetic homogeneity and supports a regional origin for the ppv-rec subgroup.the recent observation of the frequent occurrence of natural recombinant plum pox virus (ppv) isolates has led to the identification of a distinct ppv subgroup, named ppv-rec. the diversity, origin and geographical spread of the recombinant ppv isolates belonging to this subgroup remain, however, relatively poorly known. in an effort to further our understanding of these isolates, eight ppv isolates from serbia, the country from which the first such recombinant (ppv-o6) originated, were characte ...200515906106
evaluation of virus decontamination techniques for porcine embryos produced in vitro.the objective of this study was to explore approaches to decontaminate embryos either contaminated naturally or under experimental conditions with different viruses. embryos were obtained from in vitro maturation and fertilisation of porcine oocytes. after 7 days of development, morula and blastocyst stages were exposed for 1 h to the following viruses: encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), porcine parvovirus (ppv), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome vir ...200515910918
experimental infection of 3-week-old conventional colostrum-fed pigs with porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine parvovirus.this report describes an experimental infection with porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) in combination with porcine parvovirus (ppv) in 3-week-old conventional colostrum-fed pigs with maternal antibodies to both viruses. two groups of four pigs each were inoculated with pcv2 and ppv. one of the groups received also a commercial inactivated vaccine against porcine pleuropneumonia to evaluate possible effects of the stimulation of the immune system of pigs on the infection. another group of four pig ...200515916871
effects of lyophilization on the infectivity of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in bone tissue.recently reported qualitative experiments proved that retroviral infectivity is not destroyed by lyophilization performed on systemically infected bone and tendon. the now accomplished quantitative determination of residual infectivity for enveloped and non-enveloped viruses allows a validation of the production process regarding viral safety in freeze-dried bone transplants. the lyophilization effect on the infectivity of two non-enveloped viruses (maus elberfeld virus, mev; porcine parvovirus, ...200515946737
real-time assay for quantitative detection of non-persistently transmitted plum pox virus rna targets in single aphids.a taqman real-time rt-pcr was developed to detect and quantify rna-targets from the non-circulative, non-persistently transmitted plum pox virus (ppv) in individual fresh or aphids captured previously and squashed on paper. reliable quantitation ranged from 40 up to 4 x 10(8) copies of control transcripts. this technique was applied successfully to plant material and to individual ppv vector (myzus persicae) and non-vector of ppv (aphis nerii) aphid species demonstrating acquisition of viral tar ...200515964640
application of gfp-tagged plum pox virus to study prunus-ppv interactions at the whole plant and cellular levels.the sharka disease caused by the potyvirus plum pox virus (ppv) is one of the most serious viral diseases affecting stone fruit trees. the study of ppv/prunus interaction under greenhouse controlled conditions is space, time, labor consuming. while the ppv/prunus interactions are now quite well known at the whole plant level, few data however are available on the interactions between the virus and the prunus host plants at the cellular level. using a green fluorescent protein (gfp)-tagged m type ...200515993953
prediction of the hepatitis c viremia using immunoassay data and clinical expertise.detection of anti-hepatitis c virus (anti-hcv) antibodies may yield a high frequency of false-positive results in people at low risk. to date, no clinical rule had been developed to predict viremia in hcv-seropositive patients. therefore, we aimed to generate a prediction rule on the basis of clinical and serologic data, which can be used in outpatient care. we selected 114 seropositive patients without antiviral treatment or hepatitis b coinfection. subsequently we identified independent predic ...200516010243
identification of secret agent as the o-glcnac transferase that participates in plum pox virus infection.serine and threonine of many nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins are posttranslationally modified with o-linked n-acetylglucosamine (o-glcnac). this modification is made by o-linked n-acetylglucosamine transferases (ogts). genetic and biochemical data have demonstrated the existence of two ogts of arabidopsis thaliana, secret agent (sec) and spindly (spy), with at least partly overlapping functions, but there is little information on their target proteins. the n terminus of the capsid protein (cp) ...200516014901
efficacy of spray-drying to reduce infectivity of pseudorabies and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (prrs) viruses and seroconversion in pigs fed diets containing spray-dried animal plasma.three experiments were conducted to evaluate viral inactivation by the spray-drying process used in the production of spray-dried animal plasma (sdap). in exp. 1, bovine plasma was inoculated with pseudorabies virus (prv) grown in pk 15 cells. three 4-l batches were spray-dried in the same manner and conditions of industrial sdap production but with laboratory spray-drying equipment. presence of infectivity was determined before and after spray-drying by microtiter assay in pk 15 cell cultures. ...200516024714
aphid (hemiptera: aphididae) species composition and potential aphid vectors of plum pox virus in pennsylvania peach orchards.plum pox, an invasive disease recently identified in pennsylvania stone fruit orchards, is caused by the aphid-transmitted plum pox virus (genus potyvirus, family potyviridae, ppv). to identify potential vectors, we described the aphid species communities and the seasonal dynamics of the dominant aphid species within pennsylvania peach orchards. aphids were trapped weekly in 2002 and 2003 from mid-april through mid-november within two central pennsylvania orchards by using yellow and green water ...200516334309
clinical validation of the neuroscreen.the neuroscreen comprises two easily administered components: the brief neurocognitive screen (bncs), designed to estimate the frequency of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-associated cognitive disorders; and the brief peripheral neuropathy screen (bpns), for distal sensory polyneuropathy (dspn) in hiv. in this study, both the neuroscreen and a more extensive standardized validation neurodiagnostic evaluation were administered to hiv-positive subjects (n = 301) enrolled in two large cohort stu ...200516338744
noninvasive assessment of liver steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation in chronic hepatitis c virus infection.duplex-doppler ultrasound is a noninvasive method for the assessment of hepatic hemodynamics beyond conventional gray-scale imaging. the clinical value of the method for the grading and staging of chronic hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection and the prediction of hepatic steatosis still has to be determined. this study aimed to compare duplex-doppler and ultrasound with the histologic staging and the estimation of hepatic steatosis in chronic hcv infection.200516343065
herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) western blot confirmatory testing among men testing positive for hsv-2 using the focus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a sexually transmitted disease clinic.the objective of this study was to define the positive predictive value (ppv) of the focus herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) in a low hsv-2 prevalence population and to develop a new test interpretation algorithm.200516314775
hairpin rna-mediated silencing of plum pox virus p1 and hc-pro genes for efficient and predictable resistance to the virus.we report the application of the hairpin-mediated rna silencing technology for obtaining resistance to plum pox virus (ppv) infection in nicotiana benthamiana plants. four sequences, covering the p1 and silencing suppressor hc-pro genes of an italian ppv m isolate, were introduced into n. benthamiana plants as two inverted repeats separated by an intron sequence under the transcriptional control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter. in a leaf disk infection assay, 38 out of 40 t0 transge ...200516315100
tissue distribution of two field isolates and two vaccine strains of porcine parvovirus in foetal organs after experimental infection of pregnant sows as determined by real-time pcr.the aim of this study was to investigate the tissue distribution of two different field isolates and two vaccine strains of porcine parvoviruses (ppv) in infected piglets after transplacental infection. the viral load in 10 different foetal organs was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction assays with sybr green targeting the viral vp2 gene and the genomic c-myc gene in 12 foetuses. the viral load in foetal tissues differed greatly among the different parvoviruses. between one virulen ...200516316393
prevalence of antibodies to porcine parvovirus in wild boars (sus scrofa) in croatia.serologic evidence of exposure to porcine parvovirus (ppv) in the wild boar (sus scrofa) in croatia was investigated. serum samples from 219 wild boars captured during 2003 from 12 different locations in the republic of croatia were tested by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (elisa) and a hemagglutination inhibition (hi) test. antibodies to ppv were detected in 91 (41.6%) of tested samples and positive results were detected in wild boar from all sample locations. adults had a signifi ...200516456171
detection and differentiation of plum pox virus using real-time multiplex pcr with sybr green and melting curve analysis: a rapid method for strain typing.a real-time multiplex pcr procedure with melting curve analysis, using the green fluorescence dye sybr green i, was developed for rapid and reliable identification of plum pox virus (ppv) isolates of strains d and m. members of the different strains were identified by their distinctive melting temperatures (t(m)s); 84.3-84.43 degrees c for d isolates, and 85.34-86.11 degrees c for m isolates. the associated amplicon sizes were 114 and 380 bp, respectively. the procedure was used for detection an ...200515620404
viruses in boar semen: detection and clinical as well as epidemiological consequences regarding disease transmission by artificial insemination.many viruses have been reported to be present in boar semen, particularly during the viremic phase of the diseases. some of them, such foot-and-mouth disease virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, swine vesicular disease virus, porcine parvovirus, picornaviruses, adenoviruses, enteroviruses, japanese encephalitis virus, pseudorabies virus, african swine fever virus and reoviruses are of particular importance and accurate monitoring prior to and during the presence of boars i ...200515626416
high porcine parvovirus antibodies in sow herds: prevalence and associated factors.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is widespread among swine. our objective was to determine the prevalence of loosely housed sow herds in finland with at least one animal with high (infection level) ppv antibodies and to gather basic knowledge about vaccination practices. in addition, selected factors associated with high antibody levels found in sows were examined. altogether, 247 animals were sampled in 21 randomly chosen loosely housed sow herds. samples were analysed with the haemagglutination inhibi ...200515655002
analogues of virus resistance genes map to qtls for resistance to sharka disease in prunus davidiana.plum pox virus (ppv), the causative agent of sharka disease in prunoideae, is one of the most serious problems affecting stone fruit production in europe and america. resistance to ppv was previously described in a prunus davidiana clone, p1908, and introduced into peach (prunus persica) genotypes. genetic resistance to ppv displays a complex pattern of quantitative inheritance. an analysis of quantitative trait loci (qtls) for resistance was performed on an f1 interspecific peach population obt ...200515666162
partial sequence analysis of an atypical turkish isolate provides further information on the evolutionary history of plum pox virus (ppv).a variety of techniques, such as typing with subgroup-specific monoclonal antibodies, restriction length polymorphism (rflp) analysis or subgroup-specific rt-pcr are available for the discrimination of plum pox virus (ppv) isolates. however, the existence of ppv isolates showing abnormal typing properties has been observed in the past [candresse, t., cambra, m., dallot, s., lanneau, m., asensio, m., gorris, m.t., revers, f., macquaire, g., olmos, a., boscia, d., quiot j.b., dunez, j., 1998. comp ...200515681071
early hepatitis c virus changes and sustained response in patients with chronic hepatitis c treated with peginterferon alpha-2b and ribavirin.interferon-based therapy induces changes in viral dynamics in chronic hepatitis c (chc) patients.200515698404
review of treatment of bronchiolitis related apnoea in two centres.to determine whether the use of negative pressure ventilation (npv) was associated with a lower rate of endotracheal intubation in infants with recurrent apnoea secondary to acute bronchiolitis.200515723920
detection of porcine circovirus type 2, porcine parvovirus and porcine pseudorabies virus from pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome by multiplex pcr.multiplex pcr was established to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv-2), porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine pseudorabies virus (prv) and applied to samples from 137 piglets exhibiting clinical signs of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws). pcv-2 dna was detected from all samples. moreover, 43 samples were positive for ppv but negative for prv; 11 samples were positive for prv but negative for ppv; and 35 samples were positive both for ppv and prv. these results suggests that pcv ...200515736858
experimental reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) in pigs in sweden and denmark with a swedish isolate of porcine circovirus type 2.an experimental model using 3-day-old snatch-farrowed colostrum-deprived piglets co-infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) and porcine parvovirus (ppv) is at present one of the best methods to study factors affecting development of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws). a swedish isolate of pcv2 (s-pcv2) retrieved in 1993 from a healthy pig has been used in this model to reproduce pmws in pigs from northern ireland. this virus has been present in the swedish pig population fo ...200515737473
properties of a virus isolated from vernonia amygdalina del. in lagos, nigeria.a previously uncharacterized virus tentatively named vernonia green vein-banding virus (vgvbv) was isolated from vernonia amygdalina del. ("bitterleaf") from lagos, nigeria. the virus was mechanically transmissible but had a narrow host range restricted to nicotiana benthamiana, chenopodium quinoa and c. amaranticolor. it was also transmissible in a non-persistent manner by myzus persicae. the virus was purified from n. benthamiana and about 750 nm long flexuous rod-shaped particles were observe ...200415745049
simultaneous detection of six stone fruit viruses by non-isotopic molecular hybridization using a unique riboprobe or 'polyprobe'.a new strategy for the simultaneous detection of plant viruses by molecular hybridization has been developed. two, four or six viral sequences were fused in tandem and transcribed to render unique riboprobes and designated as 'polyprobes'. the 'polyprobe four' (poly 4) covered the four ilarviruses affecting stone fruit trees including apple mosaic virus (apmv), prunus necrotic ringspot virus (pnrsv), prune dwarf virus (pdv), and american plum line pattern virus (aplpv) whereas the 'polyprobe two ...200415664050
quantification of epstein-barr virus load in argentinean transplant recipients using real-time pcr.post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (ptld) is a frequent and severe epstein-barr virus (ebv)-associated complication in transplant recipients that is caused by suppression of t-cell function.200415288615
analysis and comparison of the 4b core protein gene of avipoxviruses from wild birds: evidence for interspecies spatial phylogenetic variation.avipoxviruses have been isolated from a wide variety of avian hosts, and yet little is known regarding the host-virus species variation of the genus avipoxvirus. we have investigated the variations in the viral 4b core protein gene from six different avipoxviruses based on pcr, southern blot and nucleotide sequence analysis to evaluate the suitability of this region for differentiation between avipoxvirus isolates. southern blot and nucleotide sequence analysis revealed considerable interspecies ...200415290371
geographically and temporally distant natural recombinant isolates of plum pox virus (ppv) are genetically very similar and form a unique ppv subgroup.natural recombinant plum pox virus (ppv) isolates were detected in albania, bulgaria, czech republic, germany, hungary and slovakia. despite different geographical origins and dates of isolation, all the recombinant isolates were closely related at the molecular level and shared the same recombination breakpoint as well as a typical signature in their n-terminal coat protein sequence, suggesting a common origin. biological assays with four recombinant isolates demonstrated their capacity to be a ...200415302961
experimental squalene adjuvant. i. preparation and testing of its effectiveness.the authors prepared experimental lipoid adjuvant of the oil-in-water (o/w) type, based on squalene (esa: experimental squalene adjuvant), intended for liquid inactivated veterinary vaccines. the final concentration of squalene in the vaccine was 5% (w/v). detergents poloxamer 105 in the concentration of 4% (w/v) and abil-care in the concentration of 2% were used as emulsifiers. the water component was inactivated virus suspension. emulsification at decreased temperatures (up to 37 degrees c) fa ...200415308373
serum levels of hepatitis c virus core antigen as a marker of infection and response to therapy.hepatitis c virus (hcv) core antigen is a recently developed marker of hepatitis c infection. we compared the predictive power of hcv core antigen with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and branched dna assay for hcv-rna as markers of infection and response to interferon therapy.200415330912
inhibitory effects of cystatins on proteolytic activities of the plum pox potyvirus cysteine proteinases.in an effort to develop new antiviral strategies effective against potyviruses, several cystatins were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the cysteine proteinases of plum pox potyvirus (ppv) using in vitro proteolytic assays. the following cystatins were purified as gst fusion proteins and shown to be active against papain:oryzacystatins i and ii (oci and ocii), corn cystatin ii (ccii), human stefin a (hsa), the domain 8 of tomato multicystatin (tmc-8) and a large 24kda tomato cystatin (ltcy ...200415351491
p16(ink4a) expression is related to grade of cin and high-risk human papillomavirus but does not predict virus clearance after conization or disease outcome.the role of p16(ink4a) as a marker of hr-hpv and in the diagnosis of cin has been well established, but its predictive value in the clearance of the virus after cin treatment and its use as a prognostic marker of cervical cancer has not been studied. a series of 302 archival samples, including 150 squamous cell carcinomas (sccs) and 152 cin lesions, were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for p16(ink4a) and hpv testing using pcr with three primer sets (my09/11, gp5/gp6, spf). follow-up da ...200415381905
human papillomavirus (hpv) testing in the management of women with abnormal pap smears. experience of a colposcopy referral clinic.several detailed algorithms for the appropriate use of human papillomavirus (hpv) testing in the management of women with abnormal pap (papanicolaou) smears have been launched, but their direct country-to-country adoption is difficult. this necessitates their testing in individual settings, which is ongoing in our colposcopy referral clinic.200415493169
the predictive value of p16(ink4a) and hybrid capture 2 human papillomavirus testing for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.we performed p16(ink4a) immunocytochemical analysis and hybrid capture 2 (hc2; digene, gaithersburg, md) high-risk hpv testing on 210 abnormal surepath (tripath imaging, burlington, nc) papanicolaou specimens diagnosed as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (lsil) or high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (hsil). the results were compared with 121 follow-up biopsy specimens. p16(ink4a) was positive in 57.9% of women with lsil compared with 97.1% of women with hsil. in contrast, hc2 tes ...200415539381
stability of gene silencing-based resistance to plum pox virus in transgenic plum (prunus domestica l.) under field conditions.plum pox virus (ppv) is one of the most devastating diseases of prunus species. since few sources of resistance to ppv have been identified, transgene-based resistance offers a complementary approach to developing ppv-resistant stone fruit cultivars. c5, a transgenic clone of prunus domestica l., containing the ppv coat protein (cp) gene, has been described as highly resistant to ppv in greenhouse tests, displaying characteristics typical of post-transcriptional gene silencing (ptgs). we show in ...200415587267
a simplified rt-pcr-based detection of recombinant plum pox virus isolates.closely related natural plum pox virus (ppv) isolates derived from homologous rna recombination between ppv-d and ppv-m have been recently identified and shown naturally spread in several european countries. as their serological properties were identical with those of conventional ppv-m isolates, they could be detected only by combined analysis of at least two different genome parts. to simplify the detection of such recombinants primers specific to ppv-m and ppv-d sequences with binding sites l ...200415595211
specificity of the antibody response to the pneumococcal polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults.nonspecific antibodies, which are thought to be nonprotective, have been shown to contribute a substantial proportion of the measured concentration in the standardized immunoglobulin g (igg) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for pneumococcal polysaccharide capsular antibodies. the presence of such antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected persons has not been evaluated. the amount of nonspecific antibodies is proportional to the reduction in igg antibody concentration tha ...200414715560
interfacial enzymology of parvovirus phospholipases a2.the capsid of parvoviruses proteins were recently shown to contain secreted phospholipase a(2) (spla(2))-like activity that is required during host cell entry. parvoviral pla(2) domains have little sequence identity with spla(2)s and lack disulfide bonds. in the present study, after bacterial expression and purification, the biochemical characterizations of these first pla(2)s identified in viruses have been investigated, and a comparison has been made with other known pla(2)s. the specific acti ...200414726513
porcine circovirus-2 and concurrent infections in the field.porcine circovirus-2 (pcv-2) is the necessary cause of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) in swine; however, a variety of co-factors, including other infectious agents, are thought to be necessary in the full expression of disease. porcine parvovirus (ppv) was found in the inoculum used in the first experiments to reproduce pmws in gnotobiotic swine. retrospective and prospective studies in the field and laboratory have demonstrated pcv-2 can act synergistically with ppv to enhan ...200414741128
pmws: experimental model and co-infections.porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) is now recognised as the causal agent of porcine multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws), an economically important wasting disease of young pigs [j. vet. diagn. invest. 12 (2000) 3]. gross lesions of pmws include generalised lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, nephritis and pneumonia and typical histological lesions include lymphocytic depletion and multinucleated giant cell formation in lymph nodes, degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes, and multifocal lymphohistocyti ...200414741129
a comparison of virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization for the detection of porcine circovirus 2 and porcine parvovirus in experimentally and naturally coinfected pigs.virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction (pcr), immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization were compared for the detection of porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2) and porcine parvovirus (ppv) from experimentally and naturally coinfected pigs. all coinfected pigs developed postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws), characterized by sudden onset of depression and anorexia. microscopically, granulomatous inflammation with intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies was present in lymph node from all co ...200414974846
influence of flanking sequences on presentation efficiency of a cd8+ cytotoxic t-cell epitope delivered by parvovirus-like particles.we have previously developed an antigen-delivery system based on hybrid recombinant porcine parvovirus-like particles (ppv-vlps) formed by the self-assembly of the vp2 protein of ppv carrying a foreign epitope at its n terminus. in this study, different constructs were made containing a cd8(+) t-cell epitope of chicken ovalbumin (ova) to analyse the influence of the sequence inserted into vp2 on the correct processing of vlps by antigen-presenting cells. we analysed the presentation of the ova e ...200414993639
recombinant protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunochromatographic tests for detection of immunoglobulin g antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) coronavirus in sars patients.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and a rapid immunochromatographic test for detection of immunoglobulin g (igg) antibodies in severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) patients were developed by utilizing the well-characterized recombinant proteins gst-n and gst-u274. the elisa detected igg antibodies to sars-cov in all 74 convalescent-phase samples from sars patients while weakly cross-reacting to only 1 of the 210 control sera from healthy donors. this finding thus led to a kit sens ...200415013977
effect of porcine parvovirus vaccination on the development of pmws in segregated early weaned pigs coinfected with type 2 porcine circovirus and porcine parvovirus.the objectives of this study were to determine if coinfection of segregated early weaned (sew) pigs with porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) and porcine parvovirus (ppv) induces an increase in the incidence of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) compared to singular pcv2 infection, and to determine if vaccination against ppv protects pigs against pmws associated with pcv2/ppv coinfection in sew pigs. seventy, 3-week-old, sew pigs were randomly assigned to one of the five groups. pigs ...200415036529
development of an elisa based on the baculovirus-expressed capsid protein of porcine circovirus type 2 as antigen.the genome of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) contains two major open reading frames, which have been shown to encode the virus capsid and replication-associated proteins. the capsid protein is a major structural protein of the virus; it can be a suitable target antigen for detecting pcv2-specific antibodies to monitor pcv2 infection. to produce the antigen, the capsid protein coding sequence was cloned into a baculovirus transfer vector, and a recombinant capsid (rc) protein of pcv2 was expres ...200415107550
hiv and hepatitis c coinfection within the caesar study.the declining incidence of aids-related opportunistic diseases among people with hiv infection has shifted the focus of clinical management to prevention and treatment of comorbidities such as chronic liver disease. the increased risk of hepatitis c virus (hcv)-related advanced liver disease in people with hiv infection makes early hcv diagnosis a priority. to assess hcv prevalence and predictors of hiv/hcv coinfection, we have conducted a retrospective analysis of people enrolled in the caesar ...200415139984
removal of small non-enveloped viruses by nanofiltration.nanofiltration is one of the most effective virus reduction methods in the manufacturing process of plasma products. however, it is difficult to remove small viruses from high molecular weight protein preparations like immunoglobulin g or factor viii complex by nanofiltration, because the size of the protein is similar to that of viruses. in order to separate the viruses from these proteins by nanofiltration, it is necessary to change the size of either one. in this study, we report that such no ...200415144526
photochemical inactivation of selected viruses and bacteria in platelet concentrates using riboflavin and light.a medical device is being developed for the reduction of pathogens in plt concentrates (pcs). the device uses broadband uv light and the compound riboflavin (vitamin b(2)).200415157255
a polysaccharide fraction from medicinal herb prunella vulgaris downregulates the expression of herpes simplex virus antigen in vero cells.herpes simplex viruses (hsv) are pathogenic. with the emergence of drug-resistant strains of hsv, new antiviral agents, especially those with different modes of action, are urgently needed. prunella vulgaris l. (labiatae), a perennial plant commonly found in china and europe, has long been used as a folk medicine to cure ailments. in this study, a polysaccharide fraction was prepared from prunella vulgaris (ppv), and its effects on the expressions of hsv-1 and hsv-2 antigens in their host vero c ...200415182906
multiplex pcr for rapid detection of pseudorabies virus, porcine parvovirus and porcine circoviruses.a multiplex pcr (mpcr) assay was developed and subsequently evaluated for its effectiveness as a means to simultaneously detect multiple viral infections of swine. specific primers for each of four common dna viruses, namely, pseudorabies virus (prv), porcine circovirus type i (pcv1), porcine circovirus type ii (pcv2), and porcine parvovirus (ppv), were used for testing procedure. the assay was shown to be highly sensitive in that as little as 10(-4) ng of each of the respective amplicons (appro ...200415223125
specific detection and quantification of plum pox virus by real-time fluorescent reverse transcription-pcr.plum pox virus (ppv), a destructive and economically devastating pathogen of prunus species, was recently discovered in pennsylvania and canada. current containment efforts involve eradication of infected trees based on elisa surveys, which are laborious and less sensitive than pcr-based techniques. a real-time, fluorescent, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay was developed for the detection of ppv in the smart cycler (cepheid). the methods developed are reproducible, ...200415234814
concurrent presence of porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine parvovirus in retrospective cases of exudative epidermitis in pigs. 200414623159
analysis of a quantitative pcr assay for cmv infection in liver transplant recipients: an intent to find the optimal cut-off value.preemptive therapy required highly predictive tests for cmv disease. cmv antigenemia assay (pp65 ag) has been commonly used for rapid diagnosis of cmv infection. amplification methods for early detection of cmv dna are under analysis.200415911429
genomes of the parapoxviruses orf virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus.bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv) and orf virus (orfv), members of the genus parapoxvirus of the poxviridae, are etiologic agents of worldwide diseases affecting cattle and small ruminants, respectively. here we report the genomic sequences and comparative analysis of bpsv strain bv-ar02 and orfv strains ov-sa00, isolated from a goat, and ov-ia82, isolated from a sheep. parapoxvirus (ppv) bv-ar02, ov-sa00, and ov-ia82 genomes range in size from 134 to 139 kbp, with an average nucleotide com ...200414671098
scale-up of virus-like particles production: effects of sparging, agitation and bioreactor scale on cell growth, infection kinetics and productivity.the baculovirus-insect cells expression system was used for the production of self-forming porcine parvovirus (ppv) like particles (virus-like particles, vlps) in serum-free medium. at 2l bioreactor scale an efficient production was achieved by infecting the culture at a concentration of 1.5 x 10(6)cells/ml using a low multiplicity of infection of 0.05 pfu per cell. in a continuous bioreactor, it was shown that the uninfected insect cells were not sensitive to local shear stress values up to 2.2 ...200414687971
factors affecting the spread of plum pox virus strain m in peach orchards subjected to roguing in france.abstract we evaluated the impact of roguing on the spread and persistence of the aggressive plum pox virus strain m (ppv-m) in 19 peach orchard blocks in southern france. during a 7- to 10-year period, orchards were visually inspected for ppv symptoms, and symptomatic trees were removed every year. disease incidence was low in all orchards at disease discovery and was <1% in 16 of the 19 orchard blocks. the spread of sharka disease was limited in all 19 blocks, with an annual disease incidence b ...200418943711
plum pox in north america: identification of aphid vectors and a potential role for fruit in virus spread.abstract thirteen aphid species were tested for their ability to transmit pennsylvania isolates of plum pox virus (ppv) collected in columbia (penn-3), franklin (penn-4), and york (penn-7) counties, pa. four species, aphis fabae, a. spiraecola, brachycaudus persicae, and myzus persicae, consistently transmitted ppv in preliminary transmission tests. two species, metopolophium dirhodum and rhopalosiphum padi, were occasional inefficient vectors. toxoptera citricida, from florida, also was an effe ...200418943108
expression of a modified nucleocapsid-protein of tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) confers resistance against tswv and groundnut ringspot virus (grsv) by blocking systemic spread.summary tobacco transformed with a construct comprising the nucleocapsid-protein (n) gene of tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) and the 5' non-translated leader sequence of plum pox virus (ppv) as a translation enhancer displays unusually broad resistance against tospoviruses. contrary to expectations, the transgenic plants did not express a higher level of tswv n protein than control plants harbouring the n gene without the ppv enhancer. instead, expression of an n-terminally elongated n protein, ...200420565598
spatial pattern analysis of sharka disease (plum pox virus strain m) in peach orchards of southern france.abstract the spatial pattern of sharka disease, caused by plum pox virus (ppv) strain m, was investigated in 18 peach plots located in two areas of southern france. ppv infections were monitored visually for each individual tree during one to three consecutive years. point pattern and correlation-type approaches were undertaken using the binary data directly or after parsing them in contiguous quadrats of 4, 9, and 16 trees. ordinary runs generally revealed a low but variable proportion of rows ...200318943618
effects of ultraviolet radiation on marine virus-phytoplankton interactions.abstract ambient ultraviolet radiation (uvr) is harmful to many biological systems and increased uvr, due to a reduced ozone layer, may have many unforeseen consequences. viruses are the most abundant biological particles in the sea and are thought to play an important role in the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. although an increasing number of studies have been published during the last 15 years, aquatic viral ecology is still in its infancy and little is known about the effect ...200319719609
whole blood samples as an alternative to serum for detection of immunity to measles virus by elisa.the aim of this study was to evaluate enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) as a testing strategy for detection of antibodies against measles virus from microquantities of blood soaked onto filter paper. we studied 165 healthy children in the age group of 1 to 2 years, attending the outpatient department of pediatrics. two sets of samples were collected from each child. one by venipuncture and the other on whatman filter paper-3 discs of 20 mm size by finger or heel prick so that each strip ...200314711476
controlled gamma-irradiation mediated pathogen inactivation of human urokinase preparations with significant recovery of enzymatic activity.human sources of urokinase have led to the contamination of in-process lots of commercially available material with human pathogens. effective pathogen inactivation of urokinase preparations can be achieved through the use of gamma-irradiation. additionally, the presence of a free radical scavenger (ascorbate) and the control of temperature have resulted in maintenance of the enzymatic activity of urokinase without a significant effect on the pathogen inactivation properties of gamma-irradiation ...200314624796
peracetic acid-ethanol treatment of allogeneic avital bone tissue transplants--a reliable sterilization method.based on the european standard en 1040, the validation guidelines of the german federal institute for drugs and medical devices and cpmp guidelines we tested the antimicrobial effectiveness of a peracetic acid-ethanol sterilization procedure (pes) in allogenic avital bone transplants.200314626574
ginseng extract in aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted vaccines improves the antibody response of pigs to porcine parvovirus and erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.ginseng, the dry extract prepared from the panax ginseng c.a. mayer-root contain immunomodulators named ginsenosides, which in the pig enhance the antibody response to viral and bacterial antigens. the enhancing effect of ginseng was demonstrated vaccinating pigs against porcine parvovirus (ppv) and erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infections, using commercially available vaccines. the potency of the licensed, aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted; vaccines were compared with those supplemented with ginsen ...200312507846
pathogenesis of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome reproduced by co-infection with korean isolates of porcine circovirus 2 and porcine parvovirus.thirty-two colostrum-deprived conventional pigs aged 28 days were co-infected with korean isolates of porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2) and porcine parvovirus (ppv) and observed for up to 35 days post-inoculation (dpi). histopathologically, granulomatous inflammation, with or without intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, was present in lymphoid tissues (e.g., lymph nodes, thymus, spleen and tonsil) from 20 dpi, being most severe at 24 dpi. pcv2 and ppv dna were detected in the lymph nodes from 3 to 35 dp ...200312531687
generation and characterisation of functional recombinant antibody fragments against rna replicase nib from plum pox virus.a monoclonal antibody (mab 2a) able to react against the rna replicase nib from plum pox virus (ppv) was obtained and used for generating a specific scfv fragment. the vh and vl coding sequences were cloned and expressed as a fusion scfv protein to alkaline phosphatase. this fusion protein was able to recognise viral nib in both western and tissue-print elisa blots. the affinity and specificity of scfv2a for nib was similar to that of the parental mab and the region yleafy from ppv-nib was ident ...200312535657
inactivation of viral and prion pathogens by gamma-irradiation under conditions that maintain the integrity of human albumin.the administration of therapeutic plasma protein concentrates has been associated with the real risk of transmitting viral diseases and the theoretical risks of prion transmission. our objective was to determine if gamma-irradiation can inactivate viral or prion infectivity without damaging a protein biotherapeutically.200312542732
ginseng and aluminium hydroxide act synergistically as vaccine adjuvants.the dry extract prepared from the panax ginseng c.a. meyer-root (total ginseng (t-ginseng)) contain ginsenosides (g-des) which were shown to have adjuvant properties as demonstrated by: (a) injecting guinea pigs with a mixture of t-ginseng and inactivated porcine parvovirus (ppv) as a conventional vaccine; (b)injecting ppv-antigen and t-ginseng simultaneously but separately at different sites on the animal and (c)injecting only the t-ginseng 1 or 2 weeks prior to immunisation with the ppv-antige ...200312559792
fluorescent labelling reveals spatial separation of potyvirus populations in mixed infected nicotiana benthamiana plants.the distribution of potyviruses in mixed infected nicotiana benthamiana plants was investigated by using green and red fluorescent proteins (gfp, dsred). full-length cdna clones of plum pox virus (ppv-nat-agfps; ppv-nat-red), tobacco vein mottling virus (tvmv-gfp; tvmv-red) and clover yellow vein virus (clyvv-gfp) expressing fluorescent proteins, referred to here as labelled viruses, were used to characterize the distribution of different potyviral populations (e.g. tvmv-gfp/ppv-nat-red), as wel ...200313679622
suppressor activity of potyviral and cucumoviral infections in potyvirus-induced transgene silencing.the process known as 'recovery' by which virus-infected plants become resistant to the infection is an interesting phenomenon where both rna silencing and virus resistance fully converge. in a previous study, we showed that transgenic nicotiana benthamiana nibv3 plants, transformed with a mutated nib coding sequence from plum pox virus (ppv), showed a delayed, very specific, resistance phenotype, which was induced by the initial infection. this recovery was the consequence of the activation of a ...200313679623
detection of porcine teschoviruses and enteroviruses by lightcycler real-time pcr.porcine picornaviruses comprising at least 23 serotypes grouped into six species were described as causative agents of neurological disorders, reproductive failure, and aphthae-like dermal lesions of swine. other viruses such as classical swine fever virus (csfv), african swine fever virus, pseudorabies virus (prv), vesicular stomatitis virus, vesicular exanthema virus, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, and porcine parvovirus (ppv) may cause diseases with similar clinical symp ...200314500127
association of porcine circovirus 2 with porcine respiratory disease complex.a retrospective study was performed on natural cases of porcine respiratory disease complex (prdc) to determine the association and prevalence of prdc with porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2) and other co-existing pathogens in korea. histologically, alveolar septa were markedly thickened by infiltrates of mononuclear cells. moderate to marked multifocal peribronchial and peribronchiolar fibrosis were present and often extended into the airway lamina propria. among the 105 pigs with prdc, 85 were positiv ...200314550736
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