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establishment and application of a multiplex pcr for rapid and simultaneous detection of six viruses in swine.a multiplex pcr assay was developed and evaluated subsequently for its effectiveness in simultaneously detecting mixed viral infections of swine. specific primers were designed and used for testing the six swine viruses: three dna viruses, including pseudorabies virus (prv), porcine parvovirus (ppv), and porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2); three common rna viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), classical swine fever virus (csfv), and japanese encephalitis v ...201425116201
development of an evagreen-based multiplex real-time pcr assay with melting curve analysis for simultaneous detection and differentiation of six viral pathogens of porcine reproductive and respiratory disorder.concurrent infection of pigs with two or more pathogens is common in pigs under intensive rearing conditions. porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), porcine parvovirus (ppv), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), classical swine fever virus (csfv), japanese encephalitis virus (jev) and pseudorabies virus (prv) are all associated with reproductive or respiratory disorders or both and can cause significant economic losses in pig production worldwide. an evagreen-based multiplex r ...201425102430
a sensitive multiplex real-time pcr panel for rapid diagnosis of viruses associated with porcine respiratory and reproductive disorders.the objective of this study was to develop a multiplex real-time pcr panel using taqman probes for the detection and differentiation of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus north american type (prrsv-na), pseudorabies virus (prv), classical swine fever virus (csfv), porcine parvovirus type 1 (ppv1) and japanese encephalitis virus (jev). specific primer and probe combinations for pcv2, prrsv, prv, csfv, ppv1 and jev were selected within the conserv ...201425044282
preclinical detection of porcine circovirus type 2 infection using an ultrasensitive nanoparticle dna probe-based pcr assay.porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) has emerged as one of the most important pathogens affecting swine production globally. preclinical identification of pcv2 is very important for effective prophylaxis of pcv2-associated diseases. in this study, we developed an ultrasensitive nanoparticle dna probe-based pcr assay (undp-pcr) for pcv2 detection. magnetic microparticles coated with pcv2 specific dna probes were used to enrich pcv2 dna from samples, then gold nanoparticles coated with pcv2 specific o ...201424842840
development of colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic assay for rapid detection of mycoplasma suis in porcine plasma.a one-step immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles coated with polyclonal antibody (pab) against mycoplasma suis (m. suis) was developed in this study for the detection of m. suis in porcine plasma. the colloidal gold was prepared by the reduction of gold salt with sodium citrate coupled with pab against m. suis. the pab was produced by immunizing the balb/c mice with recombinant msg1 (rmsg1) protein from m. suis expressed in escherichia coli. the optimal concentrations of the captu ...201424434494
a sensitive and specific nanoparticle-assisted pcr assay for rapid detection of porcine parvovirus.a novel nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nanopcr) assay to detect porcine parvovirus (ppv) is described here. primers for this assay were designed based on the conserved region of the nonstructural protein 1 (ns1) gene of ppv, which encodes one of the nonstructural proteins. the sensitivity of the ppv nanopcr assay was measured by using diluted recombinant plasmids in which the ppv ns1 gene had been inserted. the detection limit was 5.6 × 10(1) copies μl(-1) for the ppv nanopcr a ...201424117951
a new nanopcr molecular assay for detection of porcine bocavirus.nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nanopcr) is a novel method for the rapid amplification of dna and has been used for the detection of virus. for detection of porcine bocavirus (pbov), a sensitive and specific nanopcr assay was developed with a pair of primers that were designed based on ns1 gene sequences available in genbank. under the optimized conditions of the pbov nanopcr assay, the nanopcr assay was 100-fold more sensitive than a conventional pcr assay. the lower detection ...201424642242
evaluation of viral inactivation of pseudorabies virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus and porcine parvovirus in pancreatin of porcine origin.pancreatin is a substance containing enzymes, principally amylase, lipase, and protease. it is obtained from bovine or porcine pancreas and used in the treatment of pancreatic endocrine insufficiency in humans. regulations and safety concerns mandate viral clearance (virus removal or inactivation) in biopharmaceuticals such as pancreatin. a virus validation study was performed to evaluate virus clearance achieved in the final step of drying under vacuum by testing a panel of four animal viruses: ...201425110118
robustness of nanofiltration for increasing the viral safety margin of biological products.in this study, the virus-removal capacity of nanofiltration was assessed using validated laboratory scale models on a wide range of viruses (pseudorabies virus; human immunodeficiency virus; bovine viral diarrhea virus; west nile virus; hepatitis a virus; murine encephalomyocarditis virus; and porcine parvovirus) with sizes from 18 nm to 200 nm and applying the different process conditions existing in a number of grifols' plasma-derived manufacturing processes (thrombin, α1-proteinase inhibitor, ...201424485384
pathogen inactivation efficacy of mirasol prt system and intercept blood system for non-leucoreduced platelet-rich plasma-derived platelets suspended in plasma.this study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of pathogen inactivation (pi) in non-leucoreduced platelet-rich plasma-derived platelets suspended in plasma using the mirasol prt system and the intercept blood system.201424806328
health assessment of wild lowland tapir (tapirus terrestris) populations in the atlantic forest and pantanal biomes, brazil (1996-2012).abstract the lowland tapir (tapirus terrestris) is found in south america and is listed as vulnerable to extinction by the international union for conservation of nature, red list of threatened species. health issues, particularly infectious diseases, are potential threats for the species. health information from 65 wild tapirs from two brazilian biomes, atlantic forest (af) and pantanal (pa), were collected during a long-term study (1996-2012). the study included physic, hematologic and biochem ...201425105810
swine infectious agents in tayassu pecari and pecari tajacu tissue samples from brazil.peccaries and pigs, tayassuidae and suidae respectively, diverged approximately one million years ago from a common ancestor. because these families share some pathogens, peccaries can act as reservoirs of infectious pathogens for domestic and wild swine. we evaluated the presence of swine infectious agents in the spleen and lung tissues of white-lipped peccaries (wlp; tayassu pecari) and collared peccaries (cp; pecari tajacu) in brazil. samples from 10 adult cp and three wlp, which had been hun ...201424484498
identification and genomic characterization of a novel porcine parvovirus (ppv6) in china.parvoviruses are classified into two subfamilies based on their host range: the parvovirinae, which infect vertebrates, and the densovirinae, which mainly infect insects and other arthropods. in recent years, a number of novel parvoviruses belonging to the subfamily parvovirinae have been identified from various animal species and humans, including human parvovirus 4 (parv4), porcine hokovirus, ovine partetravirus, porcine parvovirus 4 (ppv4), and porcine parvovirus 5 (ppv5).201425442288
prevalence of swine viral and bacterial pathogens in rodents and stray cats captured around pig farms in korea.in 2008, 102 rodents and 24 stray cats from the areas around 9 pig farms in northeast south korea were used to determine the prevalence of the following selected swine pathogens: ten viral pathogens [porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (pedv), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), rotavirus, classical swine fever virus (csfv), porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), porcine parvovirus (ppv), pseudorabies ...201323892461
characterization of a novel porcine parvovirus tentatively designated ppv5.a new porcine parvovirus (ppv), provisionally designated as ppv5, was identified in u.s. pigs. cloning and sequencing from a circular or head-to-tail concatemeric array revealed that the ppv5 possesses the typical genomic organization of parvoviruses with two major predicted open reading frames (orf1 and orf2), and is most closely related to ppv4 with overall genomic identities of 64.1-67.3%. the amino acid identities between ppv5 and ppv4 were 84.6%-85.1% for orf1 and 54.0%-54.3% for orf2. unli ...201323762339
a nanoparticle-assisted pcr assay to improve the sensitivity for rapid detection and differentiation of wild-type pseudorabies virus and gene-deleted vaccine strains.nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nanopcr) is a novel method for the rapid amplification of dna and has been adopted for the detection of virus because of its simplicity, rapidity, and specificity. a nanopcr assay was developed to detect and differentiate wild-type and gene-deleted pseudorabies virus (prv). three pairs of primers for nanopcr developed in this study were selected from conserved regions of prv, producing specific amplicons of 431 bp (gb), 316 bp (ge), and 202 bp (gg ...201323872268
a one-step rt-pcr assay to detect and discriminate porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in clinical specimens.outbreaks of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (hp-prrsv) have led to large economic losses and, subsequently, have drawn great attention to its diagnosis and prevention. to facilitate rapid discrimination of hp-prrsv from classical prrsv (c-prrsv), we developed a one-step rt-pcr assay. primer specificities were evaluated with rna extracted from 8 viral strains and our results revealed that the primers had a high specificity for prrsv. the assay sensitivity wa ...201324035936
development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of porcine hokovirus.hokoviruses have recently been detected as pathogens belonging to the family parvoviridae, which comprises porcine hokovirus (phov) and bovine hokovirus (bhov). in this study, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for the rapid, specific and sensitive detection of phov. a set of four primers specific for six regions within the phov vp1/2 genes was designed using online software. the reaction temperature and time were optimized at 65°c and 60 min, respectively. lamp p ...201323850717
the survey of porcine teschoviruses in field samples in china with a universal rapid probe real-time rt-pcr assay.a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) based on taqman was established and evaluated for quantitative detection of porcine teschoviruses (ptvs). a pair of primers and a taqman probe targeting on the highly conserved sequence of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-utr) of one to 11 serotypes of ptv were designed. standard plasmid dna containing pcr amplification of the 5'-utr were constructed and used to develop the real-time rt-pcr. the results indicated that the real-ti ...201323138413
bioreduction of sheep carcasses effectively contains and reduces pathogen levels under operational and simulated breakdown conditions.options for the storage and disposal of animal carcasses are extremely limited in the eu after the introduction of the eu animal by-products regulations (abpr; ec/1774/2002), leading to animosity within the livestock sector and the call for alternative methods to be validated. novel storage technologies such as bioreduction may be approved under the abpr provided that they can be shown to prevent pathogen proliferation. we studied the survival of enterococcus faecalis, salmonella spp., e. coli o ...201323590844
a pcv2 vaccine based on genotype 2b is more effective than a 2a-based vaccine to protect against pcv2b or combined pcv2a/2b viremia in pigs with concurrent pcv2, prrsv and ppv infection.the predominant genotype of porcine circovirus (pcv) in the pig population today is pcv2b yet pcv2a-based commercial vaccines are considered effective in protecting against porcine circovirus associated disease. the objective of this study was to compare the ability of pcv2a- and pcv2b-based vaccines to control pcv2b viremia in a challenge model that mimics the u.s. field situation. sixty-three pigs were randomly assigned to one of eight groups. sixteen pigs were vaccinated with an experimental ...201323174198
development of porcine rotavirus vp6 protein based elisa for differentiation of this virus and other viruses.the context and purpose of the study included 1) bacterial expression of viral protein 6 (vp6) of porcine rotavirus (prv) and generation of rabbit polyclonal antiserum to the vp6 protein; 3) establishment of a discrimination elisa to distinguish prv from a panel of other porcine viruses.201323517810
snatch-farrowed, porcine-colostrum-deprived (sf-pcd) pigs as a model for swine infectious disease research.the current study tested the benefit of commercially available spray-dried bovine colostrum (the saskatoon colostrum company, saskatoon, saskatchewan) in raising snatch-farrowed, porcine-colostrum-deprived (sf-pcd) pigs. in experiment 1, 12 sf-pcd pigs received a liquid diet composed mainly of bovine colostrum from birth to day 10; 6 remained on the same liquid diet (col), and the other 6 were fed a diet composed mainly of milk replacer (rpl) until weaning. in experiment 2, 12 sf-pcd pigs were f ...201324082397
high-impact animal health research conducted at the usda's national animal disease center.commissioned by president dwight eisenhower in 1958 and opened with a dedication ceremony in december 1961, the usda, agricultural research service (ars), national animal disease center (nadc) celebrated its 50-year anniversary in november 2011. over these 50 years, the nadc established itself among the world's premier animal health research centers. its historic mission has been to conduct basic and applied research on selected endemic diseases of economic importance to the u.s. livestock and p ...201323642415
hepatitis e virus and porcine-derived heparin. 201323751114
capsid protein evolution and comparative phylogeny of novel porcine parvoviruses.in addition to the well known "classical" porcine parvovirus (ppv1; responsible for reproductive failure of susceptible sows) several new porcine parvoviruses have been recognized (ppv2, ppv3 and ppv4) in recent years. the genetic variation, characteristics and evolutionary factors shaping these novel ppvs were studied by comparing the complete capsid (cap) genes of ppvs from domestic pigs and wild boars. using bayesian coalescent methods we estimated the rate of nucleotide substitution for ppv2 ...201323044400
characterization of the capsid protein vp2 gene of a virulent strain ne/09 of porcine parvovirus isolated in china.a virulent strain ne/09 of porcine parvovirus (ppv) was isolated from mummified swine fetus samples in china and its capsid protein vp2 gene was analyzed. the data showed that the vp2 gene encompassed an open reading frame of 1713 nucleotides with a composition of 684 adenine (39.9%), 387 cytosine (22.6%), 268 guanine (15.7%), and 374 thymine (21.8%). the vp2 gene encoded a 570aa-long protein which could be recognized by anti-ppv-vp2 monoclonal antibody 3c9. sequence analysis revealed that the v ...201323021153
characterization of porcine parvovirus type 2 (ppv2) which is highly prevalent in the usa.a novel porcine parvovirus designated as porcine parvovirus 2 (ppv2) was initially identified in myanmar in 2001, in china during 2006-2007, and in hungary in 2012. to investigate the presence and prevalence of ppv2 in the usa, a novel taqman(®) real-time pcr method was developed and used for a ppv2 survey using 483 lung samples, 185 fecal samples and 122 sera collected from pigs on 295 farms in 18 u.s. states. the overall prevalence of ppv2 was 20.7% (100/483) in lung samples and 7.6% (14/185) ...201322901530
non-enveloped virus reduction with quaternized chitosan nanofibers containing graphene.membranes are an accepted technology for water purification. membrane filtration can remove pathogens, including bacteria and viruses, by size. for small viruses that can have a diameter <25nm, removal by size leads to large membrane areas, high transmembrane pressures, low water flux, and frequent changing of membranes. in this work, we discovered that electrospun nanofibers made of chitosan and functionalized with a quaternary amine (htcc) have the ability to adsorb a model non-enveloped virus ...201324041631
[proliferation characteristics of a pk-15 cell-adapted strain of porcine parvovirus].to study the proliferation characteristics of ppv in differently infected way and the variance of concentrations in different cells. a strain of porcine parvovirus(ppv) was adapted to pk-15 cells, and a real-time fluorescent quantitative pcr (fq-pcr) assay was developed based on the specific region of the ns1 gene of ppv to quantify the ppv. the fq-pcr was used to measure the viral concentration of virus-infected cells by simultaneous or step by step inoculation and plot one-step growth curves. ...201323894997
population dynamics and in vitro antibody pressure of porcine parvovirus indicate a decrease in variability.to estimate the impact of porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccines on the emergence of new phenotypes, the population dynamic history of the virus was calculated using the bayesian markov chain monte carlo method with a bayesian skyline coalescent model. additionally, an in vitro model was performed with consecutive passages of the 'challenge' strain (a virulent field strain) and nadl2 strain (a vaccine strain) in a pk-15 cell line supplemented with polyclonal antibodies raised against the vaccine stra ...201323804570
reduction of porcine parvovirus infectivity in the presence of protecting osmolytes.osmolytes are natural compounds found in the cells of many organisms that stabilize intracellular proteins against environmental stresses. protecting osmolytes can promote protein folding, whereas denaturing osmolytes have the opposite effect. a variety of osmolytes were tested for their antiviral activity against porcine parvovirus (ppv). ppv is a non-enveloped, icosahedral, single-strand dna virus. we have discovered two protecting osmolytes, trimethylamine n-oxide (tmao) and glycine that redu ...201323648707
influence of minor displacements in loops of the porcine parvovirus vp2 capsid on virus-like particles assembly and the induction of antibody responses.an antigen-delivery system based on hybrid virus-like particles (vlps) formed by the self-assembly of the capsid vp2 protein of porcine parvovirus (ppv) and expressing foreign peptides offers an alternative method for vaccination. in this study, the three-dimensional structure of the ppv capsid protein and surface loops deletion mutants were analyzed to define essential domains in ppv vp2 for the assembly of vlps. electron microscopic analysis and sds-page analysis confirmed the presence of abun ...201323430711
complete genome sequence of a novel porcine parvovirus (ppv) provisionally designated ppv5.a new porcine parvovirus (ppv) was identified from pig lung tissues in the united states. it is most closely related to the recently identified ppv4 with overall genomic identities of 64.1 to 67.3%. unlike ppv4, this virus lacks the additional open reading frame 3 (orf3) and has a much longer orf2. the name ppv5 is provisionally proposed.201323405295
lack of antibody protection against porcine circovirus 2 and porcine parvovirus in naturally infected dams and their offspring.the aim of this study was to evaluate porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2) infection in dams and their offspring and the role of antibody protection on these infections. sera were collected from gilts and sows by venipuncture and from umbilical cord of newborn pre-suckle piglets for the detection of pcv2 and ppv antibodies by immunoperoxidase monolayer and haemmaglutination inhibition assays, respectively. gilts and sows sera were submitted to viral detection by pcr, as well ...201323084257
simultaneous detection of porcine parvovirus and porcine circovirus type 2 by duplex real-time pcr and amplicon melting curve analysis using sybr green.the development of a sybr green-based duplex real-time pcr is described for simultaneous detection of porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv-2) genomes. viral genomes were identified in the same sample by their distinctive melting temperature (t(m)) which is 77.5°c for ppv vp2 313bp amplicon and 82.3°c for pcv-2 orf2 171bp amplicon, respectively. the detection limit of the method was 0.01tcid(50)/ml for ppv and pcv-2, about 10 times more sensitive than conventional pcr. in a ...201322771739
hybrid dna virus in chinese patients with seronegative hepatitis discovered by deep sequencing.seronegative hepatitis--non-a, non-b, non-c, non-d, non-e hepatitis--is poorly characterized but strongly associated with serious complications. we collected 92 sera specimens from patients with non-a-e hepatitis in chongqing, china between 1999 and 2007. ten sera pools were screened by solexa deep sequencing. we discovered a 3,780-bp contig present in all 10 pools that yielded blastx e scores of 7e-05-0.008 against parvoviruses. the complete sequence of the in silico-assembled 3,780-bp contig w ...201323716702
effects of oral deoxynivalenol exposure on immune-related parameters in lymphoid organs and serum of mice vaccinated with porcine parvovirus vaccine.mice were exposed to deoxynivalenol (don) via drinking water at a concentration of 2 mg/l for 36 days. on day 8 of treatment, inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccine (ppv) was injected intraperitoneally. the relative and absolute weight of the spleen was significantly decreased in the don-treated group (don). antibody titers to parvovirus in serum were 47.9 ± 2.4 in the vaccination group (vac), but 15.2 ± 6.5 in the group treated with don and vaccine (don + vac). the iga and igg was not different ...201323436220
retraction. interclade recombination in porcine parvovirus strains. 201323329682
phylogeny and evolution of porcine parvovirus.porcine parvovirus (ppv), a member of the genus parvovirus, family parvoviridae, is a significant causative agent in porcine reproductive failure, causing serious economic losses in the swine industry. previous phylogenetic studies based on the ns1 or vp2 genes indicated that current ppv strains diverged 30 years ago and that vp2 was under neutral or positive selection. our analysis of ns1, vp2 and complete orfs indicated that the most recent common ancestor of ppv strains existed about 250 year ...201324050995
emerging novel porcine parvoviruses in europe: origin, evolution, phylodynamics and phylogeography.to elucidate the spatiotemporal phylodynamics, dispersion and evolutionary processes underlying the emergence of novel porcine parvovirus 2 (ppv2), ppv3 and ppv4 species, we analysed all available complete capsid genes, together with ours, obtained in europe. bayesian phylogeography indicates that romania (ppv2 and ppv4) and croatia (ppv3) are the most likely ancestral areas from which ppvs have subsequently spread to other european countries and regions. the timescale of our reconstruction supp ...201323884365
cpg distribution and methylation pattern in porcine parvovirus.based on gc content and the observed/expected cpg ratio (ocpgr), we found three major groups among the members of subfamily parvovirinae: group i parvoviruses with low gc content and low ocpgr values, group ii with low gc content and high ocpgr values and group iii with high gc content and high ocpgr values. porcine parvovirus belongs to group i and it features an ascendant cpg distribution by position in its coding regions similarly to the majority of the parvoviruses. the entire ppv genome rem ...201324392033
zearalenone affects immune-related parameters in lymphoid organs and serum of rats vaccinated with porcine parvovirus vaccine.rats were administered zearalenone (zea) via gavage at dosages of 0, 1, 5, and 30 mg/kg for 36 days. on treatment day 8, inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccine (vac) was injected intraperitoneally. antibody production against porcine parvovirus was then measured as a function of zea treatment. compared to the vaccine alone, zea treatment, with or without vac, decreased the serum level of igg. the level of igm decreased in all zea groups at day 22, but the decrease was sustained only in the mediu ...201224278621
complete genome sequence of a novel porcine parvovirus in china.the porcine parvovirus jt strain (ppv-jt) was isolated from a piglet showing nonsuppurative myocarditis in shandong, china, in 2010. the complete genomic sequence of ppv-jt, 4,941 bp long, was determined from clones made from replicative form (rf) dna. the genomic analysis demonstrated that the ppv-jt might be involved in a recombination event, which will help us understand the molecular characteristics and evolutionary of ppv in china.201223166265
detection of porcine circovirus genotypes 2a and 2b in aborted foetuses from infected swine herds in the state of são paulo, brazil.porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) has been associated with several disease complexes, including reproductive failure. the aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of pcv2 that are associated with reproductive failure in pigs from the state of são paulo, brazil and to investigate co-infections with other infectious organisms.201222554105
prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of the current porcine circovirus 2 genotypes after implementation of widespread vaccination programmes in the usa.to determine the prevalence of porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2) genotypes in the usa during 2010-2011, 5 years after widespread pcv2 vaccination, serum samples from clinically normal pigs that were pcv2 vaccinated (n = 1177), non-vaccinated (n = 378) or of unknown vaccination status (n = 120), and 100 lung samples from pigs diagnosed with pcv-associated disease (pcvad) were tested. the presence of pcv2, pcv1, pcv1-2a and porcine parvovirus (ppv) dna was determined by pcr. determination of the pcv2 ge ...201222398315
detection, prevalence and analysis of emerging porcine parvovirus infections.a number of newly identified porcine parvoviruses had been described during the last decade, but the presence and prevalence of these viruses are unknown in hungary and only partly known for europe. the present study was conducted to detect and measure the prevalence of these viruses, namely porcine parvovirus (ppv) 2, ppv3, ppv4, porcine bocavirus (pbov) 1, pbov2, pbo-likev and the 6v and 7v parvoviruses. the prevalence of ppv1 and porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) was also investigated. faecal ...201222383055
[infection related fertility disorders in swiss pig breeding farms at the end of the postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) epizooty].porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) is able to induce reproductive failures. 286 fetuses from 113 sows of 59 farms with increased reproductive disorders which included abortions, mummies, stillborn and weak born piglets were studied six years after the beginning of the epizooty of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) in switzerland. 14 % of the cases were bacterial infections based on histological signs of inflammation and pathogen isolation. 12 % further cases showed inflammatory reac ...201223027510
interclade recombination in porcine parvovirus strains.a detailed analysis of the ns1/vp1vp2 genome region of the porcine parvovirus (ppv) strains isolated from vaccinated animals was performed. we found many inconsistencies in the phylogenetic trees of these viral isolates, such as low statistical support and strains with long branches in the phylogenetic trees. thus, we used distance-based and phylogenetic methods to distinguish de facto recombinants from spurious recombination signals. we found a mosaic virus in which the ns1 gene was acquired fr ...201222993191
serum protein profiles as potential biomarkers for infectious disease status in pigs.in veterinary medicine and animal husbandry, there is a need for tools allowing the early warning of diseases. preferably, tests should be available that warn farmers and veterinarians during the incubation periods of disease and before the onset of clinical signs. the objective of this study was to explore the potential of serum protein profiles as an early biomarker for infectious disease status. serum samples were obtained from an experimental pig model for porcine circovirus-associated disea ...201222439879
enhancing immune responses to inactivated porcine parvovirus oil emulsion vaccine by co-inoculating porcine transfer factor in mice.inactivated porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccines are available commercially and widely used in the breeding herds. however, inactivated ppv vaccines have deficiencies in induction of specific cellular immune response. transfer factor (tf) is a material that obtained from the leukocytes, and is a novel immune-stimulatory reagent that as a modulator of the immune system. in this study, the immunogenicity of ppv oil emulsion vaccine and the immuno-regulatory activities of tf were investigated. the ina ...201222705080
phylogeny and evolutionary genetics of porcine parvovirus in wild boars.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is widespread among swine and is responsible for reproductive failure of susceptible sows, characterized by embryonic and fetal death. studies showed that ppv in domestic pig is genetically diverse and some strains differ from the ones used for vaccination. organ samples from wild boars and domestic pigs were collected in transylvania (romania) and tested for the presence of ppv by polymerase chain reaction. positive samples were grouped and 14 from the wild boar and 1 f ...201222575819
monoclonal antibody capture and viral clearance by cation exchange chromatography.traditionally, post-production culture harvest capture of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mabs) is performed using protein a chromatography. we investigated the efficiency and robustness of cation exchange chromatography (cex) in an effort to evaluate alternative capture methodologies. up to five commercially available cex resins were systematically evaluated using an experimentally optimized buffer platform and a design-of-experiment (doe) approach for their ability to (a) capture a model ma ...201222488719
genome sequence of chinese porcine parvovirus strain ppv2010.porcine parvovirus (ppv) isolate ppv2010 has recently emerged in china. herein, we analyze the complete genome sequence of ppv2010. our results indicate that the genome of ppv2010 bears mixed characteristics of virulent ppv and vaccine strains. importantly, ppv2010 has the potential to be a naturally attenuated candidate vaccine strain.201222282333
inactivation effect of standard and fractionated electron beam irradiation on enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in a tendon transplant model.background: for increasing allograft tendon safety in reconstructive surgery, an effective sterilization method achieving sterility assurance including viruses without impairing the grafts properties is needed. fractionated electron beam (ebeam) has shown promising in vitro results. the proof of sufficient virus inactivation is a central part of the process validation. methods: the ebeam irradiation of the investigated viruses was performed in an optimized manner (oxygen content < 0.1%, -78 °c). ...201222896764
infectious risk factors for individual postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) development in pigs from affected farms in spain and denmark.two prospective longitudinal studies in 13 postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws)-affected farms from spain (n=3) and denmark (n=10) were performed. blood samples from pigs were longitudinally collected from 1st week until the occurrence of the pmws outbreak. wasted and healthy age-matched pigs were euthanized, necropsied and histopathologically characterised. pmws diagnosis was confirmed by means of lymphoid lesions and detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) in these tissues b ...201222884005
cd8(+) t-cell-mediated immunity against malaria: a novel heterologous prime-boost strategy.recently, a vaccine against malaria was successfully tested in a human phase iii trial. the efficacy of this vaccine formulation, based on the plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein, was approximately 50% and correlated with the presence of antibodies specific to the infective stages of the malaria parasites. different strategies are being pursued to improve vaccine efficacy levels. one such strategy is the induction of specific cytotoxic t cells that can destroy the intracellular hepato ...201223151162
vaccine efficacy against malaria by the combination of porcine parvovirus-like particles and vaccinia virus vectors expressing cs of plasmodium.with the aim to develop an efficient and cost-effective approach to control malaria, we have generated porcine parvovirus-like particles (ppv-vlps) carrying the cd8(+) t cell epitope (syvpsaeqi) of the circumsporozoite (cs) protein from plasmodium yoelii fused to the ppv vp2 capsid protein (ppv-pycs), and tested in prime/boost protocols with poxvirus vectors for efficacy in a rodent malaria model. as a proof-of concept, we have characterized the anti-cs cd8(+) t cell response elicited by these h ...201222529915
development of multiplex pcr for simultaneous detection of six swine dna and rna viruses.uniplex and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and pcr protocols were developed and evaluated subsequently for its effectiveness in detecting simultaneously single and mixed infections in swine. specific primers for three dna viruses and three rna viruses, including classical swine fever virus (csfv), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), japanese encephalitis virus (jev), porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), porcine pseudorabies virus (prv) an ...201222575688
prevalence of and risk factors associated with viral and bacterial pathogens in farmed european wild boar.the aim of this study was to estimate in farmed european wild boars the prevalence of and risk factors associated with a range of common porcine viral and bacterial infections, namely, porcine parvovirus (ppv), porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), swine influenza virus (siv), aujeszky's disease virus (adv), classical swine fever virus (csfv), swine vesicular disease virus (svdv), coronavirus causing transmissible gastroenteritis (tgev), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), m ...201222516920
in vitro antiviral activity of brazilian plants (maytenus ilicifolia and aniba rosaeodora) against bovine herpesvirus type 5 and avian metapneumovirus.medicinal plants are well known for their use in traditional folk medicine as treatments for many diseases including infectious diseases.201222873798
biosecurity aspects and pathogen inactivation in acidified high risk animal by-products.the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of formic acid addition to ground high risk animal by-products (abp 1) in terms of stabilization and pathogen inactivation and to evaluate the biosecurity risk connected with the abp 1 based combustion fuel biomal. laboratory studies were performed on the persistence of salmonella typhimurium, bacillus cereus spores, porcine herpes virus, avian influenza virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, equine rhinitis a virus and porcine parvovirus in bioma ...201222506709
viral metagenomic analysis of bushpigs (potamochoerus larvatus) in uganda identifies novel variants of porcine parvovirus 4 and torque teno sus virus 1 and 2.as a result of rapidly growing human populations, intensification of livestock production and increasing exploitation of wildlife habitats for animal agriculture, the interface between wildlife, livestock and humans is expanding, with potential impacts on both domestic animal and human health. wild animals serve as reservoirs for many viruses, which may occasionally result in novel infections of domestic animals and/or the human population. given this background, we used metagenomics to investig ...201222967311
luiii parvovirus selectively and efficiently targets, replicates in, and kills human glioma cells.because productive infection by parvoviruses requires cell division and is enhanced by oncogenic transformation, some parvoviruses may have potential utility in killing cancer cells. to identify the parvovirus(es) with the optimal oncolytic effect against human glioblastomas, we screened 12 parvoviruses at a high multiplicity of infection (moi). mvmi, mvmc, mvm-g17, tumor virus x (tvx), canine parvovirus (cpv), porcine parvovirus (ppv), rat parvovirus 1a (rpv1a), and h-3 were relatively ineffect ...201222553327
half-life of porcine antibodies absorbed from a colostrum supplement containing porcine immunoglobulins.absorption of immunoglobulins (ig) at birth from colostrum is essential for piglet survival. the objective was to evaluate the half-life of antibodies absorbed in the bloodstream of newborn piglets orally fed a colostrum supplement (cs) containing energy (fat and carbohydrates) and igg from porcine plasma. viable piglets (n = 23; 900 to 1,800 g bw) from 6 sows were colostrum deprived and blood sampled and within the next 2 h of life randomly allocated to either control group (n = 9) providing 30 ...201223365363
[eukaryotic expression of ns1 major antigen region of ppv and development of an indirect elisa based on the expressed protein].to construct secretory expression vector of ppv ns1 gene, the fragment of ppv ns1 gene coding for major antigen region of the ns1 protein was amplified by pcr and inserted into multiple clone site of eukaryotic expression vector ppiczalpha-a. the recombinant ppiczalpha-a-ns1 plasmid was transferred into p. pastoris strain gs115 mediated by electro transform. recombinant p. pastoris strain gs115 was induced to express the fusion protein by methanol. the expressed and purified protein was analyzed ...201223367561
prevalence of hiv and hcv infections in two populations of malian women and serological assays performances.to estimate the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and hepatitis c virus (hcv) infections in women in mali and to evaluate the performance of serological assays.201223355914
interferon induction and suppression in swine testicle cells by porcine parvovirus and its proteins.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is a major causative agent of reproductive failure in swine, which currently affects the swine industry worldwide. although ppv was identified several years ago, little is known about how it overcomes host innate immunity. in this study, we used quantitative real-time pcr and a luciferase reporter assay to determine whether ppv infection induces type i interferon (ifn-α and ifn-β) and whether ppv infection blocks dsrna-induced ifn-β promoter activation in cell cultures. ...201223333362
emergence of a novel mutant pcv2b variant associated with clinical pcvad in two vaccinated pig farms in the u.s. concurrently infected with ppv2.porcine circovirus (pcv) type 2b (pcv2b) emerged in north america in 2005-2006. during may of 2012, pcvad occurred in 10-18-week-old pigs in two farms within a production system that routinely vaccinated against pcv2. both farms received replacement gilts from the same multiplier. a mutant pcv2b strain not previously present in north america was identified. the strain was found to be 99.9% identical to a recently described mutant pcv2 isolate reported in china in 2010 and thought to be more viru ...201223305615
prevalence of antibodies to selected viral pathogens in wild boars (sus scrofa) in croatia in 2005-06 and 2009-10.we determined prevalence of antibody to selected viral pathogens important for domestic pigs and livestock in 556 wild boar (sus scrofa) sera collected during 2005-06 and 2009-10 in four counties in croatia. these counties account for an important part of the croatian commercial pig production and have a high density of wild boars. samples were tested for antibodies to porcine parvovirus (ppv), aujeszky's disease virus (adv), porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), swine influenza virus, porcine respi ...201222247381
twelve-week posttreatment follow-up to predict sustained virologic response for recurrent hepatitis c infection in liver recipients.background: the current standard for determining sustained virologic response (svr) in patients treated for hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection is undetectable serum hcv-rna 24 weeks after treatment. this study evaluates the value of hcv-rna determination at 12 weeks posttreatment (w+12) to predict svr in liver transplant (lt) patients treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for recurrent hcv infection. methods: this study, performed in 2001 to 2010, included hcv-lt patients with an end-of ...201222262129
A multiple SYBR Green I-based real-time PCR system for the simultaneous detection of porcine circovirus type 2, porcine parvovirus, pseudorabies virus and Torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 in pigs.Multiple viral infections are common in pigs under intensive production conditions. All five of the viruses included in this study are associated with multifactorial diseases that cause significant economic losses in swine farming worldwide. The development is described of a novel multiple real-time PCR system based on the use of SYBR Green I that allows the simultaneous detection and differentiation of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2), porcine parvovirus (PPV), pseudorabies virus (PRV) and Torque t ...201222119629
comparison of conventional cervical cytology versus visual inspection with acetic acid among human immunodeficiency virus-infected women in western kenya.objective: this study aimed to determine the accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid (via) versus conventional pap smear as a screening tool for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia/cancer among human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected women. materials and methods: a total of 150 hiv-infected women attending the moi teaching and referral hospital hiv clinic in eldoret underwent conventional pap smear, via, colposcopy, and biopsy. both via and pap smears were done by nurses, whereas colpo ...201122126834
development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of porcine boca-like virus.the porcine boca-like virus (pbo-likev) was recently discovered in swedish pigs with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws). in this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay was developed for rapid, specific and sensitive detection of pbo-likev. a set of four primers specific for six regions of pbo-likev vp1/2 genes was designed with the online software. the reaction temperature and time were optimized to 65°c and 60min, respectively. lamp products were detected b ...201122172971
evaluation of the human host range of bovine and porcine viruses that may contaminate bovine serum and porcine trypsin used in the manufacture of biological products.current u.s. requirements for testing cell substrates used in production of human biological products for contamination with bovine and porcine viruses are u.s. department of agriculture (usda) 9cfr tests for bovine serum or porcine trypsin. 9cfr requires testing of bovine serum for seven specific viruses in six families (immunofluorescence) and at least 2 additional families non-specifically (cytopathicity and hemadsorption). 9cfr testing of porcine trypsin is for porcine parvovirus. recent con ...201122000165
isolated anti-hbc-igm antibody among blood donors in the semi-arid region of nigeria.laboratory screening for the diagnosis of hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection in blood donors currently consists of testing for hepatitis b surface (hbsag) antigen alone. the prevalence of isolated anti-hbc-igm is not yet known in the semi arid region of nigeria. the major objective of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of antibody to hepatitis b core antigen (anti-hbc-igm) and other infectious agent markers; hbsag, hcv, hiv and syphilis among blood donors in the north eastern region ...201122129677
detection of porcine circovirus type 1 in commercial porcine vaccines by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) method with a real-time monitoring system was developed for the detection of porcine circovirus type 1 (pcv1) in commercial swine vaccines. this method was highly specific for pcv1. no cross-reaction to porcine circovirus type 2, porcine parvovirus, pseudorabies virus, classical swine fever virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus was observed. the analytical sensitivity of the lamp for pcv1 dna was 10 copies/μl in the case of ...201121948286
using polymer conformation to control architecture in semiconducting polymer/viral capsid assemblies.cowpea chlorotic mottle virus is a single-stranded rna plant virus with a diameter of 28 nm. the proteins comprising the capsid of this virus can be purified and reassembled either by themselves to form hollow structures or with polyanions such as double-stranded dna or single-stranded rna. depending on ph and ionic strength, a diverse range of structures and shapes can form. the work presented here focuses on using these proteins to encapsulate a fluorescent polyanionic semiconducting polymer, ...201121942298
[treatment of chronic hepatitis c virus infection. a study of best predictors for response.]objective: the aim of this study was evaluate the rate of sustained viral response (svr) and the influence of different factors on the svr in patients with chronic hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection treated with pegylated interferon alfa 2a and ribavirin. methods: we retrospectively analysed 272 naïve patients with chronic hepatitis c who had been treated for 24 weeks or 48 weeks and had been followed for an additional 6 months thereafter. results: out of 272 patients, 243 completed the entire tr ...201122173189
the cucumber vein yellowing virus silencing suppressor p1b can functionally replace hcpro in plum pox virus infection in a host-specific manner.plant viruses of the genera potyvirus and ipomovirus (potyviridae family) use unrelated rna silencing suppressors (rss) to counteract antiviral rna silencing responses. hcpro is the rss of potyvirus spp., and its activity is enhanced by the upstream p1 protein. distinctively, the ipomovirus cucumber vein yellowing virus (cvyv) lacks hcpro but contains two p1 copies in tandem (p1ap1b), the second of which functions as rss. using chimeras based on the potyvirus plum pox virus (ppv), we found that ...201121970691
immunogenicity of recombinant classic swine fever virus cd8(+) t lymphocyte epitope and porcine parvovirus vp2 antigen coexpressed by lactobacillus casei in swine via oral vaccination.classical swine fever virus (csfv) and porcine parvovirus (ppv) are highly contagious pathogens, resulting in enormous economic losses in pig industries worldwide. because vaccines play an important role in disease control, researchers are seeking improved vaccines that could induce antiviral immune responses against csfv and ppv at the mucosal and systemic levels simultaneously. in this study, a genetically engineered lactobacillus strain coexpressing the csfv-specific cytotoxic t lymphocyte (c ...201121940406
rapid, early and sustained virological responses in a cohort of irish patients treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis c virus infection.the response to the treatment with pegylated interferon (peg ifn)-α combined with ribavirin in chronic hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection varies with some patients having a rapid or early response which is not sustained.201122038749
validation of a norovirus multiplex real-time rt-pcr assay for the detection of norovirus gi and gii from faeces samples.norovirus is a leading cause of infectious non-bacterial gastroenteritis. the virus is highly contagious and has multiple modes of transmission, presenting a growing challenge to hospital-based healthcare. in this study, a total of 120 stool samples are tested for the presence of norovirus gi and gii by the roche two-step lightcycler 2.0 assay incorporating primers and probes produced by tib molbiol, and the results are compared with results from the national virus reference laboratory. the roch ...201121950202
Detection of plum pox potyviral protein-protein interactions in planta using an optimized mRFP-based bimolecular fluorescence complementation system.In previous studies, protein interaction maps of different potyviruses have been generated using yeast two-hybrid (YTH) systems, and these maps have demonstrated a high diversity of interactions of potyviral proteins. Using an optimized bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) system, a complete interaction matrix for proteins of a potyvirus was developed for the first time under in planta conditions with ten proteins from plum pox virus (PPV). In total, 52 of 100 possible interactions we ...201121880839
Seroprevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, Aujeszky's disease, and porcine parvovirus in replacement gilts in Thailand.The present study investigated the seroprevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV) in replacement gilts from selected five swine herds in Thailand. The study consisted of three parts. First, a retrospective data analysis on the seroprevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and ADV glycoprotein I (gI) in gilts, sows, boars, nursery, and fattening pigs in five herds (n?=?7,030). Seco ...201122068636
Prediction of sustained response to low-dose pegylated interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin in patients with genotype 1b and high hepatitis C virus level using viral reduction within 2 weeks after therapy initiation.Aim: Continuation of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin at the recommended dose is difficult in elderly patients and/or patients with cytopenia or complications. Whether the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose PEG-IFN plus ribavirin therapy could be predicted based on virological response within 2 weeks of therapy initiation was evaluated. Methods: A total of 106 patients with a high viral load of genotype-1b hepatitis C virus (HCV) underwent low-dose PEG-IFN plus ribavirin therapy. PE ...201121951330
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of porcine circovirus type 2.ABSTRACT:201122044506
studies on porcine circovirus type 2 vaccination of 5-day-old piglets.porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) vaccines have become widely used since they became available in 2006. it is not uncommon for producers to use pcv2 vaccines in pigs younger than what is approved by manufacturers. the objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a chimeric and a subunit pcv2 vaccine administered at 5 or 21 days of age. forty-eight pcv2-naïve piglets were randomly divided into six groups of eight pigs each. vaccination was done at day 5 or day 21, followed by triple ch ...201121940407
decreasing levels of hbsag predict hbsag seroclearance in patients with inactive chronic hepatitis b virus infection.background & aims: serum levels of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) decrease gradually during chronic hepatitis b virus infection. we investigated the association between levels of hbsag and hbsag seroclearance. methods: we studied data from 46 patients who underwent spontaneous seroclearance of hbsag (median age at seroclearance, 48 y; 87% male; 76% infected with genotype b). there were 46 controls matched for age, sex, and hepatitis b virus genotype, and e antigen status with persistently n ...201121893131
presence of porcine parvovirus in sera from pigs is independent of antibody titers.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is a widespread dna virus that causes reproductive failure in swine. the aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of ppv in sera of nursery piglets (healthy n = 191 and wasting n = 132) and regularly vaccinated sows (with different parity rank [pr] n = 129), collected from different herds. altogether, 452 animals were sampled in 27 herds owned by five companies. all sera were analyzed for the presence of ppv dna by nested-pcr. the samples from sows were i ...201122059296
diagnostic capacity of rapid influenza antigen test: reappraisal with experience from the 2009 h1n1 pandemic.background: the rapid influenza antigen test (riat) has been questioned because of its poor sensitivity. clinicians are confused as to what diagnostic help it may provide. riat was reappraised by other laboratory confirmatory tests for its diagnostic capacity. methods: records of riat, rt-pcr and virus culture, performed for upper respiratory tract samples during the period from july 2009 to january 2010, were reviewed. the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (ppv) and negative p ...201122177367
Identification of improved IL28B SNPs and haplotypes for prediction of drug response in treatment of hepatitis C using massively parallel sequencing in a cross-sectional European cohort.BACKGROUND: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects nearly 3% of the World's population, causing severe liver disease in many. Standard of care therapy is currently pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin (PegIFN/R), which is effective in less than half of those infected with the most common viral genotype. Two IL28B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs8099917 and rs12979860, predict response to (PegIFN/R) therapy in treatment of HCV infection. These SNPs were identified in genome wide analys ...201121884576
[High-risk human papilloma virus DNA detection kit (cervista HPV HR) should be highly validated clinically in cervical cancer screening programs].The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of High-risk Human Papilloma virus DNA Detection Kit (Cervista HPV HR) designed to the utilized in cervical cancer screening programs.201121863645
performance of the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for the staging of hepatitis c-related fibrosis: an updated meta-analysis.the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (apri), a tool with limited expense and widespread availability, is a promising noninvasive alternative to liver biopsy for detecting hepatic fibrosis. the objective of this study was to update the 2007 meta-analysis to systematically assess the accuracy of apri in predicting significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis, and cirrhosis stage in hepatitis c virus (hcv) monoinfected and hcv / human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) coinfected individuals. ...201121319189
validity of two rapid point of care influenza tests and direct fluorecence assay in comparison of real time pcr for swine of origin influenza virus.a novel swine origin influenza virus (s-oiv) is continue to spread worldwide and a global declaration of 2009 influenza pandemic was made by world health organization (who) june 2009, this along with approaching the winter season at the northern hemisphere, increase the interest to provide a quick, easy, affordable and available point of care testing for s-oiv.201121338954
twelve week post-treatment follow-up predicts sustained virological response to pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy in hiv/hepatitis c virus co-infected patients.the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the assessment of hepatitis c virus (hcv) rna serum at 12 weeks after the end of treatment (w12) was as informative as after 24 weeks (w24) for determining sustained virological response (svr) in hiv/hcv co-infected patients who received a combination of pegylated interferon (peg-inf) plus ribavirin (peg-inf/rbv) and had a virological response at the end of treatment.201121415037
sequence variability, recombination analysis, and specific detection of the w strain of plum pox virus.plum pox virus (ppv), a member of the genus potyvirus, is the causal agent of sharka, the most detrimental disease of stone-fruit trees worldwide. ppv isolates are grouped into seven distinct strains. the minor ppv-w strain was established recently for the divergent w3174 isolate found in canada. here, the partial or complete genomic sequences of four ppv-w isolates from latvia have been determined. the completely sequenced isolates lv-141pl and lv-145bt share 93.1 and 92.1% nucleotide identity, ...201121425932
in vitro evaluation of antiviral and virucidal activity of a high molecular weight hyaluronic acid.hyaluronic acid (ha), a non-sulphated glycosaminoglycan, is present in synovial fluid, vitreous humour serum and many connective tissues. pharmaceutical preparations of ha are used in clinical practice for wound healing, joint pain, kerato-conjunctivitis, asthma, mouth care, oesophageal-reflux, and gastritis. moreover, it is used as a filler to counteract ageing and facial lipoatrophy. our study aims at investigating the in vitro antiviral activity of a high molecular weight ha.201121439070
[coinfection effects of porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine parvovirus in vivo on phagocytosis and interferon mrna expression of porcine alveolar macrophages].our study is to analyse the coinfection effects of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) and porcine parvovirus (ppv) in vivo on phagocytosis and interferon mrna expression level of porcine alveolar macrophages (pam).201121465796
the immune enhancement of propolis adjuvant on inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccine in guinea pig.two experiments were carried out. in immune response test, the immune enhancement of propolis, oilemulsion and aluminium salt were compared in guinea pig vaccinated with inactivated porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccine. the result showed that three adjuvants could enhance antibody titer, t lymphocyte proliferation, il-2 and il-4 secretion of splenic lymphocyte. the action of propolis was similar to that of oilemulsion and superior to that of aluminium salt, especially in early period of vaccination ...201121482422
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