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temperature dependent replication of porcine parvovirus isolates.the replication of four porcine parvovirus isolates, nadl-8, nadl-2, kbsh, and kresse, in swine testes cells were compared at temperatures of 32, 37, and 39 degrees c. replication of the kresse isolate was restricted at 32 and 37 degrees c as evidenced by progeny virus, virus polypeptide and viral dna synthesis, but not at 39 degrees c. in contrast, replication of kbsh was restricted at 39 degrees c, but not at 37 or 32 degrees c. findings from this study support the contention that replication ...19892596974
expression of the plum pox virus coat protein region in escherichia coli.a cdna complementary to the 3' end of plum pox virus (ppv) rna was sequenced. the sequence was investigated for the presumable coat protein cistron by computer-aided translation. a fragment containing the stop codon of the polyprotein gene and a putative virus-specific protease cleavage site was subcloned into an e. coli expression vector. it is shown by immunological analysis that the coat protein cistron is located within the subcloned region.19892655276
artificial cleavage site recognized by plum pox potyvirus protease in escherichia coli.a synthetic plum pox virus (ppv) nib-cp cleavage site was recognized by a ppv protease in an in vivo escherichia coli expression system. the presence of the natural nib-cp cleavage site did not affect processing at the artificial one. however, although both the proteases and the cleavage sites of ppv and tobacco etch virus show high sequence homology, a similar cassette from the tobacco etch virus nib-cp junction was not efficiently recognized by the ppv protease.19892657098
polarized entry of canine parvovirus in an epithelial cell line.the binding and uptake of canine parvovirus (cpv) in polarized epithelial cells were investigated by growing the cells on a permeable support and inoculating with the virus either from the apical or basolateral surface. binding of radiolabeled cpv occurred preferentially on the basolateral surface. in contrast, when a similar experiment was carried out on nonpolarized a72 cells, virus binding occurred regardless of the direction of virus input. binding appeared to be specific for cpv and could n ...19892657102
the complete nucleotide sequence of plum pox virus rna.the complete nucleotide sequence of the rna of an aphid non-transmissible plum pox virus (ppv-nat) isolate has been determined from five overlapping cdna clones. cdna prepared by primer extension was used to determine the 5' terminus. the assembled rna is 9741 nucleotides in length, excluding a 3' terminal poly(a) sequence. one large open reading frame starts at nucleotide positions 36 to 38 and is terminated with an uag codon at positions 9522 to 9524. the putative start codon is located at pos ...19892732699
nucleotide sequence of capsid protein gene of porcine parvovirus.approximately 90% of the genome of porcine parvovirus was cloned into bacterial cells. the nucleotide sequence of the genome from 33 map units (mu) to 95 mu was determined and shown to include the entire gene encoding the capsid proteins. the predicted amino acid sequences of the capsid proteins showed extensive homology to those of other autonomous parvoviruses.19892750278
the complete nucleotide sequence of plum pox potyvirus rna.the complete nucleotide sequence of the plum pox virus (ppv) rna genome has been determined. the rna sequence is 9786 nucleotides in length, excluding the 3'-terminal poly(a) tail. an aug triplet at position 147-149 was assigned as the initiation codon for the translation of the genome size viral polyprotein which would consist of 3140 amino acid residues. the nucleotide sequence of the non-coding regions and the predicted amino acid sequence of the polyprotein of ppv were compared with those pr ...19892773595
porcine parvovirus: dna sequence and genome organization.we have determined the nucleotide sequence of an almost full-length clone of porcine parvovirus (ppv). the sequence is 4973 nucleotides (nt) long. the 3' end of virion dna shows a y-shaped configuration homologous to rodent parvoviruses. the 5' end of virion dna shows a repetition of 127 nt at the carboxy terminus of the capsid proteins. the overall organization of the ppv genome is similar to those of other autonomous parvoviruses. there are two large open reading frames (orfs) that almost enti ...19892794971
the genome-linked protein and 5' end rna sequence of plum pox potyvirus.the infectivity of plum pox potyvirus (ppv) rna was decreased by treatment with proteases. ribonuclease digestion of iodinated ppv rna yielded material which had an electrophoretic mobility corresponding to mr 22,000. this protein presumably corresponds to the protease-sensitive structure needed for infectivity. a protein-linked rnase t1-resistant oligonucleotide, 38 nucleotides long, was sequenced and shown to correspond to the 5' terminus of the rna by sequence comparison to the rnas of two ot ...19892794981
[experimental studies on maedi-visna].in order to study pathogenicity of sheep lentiviruses, to obtain monospecific sera and to perfect elisa, 3 experiments with different strains were carried out for 4 yr. in expt 1, one clone only of a french maedi-visna strain (564-79) elicits a clear seroconversion in inoculated sheep. in expt 2, k1514 is more immunogenic than k796 and ppv: intratracheal route seems more efficient than intracerebral route. sheep infected by ts mutants (expt 3) are early positive as wild strain k796. nevertheless ...19882838220
field trials of an inactivated, oil-emulsion porcine parvovirus vaccine in british pig herds.inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccines have been available commercially in britain since 1984 and are now widely used in breeding herds. to investigate their value in cost benefit terms an oil-emulsion vaccine developed at weybridge was used in trials on 1243 gilts in 12 herds during the period 1984 to 1986. in each herd approximately half the gilts were given the vaccine before breeding and the remainder were left unvaccinated. blood samples were taken at vaccination and two to four weeks late ...19882839927
porcine parvovirus vaccination. 19882842932
porcine parvovirus vaccination. 19882844016
porcine parvovirus vaccination. 19882845629
detection of antibodies against porcine parvovirus in swine sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for detection of antibody against porcine parvovirus in swine sera. the antigen used for the assay was partially-purified virus treated with fluorocarbon and shown to contain 7 proteins by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. of these proteins 83-, 64- and 60-k proteins reacted in western immunoblotting with swine serum after infection with porcine parvovirus. antibody responses were demonstrated by elisa in pigs sub ...19882845632
mapping of porcine parvovirus dna and development of a diagnostic dna probe.dimeric and monomeric replicative forms of dna of porcine parvovirus (ppv) strain nadl-2 were isolated and examined by restriction enzyme analysis and reciprocal southern blot hybridization during development of a dna probe for ppv. genomic single stranded ppv dna was 5.0 kb long, and results substantiated the rolling-hairpin model of parvovirus dna replication with the primer sequence located in the 3' terminal hairpin loop. an additional finding was the generation of a 4.7 kb species of viral ...19882845634
efficacy of an inactivated porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccine under field conditions. 19883256229
the ability by different preparations of porcine parvovirus to enhance humoral immunity in swine and guinea pigs.the capacity of different preparations of inactivated porcine parvovirus to stimulate antibody response was studied. the adjuvants chosen were aluminium hydroxide gel [al(oh)3, 30-50%], water-in-mineral-oil emulsion (w/mo, 50%) alone or combined with al(oh)3, and two synthetic products known as dimethyldioctadecylammoniumbromide (dda, 0.16%) and an acrylic acid polymer resin (carbopol 934p, 0.02%) respectively. for each preparation, swine and guinea pigs devoid of antibody to porcine parvovirus ...19883216795
plaque formation and replication of porcine parvovirus in embryonic swine kidney cell line, esk cells. 19883210492
porcine parvovirus: replication in and inhibition of selected cellular functions of swine alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood lymphocytes.the ability of four isolates of porcine parvovirus (nadl-8, nadl-2, kbsh, and kresse) to replicate in and affect the functions of swine peripheral blood lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages was studied in vitro. v-strand and c-strand viral dna was present in both concanavalin a- and non-treated lymphocytes as well as alveolar macrophages following infection with all four isolates. indirect fluorescent antibody assays on swine testis cells, inoculated with cell lysates of nadl-8-infected peripher ...19883046562
uptake of porcine parvovirus into host and nonhost cells suggests host specificity is determined by intracellular factors.the uptake of porcine parvovirus (ppv) into host cells, permissive or nonpermissive for ppv replication, was monitored by autoradiography, immunofluorescent microscopy, and dual parameter flow cytometry. while both permissive and nonpermissive cells selectively took up the light (activated) form of the virus from a mixed population of heavy and light infectious virions, the virus was only replicated in the permissive cell cultures. transfection of permissive and nonpermissive cells with purified ...19883376550
size and antigenic comparisons among the structural proteins of selected autonomous parvoviruses.the size and antigenic relationships among structural proteins (vps) of canine parvovirus (cpv), feline parvovirus (fpv), porcine parvovirus (ppv), minute virus of mice (mvm) and bovine parvovirus (bpv) were determined by sds-page of radiolabelled, purified virus and immunoprecipitated viral proteins. mature virions of cpv, fpv, ppv and mvm were composed of three vps designated vp1, vp2 and vp3. the corresponding proteins of each virus were similar in molecular weight [79,000 to 82,500 (vp1), 65 ...19883356979
[2 strains of swine parvoviruses isolated from aborted fetuses].two hemagglutinating virus strains were isolated (in primary cell cultures of pig kidneys) from viscera of aborted swine fetuses. a number of serologic, cytologic, physico-chemical, and laboratory investigations with the strains revealed that they belonged to the group of porcine parvovirus (ppv). the isolation of spv from aborted fetuses pointed to the fact that the disease had been widespread among the swine population and plays a part in reproduction disturbances that have come to be known re ...19873617471
[isolation of conjugated sera for the immunofluorescence demonstration of swine parvovirus].high-titer, specific serum against porcine parvovirus was obtained via hyperimmunization of rabbits, with the use of a bulgarian isolate that had been partially purified after a known, modified technique. a specific, high-titer conjugate was produced for the immunofluorescence diagnosis of porcine parvoviruses. the microscopic observation of the lamellae of cell cultures, treated with the conjugate, revealed the presence of a specific, typically granulated perinuclear (mostly unilaterally) and, ...19873314114
antigenic and structural variation of the p28 core polypeptide of goat and sheep retroviruses.the p28 core polypeptides of four isolates of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) from goats was compared with those of visna virus (vv) and progressive pneumonia virus (ppv) from sheep. monoclonal antibodies recognized p28 epitopes common to all six retrovirus isolates, a p28 epitope on four caev isolates, but not vv and ppv isolates, a p28 epitope on four caev isolates and vv, but not ppv and a p28 epitope unique to the caev isolate used for immunizing the mouse spleen donor. compariso ...19872440985
cultivation of a pig parvovirus in various cell cultures.the susceptibility of several established cell lines of pig (llc-pk1 = pig kidney; mpk = minipig kidney; pk15 = pig kidney; esk = embryonic swine kidney), bovine (ebtr = embryonic bovine trachea), monkey (ma-104 = fetal rhesus monkey kidney) and human (hel-299 = embryonic human lung) origin to porcine parvovirus was studied. the primary pig kidney cell cultures (ppk) were included in the study as the reference cell system. from the results it appeared that the virus only replicated in cell lines ...19873626887
[restriction analysis of the genome of swine abortion parvovirus and cloning of its psti-ecori fragment].the cultured pig kidney cells infected by the porcine parvovirus (ppv) produced the virions and viral dna. the latter was used as a matrix to synthesize the double stranded dna. the obtained preparation is more homogenic than the natural replicative form and was used for restriction analysis of porcine parvovirus genome and for molecular cloning of its fragment. the isolated recombinant plasmids contained the psti-ecori fragment of ppv dna, containing 70% of the viral genome. the restriction ana ...19873037360
inhibition of porcine parvovirus replication by empty virus particles.the influence of empty porcine parvovirus (ppv) particles on viral replication was examined in cell cultures and in swine. following extensive purification, homogeneous preparations of full and empty ppv preparations were obtained and used for in vitro and in vivo analyses. in the first in vitro experiment, swine testes cells were infected with mixtures of various ratios of empty and full (e/f) particles. the production of both intracellular and extracellular virus was markedly inhibited in the ...19873039947
clinical, virologic, and histopathologic observations of induced porcine parvovirus infection in boars.twelve 8- to 12-month-old crossbred boars were inoculated with a virulent strain (nadl-8) of porcine parvovirus (ppv). hemicastrations were performed on 6 boars 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days after an im injection of 10(8) median cell culture infectious dose (ccid50) of ppv (n = 3) or injection of 10(7.4) ccid50 given intratesticularly (it, n = 3). noninfected cell culture medium (0.25 ml) was injected into each testicle of a 7th boar (it inoculated control). virus or viral antigen was detected i ...19873035971
hormonal changes in sows after induced porcine parvovirus infection in early pregnancy.hormonal changes, lesions, and virus isolation studies were determined in sows after uterine artery inoculation with porcine parvovirus [( ppv], strain nadl-8) in early pregnancy. two sows were given ppv on days 14 or 16 and were euthanatized and necropsied on day 35 after twice daily plasma collection for hormone measurement. parvovirus was given to 4 sows on day 14 and to 4 sows on day 21 with 5 times daily plasma samples collected for 1 week. sows were examined on days 21 and 28, respectively ...19873035969
maternally-derived antibodies to porcine parvovirus and their effect on active antibody production after vaccination with an inactivated oil-emulsion vaccine.two sows which had been vaccinated with an oil-emulsion porcine parvovirus vaccine, and had developed high haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody levels to the virus, farrowed three successive litters each, a total of 74 piglets. serum samples from these piglets were tested for haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody at birth, three and 17 days after birth, and at monthly intervals thereafter to study the decline of maternally-derived antibody. regression curves were constructed from the data to sh ...19873603999
desorption of porcine parvovirus from aluminum hydroxide adjuvant with subsequent viral immunoassay or hemagglutination assay.cell culture fluids containing porcine parvovirus were adjuvanted with varying concentrations of aluminum hydroxide gel. adsorption of virus and total protein to adjuvant was proportional to adjuvant concentration. desorption of virus and protein from the adjuvant in substantial, reproducible quantities was achieved by washing adjuvanted preparations with 1.2 m potassium phosphate, followed by dialysis and concentration of wash fluids. sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of ...19873033874
use of an inactivated vaccine for prevention of parvovirus-induced reproductive failure in gilts.gilts from dams that had been inoculated with inactivated porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccine before breeding became seronegative to ppv by 26 weeks of age. vaccination of these gilts with inactivated ppv vaccine at 32 weeks of age resulted in an antibody response that peaked at about 2 weeks after vaccination, with -log10 mean hemagglutination inhibiting (hi) antibody titers of less than 2. in the first-year group (82 gilts), hi titers gradually decreased, 20% of the gilts being seronegative by 6 ...19873028999
comparison of porcine parvovirus to other parvoviruses by restriction site mapping and hybridization analysis of southern blots.the genomic relationship between porcine parvovirus (ppv) and several other autonomous parvoviruses was examined by restriction site and hybridization analysis. restriction site maps of the ppv genome were prepared by digesting the double-stranded replicative form of the viral dna with each of eight restriction enzymes. subsequent comparison of such maps with those previously reported for ppv, canine parvovirus (cpv), feline panleukopenia virus (fpv), minute virus of mice (mvm), h-1 virus (h-1) ...19873029312
experience of vaccination against porcine parvovirus in pig-breeding herds: serological status and reproductive performance. 19872841834
pathogenicity of a skin isolate of porcine parvovirus in swine fetuses.the pathogenic properties of a skin isolate of porcine parvovirus (ppv), designated kresse isolate, were compared with nadl-8 isolate, a prototype isolate of ppv, by in utero inoculation of mid-term and late-term gestation swine fetuses. fetuses from pregnant sows of mid-gestation were inoculated with either nadl-8 or kresse virus. both isolates were highly pathogenic to mid-gestation fetuses. in contrast, dramatic differences in pathogenicity between these 2 isolates were observed in fetuses in ...19872830705
antigenic relationships among autonomous parvoviruses.the antigenic relatedness of minute virus of mice (mvm), kilham rat virus (kr), h-1 virus (h-1), haemorrhagic encephalopathy of rats virus (her), porcine parvovirus (ppv), canine parvovirus (cpv), feline panleukopenia virus (fpv), goose parvovirus (gpv) and bovine parvovirus (bpv) was studied by immunofluorescence microscopy (fa) and by serum neutralization (sn). an antigenically related group comprising mvm, kr, her, ppv, cpv and fpv was recognized by fa and most reactions within the group were ...19862432167
study of the efficacy of an inactivated virus vaccine against porcine parvovirus.the efficacy of an inactivated virus vaccine against porcine parvovirus has been studied by immunizing 4 sows during pregnancy. a parvovirus virulent strain has been inoculated to these sows and to two other unvaccinated sows used as controls. the infection was performed between the 52nd and the 57th day of gestation. in the litters born from the vaccinated sows, 82% of the piglets were alive and normal. neither ppv antibodies nor antigen could be revealed in the stillborn fetuses born from the ...19863030182
a solid phase fluorescent immunoassay for the rapid detection of virus antigen or antibodies in fetuses infected with porcine parvovirus.a solid phase fluorescent immunoassay using polyacrylamide beads coated with rabbit anti-porcine parvovirus antibodies has been developed and utilized in the diagnosis of porcine parvovirus infection. the antibody-coated beads (immunobeads) were used both to detect virus in mummified fetal tissues and to demonstrate specific antibodies in serum and ovarian follicular fluid. the immunobeads assay (iba) was as sensitive as elisa but more sensitive than virus isolation using tissue culture and haem ...19863006641
some epidemiological features and effects on reproductive performance of endemic porcine parvovirus infection.the time of development of demonstrable antibody to porcine parvovirus (ppv) was determined for 661 gilts entering the breeding herd in a 2800 sow intensive piggery; 13.2% of these gilts did not have detectable antibody to ppv when first introduced into the breeding herd at 25 to 26 weeks of age. exposure to ppv was found to vary in different sheds and even in different areas within a shed. gilts that developed antibody to ppv during the first third of pregnancy were not adversely affected. thos ...19863008694
establishment of the attenuated strain of porcine parvovirus for the live vaccine and its biological-immunological characteristics. 19863012173
interepizootic survival of porcine parvovirus.porcine parvovirus (ppv) was transmitted by direct contact between experimentally infected and susceptible pigs at 1 and 2 weeks, but not at 4, 8, 16, or 25 weeks, after experimental infection. in contrast, ppv was found to remain infectious for at least 14 weeks in uncleaned rooms previously vacated by experimentally infected pigs. these findings suggest that facilities contaminated by secretions and excretions of infected pigs may provide the major means by which ppv survives between episodes ...19863013820
efficacy of porcine parvovirus vaccines.three inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccines were tested for efficacy in 66 susceptible gilts. the gilts were challenged with virulent virus on the 40th day of gestation. all the vaccines provided excellent protection against fetal mortality despite insignificant serological responses to one of them. good protection was obtained with two of the vaccines even when the dose was substantially reduced. unvaccinated controls had very few viable fetuses.19863020765
[effect of maternal antibodies on the vaccination of young swine against porcine parvovirus (ppv)]. 19863021118
vaccination of swine with an inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccine in the presence of passive immunity.a study was conducted to determine whether low hemagglutination inhibiting (hi) titers (1:5) for porcine parvovirus (ppv) block the development of immune response to a ppv vaccine. pigs with low (1:5), medium (1:10 or 1:20), or high (1:40 or 1:80) titers were obtained by iv injections with various amounts of ppv immune serum. pigs were inoculated with 1 or 2 doses of vaccine and were monitored for serum hi antibodies to ppv. pigs with low titers responded to vaccine just as well as did the seron ...19863949618
porcine parvovirus: propagation in microcarrier cell culture and immunogenic evaluation in pregnant gilts.porcine parvovirus was propagated in pk-15 cells cultured in roller bottles or on microcarrier beads. after inactivation, the virus was used as antigen in the preparation of vaccines. the immunogenic potency and safety of the vaccines were evaluated in specific pathogen free pregnant gilts and guinea pigs. experimental challenge tests determined the efficacy of the vaccine in preventing porcine parvovirus transplacental infection. neither viral antigens nor specific antibodies were detected in f ...19863809732
porcine parvovirus infection in a commercial piggery. 198616031279
potentiating effect of adjuvants on humoral immunity to porcine parvovirus vaccines in guinea pigs.fourteen different adjuvants, given either in single or combined form with another compound were compared in guinea pigs for their ability to potentiate humoral immunity to porcine parvovirus (ppv) antigen after 2 vaccinations. two injections were given, the second 3 weeks following the initial vaccination. antibody concentrations to ppv in sera from injected animals were measured over a 5-week period by the hemagglutination inhibition test. at the conclusion of the experiment, guinea pigs injec ...19854002607
pasteurization of antihemophilic factor and model virus inactivation studies.heating sterilized albumin preparations at 600 degrees c for 10 hours has historically been shown to yield a hepatitis-free, efficacious product. we have evaluated such a pasteurization procedure with ahf preparations. procoagulant activity and fibrinogen stability were dependent on the amount of sucrose used as a stabilizer. flash pasteurization at 72 degrees c was evaluated and was found to be detrimental to ahf. effect of sucrose concentration was shown on the inactivation kinetics of porcine ...19853931293
[study of porcine parvovirus antibodies on a breeding farm].serological examination of porcine parvovirus (ppv) haemagglutinating antibodies is reported in replacement gilts after a ppv infection on a large farm. it seems that ppv is no longer active on the farm after ppv infection.19854082161
identification and characterization of a porcine parvovirus nonstructural polypeptide.sera from porcine parvovirus (ppv)-infected swine fetuses immunoprecipitated and 84- to 86-kilodalton polypeptide in addition to the a and b virion structural proteins. this polypeptide, designated ns-1, was present in ppv-infected cell lysates but not in purified virions. partial proteolysis mapping revealed that ns-1 was not related to the a and b viral structural proteins. all three proteins in infected cells were phosphorylated at serine residues, and ns-1 also contained phosphothreonine. fr ...19854020958
radioimmunoassay of adjuvant-associated porcine parvovirus using a monoclonal antibody in a nitrocellulose membrane system.a quantitative and simple indirect radioimmunoassay (iria) was developed for porcine parvovirus (ppv), employing a monoclonal antibody directed against ppv adsorbed to nitrocellulose membrane. the iria was equally sensitive to live or inactivated ppv. there was a linear relationship between membrane-bound radioactivity and ppv quantity within a range of 10-80 hemagglutinating (ha) units of virus. two commercially used adjuvants, aluminum hydroxide (ah) and carboxyvinyl polymer (cp), reduced boun ...19853009510
precipitating antibodies in experimental visna and natural progressive pneumonia of sheep.serological responses of icelandic sheep experimentally infected with visna virus (vv) were contrasted with responses in american targhee sheep naturally infected with progressive pneumonia virus (ppv). precipitating antibodies assayed by immunodiffusion were compared with the neutralising and complementing fixing antibody response. in experimental infections with vv, complement fixing and neutralising antibodies appeared early after infection and rose to high levels in all sheep, while precipit ...19852988088
kbsh parvovirus: comparison with porcine parvovirus.we compared the molecular, antigenic, and pathogenic properties of kbsh parvovirus to those of porcine parvovirus (ppv) isolate nadl-8. kbsh, propagated in swine testes cells in culture, possessed two major capsid polypeptides of 83 and 64 kilodaltons that were similar in size to those of ppv. kbsh-infected cells also contained an 86-kilodalton nonstructural polypeptide that was identical in size to the ppv nonstructural polypeptide (ns-1). the kbsh polypeptides were structurally similar but not ...19852991553
prenatal and preweaning deaths caused by pseudorabies virus and porcine parvovirus in a swine herd.sequential outbreaks of pseudorabies virus and porcine parvovirus infections were documented at a swine farm in southern minnesota. data for the prevalence of mummified fetuses born and the preweaning mortality were recorded over a 3-year-period. the farm was a farrow-to-finish facility, with breeding females housed in 4 groups according to their stage of pregnancy. the herd consisted of approximately 130 breeding females in december 1981, and expanded to 220 females during the 12 months of 1982 ...19852997093
persistence of passive immunity to porcine parvovirus. 19852998320
absence of porcine parvovirus transmission to man. 19853001979
porcine parvovirus: a serological survey in the united kingdom january 1984 to january 1985. 19853001999
parvovirus infection in pigs with necrotic and vesicle-like lesions.porcine parvovirus was isolated from many visceral organs and also from the brain, serum and skin specimens of swine with vesicular-like conditions. severe lesions were reported to have occurred in the mouth, on the tongue and snout, on the coronary band and in the interdigital spaces. also, parvoviral antigens were demonstrated, by immunofluorescence, in the outer layers of hair follicles in skin adjacent to coronary band lesions.19853006323
parvovirus-like particles associated with diarrhea in unweaned piglets.numerous parvovirus-like particles, 18 to 26 nm in diameter, were detected by electron microscopy in the intestinal contents of two to three week old piglets with mild to severe diarrhea, in six quebec pig herds. hemagglutination of guinea pig and african green monkey red blood cells was obtained with clarified intestinal contents. two isolates were found to be antigenically related to porcine and canine parvoviruses, while another differed from the porcine parvovirus using the hemagglutination- ...19852412678
porcine parvovirus dna: characterization of the genomic and replicative form dna of two virus isolates.the genomic and replicative form (rf) dna of porcine parvovirus (ppv) have been characterized. ppv isolate nadl-8 was found to have a 5000-base single-stranded genome, and a unique strand was encapsidated in virus particles. the rf dna of isolate nadl-8 was found to be an infectious 5000-base pair (bp) molecule. select restriction endonuclease sites were mapped along the rf dna of ppv (nadl-8), and oriented with respect to the viral genomic dna. the rf dna of a second isolate of ppv, the less pa ...19846091327
porcine parvovirus infection in boars: ii. influence on fertility. 19846091372
[parvovirus infection in pigs: incidence and prevention. the diessen group veterinarian practice].a trial is reported, which was carried out to find an answer to two questions: to which extent do parvovirus-infections occur and what is the effect of a single porcine parvovirus vaccination? parvovirus was found to be enzootic on the farms included in the trial, whereas a singled vaccination was shown to be effective with regard to the prevention of lesions due to porcine parvovirus infections.19846095485
[occurrence of porcine parvovirus infection in switzerland and a new method of virus demonstration using immune electron microscopy]. 19846098102
antibody responses of guinea-pigs, rabbits and pigs to inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccines.antibody responses were compared in guinea-pigs, rabbits and pigs following vaccination with inactivated porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccines. mean ppv hemagglutination inhibition (hi) antibody titers of 52, 56 and 36 at 1 week after first vaccination and 896, 640 and 512 at 2 weeks after second vaccination were detected in guinea-pigs, rabbits and pigs, respectively. ppv vaccines prepared with greater concentrations of virus, as determined by hemagglutination (ha) units, and of aluminum hydroxide ...19846719818
swine diseases transmissible with artificial insemination.the transport of fresh and frozen semen to be used for artificial insemination creates a mode of disease transmission between farms. normally, semen contains a number of nonpathogenic bacterial contaminants; however, excessive bacterial contamination can result in infertile matings. contamination with a known pathogen, eg, brucella suis, could initiate a serious outbreak of disease in a recipient herd. methods to minimize bacterial contamination of semen include sanitary collecting and processin ...19846090372
tissue culture infectivity assay for porcine parvovirus. 19846474785
an inactivated, oil-emulsion vaccine for the prevention of porcine parvovirus-induced reproductive failure.pig fetuses inoculated at 45 days gestation with virulent porcine parvovirus (ppv) were harvested 10 days later. virus was extracted, inactivated with binary ethylenimine and the antigen suspension emulsified with mineral oil adjuvant. one dose of this vaccine, or two doses with a 14 day interval, stimulated high and long lasting serum antibody titres in gilts. vaccination caused no clinical reactions and lesions at injection sites were minor. vaccination of seronegative gilts at 40 days gestati ...19846326214
biological assay of attenuated strain nadl-2 and virulent strain nadl-8 of porcine parvovirus.attenuated strain nadl-2 and virulent strain nadl-8 of porcine parvovirus (ppv) were titrated in vivo and in vitro under similar conditions to provide a better understanding of some of the factors involved in virulence of ppv in causing maternal reproductive failure of swine. both strains cause fetal death when they are injected directly into fetal fluids, but only strain nadl-8 does so when administered to pregnant swine. the strains were tested for their hemagglutinating activity (ha), median ...19846098200
oronasal and intramuscular vaccination of swine with a modified live porcine parvovirus vaccine: multiplication and transmission of the vaccine virus.an attenuated strain nadl-2 of porcine parvovirus (ppv) has been used at the 54th cell culture passage as a modified live-virus (mlv) vaccine. the present study was conducted to determine the minimum immunizing dose of mlv, the extent of mlv multiplication in swine tissues, and its transmission from swine administered mlv oronasally or intramuscularly. immune response to mlv was dose dependent and swine responded to as little as 10(2) median cell-culture infective doses (ccid50). a 10(5) ccid50 ...19846098202
experimental infection of sheep by caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and goats by progressive pneumonia virus.the lentiviruses, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) and progressive pneumonia virus (ppv) of sheep, cause major diseases in their respective hosts; however, the infectivity of these viruses for closely related species has not been determined. experiments were conducted to determine whether caev would infect sheep and whether ppv would infect goats. upon inoculation with caev, lambs developed a nonsuppurative arthritis and antibody to caev, and the virus was isolated up to 4 months late ...19836318613
farm studies of porcine parvovirus infection.epizootics of reproductive failure associated with porcine parvovirus infection were investigated on 38 farms. mummification was common to all epizootics. the mean number of mummified fetuses per affected litter was 3.1. mean number of pigs born alive for gilts and sows farrowing litters with mummified fetuses was 5.0, but for sows without mummified litters on the same farms it was 9.0. mummified fetuses were observed in aborted litters on 8 (21.1%) farms. gilts and sows that appeared pregnant b ...19836833101
the pattern of endemic parvovirus infection in four pig herds.serological surveys were conducted on the gilts and adult sows in 4 herds endemically infected with porcine parvovirus. the study assessed the influence of the type of management of breeders on the spread of virus infection and the influence of endemic parvovirus infection on reproductive parameters of the herd. the practice of holding gilts and sows in groups did not reliably promote infection or maintain a 100% level of active immunity amongst adult sows in 2 of 3 group husbandry herds. in the ...19836626062
pseudorabies virus, porcine parvovirus, and porcine enterovirus interactions with the zona pellucida of the porcine embryo.porcine embryos (n = 93) were incubated on cell monolayers that had been previously inoculated with pseudorabies virus, porcine parvovirus (ppv), or each of 2 porcine enteroviruses. after 2, 24, or 48 hours of incubation, the embryos were fixed in glutaraldehyde and examined by electron microscopic procedures. it was found that pseudorabies virus adsorbed to the zona pellucida (zp) and entered sperm tracks in the zp. the ppv and both enteroviruses entered pores in the zp and were associated with ...19836307093
porcine parvovirus (p.p.v.): infection in boars. i. possibility of a genital localization in the boar after oronasal infection. 19836316695
isolation of porcine parvovirus (ppv) from swine herds affected by reproductive failure, and serologic evidence of infection in hungarian large swine herds. 19836331141
evaluation of a gel diffusion precipitin test for porcine parvovirus.the use of a gel diffusion precipitin (gdp) test for the detection of porcine parvovirus (ppv) infection in pigs is described. the close correlation between gel diffusion precipitin and haemagglutination inhibiting (hi) antibody titres indicates that, with careful standardisation, a high level of sensitivity can be achieved with the gdp test and that it is a simple and relatively inexpensive alternative to the more commonly used hi test. experimental infection of 2 groups of pigs showed that gdp ...19836414450
porcine parvovirus: virus purification and structural and antigenic properties of virion polypeptides.porcine parvovirus (ppv) was extensively purified from infected swine fetal homogenates by cacl2 precipitation followed by cscl density centrifugation. two species of particles possessing ppv-specific hemagglutinating activity were observed banding at densities of 1.39 and 1.30 g/ml, representing full and empty 20-nm virion particles, respectively. both classes of particles contained three major polypeptides. a, b, and c, with respective molecular weights of 83,000, 64,000, and 60,000. the amoun ...19836834473
increased litter size in gilts by intrauterine infusion of seminal and sperm antigens before breeding.three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of exposure of the uterus to semen at least 3 wk before breeding on subsequent reproductive performance. in exp. 1, uterine exposure to semen was performed three times. at least 3 wk elapsed between each treatment. control gilts received saline infusion. all gilts were bred by artificial insemination using semen from the same boars used for semen treatment. at farrowing, significantly more (10.35 vs 8.39) pigs/litter were produced by semen- ...19836682857
porcine parvovirus infection: review and diagnosis in a sow herd with reproductive failure.in a commercial swine herd a rise was noted during the summer of 1981 in the number of repeat breeders, mostly four to eight weeks after serving. during the autumn there was a decrease in the litter size at birth and an increase in the number of stillborn and mummified piglets. several gilts and sows showed a seroconversion against porcine parvovirus (ppv), determined by the haemagglutination inhibition test (hi-test). characteristic pathological findings were seen in some maturely stillborn and ...19836314634
a comparative survey using the gel diffusion precipitin and haemagglutination-inhibition tests for porcine parvovirus antibody. 19826805458
studies on the multiplication of a porcine parvovirus.a porcine parvovirus has been characterized with regard to its replication in foetal porcine kidney cells and certain biophysical properties. electron microscopy of infected cells at selected times postinfection revealed that porcine parvovirus replication took place within or near a series of granular intranuclear inclusions which may be contiguous with cellular heterochromatin. developing virions were observed to aggregate into a nucleolar-like amorphous mass which gradually disrupted as cellu ...19827112892
role of the rat in the transmission of porcine parvovirus.rats experimentally inoculated with porcine parvovirus (ppv) shed virus in excreta from 3 to 21 days. rats inoculated subcutaneously with ppv responded serologically with hemagglutination-inhibition titers (512-1,024). the ppv antigen was readily detected in lung and spleen 2 and 3 days after rats were inoculated and in liver and intestine, 4 days. the rats remained clinically healthy. rats given ppv orally or in drinking water either with ppv-infected cell culture fluid or swine fetal homogenat ...19827073064
immunity to infection with porcine parvovirus in pigs inoculated with the attenuated ht- strain.swine were inoculated once with the attenuated ht- strain of porcine parvovirus. several months later they were challenged by oral inoculation with a field strain of the virus to examine an ability to prevent infection. after challenge inoculation unimmunized control swine exhibited an increase in antibody titer, viremia, and virus discharge. the virus was recovered from many organs. the swine preinoculated with the attenuated ht- strain, however, manifested none of these symptoms and were negat ...19827078661
effect of porcine parvovirus serostatus on the reproductive performance of mated gilts in an infected herd.gifts from 2 commercial swine operations (farm a and farm b) that were bred each week were tested for porcine parvovirus antibody. on farm a, 21.9% (weekly, 2% to 35%) of the 657 gilts tested over a 16-week period were seronegative within 1 week of mating. on farm b, 17.7% (weekly, o to 40%) of the 164 gilts tested over a 10 week period were seronegative within 1 week of mating. eighty-one gilts from farm a which were seronegative at time of mating were retested at the end of the gestation. of t ...19827103183
porcine parvovirus: serological examinations in pig breeding herds and ai boar centres.from several reports ppv is known to be world wide disseminated in pig herds. only few reports, however, are concerned about the prevalence of ppv infection among breeding animals within individual pig breeding herds. in the present work 1858 sows and boars from 53 conventional pig breeding herds and 731 sows from 73 spf pig breeding herds were examined for antibody to ppv, and the herds were grouped according to the prevalence of ppv antibody positive animals. more than 90% of the animals exami ...19827177795
establishment of an attenuated strain of porcine parvovirus by serial passage at low temperature.to prepare a live virus vaccine strain for the prevention of porcine parvovirus infection, the 90hs strain, isolated from the brain of a stillborn porcine fetus, was subjected to the first 45 serial passages in swine kidney established (esk) cells of porcine kidney origin at 30-35 degrees c and to the 46th and later serial passages in the same cells as these at 32 degrees c. when swine were inoculated with the strain at the 38th passage level possessing such properties as expressed with rct/37+ ...19827078658
duration and biological half-life of passively acquired colostral antibodies to porcine parvovirus.the duration of passive immunity and biological half-lives of passively acquired antibodies to porcine parvovirus (ppv) were determined in 4 pigs from each of 10 litters. all sows were randomly selected from a herd naturally infected with ppv. at parturition, blood and colostral samples from the 10 sows contained hemagglutination-inhibiting (hi) antibodies to ppv; the hi titers of colostrum were about 5 times higher than that of serum. the hi antibodies in serum and colostrum of sows were resist ...19827103222
survey of porcine parvovirus infection in swine fetuses and their dams at a minnesota abattoir.reproductive tracts were recovered from 209 sow and 32 gilt carcasses at slaughter; animals had been pregnant not less than 27 days. of 241 litters examined, 28 (11.6%) contained one or more porcine parvovirus (ppv)-infected fetuses, as determined by immunofluorescent microscopy. the frequencies in sow and gilt litters were 12.0% and 9.4%, respectively. the ppv antigen was detected in 219 of 334 (65.6%) dead or mummified fetuses and in 12 of 2,172 (0.5%) live fetuses examined. the 18 litters whi ...19817258807
ovine progressive pneumonia: experimental intrathoracic, intracerebral, and intra-articular infections.three groups of 4 lambs each were experimentally infected with an isolate of progressive pneumonia virus (ppv) by intracerebral, intra-articular, or intrathoracic routes of inoculation. an additional control group was sham-inoculated by all 3 routes with identically prepared, noninfected inoculum. sheep were killed 12 to 42 days after inoculation. a mild generalized leptomeningitis was found in 2 of the 4 lambs inoculated intracerebrally. a severe, proliferative synovitis with massive infiltrati ...19817325465
laboratory evaluation of selected disinfectants as virucidal agents against porcine parvovirus, pseudorabies virus, and transmissible gastroenteritis virus.of a variety of disinfectants evaluated, only sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide inactivated porcine parvovirus (ppv) after a 5-minute incubation period. after the same incubation time, pseudorabies and transmissible gastroenteritis viruses were inactivated by all of the disinfectants tested. when the incubation time was increased to 20 minutes, 2% glutaraldehyde and a double-strength concentration of a commercial formaldehyde preparation also inactivated ppv. formaldehyde vapor and ultrav ...19816269467
morphological and immunological comparison of caprine arthritis encephalitis and ovine progressive pneumonia viruses.caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (caev) causes a variety of pathological conditions ranging from mild to very severe and from acute to chronic, depending upon the age of initial infection and other variables. although the virus has been reported to have properties of characteristic of retroviruses and to be related to maedi-visna virus (also called progressive pneumonia virus [ppv]), relatively little information about its morphological and immunological characteristics has been reported. we ...19816169845
reproductive performance of gilts exposed to porcine parvovirus at 56 or 70 days of gestation.a total of 18 pregnant gilts, which were free of antibody for porcine parvovirus (ppv), were exposed oronasally to ppv on either the 56th day (9 gilts) or 70th day (9 gilts) of the gestation to determine whether infection at these times would affect their reproductive performance. the gilts were either necropsied late in gestation or allowed to farrow, and their fetuses and pigs were tested for evidence of infection. gilts remained clinically healthy throughout the experiment, and none farrowed ...19817340578
ovine progressive pneumonia: pathologic and virologic studies on the naturally occurring disease.pathologic and virologic studies were conducted on 13 mature ewes with serum precipitin antibodies to progressive pneumonia virus (ppv). pulmonary lesions of ovine progressive pneumonia were found in 4 sheep, a meningoencephalitis resembling visna in 1 sheep, chronic proliferative carpal arthritis in 2, and massive lymphoid proliferation in the mammary gland in 3. virus producing cytopathic effect typical of ppv was isolated from the lungs, mediastinal lymph node, spleen, and choroid plexus of 4 ...19816275756
immunogenicity of bivalent vaccine for reproductive failure of swine induced by pseudorabies virus and porcine parvovirus. 19816277213
fetal infection with porcine parvovirus in herds with reproductive failure. 19817304357
vaccination against porcine parvovirus infection. 19817304358
accidental introduction of porcine parvovirus and talfan virus into a group of minimal disease gilts and their effects on reproduction. 19817248733
comparison of antibody titers to porcine parvovirus in serum and ovarian follicular fluid. 19817196717
assay for antibody in pig fetuses infected with porcine parvovirus. 19807004146
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