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pmws: experimental model and co-infections.porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) is now recognised as the causal agent of porcine multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws), an economically important wasting disease of young pigs [j. vet. diagn. invest. 12 (2000) 3]. gross lesions of pmws include generalised lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, nephritis and pneumonia and typical histological lesions include lymphocytic depletion and multinucleated giant cell formation in lymph nodes, degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes, and multifocal lymphohistocyti ...200414741129
a comparison of virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization for the detection of porcine circovirus 2 and porcine parvovirus in experimentally and naturally coinfected pigs.virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction (pcr), immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization were compared for the detection of porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2) and porcine parvovirus (ppv) from experimentally and naturally coinfected pigs. all coinfected pigs developed postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws), characterized by sudden onset of depression and anorexia. microscopically, granulomatous inflammation with intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies was present in lymph node from all co ...200414974846
influence of flanking sequences on presentation efficiency of a cd8+ cytotoxic t-cell epitope delivered by parvovirus-like particles.we have previously developed an antigen-delivery system based on hybrid recombinant porcine parvovirus-like particles (ppv-vlps) formed by the self-assembly of the vp2 protein of ppv carrying a foreign epitope at its n terminus. in this study, different constructs were made containing a cd8(+) t-cell epitope of chicken ovalbumin (ova) to analyse the influence of the sequence inserted into vp2 on the correct processing of vlps by antigen-presenting cells. we analysed the presentation of the ova e ...200414993639
recombinant protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunochromatographic tests for detection of immunoglobulin g antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) coronavirus in sars patients.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and a rapid immunochromatographic test for detection of immunoglobulin g (igg) antibodies in severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) patients were developed by utilizing the well-characterized recombinant proteins gst-n and gst-u274. the elisa detected igg antibodies to sars-cov in all 74 convalescent-phase samples from sars patients while weakly cross-reacting to only 1 of the 210 control sera from healthy donors. this finding thus led to a kit sens ...200415013977
effect of porcine parvovirus vaccination on the development of pmws in segregated early weaned pigs coinfected with type 2 porcine circovirus and porcine parvovirus.the objectives of this study were to determine if coinfection of segregated early weaned (sew) pigs with porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) and porcine parvovirus (ppv) induces an increase in the incidence of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) compared to singular pcv2 infection, and to determine if vaccination against ppv protects pigs against pmws associated with pcv2/ppv coinfection in sew pigs. seventy, 3-week-old, sew pigs were randomly assigned to one of the five groups. pigs ...200415036529
development of an elisa based on the baculovirus-expressed capsid protein of porcine circovirus type 2 as antigen.the genome of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) contains two major open reading frames, which have been shown to encode the virus capsid and replication-associated proteins. the capsid protein is a major structural protein of the virus; it can be a suitable target antigen for detecting pcv2-specific antibodies to monitor pcv2 infection. to produce the antigen, the capsid protein coding sequence was cloned into a baculovirus transfer vector, and a recombinant capsid (rc) protein of pcv2 was expres ...200415107550
hiv and hepatitis c coinfection within the caesar study.the declining incidence of aids-related opportunistic diseases among people with hiv infection has shifted the focus of clinical management to prevention and treatment of comorbidities such as chronic liver disease. the increased risk of hepatitis c virus (hcv)-related advanced liver disease in people with hiv infection makes early hcv diagnosis a priority. to assess hcv prevalence and predictors of hiv/hcv coinfection, we have conducted a retrospective analysis of people enrolled in the caesar ...200415139984
removal of small non-enveloped viruses by nanofiltration.nanofiltration is one of the most effective virus reduction methods in the manufacturing process of plasma products. however, it is difficult to remove small viruses from high molecular weight protein preparations like immunoglobulin g or factor viii complex by nanofiltration, because the size of the protein is similar to that of viruses. in order to separate the viruses from these proteins by nanofiltration, it is necessary to change the size of either one. in this study, we report that such no ...200415144526
photochemical inactivation of selected viruses and bacteria in platelet concentrates using riboflavin and light.a medical device is being developed for the reduction of pathogens in plt concentrates (pcs). the device uses broadband uv light and the compound riboflavin (vitamin b(2)).200415157255
a polysaccharide fraction from medicinal herb prunella vulgaris downregulates the expression of herpes simplex virus antigen in vero cells.herpes simplex viruses (hsv) are pathogenic. with the emergence of drug-resistant strains of hsv, new antiviral agents, especially those with different modes of action, are urgently needed. prunella vulgaris l. (labiatae), a perennial plant commonly found in china and europe, has long been used as a folk medicine to cure ailments. in this study, a polysaccharide fraction was prepared from prunella vulgaris (ppv), and its effects on the expressions of hsv-1 and hsv-2 antigens in their host vero c ...200415182906
multiplex pcr for rapid detection of pseudorabies virus, porcine parvovirus and porcine circoviruses.a multiplex pcr (mpcr) assay was developed and subsequently evaluated for its effectiveness as a means to simultaneously detect multiple viral infections of swine. specific primers for each of four common dna viruses, namely, pseudorabies virus (prv), porcine circovirus type i (pcv1), porcine circovirus type ii (pcv2), and porcine parvovirus (ppv), were used for testing procedure. the assay was shown to be highly sensitive in that as little as 10(-4) ng of each of the respective amplicons (appro ...200415223125
specific detection and quantification of plum pox virus by real-time fluorescent reverse transcription-pcr.plum pox virus (ppv), a destructive and economically devastating pathogen of prunus species, was recently discovered in pennsylvania and canada. current containment efforts involve eradication of infected trees based on elisa surveys, which are laborious and less sensitive than pcr-based techniques. a real-time, fluorescent, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay was developed for the detection of ppv in the smart cycler (cepheid). the methods developed are reproducible, ...200415234814
concurrent presence of porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine parvovirus in retrospective cases of exudative epidermitis in pigs. 200414623159
experimental infection of 3-week-old conventional colostrum-fed pigs with porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine parvovirus.this report describes an experimental infection with porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) in combination with porcine parvovirus (ppv) in 3-week-old conventional colostrum-fed pigs with maternal antibodies to both viruses. two groups of four pigs each were inoculated with pcv2 and ppv. one of the groups received also a commercial inactivated vaccine against porcine pleuropneumonia to evaluate possible effects of the stimulation of the immune system of pigs on the infection. another group of four pig ...200515916871
effects of lyophilization on the infectivity of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in bone tissue.recently reported qualitative experiments proved that retroviral infectivity is not destroyed by lyophilization performed on systemically infected bone and tendon. the now accomplished quantitative determination of residual infectivity for enveloped and non-enveloped viruses allows a validation of the production process regarding viral safety in freeze-dried bone transplants. the lyophilization effect on the infectivity of two non-enveloped viruses (maus elberfeld virus, mev; porcine parvovirus, ...200515946737
real-time assay for quantitative detection of non-persistently transmitted plum pox virus rna targets in single aphids.a taqman real-time rt-pcr was developed to detect and quantify rna-targets from the non-circulative, non-persistently transmitted plum pox virus (ppv) in individual fresh or aphids captured previously and squashed on paper. reliable quantitation ranged from 40 up to 4 x 10(8) copies of control transcripts. this technique was applied successfully to plant material and to individual ppv vector (myzus persicae) and non-vector of ppv (aphis nerii) aphid species demonstrating acquisition of viral tar ...200515964640
application of gfp-tagged plum pox virus to study prunus-ppv interactions at the whole plant and cellular levels.the sharka disease caused by the potyvirus plum pox virus (ppv) is one of the most serious viral diseases affecting stone fruit trees. the study of ppv/prunus interaction under greenhouse controlled conditions is space, time, labor consuming. while the ppv/prunus interactions are now quite well known at the whole plant level, few data however are available on the interactions between the virus and the prunus host plants at the cellular level. using a green fluorescent protein (gfp)-tagged m type ...200515993953
prediction of the hepatitis c viremia using immunoassay data and clinical expertise.detection of anti-hepatitis c virus (anti-hcv) antibodies may yield a high frequency of false-positive results in people at low risk. to date, no clinical rule had been developed to predict viremia in hcv-seropositive patients. therefore, we aimed to generate a prediction rule on the basis of clinical and serologic data, which can be used in outpatient care. we selected 114 seropositive patients without antiviral treatment or hepatitis b coinfection. subsequently we identified independent predic ...200516010243
identification of secret agent as the o-glcnac transferase that participates in plum pox virus infection.serine and threonine of many nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins are posttranslationally modified with o-linked n-acetylglucosamine (o-glcnac). this modification is made by o-linked n-acetylglucosamine transferases (ogts). genetic and biochemical data have demonstrated the existence of two ogts of arabidopsis thaliana, secret agent (sec) and spindly (spy), with at least partly overlapping functions, but there is little information on their target proteins. the n terminus of the capsid protein (cp) ...200516014901
efficacy of spray-drying to reduce infectivity of pseudorabies and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (prrs) viruses and seroconversion in pigs fed diets containing spray-dried animal plasma.three experiments were conducted to evaluate viral inactivation by the spray-drying process used in the production of spray-dried animal plasma (sdap). in exp. 1, bovine plasma was inoculated with pseudorabies virus (prv) grown in pk 15 cells. three 4-l batches were spray-dried in the same manner and conditions of industrial sdap production but with laboratory spray-drying equipment. presence of infectivity was determined before and after spray-drying by microtiter assay in pk 15 cell cultures. ...200516024714
accumulation of the long class of sirna is associated with resistance to plum pox virus in a transgenic woody perennial plum tree.we investigated the hallmarks of posttranscription gene silencing (ptgs) in mature plants, embryos, and seedlings of the transgenic plum trees (prunus sp.) that are resistant to plum pox virus (ppv). we previously demonstrated that the transgene insert and resistance to ppv were mutually inherited in progeny of line c5. we show here that c5 constitutively produces a short (22 nt) and a long (25 to 26 nt) species of short interfering (si)rna from embryo to mature plant in the absence of ppv inocu ...200516134891
is alanine aminotransferase a good marker of histologic hepatic damage in renal transplant patients with hepatitis c virus infection?renal transplant (rtx) patients with hepatitis c frequently show normal levels of alanine aminotransferase (alt) and the significance of alt in this group has not been established.200516146553
pathogen control in complex fluids with water-coupled excimer lamps at 282 and 308 nm.water-coupled excimer lamp systems have been developed to inactivate microorganisms within complex, low-optical quality, fluids. monochromatic lamps were selected to minimize uv-b and uv-c absorption within the carrier fluids while maximizing deposition within specific chemical targets. fundamentals, system scaling and power supply design are discussed. this work used two large-surface area excimer lamps as intense sources of near monochromatic radiation at 308 and 282 nm. data are presented for ...200516149853
dry-heat sensitivity of human b19 and porcine parvoviruses. 200516181226
sat: a late ns protein of porcine parvovirus.the genomes of all members of the parvovirus genus were found to contain a small open reading frame (orf), designated sat, with a start codon four or seven nucleotides downstream of the vp2 initiation codon. green fluorescent protein or flag fusion constructs of sat demonstrated that these orfs were expressed. although the sat proteins of the different parvoviruses are not particularly conserved, they were all predicted to contain a membrane-spanning helix, and mutations in this hydrophobic stre ...200516189014
cost-efficacy analysis of peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis c.combination therapy with pegylated interferon (peg) and ribavirin (rbv) is the standard of care for the treatment of chronic hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection. this analysis compares the cost efficacy of treatment with pegylated interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin (peg-2b plus rbv) with pegylated interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin (peg-2a plus rbv) in hypothetical cohorts of 100 chronic hcv patients comprised 75% of genotype 1.200516194133
aetiology of sexually transmitted disease (std) and comparison of std syndromes and aetiological diagnosis in taipei, taiwan.between july 2002 and july 2004, all male patients (n=307) presenting to a sexually transmitted disease (std) clinic who reported unprotected sex were enrolled in the study. of these, 63 (20.5%), 19 (6.2%) and one (0.3%) were infected with one, two and three pathogens, respectively. the prevalences of chlamydial infection, gonorrhoea, syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus infection and trichomoniasis were 14.3%, 10.1%, 6.8%, 2.2% and 0%, respectively. the sensitivities of urethral discharge syn ...200516216108
conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in hiv-infected ugandans and the effect of past receipt of polysaccharide vaccine.we investigated the immunogenicity of a 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (cpv) in human immunodeficiency virus-infected ugandan adults and measured the effect of past pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (ppv) receipt given as part of a controlled trial. two doses of cpv, 4 weeks apart, were given to 54 past ppv recipients and 55 past placebo recipients (84% female; median cd4 cell count, 251 cells/ microl [range, 1-936 cells/ microl]). postvaccination anticapsular immunoglobulin g (igg) c ...200516235180
[prevalence and association of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) in aborted fetuses, mummified fetuses, stillborn and nonviable neonatal piglets].porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) seems to cause reproductive failure in sows not only in experimental studies. a retrospective study was made with a total of 252 aborted fetuses, mummified fetuses, stillborn and nonviable neonatal piglets to determine the presence of pcv2, porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (prrsv) by pcr. pcv2 was found in all stages of gestation in 27.1 percent of samples examined. a statistically significant association could be s ...200516240914
adenosine deaminase activity--more than a diagnostic tool in tuberculous pericarditis.to improve the understanding of factors that influence adenosine deaminase ( ada) activity in large pericardial effusions.200516049586
validation of a simple model for predicting liver fibrosis in hiv/hepatitis c virus-coinfected patients.recently, several models incorporating laboratory measurements have been validated for use as surrogate markers for liver fibrosis in hepatitis c virus (hcv) mono-infection, the simplest of these being the aspartate aminotransferase (ast) to platelet ratio index (apri). we evaluated how well the apri predicts significant hepatic fibrosis in patients with hiv/hcv coinfection.200516268817
the rb1 fraction of ginseng elicits a balanced th1 and th2 immune response.porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccines containing different adjuvants were evaluated for inducing th1 or th2 type of immunity in mice. isotypes of antigen specific antibodies and levels of cytokines in serum and in lymphocyte culture supernatants measured by elisa and the gyrolab bioaffy were used to determine the polarisation of the immune response. enumeration of cytokine secreting cells was carried out by elispot assays. vaccines containing the ginseng-fraction rb1 induced serum-detectable amounts ...200516286158
acute respiratory failure due to pneumocystis pneumonia in patients without human immunodeficiency virus infection: outcome and associated features.to examine outcome and associated factors of acute respiratory failure (arf) in non-hiv-related pneumocystis pneumonia (pcp) in patients admitted to a medical icu between 1995 and 2002.200516100140
hepatitis c virus rna kinetics during the initial 12 weeks treatment with pegylated interferon-alpha 2a and ribavirin according to virological response.summary: to optimize treatment of chronic hepatitis c early identification of patients who will not achieve a sustained virological response (svr) is desirable. we investigated hepatitis c virus (hcv) rna kinetics at day 1 (in 15 patients; genotypes 1 and non-1, 9 and 6 respectively) at weeks 1, 4 and 12 (in 53 patients; genotypes 1 and non-1, 19 and 34, respectively) during treatment with pegylated interferon alpha-2a and ribavirin. patients with svr had a significantly more pronounced mean log ...200516108761
cirrhosis in hepatitis c virus-infected patients can be excluded using an index of standard biochemical serum markers.assessment of liver histology is pivotal in prognostication and decision-making regarding therapeutic intervention in patients with chronic hepatitis c virus (hcv). being an invasive procedure, the liver biopsy is associated with complications, and a non-invasive alternative would be preferable.200516109665
herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) western blot confirmatory testing among men testing positive for hsv-2 using the focus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a sexually transmitted disease clinic.the objective of this study was to define the positive predictive value (ppv) of the focus herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) in a low hsv-2 prevalence population and to develop a new test interpretation algorithm.200516314775
hairpin rna-mediated silencing of plum pox virus p1 and hc-pro genes for efficient and predictable resistance to the virus.we report the application of the hairpin-mediated rna silencing technology for obtaining resistance to plum pox virus (ppv) infection in nicotiana benthamiana plants. four sequences, covering the p1 and silencing suppressor hc-pro genes of an italian ppv m isolate, were introduced into n. benthamiana plants as two inverted repeats separated by an intron sequence under the transcriptional control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter. in a leaf disk infection assay, 38 out of 40 t0 transge ...200516315100
tissue distribution of two field isolates and two vaccine strains of porcine parvovirus in foetal organs after experimental infection of pregnant sows as determined by real-time pcr.the aim of this study was to investigate the tissue distribution of two different field isolates and two vaccine strains of porcine parvoviruses (ppv) in infected piglets after transplacental infection. the viral load in 10 different foetal organs was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction assays with sybr green targeting the viral vp2 gene and the genomic c-myc gene in 12 foetuses. the viral load in foetal tissues differed greatly among the different parvoviruses. between one virulen ...200516316393
aphid (hemiptera: aphididae) species composition and potential aphid vectors of plum pox virus in pennsylvania peach orchards.plum pox, an invasive disease recently identified in pennsylvania stone fruit orchards, is caused by the aphid-transmitted plum pox virus (genus potyvirus, family potyviridae, ppv). to identify potential vectors, we described the aphid species communities and the seasonal dynamics of the dominant aphid species within pennsylvania peach orchards. aphids were trapped weekly in 2002 and 2003 from mid-april through mid-november within two central pennsylvania orchards by using yellow and green water ...200516334309
clinical validation of the neuroscreen.the neuroscreen comprises two easily administered components: the brief neurocognitive screen (bncs), designed to estimate the frequency of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-associated cognitive disorders; and the brief peripheral neuropathy screen (bpns), for distal sensory polyneuropathy (dspn) in hiv. in this study, both the neuroscreen and a more extensive standardized validation neurodiagnostic evaluation were administered to hiv-positive subjects (n = 301) enrolled in two large cohort stu ...200516338744
noninvasive assessment of liver steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation in chronic hepatitis c virus infection.duplex-doppler ultrasound is a noninvasive method for the assessment of hepatic hemodynamics beyond conventional gray-scale imaging. the clinical value of the method for the grading and staging of chronic hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection and the prediction of hepatic steatosis still has to be determined. this study aimed to compare duplex-doppler and ultrasound with the histologic staging and the estimation of hepatic steatosis in chronic hcv infection.200516343065
cross-priming of t cell responses by synthetic microspheres carrying a cd8+ t cell epitope requires an adjuvant signal.controlling the cross-presentation of exogenous ags to cd8+ t cells represents a major step for designing new vaccination strategies. whereas several recombinant pseudo-viral particles have been used as delivery systems for triggering potent ctl responses to heterologous exogenous ags, the adjuvant properties of virus-like particles (vlps) themselves were little questioned. here, we analyzed the contribution of the porcine parvovirus (ppv)-vlps to the induction of protective cellular responses t ...200515749877
influenza-like illness criteria were poorly related to laboratory-confirmed influenza in a sentinel surveillance study.to analyze the most related clinical data for influenza and the utility of influenza-like illness criteria as the clinical threshold for sampling in an influenza sentinel surveillance over a 3-year period.200515768487
predictive value of early virological response to treatment with different interferon-based regimens plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis c.early virological response (evr) to different interferon-based regimens plus ribavirin and its ability to predict the outcome of therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis c were investigated. the study design was as follows: 64 naive patients were considered, 32/64 received pegylated interferon alpha-2b (peg-ifn-alpha2b) plus ribavirin and the remaining 32 received leucocyte interferon alpha (ifn-alpha) plus ribavirin. at week 4 of treatment, evr was present in 68.7% and 37.5% of patients treat ...200515782622
the role of human telomerase catalytic subunit mrna expression in cervical dysplasias.telomerase activity and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (htert) mrna expression were investigated in cervical specimens and were correlated with cytologic findings and the presence of human papilloma virus (hpv) infection. telomerase activity was evaluated by the telomeric repeat protocol assay and htert mrna expression was evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (pcr). hpv dna was detected by pcr, as well as restriction endonuclease digestion. hpv dna was detected in ...200515792948
nucleotide sequence analysis of plum pox virus isolate w3174: evidence of a new strain.the nucleotide sequence of plum pox virus (ppv) isolate w3174 was determined. the virus genome consists of 9788 nucleotides (nt), excluding the poly(a) tail at the 3'-terminus, with 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (utrs) of 146 and 219 nt, respectively. the deduced polyprotein consists of 3141 amino acid (aa) residues, with the coat protein region consisting of 993 nt (331 aa). in comparisons with ppv-d, -m, -ea and -c isolates, nucleotide identity levels ranged from 79 to 80% for the entire gen ...200515845265
identification of viral pathogens in aborted fetuses and stillborn piglets from cases of swine reproductive failure in spain.the objective of the present study was to determine the presence of recognised abortifacient viruses such as porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (prrsv), aujeszky's disease virus (adv), porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), in tissues from aborted fetuses and stillborn neonates in cases of late reproductive failure in swine. a total of 293 specimens (fetuses aborted in the last third of gestation and stillborn piglets) from 100 different cases of late-term abortio ...200515848788
determination of the six major human herpesviruses in cerebrospinal fluid and blood specimens of children.to detect and differentiate six major human herpesviruses in the cerebrospinal fluid (csf) and blood of children by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp).200515858958
suppression of proliferation of poliovirus and porcine parvovirus by novel phenoxazines, 2-amino-4,4 alpha-dihydro-4 alpha-7-dimethyl-3h-phenoxazine-3-one and 3-amino-1,4 alpha-dihydro-4 alpha-8-dimethyl-2h-phenoxazine-2-one.the present study aimed at investigating the antiviral effects of 2-amino-4,4alpha-dihydro-4alpha-7-dimethyl-3h-phenoxazine-3-one (phx-1) and 3-amino-1,4alpha-dihydro-4alpha-8-dimethyl-2h-phenoxazine-2-one (phx-2) on 6 representative viruses: poliovirus, porcine parvovirus, simian virus 40 (sv-40), herpes simplex virus-1 (hsv-1), sindbis virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv). phx-1 and phx-2 suppressed the proliferation of poliovirus in vero cells and that of porcine parvovirus in esk cell ...200515863903
analysis of recombinant plum pox virus (ppv) isolates from serbia confirms genetic homogeneity and supports a regional origin for the ppv-rec subgroup.the recent observation of the frequent occurrence of natural recombinant plum pox virus (ppv) isolates has led to the identification of a distinct ppv subgroup, named ppv-rec. the diversity, origin and geographical spread of the recombinant ppv isolates belonging to this subgroup remain, however, relatively poorly known. in an effort to further our understanding of these isolates, eight ppv isolates from serbia, the country from which the first such recombinant (ppv-o6) originated, were characte ...200515906106
evaluation of virus decontamination techniques for porcine embryos produced in vitro.the objective of this study was to explore approaches to decontaminate embryos either contaminated naturally or under experimental conditions with different viruses. embryos were obtained from in vitro maturation and fertilisation of porcine oocytes. after 7 days of development, morula and blastocyst stages were exposed for 1 h to the following viruses: encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), porcine parvovirus (ppv), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome vir ...200515910918
analogues of virus resistance genes map to qtls for resistance to sharka disease in prunus davidiana.plum pox virus (ppv), the causative agent of sharka disease in prunoideae, is one of the most serious problems affecting stone fruit production in europe and america. resistance to ppv was previously described in a prunus davidiana clone, p1908, and introduced into peach (prunus persica) genotypes. genetic resistance to ppv displays a complex pattern of quantitative inheritance. an analysis of quantitative trait loci (qtls) for resistance was performed on an f1 interspecific peach population obt ...200515666162
partial sequence analysis of an atypical turkish isolate provides further information on the evolutionary history of plum pox virus (ppv).a variety of techniques, such as typing with subgroup-specific monoclonal antibodies, restriction length polymorphism (rflp) analysis or subgroup-specific rt-pcr are available for the discrimination of plum pox virus (ppv) isolates. however, the existence of ppv isolates showing abnormal typing properties has been observed in the past [candresse, t., cambra, m., dallot, s., lanneau, m., asensio, m., gorris, m.t., revers, f., macquaire, g., olmos, a., boscia, d., quiot j.b., dunez, j., 1998. comp ...200515681071
early hepatitis c virus changes and sustained response in patients with chronic hepatitis c treated with peginterferon alpha-2b and ribavirin.interferon-based therapy induces changes in viral dynamics in chronic hepatitis c (chc) patients.200515698404
review of treatment of bronchiolitis related apnoea in two centres.to determine whether the use of negative pressure ventilation (npv) was associated with a lower rate of endotracheal intubation in infants with recurrent apnoea secondary to acute bronchiolitis.200515723920
detection of porcine circovirus type 2, porcine parvovirus and porcine pseudorabies virus from pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome by multiplex pcr.multiplex pcr was established to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv-2), porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine pseudorabies virus (prv) and applied to samples from 137 piglets exhibiting clinical signs of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws). pcv-2 dna was detected from all samples. moreover, 43 samples were positive for ppv but negative for prv; 11 samples were positive for prv but negative for ppv; and 35 samples were positive both for ppv and prv. these results suggests that pcv ...200515736858
experimental reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) in pigs in sweden and denmark with a swedish isolate of porcine circovirus type 2.an experimental model using 3-day-old snatch-farrowed colostrum-deprived piglets co-infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) and porcine parvovirus (ppv) is at present one of the best methods to study factors affecting development of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws). a swedish isolate of pcv2 (s-pcv2) retrieved in 1993 from a healthy pig has been used in this model to reproduce pmws in pigs from northern ireland. this virus has been present in the swedish pig population fo ...200515737473
detection and differentiation of plum pox virus using real-time multiplex pcr with sybr green and melting curve analysis: a rapid method for strain typing.a real-time multiplex pcr procedure with melting curve analysis, using the green fluorescence dye sybr green i, was developed for rapid and reliable identification of plum pox virus (ppv) isolates of strains d and m. members of the different strains were identified by their distinctive melting temperatures (t(m)s); 84.3-84.43 degrees c for d isolates, and 85.34-86.11 degrees c for m isolates. the associated amplicon sizes were 114 and 380 bp, respectively. the procedure was used for detection an ...200515620404
viruses in boar semen: detection and clinical as well as epidemiological consequences regarding disease transmission by artificial insemination.many viruses have been reported to be present in boar semen, particularly during the viremic phase of the diseases. some of them, such foot-and-mouth disease virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, swine vesicular disease virus, porcine parvovirus, picornaviruses, adenoviruses, enteroviruses, japanese encephalitis virus, pseudorabies virus, african swine fever virus and reoviruses are of particular importance and accurate monitoring prior to and during the presence of boars i ...200515626416
high porcine parvovirus antibodies in sow herds: prevalence and associated factors.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is widespread among swine. our objective was to determine the prevalence of loosely housed sow herds in finland with at least one animal with high (infection level) ppv antibodies and to gather basic knowledge about vaccination practices. in addition, selected factors associated with high antibody levels found in sows were examined. altogether, 247 animals were sampled in 21 randomly chosen loosely housed sow herds. samples were analysed with the haemagglutination inhibi ...200515655002
prevalence of antibodies to porcine parvovirus in wild boars (sus scrofa) in croatia.serologic evidence of exposure to porcine parvovirus (ppv) in the wild boar (sus scrofa) in croatia was investigated. serum samples from 219 wild boars captured during 2003 from 12 different locations in the republic of croatia were tested by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (elisa) and a hemagglutination inhibition (hi) test. antibodies to ppv were detected in 91 (41.6%) of tested samples and positive results were detected in wild boar from all sample locations. adults had a signifi ...200516456171
a single amino acid mutation in the plum pox virus helper component-proteinase gene abolishes both synergistic and rna silencing suppression activities.abstract the effects on symptom expression of single amino acid mutations in the central region of the plum pox virus (ppv) helper component-proteinase (hc-pro) gene were analyzed in nicotiana benthamiana using potato virus x (pvx) recombinant viruses. pvx recombinant virus expressing the wild-type variant of ppv hc-pro induced the expected enhancement of pvx pathogenicity, manifested as necrosis and plant death. recombinant virus expressing a variant of ppv hc-pro containing a single point muta ...200518944411
interference between d and m types of plum pox virus in japanese plum assessed by specific monoclonal antibodies and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.abstract the dynamics of virus interference between two isolates of plum pox virus (ppv) belonging to the main ppv types, d and m, were analyzed in japanese plum (prunus salicina) by challenge inoculations. to assess the consequences of a ppv-m infection on plum already infected with ppv-d, and vice versa (predominance of one of the strains, recombination, synergism, symptoms aggravation, and so on), 30 japanese plum trees were graft inoculated with ppv-d or ppv-m isolates in quarantine conditio ...200618944448
immune complex-based vaccine for pig protection against parvovirus.the insoluble immune complexes (ics) were prepared under the conditions of double immunodiffusion in gel, using the suspension of the ultrasound treated pk-15 cell-line infected with porcine parvovirus (ppv) containing both viral particles and viral proteins, as well as pig or rabbit anti-ppv polyclonal immune sera. the immunodiffusion performed in an agarose gel allows only viral subunits with a molecular mass equal to or less than 1000 kda, rather than the viral particles, to diffuse through t ...200616460351
a serological survey of selected pathogens in wild boar in slovenia.serum samples collected from 178 shot wild boars (sus scrofa) were tested for the presence of antibodies against classical swine fever virus, aujeszky's disease virus (adv), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, porcine respiratory coronavirus (prcv), transmissible gastroenteritis virus, swine influenza virus, porcine parvovirus (ppv), swine vesicular disease virus, actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (app), mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, salmonella spp., brucella spp. and haemophilus para ...200616460352
real-time pcr protocol for the detection of porcine parvovirus in field samples.this report describes a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay with sybr green for detection of a broad range of porcine parvoviruses (ppv) and accurate virus quantification in porcine tissues. the assay targets the vp2 gene of ppv and the porcine genomic c-myc gene for normalization. the detection limit of the sybr green reaction was shown to be equivalent to 6 x 10(0) to 6 x 10(1) ppv copies/reaction and the overall detection limit equivalent to 0.1 tcid(50)/100 microl. the assay was linear ...200616472875
microrna-guided processing impairs plum pox virus replication, but the virus readily evolves to escape this silencing mechanism.since the discovery of microrna (mirna)-guided processing, a new type of rna silencing, the possibility that such a mechanism could play a role in virus defense has been proposed. in this work, we have analyzed whether plum pox virus (ppv) chimeras bearing mirna target sequences (mir171, mir167, and mir159), which have been reported to be functional in arabidopsis, were affected by mirna function in three different host plants. some of these ppv chimeras had clearly impaired infectivity compared ...200616474149
ppv long-distance movement is occasionally permitted in resistant apricot hosts.the interactions between plum pox virus (ppv), a member of the potyvirus genus, and prunus host plants are, up to now, poorly understood. in the current paper, fluorescence stereomicroscopy, in situ hybridisation and immunogold detection were performed in order to evaluate the virus transport and cellular distribution. the behavior of ppv in several susceptible (cv. "moniqui" and "screara") and resistant apricot genotypes (cv. "harlayne", "henderson", "harcot", "goldrich", "stella" and "stark ea ...200616504333
a colorimetric assay for viral agents that produce cytopathic effects.many animal viruses produce cytopathic effects in their host cells during a productive infection. while some virus infections can be assayed by the production of plaques, many viruses, while producing cytotoxicity, do not easily form plaques, or do not form plaques at all. additionally, viruses within families such as the parvoviruses may have different preferred forms of titration making comparative virology difficult even among related groups. porcine parvovirus (ppv), canine parvovirus (cpv), ...200616516983
plum pox virus induces differential gene expression in the partially resistant stone fruit tree prunus armeniaca cv. goldrich.we investigated the changes in the expression profiles of the partially resistant apricot (prunus armeniaca l.) cultivar goldrich following inoculation with plum pox virus (ppv) using cdna-amplification fragment length polymorphism (aflp). altered expression patterns were detected and twenty-one differentially expressed cdna had homologies with genes in databases coding for proteins involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense, stress and intra/intercellular connections. seven of the mod ...200616564142
detection of adventitious viruses in biologicals--a rare occurrence.adventitious virus assays are performed as part of raw materials testing, cell-line characterization, and lot-release testing of biologicals such as monoclonal antibodies, gene therapy vectors, recombinant proteins, and vaccines. the testing methods follow guidance provided in the 9 cfr (bovine and porcine raw materials testing, and certain vaccine products) or points to consider documents (cell line characterization and evaluation of the majority of biologicals). the methodologies used and the ...200616566443
parvovirus variation for disease: a difference with rna viruses?the parvoviridae, a family of viruses with single-stranded dna genomes widely spread from invertebrates to mammal and human hosts, display a remarkable evolutionary capacity uncommon in dna genomes. parvovirus populations show high genetic heterogeneity and large population sizes resembling the quasispecies found in rna viruses. these viruses multiply in proliferating cells, causing acute, persistent or latent infections relying in the immunocompetence and developmental stage of the hosts. some ...200616568906
identification of a plum pox virus ci-interacting protein from chloroplast that has a negative effect in virus infection.the cylindrical inclusion (ci) protein of potyviruses is involved in virus replication and cell-to-cell movement. these two processes should rely on multiple plant-virus interactions; however, little is known about the host factors that are involved in, or that may interfere with, ci functions. by using a yeast two-hybrid system, the ci protein from plum pox virus (ppv) was found to interact with the photosystem i psi-k protein, the product of the gene psak, of nicotiana benthamiana. coexpressio ...200616570664
single-assay combination of epstein-barr virus (ebv) ebna1- and viral capsid antigen-p18-derived synthetic peptides for measuring anti-ebv immunoglobulin g (igg) and iga antibody levels in sera from nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients: options for field screening.assessment of immunoglobulin a (iga) antibody responses to various epstein-barr virus (ebv) antigen complexes, usually involving multiple serological assays, is important for the early diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc). through combination of two synthetic peptides representing immunodominant epitopes of ebna1 and viral capsid antigen (vca)-p18 we developed a one-step sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the specific detection of ebv reactive igg and iga antibodies in ...200616597877
prevalence of human papilloma virus infection of the uterine cervix in women with abnormal cervical cytology.to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (hpv) using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in women with abnormal cytology results.200616620054
asian prunus viruses: new related members of the family flexiviridae in prunus germplasm of asian origin.serological reactivity to plum pox virus (ppv) antisera has been described in several prunus sources of asian origin that are free of ppv infection. using polyvalent or specific pcr assays, the presence of three closely related agents in two of these sources, prunus mume cv. bungo and p. persica cv. ku chu'a hung, was demonstrated. similarities in genome organization and sequence comparisons indicate that these agents should be regarded as members of the genus foveavirus, their only singular tra ...200616621102
a slide latex agglutination test for the rapid detection of antibodies in serum against porcine parvovirus.a slide latex agglutination test (lat) was developed and evaluated to detect serum antibodies against porcine parvovirus. porcine parvovirus antigen was obtained by 10% peg-6000 and 0.5 mol/l sodium chloride precipitation, and inactivated by 0.1% methanal. two per cent suspensions of latex particles (0.5-0.8 microm) were coated by adding an equal volume of porcine parvovirus antigen at 0.34 microg/ml. repeatability of latex agglutination test was evaluated with a panel of 100 sera using the same ...200616626400
multiple resistance traits control plum pox virus infection in arabidopsis thaliana.twelve arabidopsis accessions were challenged with plum pox potyvirus (ppv) isolates representative of the four ppv strains. each accession supported local and systemic infection by at least some of the ppv isolates, but high variability was observed in the behavior of the five ppv isolates or the 12 arabidopsis accessions. resistance to local infection or long-distance movement occurred in about 40% of all the accession-isolate combinations analyzed. except for nd-1, all accessions showed resis ...200616673941
[risk factors for clinical signs of pmws and pdns in pigs in the netherlands: a case-control study].potential risk factors for clinical signs of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (pdns) in pigs in the netherlands were investigated in a matched case-control study using a questionnaire (personal interview). eighty-two pig farmers were questioned about management, hygiene, husbandry systems, disease history, and preventive health care. in this study, 30 pig herds with (cases) and 30 pig herds without (controls) characteristic clinic ...200616711565
assessment of the performance of a definition of a suspected measles case: implications for measles surveillance.to assess the performance, in brazil, of the definition of a suspected measles case among patients with rash diseases that has been adopted in brazil and many other countries.200616723063
detection of individual microbial pathogens by proximity ligation.nucleic acid amplification allows the detection of single infectious agents. protein-based assays, although they provide information on ongoing infections, have substantially less detection sensitivity.200616723682
a novel recombinant virus-like particle vaccine for prevention of porcine parvovirus-induced reproductive failure.a novel vaccine against porcine parvovirus (ppv), composed of recombinant virus-like particles (ppv-vlps) produced with the baculovirus expression vector system (bevs) at industrial scale, was tested for its immunogenicity and protective potency. a formulation of submicrogram amounts of ppv-vlps in a water-in-mineral oil adjuvant evoked high serum antibody titres in both guinea pigs, used as reference model, and target species, pigs. a single immunisation with 0.7microg of this antigen yielded c ...200616730104
[construction of the eukaryotic expression vector with il-2 gene and vp2 gene of ppv and research on immunogenicity].to construct gene vaccine of ppv and to investigate the effects of interleukin 2 (il-2) as an adjuvant on immune responses in mouse, the recombinant expression plasmid of pcineo-il2-vp2 was constructed and transfected into pk-15 cells by lipofectamine, the expressed product was detected by immunofluore assay. to study the immune effects of dna vaccine in vitro and in vivo, mice were used as the animal model. the recombinant plasmid pcineo-il2-vp2, the control plasmid pci-neo and the ppv live vac ...200616755922
human papillomavirus testing and liquid-based cytology: results at recruitment from the new technologies for cervical cancer randomized controlled trial.although testing for human papillomavirus (hpv) has higher sensitivity and lower specificity than cytology alone for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (cin), studies comparing conventional and liquid-based cytology have had conflicting results.200616757701
dna ploidy compared with human papilloma virus testing (hybrid capture ii) and conventional cervical cytology as a primary screening test for cervical high-grade lesions and cancer in 1555 patients with biopsy confirmation.because 80% of cervical cancers arise in low-resource settings, many inexpensive strategies are being tested. in that spirit, the authors are testing large-scale genomic or dna ploidy measurements as an inexpensive and semiautomated strategy.200616773634
transfection of arabidopsis protoplasts with a plum pox virus (ppv) infectious clone for studying early molecular events associated with ppv infection.the development of novel strategies against plant viral diseases relies on a better understanding of molecular virus-host interactions. here, we report an easy, efficient and reproducible protocol for arabidopsis protoplast isolation and transfection to study the infection and replication of a potyvirus, plum pox virus (ppv). macerozyme and cellulose were used to release protoplasts from arabidopsis leaf tissues, and polyethylene glycol-mediated dna uptake was employed for transfection of a ppv ...200616777241
viral kinetics and early prediction of nonresponse to peg-ifn-alpha-2b plus ribavirin in hcv genotypes 1/4 according to hiv serostatus.to evaluate, among 70 hepatitis c virus (hcv)-monoinfected and 36 human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-coinfected naïve patients with genotypes 1/4 receiving weight-adjusted pegylated interferon-alpha-2b/ribavirin, viral kinetics and the feasibility to predict treatment failure measuring early hcv-rna decreases. hcv-rna was assessed at baseline, weeks 4, 12 and 24. receiver operating characteristic (roc) curves were calculated to determine the most sensitive cut-off values of viral decrease at wee ...200616792540
oral candidosis and oral hairy leukoplakia as predictors of haart failure in brazilian hiv-infected patients.oral candidosis (oc) and hairy leukoplakia (ohl) are important markers of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection immune status.200616792726
use of cytokine polymorphisms and epstein-barr virus viral load to predict development of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in paediatric liver transplant recipients.currently there are no tests to accurately identify paediatric liver transplant patients at risk for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (ptld). herein we describe the use of cytokine polymorphisms and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qpcr) epstein-barr virus (ebv) viral load to identify patients at risk for ptld development.200616824159
detection of 6k1 as a mature protein of 6 kda in plum pox virus-infected nicotiana benthamiana.the rna genome of plum pox virus (ppv) encodes one large polyprotein that is subsequently cleaved into mature viral proteins. one of the products of proteolytic processing, the 6k1 protein, has not yet been identified in vivo for any member of the genus potyvirus. in this study, 6k1-specific polyclonal antiserum was raised against ppv 6k1 expressed in escherichia coli as a translational fusion with the n terminus of avian troponin c and an unusual metal-binding cluster of troponin t-1. for detec ...200616847134
characterization of the recombinant forms arising from a potato virus x chimeric virus infection under rna silencing pressure.recombination is a frequent phenomenon in rna viruses whose net result is largely influenced by selective pressures. rna silencing in plants acts as a defense mechanism against viruses and can be used to engineer virus resistance. here, we have investigated the influence of rna silencing as a selective pressure to favor recombinants of pvx-hct, a chimeric potato virus x (pvx) vector carrying the helper-component proteinase (hc-pro) gene from plum pox virus (ppv). all the plants from two lines ex ...200616903356
different viral kinetics between hepatitis c virus genotype 1 and 2 as on-treatment predictors of response to a 24-week course of high-dose interferon-alpha plus ribavirin combination therapy.to elucidate the genotype-specific virus-host-drug interaction and the on-treatment viral kinetics in predicting sustained virologic response (svr), serial serum hepatitis c virus (hcv) ribonucleic acid (rna) levels at baseline, treatment week 2 (w2), treatment week 4 (w4), and treatment week 12 (w12) were measured in 199 chronic hcv-infected taiwanese patients receiving interferon-alpha (inf-alpha) 6 million units (mu) three times weekly plus 1000 to 1200 mg/day of ribavirin for 24 weeks. the s ...200616938649
potentiation of porcine circovirus 2-induced postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome by porcine parvovirus is associated with excessive production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha.this study investigated the potentiation of porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2)-induced postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome by porcine parvovirus (ppv) and found it was associated with excessive production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha). colostrum-deprived conventional pigs were inoculated intranasally with pcv2 or ppv alone or in combination (pcv2 and ppv). in vitro assay of tnf-alpha, obtained from alveolar macrophages coinfected with pcv2 and ppv, showed a significant increase in t ...200616966450
accurate model predicting sustained response at week 4 of therapy with pegylated interferon with ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis c.current models used to predict response to peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment, based on viral decline during the first 12 weeks of therapy, have focused on creating an early stopping rule to avoid unnecessary prolongation of therapy. we developed a multivariate model that predicted sustained virological response and nonresponse at baseline and during the first 12 weeks of therapy using collected data from 186 unselected patients with chronic hepatitis c treated with peginterferon plus ribavi ...200616970602
immunogenicity, safety, and predictors of response after a pneumococcal conjugate and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine series in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.the immunogenicity and safety of 2 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (pcv) and 1 dose of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (ppv) were evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart).200617006288
use of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the detection of plum pox virus.a one step, accelerated reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) procedure was developed for the detection of plum pox virus (ppv). the six primers required for accelerated rt-lamp were designed using a conserved region in the c-terminus of the coat protein coding region of ppv. rt-lamp was used to detect isolates of five strains of ppv including the strains d, m, ea, c, and w. the virus was detected reliably in both infected herbaceous and woody hosts. rt-lamp was ...200617011051
mapping of two o-glcnac modification sites in the capsid protein of the potyvirus plum pox virus.a large number of o-linked n-acetylglucosamine (o-glcnac) residues have been mapped in vertebrate proteins, however targets of o-glcnacylation in plants still have not been characterized. we show here that o-glcnacylation of the n-terminal region of the capsid protein of plum pox virus resembles that of animal proteins in introducing o-glcnac monomers. thr-19 and thr-24 were specifically o-glcnacylated. these residues are surrounded by amino acids typical of animal o-glcnac acceptor sites, sugge ...200617014851
salicylic acid-mediated and rna-silencing defense mechanisms cooperate in the restriction of systemic spread of plum pox virus in tobacco.plum pox virus (ppv) is able to replicate in inoculated leaves of nicotiana tabacum, but is defective in systemic movement in this host. however, ppv produces a systemic infection in transgenic tobacco expressing the silencing suppressor p1/hc-pro from tobacco etch virus (tev). in this work we show that ppv is able to move to upper non-inoculated leaves of tobacco plants expressing bacterial salicylate hydroxylase (nahg) that degrades salicylic acid (sa). replication and accumulation of ppv is h ...200617018032
secret agent, an arabidopsis thaliana o-glcnac transferase, modifies the plum pox virus capsid protein.the capsid protein of plum pox virus (ppv-cp) is modified with o-linked glcnac (o-glcnac). while arabidopsis has two o-glcnac transferases, secret agent (sec) and spindly (spy), previous work suggests that sec modifies ppv-cp and that the modification plays a role in the infection process. here, we show that when co-expressed in escherichia coli sec modifies ppv-cp. deletion mapping and site-directed mutagenesis identified three threonine and a serine located near the n-terminus of ppv-cp that a ...200617027982
production of plum pox virus hc-pro functionally active for aphid transmission in a transient-expression system.potyviruses are non-persistently transmitted by aphid vectors with the assistance of a viral accessory factor known as helper component (hc-pro), a multifunctional protein that is also involved in many other essential processes during the virus infection cycle. a transient agrobacterium-mediated expression system was used to produce plum pox virus (ppv) hc-pro in nicotiana benthamiana leaves from constructs that incorporated the 5' region of the genome, yielding high levels of hc-pro in agroinfi ...200617030878
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