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the pathogenic role of torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 and their correlations with various viral pathogens and host immunocytes in wasting pigs.the pathogenic role of torque teno sus virus (ttsuv) in swine is controversial among different studies. the present study intended to evaluate the potential pathogenicity of ttsuv based on its correlations with the histopathological changes, various common concurrently infected viral pathogens including porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), and porcine parvovirus (ppv), as well as changes in the distribution and population of host immunocy ...201526390821
enveloped virus flocculation and removal in osmolyte solutions.our ability to reduce infectious disease burden throughout the world has been greatly improved by the creation of vaccines. however, worldwide immunization rates are low. the two most likely reasons are the lack of sufficient distribution in underdeveloped countries and the high cost of vaccine products. the high costs are due to the difficulties of manufacturing individual vaccine products with specialized purification trains. in this study, we propose to use virus flocculation in osmolytes, fo ...201525865274
in vitro antiviral activity of germacrone against porcine parvovirus.porcine parvovirus (ppv) infections can lead to significant losses to the swine industry by causing reproductive failure in pigs. germacrone has been reported to efficiently suppress the replication of influenza virus. in this report, the antiviral activity of germacrone on ppv in swine testis (st) cells was investigated. here, we show for the first time that germacrone protects cells from ppv infection and suppresses the synthesis of viral mrna and protein. furthermore, we show that germacrone ...201525813663
development of real-time pcr assay for detection of porcine circovirus-like virus p1 in domestic pigs in china.the porcine circovirus-like agent p1 is a newly discovered dna virus with a single-stranded circular genome that is highly homologous to that of porcine circovirus type 2. p1 infection can cause symptoms resembling postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. this study aims to develop a rapid, sensitive and specific method to detect p1.201526404908
characterization of porcine parvovirus type 3 and porcine circovirus type 2 in wild boars (sus scrofa) in slovakia.as the number of free-living wild boars (sus scrofa l.) continues to rise in slovakia, the probability of pathogen transmission between susceptible species increases. we investigated the distribution and genetic characterization of porcine parvovirus type 3 (ppv3), porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), and their coinfection in wild boars. among 194 animals tested, 19.1% were positive for ppv3 and 43.8% for pcv2. similar rates of coinfection with both viruses reaching 11.0% and 11.8% were observed in ...201525973618
a taqman-based real-time pcr for detection and quantification of porcine parvovirus 4.porcine parvovirus 4 (ppv4) is a dna virus, and a member of the parvoviridae family within the bocavirus genera. it was detected recently in swine, but its epidemiology and pathology remain unclear. a taqman-based real-time pcr (qpcr) targeting a conserved region of the orf3 gene of ppv4 was developed. the qpcr detection limit was 9.5 × 10(1) dna copies/μl. there was no cross-reaction with porcine parvovirus, torque teno virus 1, torque teno virus 2, porcine circovirus type 1, porcine circovirus ...201525813599
antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by porcine parvovirus.porcine parvovirus (ppv) causes reproductive failure in pigs, which leads to economic losses to the industry. as reported previously, licl efficiently impairs the replication of a variety of viruses, including the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (ibv), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), and pseudorabies herpesvirus. we demonstrate for the first time that inhibition of ppv replication in swine testis (st) cells by licl is dose-dependent, and that the antiviral effect of licl occu ...201525663217
shedding patterns of endemic eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa) pathogens.the eurasianwild boar has experienced aworldwide demographic explosion that increases awareness on shared pathogens. however, shedding routes of relevant wild boar pathogens are unknown. previous observations on sex- and age-related differences in aujeszky's disease virus (adv) exposure led us to hypothesize that shedding patterns of endemicwild boar pathogens may be influenced by individual traits.we investigated shedding routes of adv, porcine parvovirus (ppv), porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) ...201526412545
simultaneous detection of eight swine reproductive and respiratory pathogens using a novel gexp analyser-based multiplex pcr assay.a new high-throughput genomelab gene expression profiler (gexp) analyser-based multiplex pcr assay was developed for the detection of eight reproductive and respiratory pathogens in swine. the reproductive and respiratory pathogens include north american porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv-na), classical swine fever virus (csfv), porcine circovirus 2 (pcv-2), swine influenza virus (siv) (including h1 and h3 subtypes), porcine parvovirus (ppv), pseudorabies virus (prv) and ...201526259690
fatal disease associated with swine hepatitis e virus and porcine circovirus 2 co-infection in four weaned pigs in china.in recent decades, porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2) infection has been recognized as the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, and has become a threat to the swine industry. hepatitis e virus (hev) is another high prevalent pathogen in swine in many regions of the world. pcv2 and hev are both highly prevalent in pig farms in china.201525889526
differential expression of micrornas in porcine parvovirus infected porcine cell line.porcine parvovirus (ppv), a member of the parvoviridae family, causes great economic loss in the swine industry worldwide. micrornas (mirnas) are a class of non-protein-coding genes that play many diverse and complex roles in viral infections.201526290078
coincidental detection of genomes of porcine parvoviruses and porcine circovirus type 2 infecting pigs in japan.the infection status of 15 viruses in 120 pigs aged about 6 months was investigated based on tonsil specimens collected from a slaughterhouse. only 5 species of porcine parvoviruses and porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) were detected at high frequencies; 67% for porcine parvovirus (ppv) (ppv-kr or -nadl2 as the new abbreviation), 58% for ppv2 (cnp-parv4), 39% for ppv3 (p-parv4), 33% for ppv4 (ppv4), 55% for pbo-likev (pbov7) and 80% for pcv2. a phylogenetic analysis of ppv3 suggested that japanes ...201526166811
serological prevalence of viral agents that induce reproductive failure in south korean wild boar.viral agents associated with reproductive failure such as aujeszky's disease virus (adv), encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), and porcine parvovirus (ppv) have also been identified in european wild boar. to screen for the presence of antibodies against adv, emcv, and ppv from wild boar (sus scrofa) in south korea, 481 serum samples were collected from wild boar hunted between december 2010 and may 2011.201525888836
ultraviolet light (uv) inactivation of porcine parvovirus in liquid plasma and effect of uv irradiated spray dried porcine plasma on performance of weaned pigs.a novel ultraviolet light irradiation (uv-c, 254 nm) process was designed as an additional safety feature for manufacturing of spray dried porcine plasma (sdpp). in exp. 1, three 10-l batches of bovine plasma were inoculated with 10(5.2 ± 0.12) tissue culture infectious dose 50 (tcid50) of porcine parvovirus (ppv) per ml of plasma and subjected to uv-c ranging from 0 to 9180 j/l. no viable ppv was detected in bovine plasma by micro-titer assay in sk6 cell culture after uv-c at 2295 j/l. in exp. ...201526171968
rapid and specific detection of porcine parvovirus using real-time pcr and high resolution melting (hrm) analysis.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is the important causative agent for infectious infertility, which is a fairly tough virus that multiplies normally in the intestine of pigs without causing clinical signs in the world.201525879634
complete genome sequence of porcine parvovirus 2 recovered from swine sera.a complete genomic sequence of porcine parvovirus 2 (ppv-2) was detected by viral metagenome analysis on swine sera. a phylogenetic analysis of this genome reveals that it is highly similar to previously reported north american ppv-2 genomes. the complete ppv-2 sequence is 5,426 nucleotides long.201626823583
simultaneous typing of seven porcine pathogens by multiplex pcr with a gexp analyser.a novel high-throughput method was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of seven porcine pathogens by multiplex pcr based on a genomelab gene expression profiler (gexp) analyser. the pathogens included in this study were pseudorabies virus (prv), classical swine fever virus (csfv), african swine fever virus (asfv), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), porcine parvovirus (ppv), porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv-2) and japanese encephalitis virus (jev). sev ...201626706731
in vitro antimicrobial activities of animal-used quinoxaline 1,4-di-n-oxides against mycobacteria, mycoplasma and fungi.the quinoxaline 1,4-di-n-oxides (qdnos) were known as potent antibacterial agents. for the purpose of evaluating the bioactivity of existing animal-used qdnos drugs against representative pathogenic microorganism, the representative drugs of quinoxalines including cyadox, mequindox, quinocetone and their metabolites were submitted to the in vitro evaluation for antituberculosis, antimycoplasma, antifungal and antiviral activities.201627600955
rapid and specific detection of porcine parvovirus by isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assays.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is a major cause of swine reproductive failure and reported in many countries worldwide. recombinase polymerase amplification (rpa) assays using a real-time fluorescent detection (ppv real-time rpa assay) and a lateral flow dipstick (ppv rpa lfd assay) were developed targeting ppv ns1 gene. the detection limit of ppv real-time rpa assay was 300 copies per reaction within 9 min at 38 °c, while the rpa lfd assay has a detection limit of 400 copies per reaction in less than ...201627593155
establishment of a nanoparticle-assisted rt-pcr assay to distinguish field strains and attenuated strains of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (pedv) can cause serious disease and even death in neonatal piglets, resulting in serious damage to the swine industry worldwide. open reading frame 3 (orf3) is the only accessory gene in the pedv genome. previous studies have indicated that pedv vaccine strains have a partial deletion in orf3. in this study, a nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nanoparticle-assisted rt-pcr) assay targeting the orf3 of pedv was developed to distinguish pedv field str ...201627287433
inactivation of viruses during a new manufacturing process of α2-macroglobulin from cohn fraction iv by dry-heat treatment.α2-macroglobulin (α2-m) has a curative effect on radiation injury. virus transmission through plasma derivatives is still not risk-free. effect of dry heat on α2-m activity and virus inactivation by dry heat in a new manufacturing process of α2-m were studied.201627383449
infectious agents identified in aborted swine fetuses in a high-density breeding area: a three-year study.reproductive failure in sows is one of the most important factors affecting pig breeding. many reproductive disorders are linked to both environmental factors and infectious agents. the goal of our study was to determine the presence of pathogens that are known to cause abortion, considering a set of conditioning factors, such as seasonality and pregnancy period. a large number of aborted fetuses (1,625 fetuses from 140 farms) from a high-density breeding area in northern italy was analyzed for ...201627400956
immunogenicity of adenovirus-derived porcine parvovirus-like particles displaying b and t cell epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease.virus-like particles (vlps) vaccines combine many of the advantages of whole-virus vaccines and recombinant subunit vaccines, integrating key features that underlay their immunogenicity, safety and protective potential. we have hypothesized here the effective insertion of the vp1 epitopes (three amino acid residues 21-40, 141-160 and 200-213 in vp1, designated vpe) of foot-and-mouth disease (fmdv) within the external loops of ppv vp2 could be carried out without altering assembly based on struct ...201626685093
reproduction of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome in an animal disease model as a tool for vaccine testing under controlled conditions.snatch farrowed, colostrum deprived piglets were inoculated with different combinations of porcine circovirus 2, porcine parvovirus and erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae candidate vaccines. 10 piglets were mock-vaccinated. following virus challenge with a combined porcine circovirus 2/porcine parvovirus inoculum, all animals were monitored and samples taken for serology, immunohistochemistry and qpcr. at 24 dpc all non-vaccinated animals remaining were exhibiting signs of post-weaning multi-systemic ...201627033924
susceptibility of porcine preimplantation embryos to viruses associated with reproductive failure.in the modern biological area, the applications of pig as a laboratory model have extensive prospects, such as gene transfer, ivf, scnt, and xenotransplantation. however, the risk of pathogen transmission by porcine embryos is always a topic to be investigated, especially the viruses related to reproductive failure, for instance, pseudorabies virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, porcine parvovirus, and porcine circovirus type 2. it should be mentioned that the zona pelluci ...201627423729
epidemiological and immunopathological studies on porcine parvovirus infection in punjab.the aim of this study was to get the first-hand knowledge about the seroprevalence of porcine parvovirus (ppv) in punjab and a diagnosis of ppv from abortion cases of swine using gross, histopathological, and immunohistopathological techniques to observe the tissue tropism of the virus strain.201627651669
[immune response of recombinant pseudorabies virus rprv-vp2 expressing vp2 gene of porcine parvovirus in mice].in order to develop a combined live vaccine that will be used to prevent against porcine parvovirus (ppv) and pseudorabies virus (prv) infection, the vp2 gene of ppv was inserted into the transfer vector plasmid pg to produce the recombinant plasmid pgvp2. the plasmid pgvp2 and the genome of prv hb98 attenuated vaccine were transfected by using lipofectamine into swine testis cells for the homologous recombination. the recombinant virus rprv-vp2 was purified by selection of green fluorescence pl ...201627396164
removal process of prion and parvovirus from human platelet lysates used as clinical-grade supplement for ex vivo cell expansion.pooled human platelet lysate (hpl) is becoming the new gold standard as supplement for ex vivo cell culture for clinical protocols. however, the risk of pathogen contamination of hpl increases with the platelet pool size. we hypothesized that hollow fiber anion exchange membrane chromatography using qyuspeed d (qsd) could remove resistant and untested bloodborne pathogens, such as parvoviruses and prions, from hpl-supplemented growth media without substantially affecting their capacity to suppor ...201627260210
an inactivated whole-virus porcine parvovirus vaccine protects pigs against disease but does not prevent virus shedding even after homologous virus challenge.inactivated whole-virus vaccines against porcine parvovirus (ppv) can prevent disease but not infection and virus shedding after heterologous virus challenge. here, we showed that the same is true for a homologous challenge. pregnant sows were vaccinated with an experimental inactivated vaccine based on ppv strain 27a. they were challenged on day 40 of gestation with the virulent porcine parvovirus ppv-27a from which the vaccine was prepared (homologous challenge). on day 90 of gestation, the fe ...201626939976
porcine parvovirus as a contaminant in cell cultures and laboratory supplies.although ppv has been described as a cellular contaminant, few recent studies about the presence of this virus in cell cultures, serum, and trypsin were found in the literature. the purpose of this study was to detect the presence of porcine parvovirus (ppv) by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in cell cultures, serum, and trypsin used in official public laboratories of educational institutes and research centers. we tested samples of cell cultures (88), batches of trypsin (10), and fetal bovine s ...201626811218
a comprehensive microbiological safety approach for agarose encapsulated porcine islets intended for clinical trials.the use of porcine islets to replace insulin-producing islet β-cells, destroyed during the diabetogenic disease process, presents distinct challenges if this option is to become a therapeutic reality for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. these challenges include a thorough evaluation of the microbiological safety of the islets. in this study, we describe a robust porcine islet-screening program that provides a high level of confidence in the microbiological safety of porcine islets suitable for ...201627862363
circulation of porcine parvovirus types 1 through 6 in serum samples obtained from six commercial polish pig farms.porcine parvoviruses are small non-enveloped dna viruses, very resistant to inactivation, and ubiquitous in the global pig population. porcine parvovirus type 1 (ppv1) has been known since the 1960s and is a major causative agent of reproductive failure in breeding herds. during the last decade, several new parvoviruses have been identified in pigs by molecular methods and have been consecutively designated as ppv2 through ppv6. epidemiology data for these viruses are limited, and the impact of ...201627882679
porcine bocavirus np1 protein suppresses type i ifn production by interfering with irf3 dna-binding activity.type i interferon (ifn) and the ifn-induced cellular antiviral responses are the primary defense mechanisms against viral infection; however, viruses always evolve various mechanisms to antagonize this host's ifn responses. porcine bocavirus (pbov) is a newly identified porcine parvovirus. in this study, we found that the nonstructural protein np1 of pbov inhibits sendai virus-induced ifn-β production and the subsequent expression of ifn-stimulating genes (isgs). ectopic expression of np1 signif ...201627481269
first genome sequences of porcine parvovirus 5 strains identified in polish pigs.porcine parvovirus type 5 (ppv5) has been recently identified. here, we report the genome sequences of five ppv5 strains identified in serum samples from polish pigs, which represent the first ppv5 sequences recovered from european pigs. the ppv5 strains isolated in poland are most related to the chinese strain hn01.201627587805
a novel rodent chapparvovirus in feces of wild rats.chapparvovirus, a recently determined new genus in the family parvoviridae, can infect many species of animals including bats, chickens, and pigs. here, using viral metagenomics method, we identified a novel chapparvovirus from feces of wild rats and designated it as rat parvovirus 2 (rpv2). the nearly complete genome of rpv2 is 4222-nt long and includes two orfs encoding a 654-aa nonstructural protein 1 (ns1) and a 472-aa capsid protein (vp), respectively. phylogenetic analysis over the amino a ...201627473724
development and validation of a multiplex conventional pcr assay for simultaneous detection and grouping of porcine bocaviruses.porcine bocavirus (pbov), a newly described porcine parvovirus, has received attention because it can be commonly identified in clinically affected pigs including pigs with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pwms) and pigs with diarrhea. in recent years, novel pbovs have been identified and were classified into three genogroups, but the ability to detect and classify these novel pbovs is not comprehensive to date. in this study, a multiplex conventional pcr assay for simultaneous detec ...201627448821
discovery of a novel parvovirinae virus, porcine parvovirus 7, by metagenomic sequencing of porcine rectal swabs.parvoviruses are a diverse group of viruses containing some of the smallest known species that are capable of infecting a wide range of animals. metagenomic sequencing of pooled rectal swabs from adult pigs identified a 4103-bp contig consisting of two major open reading frames encoding proteins of 672 and 469 amino acids (aa) in length. blastp analysis of the 672-aa protein found 42.4 % identity to fruit bat (eidolon helvum) parvovirus 2 (ehpv2) and 37.9 % to turkey parvovirus (tupv) tp1-2012/h ...201626995221
detection of porcine parvovirus 2 (ungulate tetraparvovirus 3) specific antibodies and examination of the serological profile of an infected swine herd.porcine parvovirus 2 (ppv2) is a member of a recently discovered group of swine parvoviruses occurring worldwide. it is frequently detected in lung samples suggesting some pathological role of the virus in diseases. to study this possibility an indirect elisa was developed to detect ppv2 specific antibodies and to examine the serological profile of an infected swine herd where 185 serum samples collected from different age groups including sows were analyzed. according to the results maternal an ...201626974825
genome sequences of the novel porcine parvovirus 3, identified in guangxi province, china.porcine parvovirus 3 is a novel parvovirus that infects pigs. here, we report two genome sequences of porcine parvovirus 3 strains gx1 and gx2, which are highly prevalent in guangxi province. it will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of the porcine parvovirus 3.201626941135
porcine parvovirus infection activates mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway by inducing ros accumulation.porcine parvovirus (ppv) infection primarily causes reproductive failure of pregnant swine and results in host cell death. boars, as an important disseminator, shed ppv to sows via semen. ppv infects and numerously replicates in boar testicle, which results in damage of swine testicle in vivo. reactive oxygen species (ros), a mediator of cell apoptosis, play a crucial role in the mitochondria apoptotic pathway. however, whether ppv infection induces st cells apoptosis and ros accumulation is sti ...201626880103
porcine hokovirus in wild boar in portugal.porcine hokovirus (phov), also referred to as porcine parvovirus 4 (p-parv4), a recently discovered parvovirus of swine that is closely related to human parvovirus 4/5 (h-parv4/5), was first described in hong kong. to evaluate the occurrence of p-parv4 in portuguese wild boars in the hunting season of 2011/2012, liver and serum samples were tested. p-parv4 was detected in 24 % of the wild boars analyzed. phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between the p-parv4 isolates and other p-p ...201626711454
the adjuvanticity of ophiopogon polysaccharide liposome against an inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccine in mice.in this study, the adjuvant activity of ophiopogon polysaccharide liposome (opl) was investigated. the effects of opl on the splenic lymphocyte proliferation of mice were measured in vitro. the results showed that opl could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation singly or synergistically with pha and lps and that the effect was better than ophiopogon polysaccharide (op) at most of concentrations. the adjuvant activities of opl, op and mineral oil were compared in balb/c mice inoculated w ...201626529188
first report of detection and molecular characterization of porcine parvovirus in domestic and wild pigs in kerala, india.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is a dna virus of the genus parvovirus of family parvoviridae. it is the causative agent of many disease problems in pigs such as maternal reproductive failure, stillbirth, mummification, embryonic or fetal death, infertility, abortion and neonatal death. a study was conducted to assess the incidence of the virus in pigs in kerala state in south india. a total of 38 samples were collected from domestic and wild pigs from different districts of the state. polymerase chain ...201628466045
complete genome sequences of porcine parvovirus 2 isolated from swine in the republic of korea.here, we report sequences of the porcine parvovirus 2 (ppv2) genome, isolated from pigs in the republic of korea in 2016. the sequences of open reading frames 1 and 2 (orf1 and orf2) had a 98.8 to 98.9% homology with the us135 strain and 98.8% homology with the us523 strain, respectively. this is the first study to report the ppv2 genome in south korean pigs.201728408693
seroprevalence of economically important viral pathogens in swine populations of trinidad and tobago, west indies.the objective of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and identify the strains of swine influenza virus (swiv), as well as the seroprevalence of porcine parvovirus (ppv), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), porcine respiratory coronavirus (prcv), porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv-2), and classical swine fever virus (csfv) in pigs in trinidad and tobago (t&t). blood samples (309) were randomly collected from pigs at farms ...201728523387
dynamics of vanishing of maternally derived antibodies of ungulate protoparvovirus 1 suggests an optimal age for gilts vaccination.the prevention of ungulate protoparvovirus 1 (upv1) infection and consequently the reproductive losses is based on vaccination of all pigs intended for breeding. as maternally derived antibodies (mda) can interfere with the development of immunity following vaccination, it is important to know the duration of anti-upv1 mda to determine the optimal age for the best vaccination efficacy. to elucidate the association between dam and piglet antibody levels against upv1 and to estimate the decrease r ...201728470582
survey for selected pathogens in wild pigs (sus scrofa) from guam, marianna islands, usa.pigs (sus scrofa) were introduced to guam in the 1600's and are now present in high densities throughout the island. wild pigs are reservoirs for pathogens of concern to domestic animals and humans. exposure to porcine parvovirus, transmissible gastroenteritis, and leptospira interrogans has been documented in domestic swine but data from wild pigs are lacking. the close proximity of humans, domestic animals, and wild pigs, combined with the liberal hunting of wild pigs, results in frequent oppo ...201728622856
efficacy of inactivation of viral contaminants in hyperimmune horse plasma against botulinum toxin by low ph alone and combined with pepsin digestion.assuring viral safety of horse plasma-derived products is fundamental for ethical and regulatory reasons. we previously demonstrated the ability of pepsin digestion at low ph to inactivate west nile and sindbis viruses in horse plasma. the present study further examined the efficiency of pepsin digestion to inactivate four additional viruses: hsv-1 and bvdv (lipid-enveloped), bpv and reo-3 (nonenveloped). these viruses were spiked into hyperimmunized horse plasma against botulinum toxin and subj ...201728633975
a novel viewrna in situ hybridization method for the detection of the dynamic distribution of classical swine fever virus rna in pk15 cells.classical swine fever (csf) is a highly contagious fatal infectious disease caused by classical swine fever virus (csfv). a better understanding of csfv replication is important for the study of pathogenic mechanism of csf. with the development of novel rna in situ hybridization method, quantitatively localization and visualization of the virus rna molecular in cultured cell or tissue section becomes very important tool to address these pivotal pathogenic questions. in this study, we established ...201728420390
the role of nuclear localization signal in parvovirus life cycle.parvoviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with an approximately 5.0 kb, single-stranded dna genome. usually, the parvovirus capsid gene contains one or more nuclear localization signals (nlss), which are required for guiding the virus particle into the nucleus through the nuclear pore. however, several classical nlss (cnlss) and non-classical nlss (ncnlss) have been identified in non-structural genes, and the ncnlss can also target non-structural proteins into the nucleus. in this review, we ...201728410597
development of isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of porcine circovirus type 2.porcine circovirus virus type ii (pcv2) is the etiology of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws), porcine dermatitis, nephropathy syndrome (pdns), and necrotizing pneumonia. rapid diagnosis tool for detection of pcv2 plays an important role in the disease control and eradication program. recombinase polymerase amplification (rpa) assays using a real-time fluorescent detection (pcv2 real-time rpa assay) and rpa combined with lateral flow dipstick (pcv2 rpa lfd assay) were developed ta ...201728424790
biological safety of a highly purified 10% liquid intravenous immunoglobulin preparation from human plasma.a highly purified 10% liquid intravenous immunoglobulin, iqymune(®), has been developed using an innovative manufacturing process including an affinity chromatography step for the removal of anti-a and anti-b hemagglutinins.201728508264
intrauterine delivery of subunit vaccines induces a systemic and mucosal immune response in rabbits.mucosal vaccines have long been sought after to improve protection though the production of both a mucosal and systemic immune response, and are thought to be particularly effective at the site of induction. development of such vaccines has, however, been delayed by the general propensity to develop immune tolerance to antigens encountered at mucosal sites. this study aimed to determine whether an appropriately formulated subunit vaccine delivered to the uterine lumen would effectively trigger i ...201728771858
porcine parvovirus infection activates inflammatory cytokine production through toll-like receptor 9 and nf-κb signaling pathways in porcine kidney cells.porcine parvovirus virus (ppv) is an animal virus that has caused high economic losses for the swine industry worldwide. previous studies demonstrated that ppv infection induced significant production of interleukin 6 (il-6) in vitro and in vivo. however, the inflammatory cytokines and specific signaling pathways induced during ppv infection remain largely unknown. in the present study, we analyzed the expression levels of il-6 in ppv-infected porcine kidney 15 (pk-15) and the results showed tha ...201728757040
an exo probe-based recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the rapid detection of porcine parvovirus.recombinase polymerase amplification (rpa), an isothermal amplification technology, has been developed as an alternative to pcr in pathogen detection. a real-time rpa assay (rt-rpa) was developed to detect the porcine parvovirus (ppv) using primers and exo probe specific for the vp2 gene. the amplification was performed at 39°c for 20min. there was no cross-reaction with other pathogens tested. using the recombinant plasmid pppv-vp2 as template, the analytical sensitivity was 103 copies. the ass ...201728690087
a viral metagenomic approach on a non-metagenomic experiment: mining next generation sequencing datasets from pig dna identified several porcine parvoviruses for a retrospective evaluation of viral infections.shot-gun next generation sequencing (ngs) on whole dna extracted from specimens collected from mammals often produces reads that are not mapped (i.e. unmapped reads) on the host reference genome and that are usually discarded as by-products of the experiments. in this study, we mined ion torrent reads obtained by sequencing dna isolated from archived blood samples collected from 100 performance tested italian large white pigs. two reduced representation libraries were prepared from two dna pools ...201728662150
the sat protein of porcine parvovirus accelerates viral spreading through induction of irreversible endoplasmic reticulum stress.the sat protein (satp) of porcine parvovirus (ppv) accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum (er), and sat deletion induces the slow-spreading phenotype. the in vitro comparison of the wild-type kresse strain and its sat knockout (sat(-)) mutant revealed that prolonged cell integrity and late viral release are responsible for the slower spreading of the sat(-) virus. during ppv infection, regardless of the presence or absence of satp, the expression of downstream er stress response proteins (xbp1 ...201728566374
ungulate copiparvovirus 2 in healthy and postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome-affected pigs.a sybr green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (qpcr) was designed to detect ungulate copiparvovirus 2, also known as porcine parvovirus 4 (ppv4). the test was applied to search for ppv4 dnaemia in sera from 1- to 4-month-old pigs displaying signs of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws), as well as in sera from healthy swine at equivalent age and in sera from older healthy animals (>6 months old). high levels of ppv4 dna were detected in pmws-affected pigs. the mean viral dn ...201728382380
porcine parvovirus induces activation of nf-κb signaling pathways in pk-15 cells mediated by toll-like receptors.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is a pathogenic factor that primarily induces severe reproductive failure of pregnant swine, which results in extensive losses to the swine industry worldwide. in this study, a potential mechanism of ppv-induced activation of the nuclear transcription factor-kappab (nf-κb) by infection in porcine kidney cells (pk-15) was elucidated for the first time. the subcellular localization of p65 analyzed by immunofluorescence assay (ifa) showed that ppv infection induced p65 tran ...201728340426
first identification of porcine parvovirus 6 in poland.porcine parvovirus type 1 is a major causative agent of swine reproductive failure. during the past decade, several new parvoviruses have been discovered in pigs. porcine parvovirus type 6 (ppv6), recently identified, has been reported in pigs in china and in the usa while the ppv6 status in the european pig population remains undetermined. in the present study, ppv6 dna was identified in serum samples collected from domestic pigs in poland. in investigated herds, the prevalence of ppv6 was 14.9 ...201727590228
experimental and computational surface hydrophobicity analysis of a non-enveloped virus and proteins.the physical characteristics of viruses needs to be understood in order to manipulate the interaction of viruses with host cells, as well as to create specific molecular recognition techniques to detect, purify, and remove viruses. viruses are generally believed to be positively charged at physiological ph, but there are few other defining characteristics. here, we have experimentally and computationally demonstrated that a non-enveloped virus is more hydrophobic than a panel of model proteins. ...201728219841
porcine parvovirus capsid protein expressed in escherichia coli self-assembles into virus-like particles with high immunogenicity in mice and guinea pigs.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is a causative agent of reproductive failure in pregnant sows. classical inactivated vaccine is extensively used to control ppv infection, but problems concerning safety, such as incomplete inactivation may occur. in this study, a novel subunit vaccine against ppv based on virus-like particles (vlps) formed from the complete ppv vp2 protein expressed in a prokaryotic system with co-expressed chaperones is reported. the vlps have a similar size, shape, and hemagglutinatio ...201728063996
inactivation of viruses by pasteurization at 60 °c for 10 h with and without 40% glucose as stabilizer during a new manufacturing process of α2-macroglobulin from cohn fraction iv.pasteurization is regularly used to inactivate viruses for the safety of plasma derivatives. influence of pasteurization at 60 °c for 10 h on α2-macroglobulin activity and virus inactivation were studied. with 40% sugar as stabilizers more than 70% α2-macroglobulin activity was reserved after pasteurization compared with 20% in control. glucose presented a better activity protection effect than sucrose and maltose. by pasteurization without stabilizer the virus titers of pseudorabies virus, sind ...201728215695
pathogen safety of a new intravenous immune globulin 10% liquid.the manufacturing process of a new intravenous immune globulin (ivig) 10% liquid product incorporates two dedicated pathogen safety steps: solvent/detergent (s/d) treatment and nanofiltration (20 nm). ion-exchange chromatography (iec) during protein purification also contributes to pathogen safety. the ability of these three process steps to inactivate/remove viruses and prions was evaluated.201728236170
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