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emergence of a novel mutant pcv2b variant associated with clinical pcvad in two vaccinated pig farms in the u.s. concurrently infected with ppv2.porcine circovirus (pcv) type 2b (pcv2b) emerged in north america in 2005-2006. during may of 2012, pcvad occurred in 10-18-week-old pigs in two farms within a production system that routinely vaccinated against pcv2. both farms received replacement gilts from the same multiplier. a mutant pcv2b strain not previously present in north america was identified. the strain was found to be 99.9% identical to a recently described mutant pcv2 isolate reported in china in 2010 and thought to be more viru ...201223305615
in vitro antiviral activity of brazilian plants (maytenus ilicifolia and aniba rosaeodora) against bovine herpesvirus type 5 and avian metapneumovirus.medicinal plants are well known for their use in traditional folk medicine as treatments for many diseases including infectious diseases.201222873798
biosecurity aspects and pathogen inactivation in acidified high risk animal by-products.the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of formic acid addition to ground high risk animal by-products (abp 1) in terms of stabilization and pathogen inactivation and to evaluate the biosecurity risk connected with the abp 1 based combustion fuel biomal. laboratory studies were performed on the persistence of salmonella typhimurium, bacillus cereus spores, porcine herpes virus, avian influenza virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, equine rhinitis a virus and porcine parvovirus in bioma ...201222506709
luiii parvovirus selectively and efficiently targets, replicates in, and kills human glioma cells.because productive infection by parvoviruses requires cell division and is enhanced by oncogenic transformation, some parvoviruses may have potential utility in killing cancer cells. to identify the parvovirus(es) with the optimal oncolytic effect against human glioblastomas, we screened 12 parvoviruses at a high multiplicity of infection (moi). mvmi, mvmc, mvm-g17, tumor virus x (tvx), canine parvovirus (cpv), porcine parvovirus (ppv), rat parvovirus 1a (rpv1a), and h-3 were relatively ineffect ...201222553327
development of multiplex pcr for simultaneous detection of six swine dna and rna viruses.uniplex and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and pcr protocols were developed and evaluated subsequently for its effectiveness in detecting simultaneously single and mixed infections in swine. specific primers for three dna viruses and three rna viruses, including classical swine fever virus (csfv), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), japanese encephalitis virus (jev), porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), porcine pseudorabies virus (prv) an ...201222575688
prevalence of and risk factors associated with viral and bacterial pathogens in farmed european wild boar.the aim of this study was to estimate in farmed european wild boars the prevalence of and risk factors associated with a range of common porcine viral and bacterial infections, namely, porcine parvovirus (ppv), porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), swine influenza virus (siv), aujeszky's disease virus (adv), classical swine fever virus (csfv), swine vesicular disease virus (svdv), coronavirus causing transmissible gastroenteritis (tgev), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), m ...201222516920
prevalence of antibodies to selected viral pathogens in wild boars (sus scrofa) in croatia in 2005-06 and 2009-10.we determined prevalence of antibody to selected viral pathogens important for domestic pigs and livestock in 556 wild boar (sus scrofa) sera collected during 2005-06 and 2009-10 in four counties in croatia. these counties account for an important part of the croatian commercial pig production and have a high density of wild boars. samples were tested for antibodies to porcine parvovirus (ppv), aujeszky's disease virus (adv), porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), swine influenza virus, porcine respi ...201222247381
inactivation effect of standard and fractionated electron beam irradiation on enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in a tendon transplant model.background: for increasing allograft tendon safety in reconstructive surgery, an effective sterilization method achieving sterility assurance including viruses without impairing the grafts properties is needed. fractionated electron beam (ebeam) has shown promising in vitro results. the proof of sufficient virus inactivation is a central part of the process validation. methods: the ebeam irradiation of the investigated viruses was performed in an optimized manner (oxygen content < 0.1%, -78 °c). ...201222896764
infectious risk factors for individual postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) development in pigs from affected farms in spain and denmark.two prospective longitudinal studies in 13 postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws)-affected farms from spain (n=3) and denmark (n=10) were performed. blood samples from pigs were longitudinally collected from 1st week until the occurrence of the pmws outbreak. wasted and healthy age-matched pigs were euthanized, necropsied and histopathologically characterised. pmws diagnosis was confirmed by means of lymphoid lesions and detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) in these tissues b ...201222884005
cd8(+) t-cell-mediated immunity against malaria: a novel heterologous prime-boost strategy.recently, a vaccine against malaria was successfully tested in a human phase iii trial. the efficacy of this vaccine formulation, based on the plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein, was approximately 50% and correlated with the presence of antibodies specific to the infective stages of the malaria parasites. different strategies are being pursued to improve vaccine efficacy levels. one such strategy is the induction of specific cytotoxic t cells that can destroy the intracellular hepato ...201223151162
interclade recombination in porcine parvovirus strains.a detailed analysis of the ns1/vp1vp2 genome region of the porcine parvovirus (ppv) strains isolated from vaccinated animals was performed. we found many inconsistencies in the phylogenetic trees of these viral isolates, such as low statistical support and strains with long branches in the phylogenetic trees. thus, we used distance-based and phylogenetic methods to distinguish de facto recombinants from spurious recombination signals. we found a mosaic virus in which the ns1 gene was acquired fr ...201222993191
serum protein profiles as potential biomarkers for infectious disease status in pigs.in veterinary medicine and animal husbandry, there is a need for tools allowing the early warning of diseases. preferably, tests should be available that warn farmers and veterinarians during the incubation periods of disease and before the onset of clinical signs. the objective of this study was to explore the potential of serum protein profiles as an early biomarker for infectious disease status. serum samples were obtained from an experimental pig model for porcine circovirus-associated disea ...201222439879
detection of porcine circovirus genotypes 2a and 2b in aborted foetuses from infected swine herds in the state of são paulo, brazil.porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) has been associated with several disease complexes, including reproductive failure. the aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of pcv2 that are associated with reproductive failure in pigs from the state of são paulo, brazil and to investigate co-infections with other infectious organisms.201222554105
prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of the current porcine circovirus 2 genotypes after implementation of widespread vaccination programmes in the usa.to determine the prevalence of porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2) genotypes in the usa during 2010-2011, 5 years after widespread pcv2 vaccination, serum samples from clinically normal pigs that were pcv2 vaccinated (n = 1177), non-vaccinated (n = 378) or of unknown vaccination status (n = 120), and 100 lung samples from pigs diagnosed with pcv-associated disease (pcvad) were tested. the presence of pcv2, pcv1, pcv1-2a and porcine parvovirus (ppv) dna was determined by pcr. determination of the pcv2 ge ...201222398315
detection, prevalence and analysis of emerging porcine parvovirus infections.a number of newly identified porcine parvoviruses had been described during the last decade, but the presence and prevalence of these viruses are unknown in hungary and only partly known for europe. the present study was conducted to detect and measure the prevalence of these viruses, namely porcine parvovirus (ppv) 2, ppv3, ppv4, porcine bocavirus (pbov) 1, pbov2, pbo-likev and the 6v and 7v parvoviruses. the prevalence of ppv1 and porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) was also investigated. faecal ...201222383055
[infection related fertility disorders in swiss pig breeding farms at the end of the postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) epizooty].porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) is able to induce reproductive failures. 286 fetuses from 113 sows of 59 farms with increased reproductive disorders which included abortions, mummies, stillborn and weak born piglets were studied six years after the beginning of the epizooty of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) in switzerland. 14 % of the cases were bacterial infections based on histological signs of inflammation and pathogen isolation. 12 % further cases showed inflammatory reac ...201223027510
enhancing immune responses to inactivated porcine parvovirus oil emulsion vaccine by co-inoculating porcine transfer factor in mice.inactivated porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccines are available commercially and widely used in the breeding herds. however, inactivated ppv vaccines have deficiencies in induction of specific cellular immune response. transfer factor (tf) is a material that obtained from the leukocytes, and is a novel immune-stimulatory reagent that as a modulator of the immune system. in this study, the immunogenicity of ppv oil emulsion vaccine and the immuno-regulatory activities of tf were investigated. the ina ...201222705080
phylogeny and evolutionary genetics of porcine parvovirus in wild boars.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is widespread among swine and is responsible for reproductive failure of susceptible sows, characterized by embryonic and fetal death. studies showed that ppv in domestic pig is genetically diverse and some strains differ from the ones used for vaccination. organ samples from wild boars and domestic pigs were collected in transylvania (romania) and tested for the presence of ppv by polymerase chain reaction. positive samples were grouped and 14 from the wild boar and 1 f ...201222575819
monoclonal antibody capture and viral clearance by cation exchange chromatography.traditionally, post-production culture harvest capture of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mabs) is performed using protein a chromatography. we investigated the efficiency and robustness of cation exchange chromatography (cex) in an effort to evaluate alternative capture methodologies. up to five commercially available cex resins were systematically evaluated using an experimentally optimized buffer platform and a design-of-experiment (doe) approach for their ability to (a) capture a model ma ...201222488719
genome sequence of chinese porcine parvovirus strain ppv2010.porcine parvovirus (ppv) isolate ppv2010 has recently emerged in china. herein, we analyze the complete genome sequence of ppv2010. our results indicate that the genome of ppv2010 bears mixed characteristics of virulent ppv and vaccine strains. importantly, ppv2010 has the potential to be a naturally attenuated candidate vaccine strain.201222282333
zearalenone affects immune-related parameters in lymphoid organs and serum of rats vaccinated with porcine parvovirus vaccine.rats were administered zearalenone (zea) via gavage at dosages of 0, 1, 5, and 30 mg/kg for 36 days. on treatment day 8, inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccine (vac) was injected intraperitoneally. antibody production against porcine parvovirus was then measured as a function of zea treatment. compared to the vaccine alone, zea treatment, with or without vac, decreased the serum level of igg. the level of igm decreased in all zea groups at day 22, but the decrease was sustained only in the mediu ...201224278621
complete genome sequence of a novel porcine parvovirus in china.the porcine parvovirus jt strain (ppv-jt) was isolated from a piglet showing nonsuppurative myocarditis in shandong, china, in 2010. the complete genomic sequence of ppv-jt, 4,941 bp long, was determined from clones made from replicative form (rf) dna. the genomic analysis demonstrated that the ppv-jt might be involved in a recombination event, which will help us understand the molecular characteristics and evolutionary of ppv in china.201223166265
capsid protein evolution and comparative phylogeny of novel porcine parvoviruses.in addition to the well known "classical" porcine parvovirus (ppv1; responsible for reproductive failure of susceptible sows) several new porcine parvoviruses have been recognized (ppv2, ppv3 and ppv4) in recent years. the genetic variation, characteristics and evolutionary factors shaping these novel ppvs were studied by comparing the complete capsid (cap) genes of ppvs from domestic pigs and wild boars. using bayesian coalescent methods we estimated the rate of nucleotide substitution for ppv2 ...201323044400
characterization of the capsid protein vp2 gene of a virulent strain ne/09 of porcine parvovirus isolated in china.a virulent strain ne/09 of porcine parvovirus (ppv) was isolated from mummified swine fetus samples in china and its capsid protein vp2 gene was analyzed. the data showed that the vp2 gene encompassed an open reading frame of 1713 nucleotides with a composition of 684 adenine (39.9%), 387 cytosine (22.6%), 268 guanine (15.7%), and 374 thymine (21.8%). the vp2 gene encoded a 570aa-long protein which could be recognized by anti-ppv-vp2 monoclonal antibody 3c9. sequence analysis revealed that the v ...201323021153
characterization of porcine parvovirus type 2 (ppv2) which is highly prevalent in the usa.a novel porcine parvovirus designated as porcine parvovirus 2 (ppv2) was initially identified in myanmar in 2001, in china during 2006-2007, and in hungary in 2012. to investigate the presence and prevalence of ppv2 in the usa, a novel taqman(®) real-time pcr method was developed and used for a ppv2 survey using 483 lung samples, 185 fecal samples and 122 sera collected from pigs on 295 farms in 18 u.s. states. the overall prevalence of ppv2 was 20.7% (100/483) in lung samples and 7.6% (14/185) ...201322901530
cpg distribution and methylation pattern in porcine parvovirus.based on gc content and the observed/expected cpg ratio (ocpgr), we found three major groups among the members of subfamily parvovirinae: group i parvoviruses with low gc content and low ocpgr values, group ii with low gc content and high ocpgr values and group iii with high gc content and high ocpgr values. porcine parvovirus belongs to group i and it features an ascendant cpg distribution by position in its coding regions similarly to the majority of the parvoviruses. the entire ppv genome rem ...201324392033
phylogeny and evolution of porcine parvovirus.porcine parvovirus (ppv), a member of the genus parvovirus, family parvoviridae, is a significant causative agent in porcine reproductive failure, causing serious economic losses in the swine industry. previous phylogenetic studies based on the ns1 or vp2 genes indicated that current ppv strains diverged 30 years ago and that vp2 was under neutral or positive selection. our analysis of ns1, vp2 and complete orfs indicated that the most recent common ancestor of ppv strains existed about 250 year ...201324050995
emerging novel porcine parvoviruses in europe: origin, evolution, phylodynamics and phylogeography.to elucidate the spatiotemporal phylodynamics, dispersion and evolutionary processes underlying the emergence of novel porcine parvovirus 2 (ppv2), ppv3 and ppv4 species, we analysed all available complete capsid genes, together with ours, obtained in europe. bayesian phylogeography indicates that romania (ppv2 and ppv4) and croatia (ppv3) are the most likely ancestral areas from which ppvs have subsequently spread to other european countries and regions. the timescale of our reconstruction supp ...201323884365
hybrid dna virus in chinese patients with seronegative hepatitis discovered by deep sequencing.seronegative hepatitis--non-a, non-b, non-c, non-d, non-e hepatitis--is poorly characterized but strongly associated with serious complications. we collected 92 sera specimens from patients with non-a-e hepatitis in chongqing, china between 1999 and 2007. ten sera pools were screened by solexa deep sequencing. we discovered a 3,780-bp contig present in all 10 pools that yielded blastx e scores of 7e-05-0.008 against parvoviruses. the complete sequence of the in silico-assembled 3,780-bp contig w ...201323716702
effects of oral deoxynivalenol exposure on immune-related parameters in lymphoid organs and serum of mice vaccinated with porcine parvovirus vaccine.mice were exposed to deoxynivalenol (don) via drinking water at a concentration of 2 mg/l for 36 days. on day 8 of treatment, inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccine (ppv) was injected intraperitoneally. the relative and absolute weight of the spleen was significantly decreased in the don-treated group (don). antibody titers to parvovirus in serum were 47.9 ± 2.4 in the vaccination group (vac), but 15.2 ± 6.5 in the group treated with don and vaccine (don + vac). the iga and igg was not different ...201323436220
retraction. interclade recombination in porcine parvovirus strains. 201323329682
simultaneous detection of porcine parvovirus and porcine circovirus type 2 by duplex real-time pcr and amplicon melting curve analysis using sybr green.the development of a sybr green-based duplex real-time pcr is described for simultaneous detection of porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv-2) genomes. viral genomes were identified in the same sample by their distinctive melting temperature (t(m)) which is 77.5°c for ppv vp2 313bp amplicon and 82.3°c for pcv-2 orf2 171bp amplicon, respectively. the detection limit of the method was 0.01tcid(50)/ml for ppv and pcv-2, about 10 times more sensitive than conventional pcr. in a ...201322771739
lack of antibody protection against porcine circovirus 2 and porcine parvovirus in naturally infected dams and their offspring.the aim of this study was to evaluate porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2) infection in dams and their offspring and the role of antibody protection on these infections. sera were collected from gilts and sows by venipuncture and from umbilical cord of newborn pre-suckle piglets for the detection of pcv2 and ppv antibodies by immunoperoxidase monolayer and haemmaglutination inhibition assays, respectively. gilts and sows sera were submitted to viral detection by pcr, as well ...201323084257
non-enveloped virus reduction with quaternized chitosan nanofibers containing graphene.membranes are an accepted technology for water purification. membrane filtration can remove pathogens, including bacteria and viruses, by size. for small viruses that can have a diameter <25nm, removal by size leads to large membrane areas, high transmembrane pressures, low water flux, and frequent changing of membranes. in this work, we discovered that electrospun nanofibers made of chitosan and functionalized with a quaternary amine (htcc) have the ability to adsorb a model non-enveloped virus ...201324041631
[proliferation characteristics of a pk-15 cell-adapted strain of porcine parvovirus].to study the proliferation characteristics of ppv in differently infected way and the variance of concentrations in different cells. a strain of porcine parvovirus(ppv) was adapted to pk-15 cells, and a real-time fluorescent quantitative pcr (fq-pcr) assay was developed based on the specific region of the ns1 gene of ppv to quantify the ppv. the fq-pcr was used to measure the viral concentration of virus-infected cells by simultaneous or step by step inoculation and plot one-step growth curves. ...201323894997
population dynamics and in vitro antibody pressure of porcine parvovirus indicate a decrease in variability.to estimate the impact of porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccines on the emergence of new phenotypes, the population dynamic history of the virus was calculated using the bayesian markov chain monte carlo method with a bayesian skyline coalescent model. additionally, an in vitro model was performed with consecutive passages of the 'challenge' strain (a virulent field strain) and nadl2 strain (a vaccine strain) in a pk-15 cell line supplemented with polyclonal antibodies raised against the vaccine stra ...201323804570
reduction of porcine parvovirus infectivity in the presence of protecting osmolytes.osmolytes are natural compounds found in the cells of many organisms that stabilize intracellular proteins against environmental stresses. protecting osmolytes can promote protein folding, whereas denaturing osmolytes have the opposite effect. a variety of osmolytes were tested for their antiviral activity against porcine parvovirus (ppv). ppv is a non-enveloped, icosahedral, single-strand dna virus. we have discovered two protecting osmolytes, trimethylamine n-oxide (tmao) and glycine that redu ...201323648707
influence of minor displacements in loops of the porcine parvovirus vp2 capsid on virus-like particles assembly and the induction of antibody responses.an antigen-delivery system based on hybrid virus-like particles (vlps) formed by the self-assembly of the capsid vp2 protein of porcine parvovirus (ppv) and expressing foreign peptides offers an alternative method for vaccination. in this study, the three-dimensional structure of the ppv capsid protein and surface loops deletion mutants were analyzed to define essential domains in ppv vp2 for the assembly of vlps. electron microscopic analysis and sds-page analysis confirmed the presence of abun ...201323430711
complete genome sequence of a novel porcine parvovirus (ppv) provisionally designated ppv5.a new porcine parvovirus (ppv) was identified from pig lung tissues in the united states. it is most closely related to the recently identified ppv4 with overall genomic identities of 64.1 to 67.3%. unlike ppv4, this virus lacks the additional open reading frame 3 (orf3) and has a much longer orf2. the name ppv5 is provisionally proposed.201323405295
a pcv2 vaccine based on genotype 2b is more effective than a 2a-based vaccine to protect against pcv2b or combined pcv2a/2b viremia in pigs with concurrent pcv2, prrsv and ppv infection.the predominant genotype of porcine circovirus (pcv) in the pig population today is pcv2b yet pcv2a-based commercial vaccines are considered effective in protecting against porcine circovirus associated disease. the objective of this study was to compare the ability of pcv2a- and pcv2b-based vaccines to control pcv2b viremia in a challenge model that mimics the u.s. field situation. sixty-three pigs were randomly assigned to one of eight groups. sixteen pigs were vaccinated with an experimental ...201323174198
a one-step rt-pcr assay to detect and discriminate porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in clinical specimens.outbreaks of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (hp-prrsv) have led to large economic losses and, subsequently, have drawn great attention to its diagnosis and prevention. to facilitate rapid discrimination of hp-prrsv from classical prrsv (c-prrsv), we developed a one-step rt-pcr assay. primer specificities were evaluated with rna extracted from 8 viral strains and our results revealed that the primers had a high specificity for prrsv. the assay sensitivity wa ...201324035936
development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of porcine hokovirus.hokoviruses have recently been detected as pathogens belonging to the family parvoviridae, which comprises porcine hokovirus (phov) and bovine hokovirus (bhov). in this study, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for the rapid, specific and sensitive detection of phov. a set of four primers specific for six regions within the phov vp1/2 genes was designed using online software. the reaction temperature and time were optimized at 65°c and 60 min, respectively. lamp p ...201323850717
the survey of porcine teschoviruses in field samples in china with a universal rapid probe real-time rt-pcr assay.a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) based on taqman was established and evaluated for quantitative detection of porcine teschoviruses (ptvs). a pair of primers and a taqman probe targeting on the highly conserved sequence of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-utr) of one to 11 serotypes of ptv were designed. standard plasmid dna containing pcr amplification of the 5'-utr were constructed and used to develop the real-time rt-pcr. the results indicated that the real-ti ...201323138413
bioreduction of sheep carcasses effectively contains and reduces pathogen levels under operational and simulated breakdown conditions.options for the storage and disposal of animal carcasses are extremely limited in the eu after the introduction of the eu animal by-products regulations (abpr; ec/1774/2002), leading to animosity within the livestock sector and the call for alternative methods to be validated. novel storage technologies such as bioreduction may be approved under the abpr provided that they can be shown to prevent pathogen proliferation. we studied the survival of enterococcus faecalis, salmonella spp., e. coli o ...201323590844
development of porcine rotavirus vp6 protein based elisa for differentiation of this virus and other viruses.the context and purpose of the study included 1) bacterial expression of viral protein 6 (vp6) of porcine rotavirus (prv) and generation of rabbit polyclonal antiserum to the vp6 protein; 3) establishment of a discrimination elisa to distinguish prv from a panel of other porcine viruses.201323517810
snatch-farrowed, porcine-colostrum-deprived (sf-pcd) pigs as a model for swine infectious disease research.the current study tested the benefit of commercially available spray-dried bovine colostrum (the saskatoon colostrum company, saskatoon, saskatchewan) in raising snatch-farrowed, porcine-colostrum-deprived (sf-pcd) pigs. in experiment 1, 12 sf-pcd pigs received a liquid diet composed mainly of bovine colostrum from birth to day 10; 6 remained on the same liquid diet (col), and the other 6 were fed a diet composed mainly of milk replacer (rpl) until weaning. in experiment 2, 12 sf-pcd pigs were f ...201324082397
high-impact animal health research conducted at the usda's national animal disease center.commissioned by president dwight eisenhower in 1958 and opened with a dedication ceremony in december 1961, the usda, agricultural research service (ars), national animal disease center (nadc) celebrated its 50-year anniversary in november 2011. over these 50 years, the nadc established itself among the world's premier animal health research centers. its historic mission has been to conduct basic and applied research on selected endemic diseases of economic importance to the u.s. livestock and p ...201323642415
hepatitis e virus and porcine-derived heparin. 201323751114
characterization of a novel porcine parvovirus tentatively designated ppv5.a new porcine parvovirus (ppv), provisionally designated as ppv5, was identified in u.s. pigs. cloning and sequencing from a circular or head-to-tail concatemeric array revealed that the ppv5 possesses the typical genomic organization of parvoviruses with two major predicted open reading frames (orf1 and orf2), and is most closely related to ppv4 with overall genomic identities of 64.1-67.3%. the amino acid identities between ppv5 and ppv4 were 84.6%-85.1% for orf1 and 54.0%-54.3% for orf2. unli ...201323762339
a nanoparticle-assisted pcr assay to improve the sensitivity for rapid detection and differentiation of wild-type pseudorabies virus and gene-deleted vaccine strains.nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nanopcr) is a novel method for the rapid amplification of dna and has been adopted for the detection of virus because of its simplicity, rapidity, and specificity. a nanopcr assay was developed to detect and differentiate wild-type and gene-deleted pseudorabies virus (prv). three pairs of primers for nanopcr developed in this study were selected from conserved regions of prv, producing specific amplicons of 431 bp (gb), 316 bp (ge), and 202 bp (gg ...201323872268
prevalence of swine viral and bacterial pathogens in rodents and stray cats captured around pig farms in korea.in 2008, 102 rodents and 24 stray cats from the areas around 9 pig farms in northeast south korea were used to determine the prevalence of the following selected swine pathogens: ten viral pathogens [porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (pedv), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), rotavirus, classical swine fever virus (csfv), porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), porcine parvovirus (ppv), pseudorabies ...201323892461
identification and genomic characterization of a novel porcine parvovirus (ppv6) in china.parvoviruses are classified into two subfamilies based on their host range: the parvovirinae, which infect vertebrates, and the densovirinae, which mainly infect insects and other arthropods. in recent years, a number of novel parvoviruses belonging to the subfamily parvovirinae have been identified from various animal species and humans, including human parvovirus 4 (parv4), porcine hokovirus, ovine partetravirus, porcine parvovirus 4 (ppv4), and porcine parvovirus 5 (ppv5).201425442288
a new nanopcr molecular assay for detection of porcine bocavirus.nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nanopcr) is a novel method for the rapid amplification of dna and has been used for the detection of virus. for detection of porcine bocavirus (pbov), a sensitive and specific nanopcr assay was developed with a pair of primers that were designed based on ns1 gene sequences available in genbank. under the optimized conditions of the pbov nanopcr assay, the nanopcr assay was 100-fold more sensitive than a conventional pcr assay. the lower detection ...201424642242
pathogen inactivation efficacy of mirasol prt system and intercept blood system for non-leucoreduced platelet-rich plasma-derived platelets suspended in plasma.this study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of pathogen inactivation (pi) in non-leucoreduced platelet-rich plasma-derived platelets suspended in plasma using the mirasol prt system and the intercept blood system.201424806328
health assessment of wild lowland tapir (tapirus terrestris) populations in the atlantic forest and pantanal biomes, brazil (1996-2012).abstract the lowland tapir (tapirus terrestris) is found in south america and is listed as vulnerable to extinction by the international union for conservation of nature, red list of threatened species. health issues, particularly infectious diseases, are potential threats for the species. health information from 65 wild tapirs from two brazilian biomes, atlantic forest (af) and pantanal (pa), were collected during a long-term study (1996-2012). the study included physic, hematologic and biochem ...201425105810
swine infectious agents in tayassu pecari and pecari tajacu tissue samples from brazil.peccaries and pigs, tayassuidae and suidae respectively, diverged approximately one million years ago from a common ancestor. because these families share some pathogens, peccaries can act as reservoirs of infectious pathogens for domestic and wild swine. we evaluated the presence of swine infectious agents in the spleen and lung tissues of white-lipped peccaries (wlp; tayassu pecari) and collared peccaries (cp; pecari tajacu) in brazil. samples from 10 adult cp and three wlp, which had been hun ...201424484498
evaluation of viral inactivation of pseudorabies virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus and porcine parvovirus in pancreatin of porcine origin.pancreatin is a substance containing enzymes, principally amylase, lipase, and protease. it is obtained from bovine or porcine pancreas and used in the treatment of pancreatic endocrine insufficiency in humans. regulations and safety concerns mandate viral clearance (virus removal or inactivation) in biopharmaceuticals such as pancreatin. a virus validation study was performed to evaluate virus clearance achieved in the final step of drying under vacuum by testing a panel of four animal viruses: ...201425110118
robustness of nanofiltration for increasing the viral safety margin of biological products.in this study, the virus-removal capacity of nanofiltration was assessed using validated laboratory scale models on a wide range of viruses (pseudorabies virus; human immunodeficiency virus; bovine viral diarrhea virus; west nile virus; hepatitis a virus; murine encephalomyocarditis virus; and porcine parvovirus) with sizes from 18 nm to 200 nm and applying the different process conditions existing in a number of grifols' plasma-derived manufacturing processes (thrombin, α1-proteinase inhibitor, ...201424485384
establishment and application of a multiplex pcr for rapid and simultaneous detection of six viruses in swine.a multiplex pcr assay was developed and evaluated subsequently for its effectiveness in simultaneously detecting mixed viral infections of swine. specific primers were designed and used for testing the six swine viruses: three dna viruses, including pseudorabies virus (prv), porcine parvovirus (ppv), and porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2); three common rna viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), classical swine fever virus (csfv), and japanese encephalitis v ...201425116201
development of an evagreen-based multiplex real-time pcr assay with melting curve analysis for simultaneous detection and differentiation of six viral pathogens of porcine reproductive and respiratory disorder.concurrent infection of pigs with two or more pathogens is common in pigs under intensive rearing conditions. porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), porcine parvovirus (ppv), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), classical swine fever virus (csfv), japanese encephalitis virus (jev) and pseudorabies virus (prv) are all associated with reproductive or respiratory disorders or both and can cause significant economic losses in pig production worldwide. an evagreen-based multiplex r ...201425102430
a sensitive multiplex real-time pcr panel for rapid diagnosis of viruses associated with porcine respiratory and reproductive disorders.the objective of this study was to develop a multiplex real-time pcr panel using taqman probes for the detection and differentiation of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus north american type (prrsv-na), pseudorabies virus (prv), classical swine fever virus (csfv), porcine parvovirus type 1 (ppv1) and japanese encephalitis virus (jev). specific primer and probe combinations for pcv2, prrsv, prv, csfv, ppv1 and jev were selected within the conserv ...201425044282
preclinical detection of porcine circovirus type 2 infection using an ultrasensitive nanoparticle dna probe-based pcr assay.porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) has emerged as one of the most important pathogens affecting swine production globally. preclinical identification of pcv2 is very important for effective prophylaxis of pcv2-associated diseases. in this study, we developed an ultrasensitive nanoparticle dna probe-based pcr assay (undp-pcr) for pcv2 detection. magnetic microparticles coated with pcv2 specific dna probes were used to enrich pcv2 dna from samples, then gold nanoparticles coated with pcv2 specific o ...201424842840
development of colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic assay for rapid detection of mycoplasma suis in porcine plasma.a one-step immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles coated with polyclonal antibody (pab) against mycoplasma suis (m. suis) was developed in this study for the detection of m. suis in porcine plasma. the colloidal gold was prepared by the reduction of gold salt with sodium citrate coupled with pab against m. suis. the pab was produced by immunizing the balb/c mice with recombinant msg1 (rmsg1) protein from m. suis expressed in escherichia coli. the optimal concentrations of the captu ...201424434494
a sensitive and specific nanoparticle-assisted pcr assay for rapid detection of porcine parvovirus.a novel nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nanopcr) assay to detect porcine parvovirus (ppv) is described here. primers for this assay were designed based on the conserved region of the nonstructural protein 1 (ns1) gene of ppv, which encodes one of the nonstructural proteins. the sensitivity of the ppv nanopcr assay was measured by using diluted recombinant plasmids in which the ppv ns1 gene had been inserted. the detection limit was 5.6 × 10(1) copies μl(-1) for the ppv nanopcr a ...201424117951
thermal treatment for pathogen inactivation as a risk mitigation strategy for safe recycling of organic waste in agriculture.thermal treatment at temperatures between 46.0°c and 55.0°c was evaluated as a method for sanitization of organic waste, a temperature interval less commonly investigated but important in connection with biological treatment processes. samples of dairy cow feces inoculated with salmonella senftenberg w775, enterococcus faecalis, bacteriophage ϕx174, and porcine parvovirus (ppv) were thermally treated using block thermostats at set temperatures in order to determine time-temperature regimes to ac ...201425035917
reduction of spiked porcine circovirus during the manufacture of a vero cell-derived vaccine.porcine circovirus-1 (pcv1) was recently identified as a contaminant in live rotavirus vaccines, which was likely caused by contaminated porcine trypsin. the event triggered the development of new regulatory guidance on the use of porcine trypsin which shall ensure that cell lines and porcine trypsin in use are free from pcv1. in addition, manufacturing processes of biologicals other than live vaccines include virus clearance steps that may prevent and mitigate any potential virus contamination ...201424560672
evaluation of a virucidal quantitative carrier test for surface disinfectants.surface disinfectants are part of broader preventive strategies preventing the transmission of bacteria, fungi and viruses in medical institutions. to evaluate their virucidal efficacy, these products must be tested with appropriate model viruses with different physico-chemical properties under conditions representing practical application in hospitals. the aim of this study was to evaluate a quantitative carrier assay. furthermore, different putative model viruses like adenovirus type 5 (adv-5) ...201424475079
a novel approach to achieving modular retrovirus clearance for a parvovirus filter.viral filtration is routinely incorporated into the downstream purification processes for the production of biologics produced in mammalian cell cultures (mcc) to remove potential viral contaminants. in recent years, the use of retentive filters designed for retaining parvovirus (~20 nm) has become an industry standard in a conscious effort to further improve product safety. since retentive filters remove viruses primarily by the size exclusion mechanism, it is expected that filters designed for ...201424123923
long-term monitoring of 10 selected pathogens in wild boar (sus scrofa) in sierra nevada national park, southern spain.wild boar (sus scrofa) populations are increasing in the iberian peninsula, and population management must include disease management and control. in this study, the epidemiology of 10 selected pathogens (aujeszky's disease virus - adv, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus - prrsv, porcine influenza virus, porcine circovirus, porcine parvovirus, erysipelotrix rhusiopathiae, leptospira pomona, chlamydia/chlamydiaceae sp., salmonella sp. and mycobacterium bovis) in the wild boar pop ...201425261921
identification of mycoplasma suis antigens and development of a multiplex microbead immunoassay.the aims of the current study were to identify mycoplasma suis antigens and develop a multiplex microbead immunoassay (mia). a m. suis-expression library was screened for immunogens using sera from infected pigs. based on bioinformatics, putative antigens were identified within positive inserts; gene fragments were expressed and purified as polyhistidine fusion proteins, and immunoreactivity was confirmed by western blot. selected antigens were used to develop a mia. sera from noninfected and in ...201424557752
separation of porcine parvovirus from bovine serum albumin using peg-salt aqueous two-phase system.vaccine production faces a challenge in adopting conventional downstream processing steps that can efficiently purify large viral particles. some major issues that plague vaccine purification are purity, potency, and quality. the industry currently considers 30% as an acceptable virus recovery for a vaccine purification process, including all downstream processes, whereas antibody recovery from cho cell culture is generally around 80-85%. a platform technology with an improved virus recovery wou ...201425086421
classic nuclear localization signals and a novel nuclear localization motif are required for nuclear transport of porcine parvovirus capsid proteins.nuclear targeting of capsid proteins (vps) is important for genome delivery and precedes assembly in the replication cycle of porcine parvovirus (ppv). clusters of basic amino acids, corresponding to potential nuclear localization signals (nls), were found only in the unique region of vp1 (vp1up, for vp1 unique part). of the five identified basic regions (br), three were important for nuclear localization of vp1up: br1 was a classic pat7 nls, and the combination of br4 and br5 was a classic bipa ...201425078698
generation of recombinant porcine parvovirus virus-like particles in saccharomyces cerevisiae and development of virus-specific monoclonal antibodies.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is a widespread infectious virus that causes serious reproductive diseases of swine and death of piglets. the gene coding for the major capsid protein vp2 of ppv was amplified using viral nucleic acid extract from swine serum and inserted into yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae expression plasmid. recombinant ppv vp2 protein was efficiently expressed in yeast and purified using density gradient centrifugation. electron microscopy analysis of purified ppv vp2 protein revealed ...201425045718
porcine parvovirus flocculation and removal in the presence of osmolytes.viruses can be modified into viral vaccines or gene therapy vectors in order to treat acquired or genetic diseases. to satisfy the current market demand, an improvement in current vaccine manufacturing is needed. chromatography and nanofiltration are not suitable for all types of viruses. in this study, we propose to use virus flocculation with osmolytes, followed by microfiltration, as a potential virus purification process. we hypothesize that osmolytes strongly bind to water, thus leading to ...201425003646
adsorption of a non-enveloped mammalian virus to functionalized nanofibers.in the pursuit of finding superior methods to remove pathogens from drinking water, this study examines the adsorption of a non-enveloped, mammalian virus to highly charged nanofibers. n-[(2-hydroxyl-3-trimethylammonium) propyl] chitosan (htcc) nanofibers were synthesized by the addition of a quaternary amine to chitosan. htcc was blended with polyvinyl alcohol (pva) to produce nanofibers by electrospinning. the nanofibers were stabilized against water by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. when s ...201424985761
antiviral effect of diammonium glycyrrhizinate on cell infection by porcine parvovirus.porcine parvovirus (ppv) can cause reproductive failure in swine, resulting in economic losses to the industry. antiviral effects of diammonium glycyrrhizinate (dg) have been reported on several animal viruses; however, to date it has yet to be tested on ppv. in this study, the antiviral activity of dg on swine testis (st) cell infection by ppv was investigated using an empirically determined, non-toxic concentration of dg and three different experimental designs: (1) pre-treatment of virus prio ...201424614970
differential replication of two porcine parvovirus strains in bovine cell lines ensues from initial dna processing and ns1 expression.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is a small dna virus with restricted coding capacity. the 5 kb genome expresses three major non-structural proteins (ns1, ns2 and sat), and two structural proteins (vp1 and vp2). these few viral proteins are pleiotropic and interact with cellular components throughout viral replication. in this regard, very few cell lines have been shown to replicate the virus efficiently. cell lines were established from a primary culture of bovine cells that allowed allotropic variants ...201424347493
development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection and differentiation of two genotypes of porcine circovirus type 2.porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) is one of the major swine viral diseases and has caused significant economic loss to pig producers. pcv2 has been divided into two major genotypes: pcv2a, pcv2b. a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) method was developed for the detection and differentiation of pcv2a and pcv2b in clinical samples.201423845855
investigating risk factors and possible infectious aetiologies of mummified fetuses on a large piggery in australia.to investigate risk factors and potential infectious aetiologies of an increased mummification rate (>2%) identified over time on a 1200-sow farrow-to-finish farm in australia.201425424759
identification of recently described porcine parvoviruses in archived north american samples from 1996 and association with porcine circovirus associated disease.the association of porcine circovirus (pcv) type 2 and porcine parvovirus (ppv) type 1 as a cause of porcine circovirus associated disease (pcvad) is well established. the objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence rates of classical ppv1 and recently recognized ppv2-5 in serum and lung samples from pigs and farms with known pcv2 status. a total of 586 serum samples and 164 lung homogenates collected from 1996 to 2013 in the usa and canada were utilized. all samples were tested fo ...201425081955
development and evaluation of the rvp-elisa for detection of antibodies against porcine parvovirus.the gene encoding the vp2 protein of porcine parvovirus (ppv) was expressed in an insect-baculovirus system. the recombinant (r) vp2 was similar antigenically/functionally to the native capsid protein as demonstrated by hemagglutination (ha), western blotting using ppv positive sera. the purified rvp2 proteins were used as coating antigen to establish a rvp-elisa method for detection of ppv positive and negative sera from pigs. the optimal operating conditions of the rvp-elisa were: the concentr ...201424945904
coexistence of multiple strains of porcine parvovirus 2 in pig farms.the porcine parvovirus 2 (ppv2) genome was first identified in 2001 in myanmar. recently, the ppv2 genome has been found in several other countries. in this study, the prevalence of ppv2 in japanese domestic pigs was investigated and found to be 58% (69/120) in healthy domestic pigs and 100% (69/69) in sick domestic pigs. sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the pcr products of the vp1 gene and an almost full length ppv2 clone indicated that diverged ppv2 strains exist in japan. clearly disti ...201424845822
virus adsorption of water-stable quaternized chitosan nanofibers.the burden of unsafe drinking water is responsible for millions of deaths each year. to relieve this burden, we are in search of an inexpensive material that can adsorb pathogens from drinking water. in this pursuit, we have studied the natural carbohydrate, chitosan. to impart virus removal features, chitosan has been functionalized with a quaternary amine to form quaternized chitosan n-[(2-hydroxyl-3-trimethylammonium) propyl] chitosan (htcc). htcc can be electrospun into nanofibers with the n ...201424561959
complete genome sequence of a porcine parvovirus strain isolated in central china.we report here the complete genome sequence of the porcine parvovirus (ppv) strain j-ppv, isolated from central china. our data, together with sequence data for ppv isolates from other regions of china, will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of ppv field isolates in china.201424482519
chemiluminescence immunoassay for the rapid and sensitive detection of antibody against porcine parvovirus by using horseradish peroxidase/detection antibody-coated gold nanoparticles as nanoprobes.a rapid, simple, facile, sensitive and enzyme-amplified chemiluminescence immunoassay (clia) method to detect antibodies against porcine parvovirus has been developed. horseradish peroxidase (hrp) and the detection antibody were simultaneously co-immobilized on the surface of gold nanoparticles using the electrostatic method to form gold nanoparticle-based nanoprobes. this nanoprobe was employed in a sandwich-type clia, which enables cl signal readout from enzymatic catalysis and results in sign ...201423832716
first complete genomic characterization of a porcine parvovirus 5 isolate from china.to investigate porcine parvovirus 5 (ppv5) infections in swine herds in china, clinical specimens of piglet lungs were examined for the presence of ppv5 using a polymerase chain reaction method. a strain of ppv5 was detected, and its genome was sequenced and analyzed. in the sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, the chinese ppv5 strain clustered into a distinct clade with the reference ppv5 strains. these results provide direct evidence that ppv5 is present in pigs in china. extensive ep ...201424327097
production and immunogenicity of vp2 protein of porcine parvovirus expressed in pichia pastoris.viral protein 2 (vp2) of porcine parvovirus (ppv) is the major viral structural protein and is responsible for eliciting neutralizing antibodies in immunized animals. in this study, we constructed and characterized a recombinant yeast vector encoding the vp2 protein, designated as pgapzαa-vp2. the construct was confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion, pcr, and sequencing and then introduced into p. pastoris strain smd1168 by electroporation. the expressed vp2 protein was analyzed by sds-page a ...201424221249
porcine bocavirus np1 negatively regulates interferon signaling pathway by targeting the dna-binding domain of irf9.to subvert host antiviral immune responses, many viruses have evolved countermeasures to inhibit ifn signaling pathway. porcine bocavirus (pbov), a newly identified porcine parvovirus, has received attention because it shows clinically high co-infection prevalence with other pathogens in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pwms) and diarrheic piglets. in this study, we screened the structural and non-structural proteins encoded by pbov and found that the non-structural protein np1 signi ...201526342467
quantum dot incorporated bacillus spore as nanosensor for viral infection.in this paper, we report a high-throughput biological method to prepare spore-based monodisperse microparticles (smms) and then form the nanocomposites of cdte quantum dot (qd)-loaded smms by utilizing the endogenous functional groups from bacillus spores. the smms and qd-incorporated spore microspheres (qdsms) were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence and uv-visible absorption spectroscop ...201526190468
identification of three ppv1 vp2 protein-specific b cell linear epitopes using monoclonal antibodies against baculovirus-expressed recombinant vp2 protein.porcine parvovirus type 1 (ppv1) is a major causative agent of embryonic and fetal death in swine. the ppv1 vp2 protein is closely associated with viral immunogenicity for eliciting neutralizing antibodies, but its antigenic structures have been largely unknown. we generated three monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against baculovirus-expressed recombinant ppv1 vp2 protein. a pepscan analysis identified the minimal b cell linear epitopes of ppv1 vp2 based on these mabs. three core epitopes, (228)qqitd ...201526153140
the anti-porcine parvovirus activity of nanometer propolis flavone and propolis flavone in vitro and in vivo.objectives. the present study was conducted to evaluate the activity of nanometer propolis flavone (npf) on inhibiting porcine parvovirus (ppv) in vitro and in vivo. methods. in vitro, the effect of npf on cellular infectivity of ppv was carried out before and after adding drug and simultaneous adding and ppv after being mixed. in vivo, the anti-ppv effect of npf in guinea pigs was performed. results. the results showed that npf could significantly inhibit ppv infecting porcine kidney- (pk-) 15 ...201525815034
a taqman qpcr for quantitation of ungulate protoparvovirus 1 validated in several matrices.ungulate protoparvovirus 1 (upv1) is one of the major causes of reproductive disorders in swine. recently, the rapid viral evolution of upv1 and its viral persistence in several tissues has been described. based upon this, a real-time qpcr method using upgraded primers targeting vp1 and applying the taqman technology was developed in this study for upv1, and it was validated in feces, serum and tissue. within the results, the limit of detection of the qpcr was 100copies of the viral genome per r ...201525779824
integrity testing of planova™ bioex virus removal filters used in the manufacture of biological products.confirmation of virus filter integrity is crucial for ensuring the safety of biological products. two main types of virus filter defects may produce inconsistent and undesirable performance in virus removal: improper pore-size distribution across the membrane; and specific damage, such as tears, broken fibers, or pinholes. two integrity tests are performed on each individual filter manufactured by asahi kasei medical to ensure the absence of these defects prior to shipment. in this study, we ver ...201525753822
complete genome sequence of porcine parvovirus n strain isolated from guangxi, china.we report here the complete genomic sequence of the porcine parvovirus (ppv) n strain, isolated in 1989 from the viscera of a stillborn fetus farrowed by a gilt in guangxi, southern china. phylogenetic analyses suggest that the ppv-n strain is closely related to attenuated ppv nadl-2 strains. the ppv-n strain has good immunogenicity, genetic stability, and safety.201525573932
porcine parvovirus infection induces apoptosis in pk-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated pathway.porcine parvovirus (ppv) infection has been reported to induce the cytopathic effects (cpe) in some special host cells and contribute the occurrence of porcine parvovirus disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying ppv-induced cpe are not clear. in this study, we investigated the morphological and molecular changes of porcine kidney cell line (pk-15 cells) infected with ppv. the results showed that ppv infection inhibited the viability of pk-15 cells in a time and concentration dependent ma ...201525499817
involvement of toxoplasma gondii in reproductive disorders in swiss pig farms.to determine the role of toxoplasma gondii in reproductive failure, 108 of 113 sows that had aborted or delivered stillborn or weak piglets from 58 swiss farms were serologically tested for specific antibodies against t. gondii tachyzoite antigens by elisa. additionally, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues from 123 foetuses or stillborn piglets derived from 25 seropositive and 27 seronegative sows were analyzed by real-time pcr for t. gondii dna. tissues from animals showing a positive ...201525456854
prevalence and genomic characterization of porcine parvoviruses detected in chiangmai area of thailand in 2011.porcine parvovirus (ppv) causes reproductive failure in sows and has spread worldwide. several new types of porcine parvoviruses have recently been identified in pig herds. the prevalence of five porcine parvoviruses in the chiangmai area of thailand was studied. the prevalence in 80 pigs was 53% for ppv (ppv-kr or -nadl2 being the new abbreviations), 83% for ppv2 (cnp-parv4), 73% for ppv3 (p-parv4), 44% for ppv4 (ppv4), and 18% for pbo-likev (pbov7). over 60% of the pigs carried more than three ...201525431024
first identification of porcine parvovirus 6 in north america by viral metagenomic sequencing of serum from pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.currently, eight species in four genera of parvovirus have been described that infect swine. these include ungulate protoparvovirus 1 (classical porcine parvovirus, ppv), ungulate tetraparvovirus 2 (ppv3), ungulate tetraparvovirus 3 (which includes ppv2, porcine hokovirus, porcine partetravirus and porcine parv4), ungulate copiparvovirus 2 (which includes ppv4 and ppv5), ungulate bocaparvovirus 2 (which includes porcine bocavirus 1, 2 and 6), ungulate bocaparvovirus 3 (porcine bocavirus 5), ungu ...201526475593
molecular epidemiology and evolution of porcine parvoviruses.porcine parvovirus (ppv), recently named ungulate protoparvovirus 1, is considered to be one of the most important causes of reproductive failure in swine. fetal death, mummification, stillbirths and delayed return to estrus are predominant clinical signs commonly associated with ppv infection in a herd. it has recently been shown that certain parvoviruses exhibit a nucleotide substitution rate close to that commonly determined for rna viruses. however, the ppv vaccines broadly used in the last ...201526453771
the pathogenic role of torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 and their correlations with various viral pathogens and host immunocytes in wasting pigs.the pathogenic role of torque teno sus virus (ttsuv) in swine is controversial among different studies. the present study intended to evaluate the potential pathogenicity of ttsuv based on its correlations with the histopathological changes, various common concurrently infected viral pathogens including porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), and porcine parvovirus (ppv), as well as changes in the distribution and population of host immunocy ...201526390821
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