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results at recruitment from a randomized controlled trial comparing human papillomavirus testing alone with conventional cytology as the primary cervical cancer screening test.in the first recruitment phase of a randomized trial of cervical cancer screening methods (new technologies for cervical cancer screening [ntcc] study), we compared screening with conventional cytology with screening by human papillomavirus (hpv) testing in combination with liquid-based cytology. hpv-positive women were directly referred to colposcopy if aged 35 or older; if younger, they were retested after 1 year.200818364502
phylogenetic analysis of members of the phycodnaviridae virus family, using amplified fragments of the major capsid protein gene.algal viruses are considered ecologically important by affecting host population dynamics and nutrient flow in aquatic food webs. members of the family phycodnaviridae are also interesting due to their extraordinary genome size. few algal viruses in the phycodnaviridae family have been sequenced, and those that have been have few genes in common and low gene homology. it has hence been difficult to design general pcr primers that allow further studies of their ecology and diversity. in this stud ...200818359826
rapid detection of porcine circovirus type 2 by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.a method of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) was employed to develop a rapid and simple detection system for porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2). the amplification could be finished in 60 min under isothermal condition at 64 degrees c by employing a set of four primers targeting the cap gene of pcv2. the lamp assay showed higher sensitivity than the conventional pcr, with a detection limit of five copies per tube of purified pcv2 genomic dna. no cross-reactivity was observed from the s ...200818355932
optimizing screening for acute human immunodeficiency virus infection with pooled nucleic acid amplification tests.recent studies have shown the public health importance of identifying individuals with acute human immunodeficiency virus infection (ahi); however, the cost of nucleic acid amplification testing (naat) makes individual testing of at-risk individuals prohibitively expensive in many settings. pooled naat (or group testing) can improve efficiency and test performance of testing for ahi, but optimizing the pooling algorithm can be difficult. we developed simple, flexible biostatistical models of spe ...200818353930
phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) pre- and post-epizootic postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws).the porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) genome encodes three major open reading frames (orfs) encoding the replicase proteins (orf1), the viral capsid protein (orf2), and a protein with suggested apoptotic activity (orf3). previous phylogenetic analyses of complete genome sequences of pcv2 from genbank have demonstrated 95-100% intra-group nucleotide sequence identity. however, although these isolates were readily grouped into clusters and clades, there was no correlation between the occurrence of ...200818343985
optimized cutoffs improve performance of the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index for predicting significant liver fibrosis in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis c virus co-infection.to assess the diagnostic value of modified cutoffs for aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (apri) to predict significant liver fibrosis in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)/hepatitis c virus (hcv) patients.200818339075
ebv pcr in the diagnosis and monitoring of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder: results of a two-arm prospective trial.while ebv pcr is used in the management of ptld, the optimal primer set, relative importance of intracellular versus free plasma ebv, and the baseline profile in an organ transplant population remains unclear. we performed a prospective 2-arm trial utilizing an ebv pcr panel measuring lmp-1, eber-1 and ebna-1 in both free plasma as well as intracellular whole blood. control arm a consisted of 31 lung transplant patients and arm b consisted of 35 transplant patients being evaluated for possible p ...200818312608
indirect estimation of porcine parvovirus maternal immunity decay in free-living wild boar (sus scrofa) piglets by capture-recapture data.linear mixed regression and logspline density estimation were performed to estimate the survival curve and half life of passively acquired antibodies against porcine parvovirus (ppv) in 44 wild boar piglets captured in the northern apennines, italy. one piglet had no detectable maternal antibodies at 2.5 months post partum and no antibodies were detected in any of the remaining piglets by 4 months of age. fitted survival curves indicated that maternal antibodies were undetectable from 2.5 to 6 m ...200918295517
tuberculin skin test results in hiv-infected patients in india: implications for latent tuberculosis treatment.to evaluate the utility of the tuberculin skin test (tst) in detecting latent and active tuberculosis (tb) among human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infected patients in south india.200818230249
role of rapid virological response in prediction of sustained virological response to peg-ifn plus ribavirin in hcv / hiv co-infected individuals.the objective of the study was to evaluate the role of rapid virological response (rvr) in predicting sustained virological response (svr) rates to hepatitis c virus (hcv) therapy. 65 hiv / hcv co-infected patients commenced hcv treatment per protocol. hiv / hcv patients with a mean cd4 count of 502 were treated for 24-48 weeks depending on genotype. virological response was assessed at weeks 4 (rvr), 12 [early virological response (evr)], 24, at end of treatment (eotr) and 24 weeks post-complet ...200818221297
identification of quantitative trait loci controlling symptom development during viral infection in arabidopsis thaliana.in compatible interactions between plants and viruses that result in systemic infection, symptom development is a major phenotypic trait. however, host determinants governing this trait are mostly unknown, and the mechanisms underlying it are still poorly understood. in a previous study on the arabidopsis thaliana-plum pox virus (ppv) pathosystem, we showed a large degree of variation in symptom development among susceptible accessions. in particular, cvi-1 (cape verde islands) accumulates viral ...200818184064
performance of noninvasive markers for liver fibrosis is reduced in chronic hepatitis c with normal transaminases.in chronic hepatitis c, biopsy is the gold standard for assessment of liver fibrosis. few studies investigated noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis in hepatitis c virus (hcv) patients with normal alanine aminotrasferase (nalt). eighty hcv patients with nalt and 164 hcv patients with elevated alanine aminotrasferase (ealt) who underwent a diagnostic liver biopsy were evaluated for ast-to-platelet ratio, forns' index, ast-to-alt ratio (aar), fibrotest and the recently proposed fibroindex, using l ...200818179453
recurrent hepatitis c after liver transplantation: on-treatment prediction of response to peginterferon/ribavirin therapy.sustained virologic response (svr) in the treatment of recurrent hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection after liver transplantation (lt) remains suboptimal. we evaluated efficacy of pegylated interferon alfa (peg) and ribavirin (rbv) (peg/rbv) combination therapy in lt recipients with recurrent hcv and predictive values of rapid virological response (rvr) and early virologic response (evr). between january 2001 and october 2005, lt recipients with recurrent hcv were intended to be treated for 48 week ...200818161839
development of latex turbidimetric immunoassay for rapid and sensitive detection of influenza virus.for the rapid and sensitive detection of influenza a and b viruses, a latex turbidimetric immunoassay (ltia) was developed using latex reagents prepared by the sensitization of anti-influenza a or b monoclonal antibodies on latex particles. we measured the immunoreactivity of these latex reagents to influenza a and b viral antigens. the sensitivity and specificity of ltia and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) for the detection of these viruses in clinical specimens (96 nas ...200718154440
undetectable hepatitis c virus rna at week 4 as predictor of sustained virological response in hiv patients with chronic hepatitis c.low baseline serum hepatitis c virus (hcv)-rna and clearance of viraemia at week 4 with pegylated interferon (pegifn) plus ribavirin therapy predict sustained virological response (svr) and enable a shorter duration of therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis c. it is unclear whether this applies to hiv/hcv-co-infected patients.200818090387
role of the 25-26 nt sirna in the resistance of transgenic prunus domestica graft inoculated with plum pox virus.the reaction of a genetically engineered plum clone (c5) resistant to plum pox virus (ppv) by graft inoculation with the virus was evaluated. the resistance in this clone has been demonstrated to be mediated through post-transcriptional gene silencing (ptgs). a single c5 plant out of 30 plants inoculated with ppv m strain by double chip-budding showed mild diffuse mosaic 'sharka' symptom at the bottom section of the scion. the upper leaves of this ppv-infected c5 plant remained symptomless and t ...200818071892
identification of liver fibrosis in hiv/hcv-coinfected patients using a simple predictive model based on routine laboratory data.we constructed noninvasive models to predict significant fibrosis (f > or = 2) and advanced fibrosis (f > or = 3) among human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)/hepatitis c virus (hcv)-coinfected patients, naïve for anti-hcv treatment. a total of 296 patients with liver biopsy were randomly assigned to an estimation group (eg = 226; 70%) and a validation group (vg = 70; 30%). we developed the hospital gregorio marañón (hgm)-1 index, based on platelet count, aspartate aminotransferase (ast) and glucose ...200718070289
identification of plum pox virus pathogenicity determinants in herbaceous and woody hosts.plum pox virus (ppv) is a member of the genus potyvirus that is able to infect a large variety of plant species, including trees of the genus prunus, its natural host. when some ppv isolates are propagated for an extended time in herbaceous plants, their ability to infect trees is reduced. the molecular basis of this change in host infectivity is poorly understood. we report the construction of hybrid viruses from cdna clones of two d-strain isolates of ppv, ppv-d and ppv-r, which differ in thei ...200818052879
construction of recombinant lactobacillus casei efficiently surface displayed and secreted porcine parvovirus vp2 protein and comparison of the immune responses induced by oral immunization.lactobacillus casei atcc 393 was selected as a bacterial carrier for the development of mucosal vaccine against porcine parvovirus (ppv) infection. the ppv major structural polypeptide vp2 was used as the model parvovirus antigen. two inducible expression systems, namely ppg611.1 of the cell-surface expression system and ppg612.1 of the secretion expression system based on the xylose operon promoter were used to express the vp2 protein. the immunogenicity of recombinant strains producing vp2 pro ...200818034821
specific and efficient cleavage of fusion proteins by recombinant plum pox virus nia protease.site-specific proteases are the most popular kind of enzymes for removing the fusion tags from fused target proteins. nuclear inclusion protein a (nia) proteases obtained from the family potyviridae have become promising due to their high activities and stringencies of sequences recognition. nia proteases from tobacco etch virus (tev) and tomato vein mottling virus (tvmv) have been shown to process recombinant proteins successfully in vitro. in this report, recombinant ppv (plum pox virus) nia p ...200818024078
no recombination detected in artificial potyvirus mixed infections and between potyvirus derived transgenes and heterologous challenging potyviruses.risk-assessment studies of virus-resistant transgenic plants (vrtps) focussing on recombination of a plant virus with a transgenic sequence of a different virus should include a comparison of recombination frequencies between viruses in double-infected non-transgenic plants with those observed in singly infected transgenic plants to estimate recombination incidence in vrtps. in this study, the occurrence of recombination events was investigated in non-transgenic plants double-infected with two d ...200718001687
development of a novel hot-start multiplex pcr for simultaneous detection of classical swine fever virus, african swine fever virus, porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine parvovirus.a novel hot-start multiplex pcr (mpcr) assay was developed and subsequently evaluated for its effectiveness in simultaneously detecting multiple viral infections of swine. specific primers for each of five virus genomes, namely classical swine fever virus (csfv), african swine fever virus (asfv), porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) and porcine parvovirus (ppv) were used. combined nucleic acid purification was carried out using a commercia ...200817975735
[co-expression of csfv t cell epitope e290 peptide and ppv vp2 protein in lactobacillus casei and determination of specific antibodies in immunized mice].lactobacillus casei strain 393 was selected as an antigen delivery vehicle for the development of oral vaccine to express recombinant classical swine fever virus (csfv) t cell epitope e290 peptide and porcine parvovirus (ppv) vp2 protein. the recombinant genes encoding csfv t cell epitope e290 peptide and ppv vp2 protein, respectively, were cloned into the secretion expression vector ppg, and then the ppg-vp2-e290 was electrotransformed into l. casei 393 giving rise to recombinant strain ppg-vp2 ...200717944369
demonstration of an association between detection of igg antibody reactivity towards the c-terminal region of the pres1 protein of hepatitis b virus and the capacity to respond to interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis b.the treatment of hepatitis b virus (hbv) remains complex, with somewhat unpredictable responses. the aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of the pretreatment presence of circulatory antibodies towards a synthetic peptide mimicking the amino acids 94-117 of the pres1 protein of hbv and the capacity to respond to alpha-inteferon (ifn-alpha) treatment.200817931371
oligonucleotide microarray-based detection and genotyping of plum pox virus.plum pox virus (ppv) is the most damaging viral pathogen of stone fruits. the detection and identification of its strains are therefore of critical importance to plant quarantine and certification programs. existing methods to screen strains of ppv suffer from significant limitations such as the simultaneous detection and genotyping of several strains of ppv in samples infected with different isolates of the virus. a genomic strategy for ppv screening based on the viral nucleotide sequence was d ...200817920703
gamma-glutamyltransferase and rapid virological response as predictors of successful treatment with experimental or standard peginterferon-alpha-2b in chronic hepatitis c non-responders.high-dose peginterferon-alpha (pegifn-alpha) induction and prolongation of therapy may be an option to improve sustained virological response (svr) rates among hepatitis c virus (hcv) non-responders, although a higher and a longer dosing of pegifn-alpha may intensify side effects.200717919233
electrophoretic mobility of the capsid protein of the plum pox virus strain ppv-rec indicates its partial phosphorylation.a double-band sds-page profile was found reproducible for capsid protein (cp) of plum pox virus (ppv) isolates belonging to the strain ppv-rec. the double-band was also present in the virus population multiplied in various plants. a single-lesion passage in a hypersensitive host chenopodium foetidum showed that its presence was not a result of a mixed infection. we found that the two electrophoretic forms of cp shared identical n-terminus. therefore, they did not originate from an alternative pr ...200717900221
analysis of the complete genome of peach chlorotic mottle virus: identification of non-aug start codons, in vitro coat protein expression, and elucidation of serological cross-reactions.the entire genome of peach chlorotic mottle virus (pcmv), originally identified as prunus persica cv. agua virus (4n6), was sequenced and analysed. pcmv cross-reacts with antisera to diverse viruses, such as plum pox virus (ppv), genus potyvirus, family potyviridae; and apple stem pitting virus (aspv), genus foveavirus, family flexiviridae. the pcmv genome consists of 9005 nucleotides (nts), excluding a poly(a) tail at the 3' end of the genome. five open reading frames (orfs) were identified wit ...200717891331
a chimeric plum pox virus shows reduced spread and cannot compete with its parental wild-type viruses in a mixed infection.the effect of a recombination event in the genomic 3' end on the biological properties and competitiveness of plum pox virus (ppv) was investigated. therefore, a fragment spanning the coat protein (cp) coding region and a part of the 3' non-translated region of a non-aphid-transmissible strain of ppv (ppv-nat) was replaced by the corresponding region of a ppv sour cherry isolate (ppv-soc). the resulting chimera (ppv-nat/soc) caused severe symptoms in nicotiana benthamiana, resembling those of pp ...200717872539
adaptation of plum pox virus to a herbaceous host (pisum sativum) following serial passages.plum pox virus (ppv) populations from peaches are able to adapt consistently to herbaceous hosts, characterized by a reduction in time to symptom development, increases in inoculation efficiency and increased titres. ppv adaptation was studied by using pea (pisum sativum) as an alternative host. two isolates of ppv from peaches were inoculated and passaged in peas ten times using either aphid or mechanical inoculation, generating four independent passage lines. mechanical-transmission efficiency ...200717872538
role of myzus persicae (hemiptera: aphididae) and its secondary hosts in plum pox virus propagation.plum pox virus (family potyviridae, genus potyvirus, ppv) is one of the most important viral pathogens of plants in the genus prunus, particularly prunus persica l. the role of the myzus persicae (sulzer) (hemiptera: aphididae) as a vector of ppv-m, and its role in spreading ppv-m, was investigated. ppv-m-infected peach trees were used as inoculum sources, and transmission to 15 herbaceous species commonly present in and around peach orchards was evaluated. the presence of ppv-m in secondary hos ...200717849850
induction of immune responses in mice after intragastric administration of lactobacillus casei producing porcine parvovirus vp2 protein.lactobacillus casei atcc 393 was selected as an antigen delivery vehicle for mucosal immunization against porcine parvovirus (ppv) infection. a 64-kda fragment of ppv major protective antigen vp2 protein was used as the parvovirus antigen model. a recombinant lactobacillus expressing vp2 protein was constructed with plasmid ppg611.1, where expression and localization of the vp2 protein from recombinant lc393-rppv-vp2 was detected via sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, wes ...200717827311
the emergence of porcine circovirus 2b genotype (pcv-2b) in swine in canada.since late 2004, the swine industry in the province of quebec has experienced a significant increase in death rate related to postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws). to explain this phenomenon, 2 hypotheses were formulated: 1) the presence of a 2nd pathogen could be exacerbating the porcine circovirus 2 (pcv-2) infection, or 2) a new and more virulent pcv-2 strain could be infecting swine. in 2005, 13 pmws cases were submitted to the quebec provincial diagnostic laboratory and pcv-2 w ...200717824323
effectiveness of polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine in hiv-infected patients: a case-control study.polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (ppv) is recommended among human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected patients, although its effect in reducing the incidence of pneumonia or invasive pneumococcal disease is not well established. our objective was to determine the effectiveness of 23-valent ppv in hiv-infected adults and the risk factors for pneumococcal pneumonia or invasive pneumococcal disease.200717806042
comparative expression profiling of nicotiana benthamiana leaves systemically infected with three fruit tree viruses.plant viruses cause a wide array of disease symptoms and cytopathic effects. although some of these changes are virus specific, many appear to be common even among diverse viruses. currently, little is known about the underlying molecular determinants. to identify gene expression changes that are concomitant with virus symptoms, we performed comparative expression profiling experiments on nicotiana benthamiana leaves infected with one of three different fruit tree viruses that produce distinct s ...200717722703
[efficacy of absorbance ratio of elisa antibodies [corrected] for hepatitis c virus of 3th generation in the prediction of viremia evaluated by pcr].in order to decrease the burden of suffering and the costs derived from confirmatory molecular assays, a better strategy is badly needed to decrease the rate of false positive results of the enzyme-linked immunoassay (elisa) for detection of hepatitis c virus (hcv) antibodies (anti).200717685198
increased levels of hpv16 e6*i transcripts in high-grade cervical cytology and histology (cin ii+) detected by rapid real-time rt-pcr amplification.as cervical dysplasia may regress to normal cytology or progress to cervical carcinoma, it would be valuable to have a diagnostic tool to help decide whether therapeutic conization should be performed.200717662070
no influence of collagenous proteins of achilles tendon, skin and cartilage on the virus-inactivating efficacy of peracetic acid-ethanol.the risk of transmitting human pathogenic viruses via allogeneic musculoskeletal tissue transplants is a problem requiring effective inactivation procedures. virus safety of bone transplants was achieved using peracetic acid (paa)-ethanol sterilisation. proteins are known to have an adverse effect on the virus-inactivating capacity of paa. therefore we investigated virus inactivation by paa in collagenous tissues. achilles tendon, skin and cartilage were cut into small pieces, lyophilised and co ...200717644408
simple blood tests as noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis in hemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis c virus infection.hcv infection is common among patients with end-stage renal disease (esrd) on hemodialysis, and it has been considered an independent risk factor for mortality in this setting. although liver biopsy in esrd patients with hcv infection is useful before kidney transplantation, it carries a high risk of complications. we sought to assess the diagnostic value of noninvasive markers to stage liver fibrosis in 203 esrd hcv-infected patients. univariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify v ...200717634962
a recombinant pseudorabies virus co-expressing capsid proteins precursor p1-2a of fmdv and vp2 protein of porcine parvovirus: a trivalent vaccine candidate.pseudorabies (pr), foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), and porcine parvovirus disease are three important infectious diseases in swine worldwide. the gene-deleted pseudorabies virus (prv) has been used as a live-viral vector to develop multivalent genetic engineering vaccine. in this study, a recombinant prv, which could co-express protein precursor p1-2a of fmdv and vp2 protein of ppv, was constructed using prv tk(-)/ge(-)/lacz(+) mutant as the vector. after homologous recombination and plaque purifi ...200717628752
clinical utility of afp-l3% measurement in north american patients with hcv-related cirrhosis.lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (afp-l3%) has been reported to be useful in the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) in japan. the aim of this prospective study was to compare the clinical utility of afp-l3% with that of total afp in north american patients.200717617202
evaluation of hepatic steatosis by ultrasound in patients with chronic hepatitis c virus infection.to compare two alternative ultrasound parameters, hepatic vein flow (hvf) pattern and presence of focal hypoechoic areas (fha) within the liver hilus, as non-invasive predictors of liver steatosis in patients with chronic hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection.200717617117
validation of a viral and bacterial inactivation step during the extraction and purification process of porcine collagen.in the last few years, regulations for biomolecule production, and especially for extraction and purification of animal molecules such as collagen, have been reinforced to ensure the sanitary safety of the materials. to be authorized to market biomaterials based on collagen, manufacturers now have to prove that at least one step of their process is described in guidelines to inactivate prion, viruses, and bacteria. the present study focuses on the inactivation step performed during the extractio ...200717611295
association of myocarditis with high viral load of porcine circovirus type 2 in several tissues in cases of fetal death and high mortality in piglets. a case study.during a period of 1.5 months, a newly established pig herd experienced a high number of mummifications and stillbirths, a high neonatal mortality rate, and many piglets with congenital tremors or hind leg ataxia. after clinical and histological investigations, the submitted animals were divided into 4 groups: mummified or stillborn (n = 6), live born with myocarditis (n = 5) (average age 22.8 days), live born without myocarditis (n = 14) (average age 20.0 days), and control animals from a diffe ...200717609345
assessment of the diversity and dynamics of plum pox virus and aphid populations in transgenic european plums under mediterranean conditions.the molecular variability of plum pox virus (ppv) populations was compared in transgenic european plums (prunus domestica l.) carrying the coat protein (cp) gene of ppv and non-transgenic plums in an experimental orchard in valencia, spain. a major objective of this study was to detect recombination between ppv cp transgene transcripts and infecting ppv rna. additionally, we assessed the number and species of ppv aphid vectors that visited transgenic and non-transgenic plum trees. test trees con ...200817605085
[monitoring of infectious diseases among wild boars].sixty-seven serum samples and 43 pathological material samples from wild boars, taken in 5 regions of russia and in the kharkov region of the ukraine in 2002 to 2005 were studied. wild boars in some regions of russia were shown to be carriers of aujeszky's disease virus, porcine parvovirus, porcine circovirus type 2, lymphotropic herpesvirus-1, porcine cytomegalovirus, mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and pasteurella multocida. the classical swine fever (csf) virus genome was detected by polymerase chai ...200717601049
efficient priming against classical swine fever with a safe glycoprotein e2 expressing orf virus recombinant (orfv vrv-e2).an increasing demand in livestock animal husbandry for intervention or emergency vaccination strategies requires a rapid onset of protection linked to prevention of infectious agent spread. using the new recombinant parapoxvirus (ppv) orf virus (orfv) as a vaccine expressing the csfv e2 glycoprotein we demonstrate that a single intra-muscular application confers solid protection. in the prime only concept, multi-site application of the vector vaccine turned out to be superior to single-site appl ...200717600594
withdrawn: genomic evidence of porcine parvovirus (ppv) in native indian swine.this article has been withdrawn consistent with elsevier policy on article withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). the publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause.200717560651
simultaneous detection of three porcine viruses by multiplex pcr.specific oligonucleotide primers were selected and combined in a multiplex arrangement, in order to detect simultaneously three economically important porcine viruses by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the pathogen panel was comprised of viruses that cause reproductive failure in infected herds: aujeszky's disease virus (adv), porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (prrsv). in order to reduce the time required for the detection of the pathogens, the ass ...200717555292
spatiotemporal patterns and risks of herd breakdowns in pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.a retrospective cohort study of 116 british pig farms was undertaken to investigate the epidemiological risk factors associated with herd breakdowns with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws). farmers reported the pmws status of their herd (case definition 1) and, where applicable, when the disease was first suspected and what they observed; they described a prolonged increase in mortality in six to 16-week-old pigs that was not attributable to any disease known to be on their farm. ...200717545645
seroprevalence of varicella antibodies among pregnant women in lyon-france.the purpose of the study was to calculate the seroprevalence of immunity to the varicella-zoster virus (vzv) infection and to evaluate the positive predictive value (ppv) and the negative predictive value (npv) of the self-reported history of vzv infection in pregnant women. a cross sectional study was conducted in 18 private medical analysis laboratories. information on socio-demographic characteristics and past history of varicella or zoster were collected using a questionnaire. blood samples ...200717534728
[the surface display of porcine parvovirus vp2 protein in lactobacillus casei].lactobacillus casei 393 was selected as a bacterial carrier for the expression of porcine parvovirus (ppv) protective antigen vp2 protein. the gene encoding ppv vp2 protein was cloned into the lactobacillus casei surface expression vector ppg, and then the constructed recombinant vector ppg-vp2 was electrotransformed into lactobacillus casei 393 generating the recombinant system ppg-vp2/l. casei393 expressing ppv vp2 protein. the recombinant strain was induced by 2% lactose in mrs and about 74kd ...200717460908
[prokaryotice expression of the ns1 gene of ppv and renaturation of the recombinant protein].the antigen of ns1 gene of ppv was amplified by pcr, and the amplified fragments were cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pgex-4t-1. the insert position, the size and the frame were identified by pcr, restriction enzyme digestion and the sequence analysis of the recombinant plasmids. the sequence analysis results of pgex-ns1-hn1 showed that the prokaryotic expression vector was successfully constructed. the target gene was successfully expressed in the host cell bl21 when induced with ...200717436638
comparison of the "prodect bcs rv chip" assay with the combination of shell vial cell culture and immunofluorescence antibody test for the detection of respiratory viruses.in the present study, a multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction combined with a chip hybridization assay (prodect bcs rv chip) was evaluated as an alternative to the combination of immunofluorescent antibody test and shell vial cell culture considered as gold standard for the detection of respiratory viruses. among 100 specimens, 40 were positive using the combination of immunofluorescent antibody test and shell vial cell culture assay in which 9 of them were infected by two di ...200717433455
a delphi exercise used to identify potential causes of variation in litter size of ontario swine.forty-eight people, considered to the swine experts, were asked to collaborate in a delphi exercise to identify the factors which they believed affect litter size in ontario swine. the panel included 16 animal scientists, 16 pork producers, and 16 veterinarians in swine practice. the ten factors with the highest ratings were parity of the sow, mycotoxins in the feed, infections with porcine parvovirus or leptospira spp., breeding gilts on their second versus first observed estrus, the timing of ...199217423928
vaccination of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2)-infected sows against porcine parvovirus (ppv) and erysipelas: effect on post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) and on pcv2 genome load in the offspring.the effect of different parvovirus+erysipelas vaccination schemes in pcv2-infected sows on pmws outcome in the offspring was investigated under experimental conditions. six pcv2-free sows were first infected oro-nasally with pcv2 two months before insemination (d0; "day 0") and then by the intra-uterine route at insemination (d62). on d21 and d42, vaccinated sows received either the two commercial monovalent vaccines, a1(ppv) and a2(erysipelas), or the bivalent vaccine b (ppv+erysipelas). in add ...200717374380
immunohistochemical detection of p16ink4a in liquid-based cytology specimens on cell block sections.colposcopy biopsy procedure is a standard recommendation for atypical squamous cell cannot exclude high-grade lesion (asc-h) in abnormal papanicolaou smears. p16 (p16ink4a), a cell cycle regulator, has been shown to be overexpressed in squamous dysplasia. to further improve the diagnostic accuracy of the asc-h papanicolaou smear and to reduce unnecessary procedures, the authors evaluated the utility of immunodetection of p16 in liquid-based cytology specimens on cell blocks.200717330305
variability of parvovirus b19 to inactivation by liquid heating in plasma products.previously, we reported that although human parvovirus b19 in albumin and intravenous immunoglobulin preparations was rapidly inactivated during liquid heating, in contrast to other parvoviruses such as canine parvovirus, sensitivity to heat was highly dependent on the composition of the solution. in this study, we aimed to further elucidate the sensitivity to heat of b19 in haptoglobin and antithrombin (previously named antithrombin iii) preparations during liquid heating.200717298573
study of the virulence and cross-neutralization capability of recent porcine parvovirus field isolates and vaccine viruses in experimentally infected pregnant gilts.the pathogenicity of two recent german field isolates of porcine parvovirus (ppv-27a and ppv-143a) and two vaccine viruses [ppv-nadl-2 and ppv-idt (msv)], which are used for the production of inactivated vaccines, was investigated by inoculation of pregnant sows at day 40 of gestation. post-infection sera of these sows as well as antisera prepared in rabbits by immunization with the four above-mentioned ppv isolates and with the virulent strain ppv-challenge (engl.) were tested for their homolog ...200717251558
molecular beacon real-time pcr detection of swine viruses.rapid and reliable detection of viral pathogens is critical for the management of the diseases threatening the economic competitiveness of the swine farming industry worldwide. molecular beacon assays are one type of real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technology capable of fast, specific, sensitive, and reliable viral detection. in this paper, the development of molecular beacon assays as novel tools for the rapid detection of aujeszky's disease virus, african swine fever virus, porcine c ...200717196673
atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high grade intraepithelial lesion (asc-h): does hpv matter?the role of human papillomavirus (hpv) in cases diagnosed as atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high squamous grade intraepithelial lesion (asc-h) in cervical specimens is not well established. the objective of this study is to evaluate the role of hpv status in cases of asc-h in a major cancer center. one hundred thirty-two patients with a diagnosis of asc-h were identified over a 4-yr period in our institution. forty-four of 132 cases were evaluated for high-risk hpv and had biopsy follow ...200717173297
sensitivity and specificity of current diagnostic tests for gill-associated virus in penaeus monodon.this study reports the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (ppv), negative predictive value (npv) and accuracy between a reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction (rt-npcr) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of gill-associated virus (gav) from a sample of 120 penaeus monodon. subsequently, the same comparisons were applied to the elisa and haemagglutination (ha) assays for detection of gav from a second 120 prawns. the optical density ...200617169111
up-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna) is closely associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (hpv) and progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (cin), but does not predict disease outcome in cervical cancer.proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna) is essential for dna replication of mammalian cells and their small dna tumour viruses. the e7 oncoprotein of high-risk human papillomavirus (hpv) is known to activate pcna, shown to be up-regulated in cin and cervical cancer (cc), but still incompletely studied as an intermediate endpoint marker in this disease.200717098349
isothermal amplification coupled with rapid flow-through hybridisation for sensitive diagnosis of plum pox virus.a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification method coupled with rapid flow-through hybridisation (nasba-fh) was developed for diagnosis of plum pox virus (ppv). the sensitivity level achieved by nasba-fh was 10 times higher than that obtained by co-pcr and 1000 times higher than the sensitivity afforded by rt-pcr. in addition, samples from 262 stone-fruit trees collected during winter and spring seasons were analysed. these samples were tested using methods recommended by the european and medite ...200717092572
the apoplastic antioxidant system in prunus: response to long-term plum pox virus infection.this work describes, for the first time, the changes taking place in the antioxidative system of the leaf apoplast in response to plum pox virus (ppv) in different prunus species showing different susceptibilities to ppv. the presence of p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid (phmb)-sensitive ascorbate peroxidase (apx) (class i apx) and phmb-insensitive apx (class iii apx), superoxide dismutase (sod), peroxidase (pox), nadh-pox, and polyphenoloxidase (ppo) was described in the apoplast from both peach and ...200617043083
upregulation of telomerase (htert) is related to the grade of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, but is not an independent predictor of high-risk human papillomavirus, virus persistence, or disease outcome in cervical cancer.telomerase activation and telomere maintenance are essential for cell immortalization and represent a rate-limiting step in cancer progression. the e6 oncoprotein of high-risk human papillomavirus (hpv) is known to activate telomerase, but its expression in cin lesions and its prognostic value in cervical cancer (cc) are still incompletely understood. as part of our hpv-pathogeniss study, a series of 150 ccs and 152 cin lesions were examined using immunohistochemical (ihc) staining for htert (te ...200617041957
control of antigen mass transfer via capture substrate rotation: an absolute method for the determination of viral pathogen concentration and reduction of heterogeneous immunoassay incubation times.immunosorbent assays are commonly employed as diagnostic tests in human healthcare, veterinary medicine and bioterrorism prevention. these assays, however, often require long incubation times, limiting sample throughput. as an approach to overcome this weakness, this paper examines the use of rotating capture substrates to increase the flux of antigen to the surface, thereby reducing the incubation time. to assess the capability of this approach, porcine parvovirus (ppv) was selectively extracte ...200617034870
production of plum pox virus hc-pro functionally active for aphid transmission in a transient-expression system.potyviruses are non-persistently transmitted by aphid vectors with the assistance of a viral accessory factor known as helper component (hc-pro), a multifunctional protein that is also involved in many other essential processes during the virus infection cycle. a transient agrobacterium-mediated expression system was used to produce plum pox virus (ppv) hc-pro in nicotiana benthamiana leaves from constructs that incorporated the 5' region of the genome, yielding high levels of hc-pro in agroinfi ...200617030878
secret agent, an arabidopsis thaliana o-glcnac transferase, modifies the plum pox virus capsid protein.the capsid protein of plum pox virus (ppv-cp) is modified with o-linked glcnac (o-glcnac). while arabidopsis has two o-glcnac transferases, secret agent (sec) and spindly (spy), previous work suggests that sec modifies ppv-cp and that the modification plays a role in the infection process. here, we show that when co-expressed in escherichia coli sec modifies ppv-cp. deletion mapping and site-directed mutagenesis identified three threonine and a serine located near the n-terminus of ppv-cp that a ...200617027982
salicylic acid-mediated and rna-silencing defense mechanisms cooperate in the restriction of systemic spread of plum pox virus in tobacco.plum pox virus (ppv) is able to replicate in inoculated leaves of nicotiana tabacum, but is defective in systemic movement in this host. however, ppv produces a systemic infection in transgenic tobacco expressing the silencing suppressor p1/hc-pro from tobacco etch virus (tev). in this work we show that ppv is able to move to upper non-inoculated leaves of tobacco plants expressing bacterial salicylate hydroxylase (nahg) that degrades salicylic acid (sa). replication and accumulation of ppv is h ...200617018032
mapping of two o-glcnac modification sites in the capsid protein of the potyvirus plum pox virus.a large number of o-linked n-acetylglucosamine (o-glcnac) residues have been mapped in vertebrate proteins, however targets of o-glcnacylation in plants still have not been characterized. we show here that o-glcnacylation of the n-terminal region of the capsid protein of plum pox virus resembles that of animal proteins in introducing o-glcnac monomers. thr-19 and thr-24 were specifically o-glcnacylated. these residues are surrounded by amino acids typical of animal o-glcnac acceptor sites, sugge ...200617014851
use of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the detection of plum pox virus.a one step, accelerated reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) procedure was developed for the detection of plum pox virus (ppv). the six primers required for accelerated rt-lamp were designed using a conserved region in the c-terminus of the coat protein coding region of ppv. rt-lamp was used to detect isolates of five strains of ppv including the strains d, m, ea, c, and w. the virus was detected reliably in both infected herbaceous and woody hosts. rt-lamp was ...200617011051
immunogenicity, safety, and predictors of response after a pneumococcal conjugate and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine series in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.the immunogenicity and safety of 2 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (pcv) and 1 dose of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (ppv) were evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart).200617006288
accurate model predicting sustained response at week 4 of therapy with pegylated interferon with ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis c.current models used to predict response to peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment, based on viral decline during the first 12 weeks of therapy, have focused on creating an early stopping rule to avoid unnecessary prolongation of therapy. we developed a multivariate model that predicted sustained virological response and nonresponse at baseline and during the first 12 weeks of therapy using collected data from 186 unselected patients with chronic hepatitis c treated with peginterferon plus ribavi ...200616970602
potentiation of porcine circovirus 2-induced postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome by porcine parvovirus is associated with excessive production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha.this study investigated the potentiation of porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2)-induced postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome by porcine parvovirus (ppv) and found it was associated with excessive production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha). colostrum-deprived conventional pigs were inoculated intranasally with pcv2 or ppv alone or in combination (pcv2 and ppv). in vitro assay of tnf-alpha, obtained from alveolar macrophages coinfected with pcv2 and ppv, showed a significant increase in t ...200616966450
different viral kinetics between hepatitis c virus genotype 1 and 2 as on-treatment predictors of response to a 24-week course of high-dose interferon-alpha plus ribavirin combination therapy.to elucidate the genotype-specific virus-host-drug interaction and the on-treatment viral kinetics in predicting sustained virologic response (svr), serial serum hepatitis c virus (hcv) ribonucleic acid (rna) levels at baseline, treatment week 2 (w2), treatment week 4 (w4), and treatment week 12 (w12) were measured in 199 chronic hcv-infected taiwanese patients receiving interferon-alpha (inf-alpha) 6 million units (mu) three times weekly plus 1000 to 1200 mg/day of ribavirin for 24 weeks. the s ...200616938649
characterization of the recombinant forms arising from a potato virus x chimeric virus infection under rna silencing pressure.recombination is a frequent phenomenon in rna viruses whose net result is largely influenced by selective pressures. rna silencing in plants acts as a defense mechanism against viruses and can be used to engineer virus resistance. here, we have investigated the influence of rna silencing as a selective pressure to favor recombinants of pvx-hct, a chimeric potato virus x (pvx) vector carrying the helper-component proteinase (hc-pro) gene from plum pox virus (ppv). all the plants from two lines ex ...200616903356
detection of 6k1 as a mature protein of 6 kda in plum pox virus-infected nicotiana benthamiana.the rna genome of plum pox virus (ppv) encodes one large polyprotein that is subsequently cleaved into mature viral proteins. one of the products of proteolytic processing, the 6k1 protein, has not yet been identified in vivo for any member of the genus potyvirus. in this study, 6k1-specific polyclonal antiserum was raised against ppv 6k1 expressed in escherichia coli as a translational fusion with the n terminus of avian troponin c and an unusual metal-binding cluster of troponin t-1. for detec ...200616847134
use of cytokine polymorphisms and epstein-barr virus viral load to predict development of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in paediatric liver transplant recipients.currently there are no tests to accurately identify paediatric liver transplant patients at risk for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (ptld). herein we describe the use of cytokine polymorphisms and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qpcr) epstein-barr virus (ebv) viral load to identify patients at risk for ptld development.200616824159
oral candidosis and oral hairy leukoplakia as predictors of haart failure in brazilian hiv-infected patients.oral candidosis (oc) and hairy leukoplakia (ohl) are important markers of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection immune status.200616792726
viral kinetics and early prediction of nonresponse to peg-ifn-alpha-2b plus ribavirin in hcv genotypes 1/4 according to hiv serostatus.to evaluate, among 70 hepatitis c virus (hcv)-monoinfected and 36 human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-coinfected naïve patients with genotypes 1/4 receiving weight-adjusted pegylated interferon-alpha-2b/ribavirin, viral kinetics and the feasibility to predict treatment failure measuring early hcv-rna decreases. hcv-rna was assessed at baseline, weeks 4, 12 and 24. receiver operating characteristic (roc) curves were calculated to determine the most sensitive cut-off values of viral decrease at wee ...200616792540
transfection of arabidopsis protoplasts with a plum pox virus (ppv) infectious clone for studying early molecular events associated with ppv infection.the development of novel strategies against plant viral diseases relies on a better understanding of molecular virus-host interactions. here, we report an easy, efficient and reproducible protocol for arabidopsis protoplast isolation and transfection to study the infection and replication of a potyvirus, plum pox virus (ppv). macerozyme and cellulose were used to release protoplasts from arabidopsis leaf tissues, and polyethylene glycol-mediated dna uptake was employed for transfection of a ppv ...200616777241
dna ploidy compared with human papilloma virus testing (hybrid capture ii) and conventional cervical cytology as a primary screening test for cervical high-grade lesions and cancer in 1555 patients with biopsy confirmation.because 80% of cervical cancers arise in low-resource settings, many inexpensive strategies are being tested. in that spirit, the authors are testing large-scale genomic or dna ploidy measurements as an inexpensive and semiautomated strategy.200616773634
human papillomavirus testing and liquid-based cytology: results at recruitment from the new technologies for cervical cancer randomized controlled trial.although testing for human papillomavirus (hpv) has higher sensitivity and lower specificity than cytology alone for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (cin), studies comparing conventional and liquid-based cytology have had conflicting results.200616757701
[construction of the eukaryotic expression vector with il-2 gene and vp2 gene of ppv and research on immunogenicity].to construct gene vaccine of ppv and to investigate the effects of interleukin 2 (il-2) as an adjuvant on immune responses in mouse, the recombinant expression plasmid of pcineo-il2-vp2 was constructed and transfected into pk-15 cells by lipofectamine, the expressed product was detected by immunofluore assay. to study the immune effects of dna vaccine in vitro and in vivo, mice were used as the animal model. the recombinant plasmid pcineo-il2-vp2, the control plasmid pci-neo and the ppv live vac ...200616755922
a novel recombinant virus-like particle vaccine for prevention of porcine parvovirus-induced reproductive failure.a novel vaccine against porcine parvovirus (ppv), composed of recombinant virus-like particles (ppv-vlps) produced with the baculovirus expression vector system (bevs) at industrial scale, was tested for its immunogenicity and protective potency. a formulation of submicrogram amounts of ppv-vlps in a water-in-mineral oil adjuvant evoked high serum antibody titres in both guinea pigs, used as reference model, and target species, pigs. a single immunisation with 0.7microg of this antigen yielded c ...200616730104
in vitro exposure of preimplantation porcine embryos to porcine parvovirus.early porcine embryos at the four- to eight-cell stage can be infected with either the virulent (nadl-8) or avirulent kbsh strain of porcine parvovirus (ppv) by microinjection or by incubation of embryos with virus. treatment of embryos by microinjection of virus or incubation in media with virus did not significantly inhibit in vitro development of the embryos when compared with untreated controls. rna-dna hybridization was used to identify the presence of virus associated with embryos. it was ...199016726750
detection of individual microbial pathogens by proximity ligation.nucleic acid amplification allows the detection of single infectious agents. protein-based assays, although they provide information on ongoing infections, have substantially less detection sensitivity.200616723682
assessment of the performance of a definition of a suspected measles case: implications for measles surveillance.to assess the performance, in brazil, of the definition of a suspected measles case among patients with rash diseases that has been adopted in brazil and many other countries.200616723063
[risk factors for clinical signs of pmws and pdns in pigs in the netherlands: a case-control study].potential risk factors for clinical signs of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (pdns) in pigs in the netherlands were investigated in a matched case-control study using a questionnaire (personal interview). eighty-two pig farmers were questioned about management, hygiene, husbandry systems, disease history, and preventive health care. in this study, 30 pig herds with (cases) and 30 pig herds without (controls) characteristic clinic ...200616711565
multiple resistance traits control plum pox virus infection in arabidopsis thaliana.twelve arabidopsis accessions were challenged with plum pox potyvirus (ppv) isolates representative of the four ppv strains. each accession supported local and systemic infection by at least some of the ppv isolates, but high variability was observed in the behavior of the five ppv isolates or the 12 arabidopsis accessions. resistance to local infection or long-distance movement occurred in about 40% of all the accession-isolate combinations analyzed. except for nd-1, all accessions showed resis ...200616673941
a slide latex agglutination test for the rapid detection of antibodies in serum against porcine parvovirus.a slide latex agglutination test (lat) was developed and evaluated to detect serum antibodies against porcine parvovirus. porcine parvovirus antigen was obtained by 10% peg-6000 and 0.5 mol/l sodium chloride precipitation, and inactivated by 0.1% methanal. two per cent suspensions of latex particles (0.5-0.8 microm) were coated by adding an equal volume of porcine parvovirus antigen at 0.34 microg/ml. repeatability of latex agglutination test was evaluated with a panel of 100 sera using the same ...200616626400
asian prunus viruses: new related members of the family flexiviridae in prunus germplasm of asian origin.serological reactivity to plum pox virus (ppv) antisera has been described in several prunus sources of asian origin that are free of ppv infection. using polyvalent or specific pcr assays, the presence of three closely related agents in two of these sources, prunus mume cv. bungo and p. persica cv. ku chu'a hung, was demonstrated. similarities in genome organization and sequence comparisons indicate that these agents should be regarded as members of the genus foveavirus, their only singular tra ...200616621102
prevalence of human papilloma virus infection of the uterine cervix in women with abnormal cervical cytology.to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (hpv) using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in women with abnormal cytology results.200616620054
single-assay combination of epstein-barr virus (ebv) ebna1- and viral capsid antigen-p18-derived synthetic peptides for measuring anti-ebv immunoglobulin g (igg) and iga antibody levels in sera from nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients: options for field screening.assessment of immunoglobulin a (iga) antibody responses to various epstein-barr virus (ebv) antigen complexes, usually involving multiple serological assays, is important for the early diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc). through combination of two synthetic peptides representing immunodominant epitopes of ebna1 and viral capsid antigen (vca)-p18 we developed a one-step sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the specific detection of ebv reactive igg and iga antibodies in ...200616597877
identification of a plum pox virus ci-interacting protein from chloroplast that has a negative effect in virus infection.the cylindrical inclusion (ci) protein of potyviruses is involved in virus replication and cell-to-cell movement. these two processes should rely on multiple plant-virus interactions; however, little is known about the host factors that are involved in, or that may interfere with, ci functions. by using a yeast two-hybrid system, the ci protein from plum pox virus (ppv) was found to interact with the photosystem i psi-k protein, the product of the gene psak, of nicotiana benthamiana. coexpressio ...200616570664
parvovirus variation for disease: a difference with rna viruses?the parvoviridae, a family of viruses with single-stranded dna genomes widely spread from invertebrates to mammal and human hosts, display a remarkable evolutionary capacity uncommon in dna genomes. parvovirus populations show high genetic heterogeneity and large population sizes resembling the quasispecies found in rna viruses. these viruses multiply in proliferating cells, causing acute, persistent or latent infections relying in the immunocompetence and developmental stage of the hosts. some ...200616568906
detection of adventitious viruses in biologicals--a rare occurrence.adventitious virus assays are performed as part of raw materials testing, cell-line characterization, and lot-release testing of biologicals such as monoclonal antibodies, gene therapy vectors, recombinant proteins, and vaccines. the testing methods follow guidance provided in the 9 cfr (bovine and porcine raw materials testing, and certain vaccine products) or points to consider documents (cell line characterization and evaluation of the majority of biologicals). the methodologies used and the ...200616566443
plum pox virus induces differential gene expression in the partially resistant stone fruit tree prunus armeniaca cv. goldrich.we investigated the changes in the expression profiles of the partially resistant apricot (prunus armeniaca l.) cultivar goldrich following inoculation with plum pox virus (ppv) using cdna-amplification fragment length polymorphism (aflp). altered expression patterns were detected and twenty-one differentially expressed cdna had homologies with genes in databases coding for proteins involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense, stress and intra/intercellular connections. seven of the mod ...200616564142
a colorimetric assay for viral agents that produce cytopathic effects.many animal viruses produce cytopathic effects in their host cells during a productive infection. while some virus infections can be assayed by the production of plaques, many viruses, while producing cytotoxicity, do not easily form plaques, or do not form plaques at all. additionally, viruses within families such as the parvoviruses may have different preferred forms of titration making comparative virology difficult even among related groups. porcine parvovirus (ppv), canine parvovirus (cpv), ...200616516983
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