PMID(sorted descending)
a current assessment of the role of porcine parvovirus as a cause of fetal porcine hundred one litters containing 1 or more dead porcine fetuses were collected at an iowa abattoir during a 2-month interval and examined for evidence of viral infection. each of 1,137 fetuses (302 dead, 835 alive) of these litters was tested for porcine parvovirus (ppv) antigens by direct immunofluorescence microscopy (fa) of fetal lung. antigens of ppv were detected in the lungs of most of the fetuses of 11 of the litters. the 11 fa-positive litters contained 105 dead (100 fa-positive) and 1 ...19911645596
nucleotide sequence of the 3'-terminal region of potato virus a rna.the sequence of the 3'-terminal region of the genome of the potato virus a (pva) was obtained from two independent cdna clones. this sequence is 1383 nucleotides long and contains an open reading frame of 1178 nucleotides, ending with the translation termination codon taa and followed by untranslated region of 205 nucleotides. since the n-terminal amino acid of the coat protein of pva was blocked, the position of the putative coat protein cleavage site has been deduced by searching for consensus ...19921604933
proteolytic processing of the plum pox potyvirus polyprotein by the nia protease at a novel cleavage site.the expression of potyvirus genomic rna takes place through translation of its unique long and functional open reading frame into a large polyprotein that undergoes extensive proteolytic processing. most of the cleavages are performed by the virus-encoded nia protease, which cuts the polyprotein at defined sites that are characterized by conserved heptapeptide sequences. we have demonstrated in vitro cleavage activity by the plum pox potyvirus (ppv) nia protease at a novel site, previously ident ...19921585641
a monoclonal antibody which recognizes cell surface antigen and inhibits porcine parvovirus replication.monoclonal antibody technologies were applied to the study of early events in porcine parvovirus (ppv) infections in vitro. balb/c mice were immunized with whole swine testicle cells and hybridomas were produced following fusion with myeloma cells. resultant clones were screened firstly in an elisa system, to detect monoclonal antibody recognition of swine testicle cells, and secondly, in a fluorescent antibody test to detect monoclonal antibody which inhibited production of ppv antigen. one clo ...19921562235
infectious in vivo transcripts of a plum pox potyvirus full-length cdna clone containing the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s rna promoter.a full-length cdna clone of an aphid non-transmissible isolate of plum pox potyvirus (ppv) was rendered biologically active when placed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s rna promoter and the nopaline synthase polyadenylation signal. the cdna was constructed so that the exact 5' end of the ppv rna was present at the transcription initiation site. inoculation of plasmid dna onto nicotiana benthamiana led to systemic infection, whereas local lesions were produced in chenopodium ...19921545225
the ns and capsid genes determine the host range of porcine parvovirus.porcine parvovirus is an autonomous parvovirus which normally infects pigs and multiplies in porcine cells in vitro. in this report, we describe the properties of a variant designated p2, which has extended its host range to include canine cells. the variant was able to produce cytopathic effects (cpe) in canine cells, unlike the prototype nadl-2 strain. the variant also produced higher viral antigen and infectivity titers in canine cells than the nadl-2 strain, whereas both strains produced cpe ...19921532105
production of porcine parvovirus empty capsids with high immunogenic activity.the vp2 gene of porcine parvovirus was cloned in the baculovirus system and expressed in insect cells. the resulting product was present in high yield. it self-assembled into particles which were structurally and antigenically indistinguishable from regular ppv capsids. a high degree of purity of the recombinant capsids was obtained by ammonium sulphate precipitation of cell lysates. these virus-like particles were used as antigen in the immunization of two pigs. the pigs elicited an immune resp ...19921523879
stillbirths, mummies, abortions, and early embryonic death.stillbirths, mummies, abortions, and early embryonic death have a substantial impact on the profitability of a farm in both endemic and epidemic conditions. fetal death is highly dependent on stage of gestation. implantation occurs around day 14 postmating in sows, and fetal death of an entire litter at this time usually results in a regular return to service. if more than four embryos remain alive, the sow may go on to farrow normally. if fetal death occurs after implantation but before calcifi ...19921446274
the complete nucleotide sequence of pepper mottle virus genomic rna: comparison of the encoded polyprotein with those of other sequenced potyviruses.the complete nucleotide sequence of a pepper mottle virus isolate from california (pepmov c) has been determined from cloned viral cdnas. the pepmov c genomic rna is 9640 nucleotides excluding the poly(a) tail and contains a long open reading frame starting at nucleotide 168 and potentially encoding a polyprotein of 3068 amino acids. comparison of the pepmov c presumptive polyprotein with those of other sequenced members of the potyvirus group, including tobacco etch virus (tev), tobacco vein mo ...19921413501
construction of a chimeric viral gene expressing plum pox virus coat protein.the capsid-encoding gene of plum pox virus (ppv) was fused with the leader sequence of the coat protein mrna (cp) of tobacco mosaic virus by a novel mutagenesis technique which involves reverse transcription of minus-strand rna [synthesized by in vitro transcription of a double-stranded (ds) cdna clone], using an ad hoc synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide as primer. the resulting cdna was rendered ds and cloned into the plasmid, pbluescribe m13+. transcription of this chimeric construction produced r ...19921398133
restriction of porcine parvovirus replication in nonpermissive cells.swine testicle (st) cells and madin-darby canine kidney (mdck) cells differ in their ability to support replication of porcine parvovirus (ppv). viral replication events in st cells, a permissive cell type, and mdck cells, a nonpermissive cell type, were compared in an attempt to elucidate putative mechanisms of restrictive virus replication. radiolabeled ppv bound to the cell surface of both cell types equally well and the binding was shown to be ppv specific, indicating that the restriction wa ...19921370555
antibodies to some swine diseases in commercial piggeries in central zambia.blood samples were taken from 121 sows and gilts on 7 commercial piggeries located around lusaka (zambia). the samples tested negative for antibodies to aujeszky's disease, transmissible gastroenteritis (tge), swine influenza, hog cholera and brucellosis. seventy-eight pigs from 5 farms had positive titres to porcine parvovirus. eighteen sera showed positive titres to leptospira celledoni.19921339985
reproductive failure associated with porcine parvovirus in an enzootically infected pig herd.two outbreaks of porcine parvovirus occurred in a unit of 380 sows, with a subsequent decrease in the size of gilts' litters. of the 203 gilts and 64 primiparous sows which were seronegative at the time of insemination, 134 gilts and 55 primiparous sows seroconverted during pregnancy. of the second parity sows nine of 271 were still seronegative at the time of insemination but all nine seroconverted during their third gestation. the gilts that seroconverted during their first pregnancy produced ...19921338661
antigenic variant of swine influenza virus causing proliferative and necrotizing pneumonia in pigs.a new antigenic variant of swine influenza virus was isolated from the lungs of pigs experiencing respiratory problems in 7 different swine herds in quebec. pigs of different ages were affected, and the main clinical signs were fever, dyspnea, and abdominal respiration. coughing was not a constant finding of the syndrome. at necropsy, macroscopic lesions included the overall appearance of pale animals, general lymphadenopathy, hepatic congestion, and consolidation of the lungs. histopathologic f ...19921333815
the response of pregnant gilts previously given an inactivated preparation of porcine parvovirus (ppv) to challenge infection with a fully virulent ppv.eight 40-day pregnant gilts, previously treated with an adjuvanted-inactivated viral preparation (aivp) obtained with a field strain of porcine parvovirus (ppv) together with 4 pregnant untreated controls, were subjected to challenge infection with a virulent strain of ppv at the 40th day of gestation. after challenge, all controls became febrile for 2 to 8 days, whereas only one gilt among those which had been treated with the aivp experienced fever which lasted 4 days. virus was consistently r ...19921331715
an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of porcine parvovirus in fetal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for porcine parvovirus was developed for laboratory detection of parvovirus antigen in fetal tissues and compared with the fluorescent antibody and haemagglutination tests. the elisa proved to be superior in terms of specificity, sensitivity, speed of performance and ease of interpretation.19921331147
field trials of an inactivated virus vaccine against porcine parvovirus.serological response and reproductive performance were estimated in field trials of an inactivated virus vaccine against porcine parvovirus. experiments were carried out in 10 selected pig breeding herds. a total of 277 seronegative gilts were used. two hundred and twenty animals were vaccinated twice before mating, fourteen days apart and revaccinated after farrowing. blood samples were obtained from both vaccinated and non-vaccinated (57 animal) control gilts, one week after the 2nd dose of va ...19921325724
immunohistological diagnosis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (rhd).in the present study the diagnostic use of a biotinylated serum from an immune rabbit was investigated by means of an avidin-biotin-complex (abc)-peroxidase method on paraffin sections. 15 cases of rhd which had been verified histologically and/or by haemagglutination test (ha), 4 suspected cases and 3 cases without history of rhd were included (cases 1 to 22). from 5 prospective cases a wider tissue range was examined (cases 23 to 25 and 29 to 30). furthermore lungs, liver and placenta of 3 fet ...19921325718
comparison of the virulence of two isolates of porcine parvovirus in 72-day-old porcine fetuses.two strains of porcine parvovirus (ppv), designated kresse and nadl-8, were compared for relative virulence in porcine fetuses. strain kresse was injected into the amniotic fluid of all fetuses of 1 uterine horn of each of 2 pregnant gilts at 72 days of gestation. strain nadl-8 was administered similarly to fetuses of 4 other gilts at the same stage of gestation. all gilts were killed and necropsied 35 days later. selected tissues of all fetuses were tested for infectious virus and viral antigen ...19921325191
immunoglobulins in porcine umbilical cord blood and maternal placenta.studies were made of the immunoglobulin (ig) in serums from umbilical cord of newborn pigs and maternal placenta. the neutralization test for porcine parvovirus and japanese encephalitis virus was carried out with the serum of the sow and that of the umbilical cord of the newborn pig. comparative studies of the serums from the dam and the umbilical cord were also done with gel filtration. of 20 umbilical cord serum samples, igg was seen in 5 samples (25%), iga in 1 sample (5%), and igm in 9 samp ...19761275337
[experiments to verify the plum pox virus (ppv) by communicating it on chenopodium foetidum schrad. (author's transl)]. 19751242554
[examinations concerning the range of host plants of the plum pox virus (ppv) (author's transl)]. 19751242553
[porcine parvovirus infection and stillbirth in swine. ii. sero-epizootiological survey (author's transl)]. 19751241629
[porcine parvovirus infection and stillbirth in swine. i. virus isolation from stillborn piglets (author's transl)]. 19751241628
porcine parvovirus in pig herds in southern africa.evidence of the presence of porcine parvovirus in southern africa is given and the diagnostic significance of this finding is discussed. minor abnormalities in the replication of the virus were observed.19751219104
pathogenesis of in utero infection: experimental infection of eight- and ten-week-old porcine fetuses with porcine parvovirus.selected numbers of fetuses in each of 4 pregnant gilts were exposed to a porcine parvovirus by injecting the virus into the allantoic fluid at gestation day 56 or 70. the fetuses were examined on postexposure day 7 or 14. when pregnancy was terminated, 2 of 15 exposed fetuses were dead. several fetuses tested at post-exposure day 14 had hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies to porcine parvovirus. virus was detected most frequently and in highest concentration in the parenchymatous organs of th ...19751200446
a microneutralization test for the assay of porcine parvovirus antibody. 19751169929
experimental in utero infection of fetal pigs with a porcine utero infection of fetuses of six specific-pathogen-free large white sows at 35, 48, 55, 72, 99, and 105 days was studied. the fetuses were infected by direct inoculation of porcine parvovirus into the amniotic sac. the inoculation consisted of 0.25 ml of tissue culture fluid containing 10(5.5) mean tissue culture infective doses per ml of porcine parvovirus strain g10/1. fetuses of one uterus horn were infected, whereas fetuses in the opposite horn were given 0.25 ml of noninfected cell cult ...19751165118
fetal mummification associated with porcine parvovirus infection.a crossbred gilt farrowed 2 mummified fetuses at term, but subsequently developed uterine inertia and became listless. the remaining 5 fetuses of the litter (4 mummified and 1 normal appearing) were collected by hysterectomy. porcine parvovirus (ppv) was isolated from tissues of the mummified fetuses, and masses of viral antigen were detected throughout the same tissues when cryostat sections were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy. serum from the normal-appearing fetus of this litter had ...19751126862
reproductive failure in swine associated with maternal seroconversion for porcine parvovirus.reproductive failure occurred in a swine herd in which the epizootiology of enteroviruses and the porcine parvovirus were being studied. three virgin boars that were seropositive for the parvovirus were mated to seronegative, previously unmated gilts. the 11 gilts that farrowed had small litters, with high perinatal mortality. the remaining 12 gilts were marketed because of infertility, and the reproductive tracts were examined. pathologic findings included early embryonal death attributed to vi ...19751126861
histopathological changes of the brain in swine fetuses naturally infected with procine parvovirus.during a period from 1971 to 1972, some cases of stillbirth and abortion associated with porcine parvovirus infection were recognized in swine herds in japan. the brain was examined histopathologically in five stillborn piglets and four dead fetuses from which the parvoviruses had been isolated. similar histological changes were observed in all the piglets and fetuses, except one piglet which was free from recognizable lesions. the brain lesions were considered to belong to the category of menin ...19751121331
experimentally induced infection of neonatal swine with porcine pigs were exposed to porcine parvovirus (ppv) and killed at postinoculation day (pid) 3 or 7. signs of illness and lesions were not seen. hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) antibodies for ppv were present in the serums of pigs killed on pid 7. as detected by viral isolation and immunofluorescence, ppv was mainly located in rapidly proliferating tissues. heaviest concentration of viral antigen was in the germinal centers of lymph nodes and lightest concentration of antigen was in the ce ...19751098530
pathogenesis of in utero infection: experimental infection of five-week-old porcine fetuses with porcine parvovirus.injection of porcine parvovirus (ppv) into the allantoic fluid of 3 or 4 fetuses of each of 4 litters of ppv-immune gilts early in gestation (34 to 36 days) resulted in fetal maceration and mummification. a high concentration of virus demonstrated in many tissues of fetuses collected 1 week after initial intraallantoic exposure indicated extensive viral replication. progressively lesser amounts of virus were isolated from tissues of macerated and mummified fetuses collected after longer interval ...19751098529
a standardised haemagglutination inhibition test for porcine parvovirus antibody.basic variables of the haemagglutination inhibition (hi) test for porcine parvovirus antibody were investigated. nonspecific serum inhibitors were satisfactorily removed without loss of specific antibody when undiluted serum was adsorbed with 25 percent kaolin in borate saline at ph 9.0. natural haemagglutinins in test serums could be completely removed using 0.1 ml of packed erythrocytes to 0.6 ml of kaolin treated serums. adsorption of prediluted serum resulted in a depression of specific anti ...19761016168
reproductive disease experimentally induced by exposing pregnant gilts to porcine parvovirus.porcine parvovirus (ppv) was administered intravenously or intranasally and orally between the 22nd and the 81st days of gestation to 20 pregnant gilts that were free of hemagglutination-inhibiting (hi) antibody for ppv. gilts were exposed to 1 or both of 2 strains (nadl-7, nadl-2) of ppv and were killed 21 or more days later. fetal and maternal fluids and tissues collected at necropsy were tested for ppv, viral antigen, and hi antibody. transplacental infection occurred with 11 of 12 gilts give ...1976999067
observations on the pathogenesis of porcine parvovirus infection.differences in the pathogenesis of porcine parvovirus (ppv) were shown when pregnant gilts were infected by the oral and intramuscular (i.m.) routes. by the oral route, ppv took 23-32 days to cross the placenta following infection of the dam, as compared to 15 days by the i.m. route, successful transplacental infection occurred following oral infection of dams only in the second third of gestation, whilst i.m. infection resulted in infection of foetuses in both first and second thirds of gestati ...1976986801
porcine parvovirus infection in vitro: a study model for the replication of parvoviruses. ii. kinetics of virus and antigen production. 1976986740
observations on the epidemiology of porcine parvovirus.evidence presented suggests that porcine parvovirus is highly stable and infective. introduction of virus to susceptible herds results in 100% infection rate within the following 3 months. active immunity is associated with high persistent levels of haemagglutination-inhibitating (hi) antibody (greater than 256), piglets suckling immune sows acquiring hi titres between 10,000 and 40,000. loss of passive immunity, measured by hi, occurs in a majority of pigs between 14 and 26 weeks of age (mean 2 ...1976985234
antibody to porcine, feline and rat parvoviruses in various animal species.porcine, feline and rat parvoviruses were shown to be antigenically distinct. specific antibody to feline and rat parvoviruses was shown in a high proportion of porcine sera, and to the porcine parvovirus in sera from cattle, sheep, cats, guinea-pigs, mice and rats, but not from horse, dog, rabbit, chicken or human.1976951520
letter: rapid diagnostic techniques for detection of porcine parvovirus infection in mummified foetuses. 1976944570
observations on rapid diagnosis of porcine parvovirus in mammified foetuses. 1977856145
an outbreak of swine foetal mummification associated with porcine parvovirus. 1977856144
experimental infection of 35, 50 and 60 day old pig foetuses with porcine parvovirus.foetuses of six seronegative gilts, two of which each respectively 35, 50 and 60 days pregnant, were inoculated intrauterinely with porcine parvovirus (ppv) and examined 7 and 11 days after inoculation. hi antibody was not detected in any of the foetuses although all but one gilt developed low levels of antibody. all but one of the foetuses inoculated with ppv died in utero prior to examination at 11 days after inoculation. infection also spread to non-inoculated litter mates. histological chang ...1978743053
serological procedures to determine time of infection of pigs with porcine was found possible to correlate serological responses to porcine parvovirus (ppv) with the time after infection. two procedures were used for ppv antibody measurement: an immunodiffusion technique to measure precipitating antibody and a haemagglutination inhibition (hi) procedure to measure concentration of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-me) sensitive antibody. both procedures successfully related antibody titres to time post-infection, but it was considered that a 2 m 2-me hi procedure showed the grea ...1978687263
[verification of the plum pox virus (ppv) using the tray test (author's transl)].a comparison of 6 host plants reacting by local lesion if infected by the plum pox virus (ppv) demonstrated that beside chenopodium foetidum schrad. also nicandra physaloides (l). gärtner, nicardra physaloides violacea bitter and verbena officinalis l. are pretty well suitable to verify the ppv serving as locally reacting test plants. using the tray test, the ppv was verifiable by separated leaves of c. foetidum schrad., n. physaloides violacea bitter, n. physaloides (l.) gärtner and v. officina ...1978664936
prevalence of porcine parvovirus-induced reproductive failure: an abattoir study. 1978659307
immunoglobulins in blood serum of foetal pigs.a total of 1,147 samples of blood serum, collected from porcine foetuses, were examined for the presence of immunoglobulin. the foetuses, from 182 sows, were sampled at abattoirs in queensland during 1975. for detection and measurement of immunoglobulins, rabbit anti-pig serum and monospecific anti-pig igg, anti-pig igm and anti-pig iga were employed in immunoelectrophoresis, double diffusion and single radial immuno-diffusion assays. twenty-four foetuses (from 7 litters) had detectable igg or i ...1978655968
elimination of porcine parvovirus from infected cell cultures by inclusion of homologous antiserum in the nutrient medium.cell cultures of porcine fetal kidney and porcine adult thyroid gland were freed of infection with porcine parvovirus by adding homologous viral antiserum to their nutrient medium. the use of antiserum appeared practical and effective for eliminating the virus from contaminated cell lines.1978629467
experimental porcine parvovirus infection of foetal pigs resulting in abortion, histological lesions and antibody formation. 1977591653
replication of porcine parvovirus in peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes, and peritoneal macrophages.porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl), peripheral blood monocytes, and peritoneal macrophages were examined for their ability to support porcine parvovirus (ppv) replication. the cell cultures were infected with the nadl-2 strain of ppv at 0.1 multiplicity of infection. pbl cultures were stimulated with the following phytomitogens: phytohemagglutinin m, concanavalin a, and pokeweed mitogen. unstimulated pbl cultures infected with ppv and uninfected pbl stimulated with phytomitogens served a ...1979574124
serological responses in pigs vaccinated with inactivated porcine parvovirus.the safety and immunogenicity of inactivated porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccines were investigated. both beta-propiolactone and formalin successfully inactivated virus without destroying immunogenicity, which was considerably enhanced by incorporation of a gel adjuvant in the vaccine. using the formalised-gel vaccine, initial antibody responses were demonstrated in susceptible piglets and adult pigs at 7 days after vaccination. these antibody responses persist at significant levels for at least 6 ...1977565631
the effect on reproductive performance of porcine parvovirus infection in a susceptible pig acute episode of reproductive failure occurred following natural introduction of porcine parvovirus to a susceptible herd of 48 breeding sows. serological data gave a close estimate of the time that infection spread through the herd, and enabled a correct forecast of the reproductive failure that followed. severe fetal mummification was seen over a three-week period. epidemiological data is presented strongly linking in utero parvovirus infection with the mummification that occurred, and the ...1977560744
porcine parvovirus infection in ontario: incidence and diagnosis in herds with reproductive failures. 1979526907
effect of inseminating seropositive gilts with semen containing porcine parvovirus. 1979487052
efficacy of an inactivated virus vaccine for prevention of porcine parvovirus-induced reproductive failure.gilts vaccinated im either once (4 gilts) or twice (2 gilts) with an acetylethyleneimine-inactivated porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccine before they were bred were subsequently exposed intranasally and orally to virulent ppv at about the 40th day of gestation (from 37 to 43 days). at 2 weeks after vaccination, all had hemagglutination-inhibiting (hi) titers for ppv (from 20 to 80) which decreased by the time the immunity was challenged with virulent virus (from 10 to 40), but increased thereafter ( ...1979464358
effect of porcine parvovirus on development of fertilized pig eggs in vitro. 1979435962
prenatal infection following maternal exposure to porcine parvovirus on either the seventh or fourteenth day of gestation.intranasal and oral exposure of two gilts to porcine parvovirus on either the seventh or 14th day of gestation resulted in prenatal infection. normal appearing fetuses and necrotic remnants of what were believed embryos and extraembryonic membranes were found when the gilts were necropsied seven weeks after exposure. the presence of masses of porcine parvovirus antigen throughout necrotic tissues of six of seven embryos, but not in any of the nine normal appearing fetuses suggested that embryoni ...1979427636
demonstration of parvovirus in canadian swine and antigenic relationships with isolates from other countries.a canadian isolate of porcine parvovirus, isolated from cultured pig thyroid cells, was shown to be antigenically indistinguishable from a british (59e/63) and a german (g10/1) strain when treated by the modified direct complement-fixation, the hemagglutination-inhibition and the fluorescent antibody tests. these tests also revealed that antibodies to parvoviruses were detectable in a large proportion of the conventionally raised pigs in the provinces of quebec and ontario. cell cultures, prepar ...1978356941
pathogenesis of porcine parvovirus infection: pathology and immunofluorescence in the foetus. 1977332722
isolation of porcine parvovirus from aborted piglets. 1977275675
prevalence of antibodies to porcine enteroviruses and porcine parvovirus in body fluids of fetal pigs from small vs large litters. 1976175042
virus-like particles in buffy coat cells of normal goats and goats infected with progressive pneumonia electron microscopy, virus-like particles (vlp) were seen in neutrophils and lymphocytes from buffy coats prepared from 5 goats inoculated with progressive pneumonia virus (ppv) and 3 noninoculated goats. the vlp were 80 to 120 nm in diameter, limited by a unit membrane, and resembled ppv, visna virus, and other members of the oncornavirus family. some vlp seemed to have electron-dense nucleoids and external spikes. in neutrophils, vlp were observed budding into vacuoles; rarely, intravacuola ...1975167620
porcine parvovirus: frequency of naturally occurring transplacental infection and viral contamination of fetal porcine kidney cell cultures.the frequency of naturally occurring transplacental infection of swine with porcine parvovirus (ppv) and one of the possible consequences of such infection--the presence of ppv in cell cultures prepared from fetal tissues--were investigated. transplacental infection was indicated by the presence of high titers of hemagglutination inhibiting (hi) antibody for ppv in serums of 0-day-old, hysterectomy-derived, colostrum-deprived pigs of 3 of 82 litters. all letters were farm-raised dams. moreover, ...1975163603
elevated concentrations in serum immunoglobulins due to infection by ovine progressive pneumonia virus.sixty-seven serum samples were obtained from 2 sheep flocks. agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) was used to separate progressive pneumonia virus (ppv)-infected sheep from noninfected sheep by the presence of precipitating antibodies. immunoglobulin (ig), total protein, and albumin concentrations were then measured from all 67 sera to determine whether differences existed between ppv-infected and non-infected sheep. a significant difference (p less than 0.0005) was found in both total protein and ig ...1979110182
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