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perinatal induction of medulloblastomas in syrian golden hamsters by a human polyoma virus (jc).medulloblastomas, originating from cells of the internal granular layer of the cerebellum, developed in syrian golden hamsters 3--6 months after inoculation at birth intracerebrally and sc with jc virus, a papovavirus isolated originally from a human case of the demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. the lesion is compared with the human medulloblastoma of childhood. jc virus is the first infectious agent to produce such a neoplasm in any species.1979225669
experimental infection of vertebrates of the pocomoke cypress swamp, maryland with keystone and jamestown canyon viruses.experimental studies were conducted to assess the susceptibility of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), gray squirrels (sciurus carolinensis), and cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) to jamestown canyon (jc) and/or keystone (key) virus infection. viremia occurred in 5 of 6 deer inoculated with jc virus; however, all deer developed key virus neutralizing antibody. based on the observation that antibody elicited by primary infection of deer with either key or jc virus exhibited part ...1979453437
jc human papovavirus replication in human amnion cells.jc human papovavirus was found to replicate in primary human amnion cells. the virus has undergone eight passages in amnion cells and was identified by serological methods as jc virus. by restriction endonuclease analysis of the viral dna, the fragments observed were identical to those previously reported for the prototype strain.1979480459
in situ hybridisation: principles and applications.in situ hybridisation (ish) is based on the complementary pairing of labelled dna or rna probes with normal or abnormal nucleic acid sequences in intact chromosomes, cells or tissue sections. compared with other molecular biology techniques applicable to anatomical pathology, ish enjoys better rapport with histopathologists because of its similarity to immunohistochemistry. it has the unique advantage over other molecular biology techniques--largely based on probe hybridisation with nucleic acid ...19921304627
virus-cell interaction in oligodendroglia, astroglia and phagocyte in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. an electron microscopic study.a 46-year-old female, with an 11 year history of malignant lymphoreticular disease, developed a neurological illness clinically manifested by a focal mass lesion in the left frontal lobe. in biopsied tissue, immunofluorescence study revealed the presence of jc antigen in the glial cells. histologically, the lesion was characteristic of pml consisting of pml consisting of focal necrosis in the subcortical white matter, numerous fat laden macrophages and marked hypertrophy of oligodendrocytes and ...19761007902
new oncogenic human papovaviruses.human papovaviruses of the polyoma-sv40 subgroup are common infectious agents. the clinical picture of the primary infection of these viruses is unknown, but one of the viruses, the jc virus, is associated with and probably causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. these viruses cause tumours and transform cells of several species of laboratory animals. current results seem to rule them out as a major aetiollogical factor in human cancer. however, their relationship to human tumours req ...1979220472
brain tumors in owl monkeys inoculated with a human polyomavirus (jc virus).owl monkeys were inoculated intracerebrally, subcutaneously, and intravenously with jc, bk, or sv40 virus. two of four adult owl monkeys inoculated with jc virus, a human polyomavirus, developed brain tumors at 16 and 25 months after inoculation, respectively. a grade 3 to grade 4 astrocytoma (resembling a human glioblastoma multiforme) was found in the left cerebral hemisphere and brainstem of one monkey. the second monkey developed a malignant tumor in the left cerebral hemisphere containing b ...1978211583
immunological relatedness of papovaviruses of the simian virus 40-polyoma subgroup.viral antigens in permissive cells infected with jc virus, k virus, and sa12 virus were reactive in immunofluorescence tests to antisera against sodium dodecyl sulfate-disrupted simian virus 40 capsids and polyoma vp1. the major capsid polypeptides of all papovaviruses of the simian virus 40-polyoma subgroup are immunologically related.1977200567
relapsing and remitting human immunodeficiency virus-associated leukoencephalomyelopathy.we describe a 33-year-old homosexual man with a steroid-responsive, remitting and relapsing leukoencephalopathy associated with recent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) seroconversion. biopsy of a parieto-occipital lesion revealed demyelination and astrogliosis with focal necrosis. detailed investigations demonstrated no pathogens in the brain other than hiv-1. this patient illustrates that a neurological disorder clinically indistinguishable from multiple sclerosis may be the presenti ...19921311910
in vitro-labeled dna for detecting viral genomes in multiple sclerosis: i. papovaviruses.papovaviruses appear to be neurotropic and one, jc virus, is implicated as the cause of one type of demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. to investigate whether human papovaviruses play a role in multiple sclerosis, radioactively labeled dna from bk virus, human papilloma virus, and simian virus 40 was used as a probe in order to detect related unlabeled dna sequences in dna isolated from multiple sclerosis brain and/or spinal cord. labeled viral probes were denature ...1977196234
comparison of the serology, transforming ability, and polypeptide composition of human papovaviruses isolated from urine.four isolates of human papovaviruses (rf, gs, dw, and mg viruses) obtained from the urine specimens of renal allograft recipients in widely separated locations were compared with bk virus. hemagglutination inhibition tests and plaque neutralization assays showed that all were antigenically related to bk virus. all isolates transformed baby hamster kidney cells, transformation being determined by the ability of the cells to plate in soft agar. purified preparations of each isolate were iodinated ...197656460
jc virus and simian virus 40 enhancers and transforming proteins: role in determining tissue specificity and pathogenicity in transgenic mice.when introduced into the germ line of mice, the simian virus 40 (sv40) t antigen under the control of its own transcriptional enhancer and promoter selectively induced tumors in the choroid plexus as well as thymic hyperplasia and kidney pathology. in contrast, the jc virus (jcv) t antigen under the control of its own regulatory sequences induced hypomyelination of the central nervous system and tumors of neural origin. since sv40 and jcv have extensive sequence homology, except for their transc ...19921309896
detection of jc virus dna in peripheral lymphocytes from patients with and without progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) results from lytic infection of oligodendrocytes by jc virus (jcv). although jcv has been identified in mononuclear cells in bone marrow and hematogenous dissemination of the virus to the central nervous system has been suspected, jcv has never been clearly demonstrated in the peripheral circulation. using polymerase chain reaction technology, we examined peripheral lymphocytes of 19 patients with brain biopsy-proven pml for the jcv genome. two no ...19921316734
trivittatus virus infections in wild mammals and sentinel rabbits in central iowa.a serological survey was conducted in iowa to determine the prevalence rate of california group virus antibodies in sera of several vertebrate species. serum specimens were assayed for infectivity-neutralizing antibody in a microneutralization system with baby hamster kidney cell culture. of 77 sera assayed, 21 (27%) neutralized trivittatus (tvt) virus infectivity. the antibody prevalence rate was highest for eastern cottontail rabbits inasmuch as 46% (10/22) of the serum specimens form this spe ...19751200251
atypical progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with plasma-cell infiltrates.in rare cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) the lesions are atypical in that the characteristic alteration of oligodendrocytic nuclei is infrequent or absent, and the demyelinated foci contain mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates including numerous plasma cells. otherwise these cases, both as to the topographic features of the lesions, and the background of chronic lymphoproliferative or myeloproliferative disease or immunosuppressive treatment, conform to the usual pattern ...19751057843
persistence of archetypal jc virus dna in normal renal tissue derived from tumor-bearing patients.jc virus dnas derived from the urine of nonimmunosuppressed individuals generally contain an archetypal regulatory region which may have generated various regulatory regions of jc virus from from the brain with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml). in this study, we examined whether jc virus persisting in normal human kidney tissue contains the archetypal regulatory region. renal medulla, cortex, and tumor from 32 patients bearing renal tumors were screened for jc virus dna by blot h ...19921310194
natural transmission of keystone virus to sentinel rabbits on the delmarva peninsula.domestic rabbits were exposed in the pocomoke cypress swamp from early may through october 1973, to act as sentinel indicators of keystone (key) virus transmission on the delaware-maryland-virginia (delmarva) peninsula. rabbits were bled weekly and their sera were tested for the presence of neutralizing antibody to both key and james-town canyon (jc) viruses. adult mosquito activity was monitored concurrently by cdc miniature light traps with dry ice. of 100 rabbits exposed, 20 rabbits acquired ...1978717629
selection for plaque variants of two california group arboviruses (jamestown canyon and la crosse) by passage in natural vertebrate hosts.the plaque size and distribution of prototype la crosse (lac) and jamestown canyon (jc) viruses were investigated in vero cell cultures. the effect of serial passage of the viruses in their natural vertebrate hosts - the chipmunk and grey squirrel for lac and the white-tailed deer for jc virus - was studied. prototype jc virus was predominately a pinpoint plaque type (about 0.3 mm in diameter). a large plaque variant (about 1.0 mm in diameter), which was only 1 percent of prototype jc virus, inc ...1975241230
the transcription factor sp1 binds to the jc virus promoter and is selectively expressed in glial cells in human brain.jc virus is a human dna virus that specifically infects oligodendroglial cells, resulting in a demyelinating disease (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy) of the central nervous system of immunosuppressed patients. the host-range restriction of jc virus is controlled at the level of viral gene transcription. to analyze further the determinants of glial specificity, we cloned and sequenced the jc viral early promoter elements directly from the infected brain tissue of four patients. the pr ...19921322644
infectivity of the dna from four isolates of jc virus.the infectivity of jc virus dna was demonstrated in its most permissive cell culture, primary human fetal glial cells. the amount of infectivity observed in these heterogeneous cultures varied considerably between batches of cells. contrary to results obtained with the papovaviruses simian virus 40 and bk virus, the calcium technique (f. l. graham and a. j. van der eb, virology 52:456--467, 1973) was found to be more efficient at promoting jc virus dna infectivity than the deae-dextran method (j ...1979228071
restriction endonuclease cleavage map of the dna of jc virus.a physical map of the sites cleaved by the following restriction endonucleases was derived for the dna of jc virus, a human polyomavirus: ecori, hpai, and psti (one site each); hindii (four sites); and hindiii (three sites). by agarose gel electrophoresis of fragmented dna, the size of full-length dna of jc virus was estimated to be 5,125 +/- 105 base pairs (98 +/- 2% of the length of simian virus 40 dna).1979221677
detection of polyoma virus dna in pml-brain tissue by (in situ) hybridization.the human papova (jc) virus was extracted from brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. a single band of virus was obtained at a density of 1.345 g/ml cscl.jc virus dna was purified and a highly specific crna was generated in vitro. in situ hybridization with jc virus crna and autoradiography on sections of the same brain revealed silver grains over oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and possible vascular endothelial cells, indicating the presence of jc virus dna in these di ...1979215712
adenine arabinoside in the treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: use of virus-containing cells in the urine to assess response to therapy.two patients with biopsy-proved progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) were treated with near-maximal doses of adenine arabinoside (ara-a), 18.6 and 20 mg per kilogram of body weight per day for 14 days. in both patients, clinical progression of the disease was correlated with an increase in the size of low-density lesions seen by computerized tomography. one of the patients was observed to excrete abnormal epithelial cells into the urine. these cells contained papovaviruslike particle ...1977214020
[progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a female patient with chronic lymphatic leukemia].this case report describes a 78-year old female patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and neurological symptoms due to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml). at autopsy the histopathology was characteristic, the involvement of jc virus was established. pml occurs in immunocompromised patients and is caused by infection with jc papova virus. epidemiology, clinical course, diagnostic procedures with special reference to the use of the polymerase chain reaction, and therapy are brie ...19921310527
[detection of urinary jcv and bkv dna during immunosuppressive therapy]. 19921328714
[diagnosis of jcv genomic dna in cells from cerebrospinal fluid--using by pcr method and in situ hybridization method]. 19921328715
induction of peripheral neuroblastomas in syrian hamsters after injection as neonates with jc virus, a human polyoma virus.neuroblastomas developed in 10 of 31 syrian hamsters inoculated intraocularly with jc virus, a human polyoma virus. the latent period was 6 to 11 months. primary tumors occurred in the abdominal cavity, pelvis, mediastinum, and neck region. the origin of one tumor from the adrenal gland was demonstrated. metastases were seen in the liver, bone marrow, and lymph nodes. two neuroblastomas arising in this experiment were transplanted serially in weanling hamsters, and a tissue culture cell line was ...1978206356
dna sequences similar to those of simian virus 40 in ependymomas and choroid plexus tumors of childhood.ependymomas and papillomas of the choroid plexus occur in early childhood. the ubiquitous human polyomaviruses, bk virus and jc virus, have been associated with the induction of these neoplasms in animal models. a related monkey polyomavirus, simian virus 40 (sv40), is highly tumorigenic in rodents and also induces choroid plexus papillomas.19921312224
jc virus, a human polyomavirus associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: additional biological characteristics and antigenic relationships.jc virus, a human polyomavirus, failed to grow or produce cytopathic effects in any of a variety of cells tested other than primary human fetal glial (phfg) cells. cells tested included other primary human cells and glial cells from other animals. only a rare cell in inoculated insusceptible human cell cultures produced t or virion antigen. in phfg cell cultures jc virus produced subtle cytopathic effects, and the majority of progeny remained cell associated. only a few cells in the heterogenous ...1977191404
pab 2000 specifically recognizes the large t and small t proteins of jc virus.a monoclonal antibody, pab 2000, has been derived which recognizes the large t protein of jc virus (jcv), but not the corresponding proteins of the related polyomaviruses bk virus (bkv) and sv40. the epitope bound by pab 2000 was localized to the amino-terminal 81 amino acids of this multifunctional protein. as observed previously with several monoclonal antibodies that bind a similar region of sv40 large t antigen, pab 2000 was found to interact with the small t antigen and the denatured form o ...19921332276
a comparison of human papovavirus t antigens.a comparison was made of the t antigens induced in transformed cells or infected permissive cells by representatives of three categories of human papovavirus. the transformed hamster cell lines employed contained t antigen induced by either the bk or rf strains of papovavirus associated with human renal allografts; the jc strain of papovavirus from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml), or a variant of sv40 virus isolated from pml. the human papovavirus t antigens were also compared w ...197662024
identification of the stumptailed macaque virus as a new papovavirus.a new viral agent, stumptailed macaque virus (stmv), isolated from uninoculated stumptailed macaque kidney cultures was identified. the virions had the size and morphology of papovaviruses of the simian virus 40 (sv40)-polyoma subgroup, but many of them appeared to have an additional outer envelope. the deoxyribonucleic acid of stmv was a superhelical circular molecule, with a mean length 91% of that of sv40. the antigenic relationship of this virus with other members of the group was examined b ...197659705
detection of jc virus by polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid from two patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to identify jc virus (jcv) in the cerebrospinal fluid of two patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy confirmed by brain biopsy. in addition, jcv viremia was demonstrated by pcr in one case. jcv detection in spinal fluid by pcr may be the first non-invasive technique available for the diagnostic confirmation of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.19921317800
diagnosis of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy by pcr detection of jc virus from csf. 19921349412
cerebellar form of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with chronic renal failure.progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) developed in a 64-year-old woman who had undergone hemodialysis treatment due to chronic renal failure (crf) for 6 yr. her initial symptom was ataxia, and computed tomographic (ct) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (mri) suggested a demyelinating disease of the cerebellum. her cell-mediated immunity was impaired. at autopsy, the cerebellar disease was confirmed as pml by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies. moreover, the jc type of p ...19921318117
subclinical central nervous system infection with jc virus in patients with aids.immunocompromised patients, particularly those with aids, develop progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) due to central nervous system infection with jc virus (jcv). it is unknown whether jcv infection in the central nervous system can occur in the absence of pml symptoms. to address this question, autopsy specimens from patients with aids were examined. the brains of a group of patients without aids or central nervous system disease were also examined. jcv dna was detected by the poly ...19921318912
incorporation of brdu in a dna fragment may affect protein-dna interactions in a site-dependent manner.dna in which brdu has been randomly incorporated is used to identify specific dna-binding proteins. we show here that the location of brdu incorporation in a dna fragment can significantly affect specific protein-dna interactions and thereby identification of dna-binding proteins. we suggest that a radioactive labeled unmodified dna, rather than brdu-incorporated dna, be used for identifying dna-binding proteins by uv cross-linking.19921320247
jc papovavirus in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.brain tissue from seven patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy was tested for the presence of papovaviruses. jc virus, ahuman papovavirus, was identified in all seven cases. virus was isolated in tissue culture from extracts from each of four patients and was detected by immunofluorescence in sections from the other three. the new osolates were indistinguishable from the prototypical jc strain serologically and in all biological characteristics examined. thus jc virus has, to d ...1976778304
adjacent nuclear factor-1 and activator protein binding sites in the enhancer of the neurotropic jc virus. a common characteristic of many brain-specific genes.jc virus is a neurotropic virus that causes the demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in humans. in order to understand the neurotropic nature of this virus, we examined the binding of nuclear proteins to the viral regulatory region. a close association of nuclear factor-1 (nf-1) and jun protein binding sites was found. these binding sites were either adjacent or overlapped each other. depending on the order of binding, there was some interference of binding of the nf- ...19921321139
interaction of the human polyomavirus, jcv, with human b-lymphocytes.the human polyomavirus, jcv, is the causative agent of the central nervous system demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml). the principal target of jcv infection in the central nervous system (cns) is the myelinating oligodendrocyte. however, the site of jcv multiplication outside of the cns and the mechanism by which virus gains access to the brain are not known. recently, jcv infected b-lymphocytes have been demonstrated in pml patients in several lymphoid organs, ...19921325703
jc virus associated meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent girl.jc virus is most commonly acquired during childhood, and no clinical illness has been associated with primary infection, which is assumed to be asymptomatic. the only disease associated with jc virus to date is progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (pml), which is usually caused by viral reactivation in immunocompromised adults. a chronic meningoencephalitis associated with an active jc virus infection in an immunocompetent 13 year old girl is described.19921325756
pathogenesis and molecular biology of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, the jc virus-induced demyelinating disease of the human brain.studies of the pathogenesis and molecular biology of jc virus infection over the last two decades have significantly changed our understanding of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, which can be described as a subacute viral infection of neuroglial cells that probably follows reactivation of latent infection rather than being the consequence of prolonged jc virus replication in the brain. there is now sufficient evidence to suggest that jc virus latency occurs in kidney and b cells. howe ...19921310438
molecular characterization of a jc virus (sap-1) clone derived from a cerebellar form of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) is a demyelinating disease caused by polyomavirus jc (jcv). in the majority of cases of pml the cerebrum is mainly affected (cerebral pml) but on rare occasions lesions are restricted to the cerebellum and brain stem (cerebellar pml). we report a rare cerebellar pml case which occurred in a japanese patient undergoing prolonged hemodialysis treatment. to understand the molecular basis of the viral tissue tropism, we molecularly cloned jcv dna and ...19921313631
progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. diagnosis by in situ hybridization with a biotinylated jc virus dna probe using an automated histomatic code-on slide stainer.the accurate surgical pathological diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) depends on the demonstration of pathognomonic histological features in cerebral biopsy tissue. the diagnosis may be difficult, however, if only small tissue fragments are submitted from the center of a demyelinating lesion. previous studies by other authors have established that in situ hybridization with a biotinylated jc virus dna probe can be a valuable diagnostic adjunct because it identifies the ...19911648881
comparison of jc and bk human papovaviruses with simian virus 40: dna homology studies.studies were performed to ascertain the relationship of human papovavirus jc to bk virus and to simian virus 40 (sv40) by further restriction endonuclease analysis and by dna-dna competition hybridization on membrane filters. form i dna extracted from two new isolates from cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy of human papovaviruses that were jc-like in their antigenic properties were found to yield restriction endonuclease fragmentation patterns similar to those of prototypic jc v ...1976183019
specificity of the tumor-specific transplantation antigen induced by jc virus, a human polyomavirus.the specificity of the tumor-specific transplantation antigen (tsta) induced by jc virus was investigated by cross protection tests in weanling hamsters. hamsters immunized with jc virus, bk virus, or sv40 were challenged 5 weeks later with known numbers of jc virus- or sv40-induced hamster tumor cells. both the jc virus-immune and the sv40-immune hamsters showed resistance to challenge with homologous but not heterologous tumor cells, and the bk virus-immune hamsters were not resistant to eithe ...197767106
jc virus infection and alzheimer's disease: reappraisal of an in situ hybridization approach.to assess the validity of the recently reported data on frequent occurrence of latent jc virus (jcv) infections in the brains of patients with alzheimer's disease, we used in situ hybridization with biotinylated whole genomic jcv probes and the streptavidin-biotinylated alkaline phosphatase method to examine brain sections of such patients. we did not find any signs of jcv either in the brains of the patients with alzheimer's disease or in those of nondemented, elderly control patients. non-spec ...19921316732
antibody response to human papovavirus jc (jcv) and simian virus 40 (sv40) t antigens in sv40 t antigen-transgenic mice.human papovavirus jc (jcv) and simian virus 40 (sv40) genomes share approximately 69% homology; and there is antigenic cross-reactivity between jcv and sv40 tumor or t antigens. in order to determine whether a selective immune response to jcv t antigen could be demonstrated, transgenic mice (sv11+) that express sv40 t antigen in the choroid plexus and are partially tolerant to antigenic determinants on sv40 t antigen were immunized with sv40 or jcv t antigens and their antibody responses were an ...19921382342
monoclonal antibody characterization of jamestown canyon (california serogroup) virus topotypes isolated in canada.jamestown canyon (jc) virus of the california (cal) serogroup has been isolated in 12 american states and 6 canadian provinces. a study was undertaken to produce monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to jc virus and to use these mabs to assay for possible heterogeneity among naturally occurring jc topotypes in canada. mabs were produced to the prototype strain of jc virus using balb/c mice. twenty-seven secreting mabs were obtained and three of these mabs were propagated and studied. all three mabs, m1 ( ...19921418321
investigation of human urogenital tract tumors of papovavirus etiology: brief communication.cells cultured from human urogenital cancer and other cancers as well as cells from noncancerous tissues were examined by immunofluorescent staining with antibodies to t-antigens and capsid antigens of papovaviruses bk virus (bkv), jc virus, and simian virus 40(sv40), and to capsid antigens of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and human cytomegalovirus (cmv). cells from early passage cultures of 123 primary tissues and from 14 continuous lines derived from transitional or renal cell carcinoma w ...1978203710
enhancer/promoter activities of regulatory regions of representative jc virus isolates.the enhancer/promoter activities of jc virus isolates mad1, mad8, and mad11 in hela cells and in human glial cells expressing either sv40 or jcv(mad1) tumor antigens were significantly different from one another in each cell line.19911659802
amplification of jc virus dna from brain and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.we have established an assay to detect jc viral dna in brain tissue and csf of patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) and amplified a 106-base pair segment of the gene encoding jc viral large t antigen by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) from the brains of eight patients with pml and from one of six csf samples. brain and csf of patients without pml did not yield jc virus-specific dna amplification products. southern analysis documented that the sequences of the 106-base p ...19911660572
seroepidemiology of human papovaviruses. discovery of virgin populations and some unusual patterns of antibody prevalence among remote peoples of the world.a total of 1544 sera from 28 diverse and mainly isolated populations were examined for hi antibody to bk virus. a few extremely isolated populations were found with negligible or absent exposure to the virus, but in most populations, remote or cosmopolitan, antibody appeared in increasing prevalence during early childhood and remained stable throughout adult life. antibody acquisition and prevalence rates in individual families reflected that of the general population. examined for hi antibody t ...1975233851
five dna tumor viruses undetectable in human retinoblastomas.retinoblastoma (rb) is a childhood eye cancer that arises when a retinal cell lacks a functional rb gene. recent data indicate the transforming proteins of adenovirus, papillomavirus, and the polyomaviruses bk and jc all can bind to the product of the rb gene. furthermore, adenovirus 12, jc virus, and simian virus 40 are able to induce rb-like tumors in rodents. in view of these findings, 50 human rbs were tested for the presence of five human dna tumor viruses: adenovirus 12, bk virus, jc virus ...19921559753
expression of major histocompatibility complex antigens in the brains of patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) is caused by jc virus (jcv) infection of the central nervous system (cns) in immunosuppressed patients. the immunopathogenesis of this chronic encephalitis is unknown. because major histocompatibility (mhc) class i and class ii antigens are important in modulating the immune response and viral clearance, we examined the tissue expression of mhc molecules in relation to cns damage and presence of virus. by immunocytochemical staining, both mhc clas ...19921583532
neurosurgical infections in the compromised host.granulocytopenia, cellular and humoral mediated immune dysfunction are predisposing factors to the development of cns infections in immunosuppressed patients. brain abscess formation in the compromised host is most commonly caused by enteric bacilli, the bacterium n. asteroides, the fungus aspergillus fumigatus, or the parasite t. gondii. mucor and the jc virus cause invasive encephalitis in this patient population. ct and mr imaging have greatly aided in the diagnosis of intracranial lesions be ...19921633469
two major types of jc virus defined in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy brain by early and late coding region dna sequences.a 610-bp region of the jc virus (jcv) genome sequenced from brains of 11 progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) patients contains 20 sites of point mutations that allow reliable classification of jcv isolates into two types. these type-determining sites were located in the region extending from position 2131 in the vp1 gene, through the intergenic region, to position 2740 in the t antigen gene. at these 20 sites the presence of different nucleotides creates two distinct patterns of sub ...19921328479
genetic analysis of simian virus 40 from brains and kidneys of macaque monkeys.simian virus 40 (sv40) was isolated from the brains of three rhesus monkeys and the kidneys of two other rhesus monkeys with simian immunodeficiency virus-induced immunodeficiency. a striking feature of these five cases was the tissue specificity of the sv40 replication. sv40 was also isolated from the kidney of a taiwanese rock macaque with immunodeficiency probably caused by type d retrovirus infection. multiple full-length clones were derived from all six fresh sv40 isolates, and two separate ...19921328671
evidence of human polyomavirus bk and jc infection in normal brain tissue.infection with the polyomaviruses jc and bk is ubiquitous in the human population and jcv is the only virus associated with the central nervous system disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. in the attempt to analyze the pathogenesis of polyomavirus infections we asked whether human polyomaviruses invade the brain during persistence. brain autopsy material from 67 individuals with disorders other than pml was examined for the presence of polyomavirus dna. southern blot analysis demon ...19921329338
an m-antibody capture radioimmunoassay (macria) for detection of jc virus-specific igm.a solid-phase m-antibody capture radioimmunoassay (macria) for detecting jc-specific igm is described. the assay is based on a jc-specific monoclonal antibody (17.7.6) and nonidet p40-treated, glycine-extracted antigen. macria is more sensitive for jc igm detection than haemagglutination inhibition (hi) following serum fractionation on a sucrose density gradient, and can be applied to large numbers of sera. the specificity of the assay was confirmed by examining sera from several acute virus inf ...19921331163
bk virus and jc virus shed during pregnancy have predominantly archetypal regulatory regions.twenty-three bk virus and jc virus dna samples obtained from urine of pregnant women had almost exclusively archetypal transcriptional control regions. rearrangements characteristic of laboratory strains are apparently not required for reactivation in humans. unexpectedly, alignment shows that many elements identified previously in the bk virus enhancer are conserved in the jc virus archetype.19911649346
detection of jc virus in the brains of aged patients without progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy by the polymerase chain reaction and southern hybridization analysis.ninety-one brain tissue sections taken at autopsy from 33 elderly patients (63-100 years old) without progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy were examined for the presence of jc virus dna by the polymerase chain reaction and southern hybridization analysis after dna extraction. jc virus dna was detected in 15 sections from 10 patients. these results suggest that jc virus is frequently present in the brains of aged patients.19921331897
lack of jc viral genomic sequences in multiple sclerosis brain tissue by polymerase chain reaction.with dna extracted from brain specimens from 19 multiple sclerosis, 5 progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, 1 alzheimer's disease, and 8 nonneurological control subjects, polymerase chain reaction was performed using nested sets of primer pairs amplifying segments of the large t and vp1 antigen-encoding sequences of jc virus. both sequences were detected in each of the 5 brain specimens of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy but in none of the 19 multiple sclerosis, 1 alzheimer's di ...19921335225
macrophage association of polyomavirus in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. case report.progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) in a patient following autologous bone marrow transplantation for a non-hodgkin's centroblastic lymphoma was studied by immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. our observations indicate that a large amount of polyomavirus, most probably jc virus, is taken up and segregated within vacuoles of macrophages by phagocytosis. a relevant role of macrophages in the pathogenesis of pml is emphasized.19921335275
brain vascular endothelial cells express jc virus large tumor antigen in immunocompetent and cyclophosphamide-treated hamsters.when injected intracerebrally into newborn hamsters, the human polyomavirus jc virus (jcv) establishes a nonproductive infection resulting in brain tumor formation. using immunostaining methods to detect the jcv regulatory protein, large tumor antigen (t antigen), we have now demonstrated jcv infection of brain vascular endothelial cells (ec) in infected hamsters. jcv t antigen was detected in lectin-labeled ec as well as in von willebrand factor-expressing ec in both cyclophosphamide-treated an ...19921325648
amplification and sequencing of the control regions of bk and jc virus from human urine by polymerase chain reaction.the various strains of bkv and jcv exhibit a remarkable degree of heterogeneity in the noncoding region near the origin of dna replication. it is of great interest, therefore, to characterize the naturally occurring variants as a first step towards the attainment of an understanding of the origin and the biological significance of this hypervariability. in this paper we report the use of polymerase chain reaction for amplification and sequencing of the control regions of bkv and jcv dnas from ur ...19911846488
progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in hiv-1-infected children.to describe the clinical and pathologic features of two hiv-1-infected children with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml).19921418781
altered dna binding and replication activities of jc virus t-antigen mutants.ten mutations were introduced into the jc virus (jcv) t antigen within a region corresponding to the sv40 t-antigen dna binding domain (sv40 amino acids 131 to 220); nine of these increased homology between the two proteins in sequences critical for sv40 t antigen dna binding. all mutant jcv t antigens bound to jcv and sv40 origins of dna replication. binding efficiency relative to the of wild-type jcv t antigen ranged from 83 to 301% for the jcv binding sites and from 44 to 240% for the sv40 bi ...19911647070
differential neurooncogenicity of strains of jc virus, a human polyoma virus, in newborn syrian hamsters.the neurooncogenicity recently isolated strains of the human polyoma virus, jc virus, was determined by intracerebral inoculation of newborn syrian golden hamsters. all three strains produced malignant brain tumors in a majority of inoculated animals during a 6.5-month observation period. the results obtained with the mad-2 strain, 19 of 20 animals with cerebellar medulloblastomas and 0 of 20 animals with pineal gland tumors, were quite similar to those observed previously with the prototypic st ...1977189911
evidence that a sequence similar to tar is important for induction of the jc virus late promoter by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat.a specific rna sequence located in the leader of all human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) mrnas termed the transactivation response element, or tar, is a primary target for induction of hiv-1 long terminal repeat activity by the hiv-1-derived trans-regulatory protein, tat. human neurotropic virus, jc virus (jcv), a causative agent of the degenerative demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, contains sequences in the 5' end of the late rna species with an extensive ...19921331525
monoclonal antibody specific for bk virus large-t antigen allows discrimination among the different papovaviral large-t antigens.the human papovaviruses bk virus (bkv) and jc virus (jcv) both encode a large-tumor (t) antigen which are highly homologous to each other as well as to simian virus 40 (sv40) large-t antigen. this high conservation of amino acid sequence has resulted in overlapping antigenicity such that immunological differentiation of the large-t antigens from the three different viruses has been difficult. here we describe the generation and characterization of a new monoclonal antibody (bk-t.1) which is spec ...19911656370
[tumor viruses in urology with special respect to human papillomavirus and human polyomavirus].the advent of molecular biology has made a great progress for hpv research. it is now considered that more than 90% of cervical carcinomas are caused by hpv infection. however, it is the problem that penile lesions associated with cancer-related hpv types are subclinical, resulting in acceleration of hpv transmission by male reservoir. we urologists should make an effort to treat hpv infection and to prevent hpv prevalence. on the other hand, any pathological role of jcv has not been revealed in ...19911664005
preparation of monoclonal antibodies to jc virus and their use in the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy.seven monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to polyomavirus jc were produced, and one was selected for use in immunofluorescence (if) tests on brain material from patients with suspected progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (pml). the selected mab (5.12.2) reacted by if with jc-infected primary human foetal glial (phfg) cell cultures (titre 1/200,000) but not with bk-infected human embryo lung (hel) fibroblasts (titre less than 1/20). its haemagglutination-inhibition (hi) titre was high (greater th ...19911653819
human immunodeficiency virus tat transactivation: induction of a tissue-specific enhancer in a nonpermissive cell line.the enhancer of the human neurotropic papovavirus jc virus (jcv) restricts viral transcription to glial cells. we utilized the tissue specificity of the jcv enhancer as a tool to investigate the function of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) tat in transcriptional activation. the reporter plasmid pjctar-cat was constructed by inserting the hiv type 1 tat-responsive element, tar, between the jcv promoter and the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene. cotransfection of pjctar-cat and psv-ta ...19911654461
four major sequence elements of simian virus 40 large t antigen coordinate its specific and nonspecific dna binding.by mutational analysis, we have identified a motif critical to the proper recognition and binding of simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (t antigen) to virus dna sequences at the origin of dna replication. this motif is tripartite and consists of two elements (termed a1 and b2) that are necessary for sequence-specific binding of the origin and a central element (b1) which is required for nonspecific dna-binding activity. certain amino acids in elements a1 (residues 152 to 155) and b2 (203 to 207 ...19902157865
implications of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and jc virus for the etiology of ms.jcv infects oligodendrocytes and, to a lesser extent, astrocytes in the brain and spinal cord and causes the demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) in immunocompromised individuals. the possibility exists that this opportunistic infection reactivates from a latent state in the brain. it is proposed that the pathogenetic immune response in a multiple sclerosis (ms) brain may be directed predominantly toward antigens of a dna virus, such as jcv, which is la ...19911849333
immunolabeling of jc virus large t antigen in neonatal hamster brain before tumor formation.using immunolabeling methods, the jc virus (jcv) early or regulatory protein, large t antigen, was demonstrated in frozen sections of neonatal hamster brains before tumor formation. three days after intracerebral inoculation of 2500 hemagglutinating units of jcv, t antigen was expressed predominantly in nuclei of cells in the external granular layer and newly forming internal granular layer of the cerebellum and also in cell nuclei located in the hippocampus, periventricular areas, and the olfac ...19901690314
high incidence of urinary jc virus excretion in nonimmunosuppressed older patients.urine specimens from 120 patients attending urologic clinics were screened by blot hybridization for the presence of a polyomavirus dna. detected viral dna was then identified as bk or jc by fine restriction enzyme analysis. bk and jc viral dna was found in 5 (4%) and 35 (29%) patients, respectively. detection rates were compared among three age groups: 0-29, 30-59, and 60-89 years. detection of jc viral dna increased with age and reached the highest value (45%) in the group aged 60-89 years. fo ...19902161040
jc virus detection by in situ hybridization in brain tissue from elderly patients.brains from 10 patients aged 68 to 96 years at time of death were studied for jc viral dna and common papovaviral capsid protein. in situ hybridization of jc viral dna was performed by affinity cytochemistry using a biotinylated fragment of jc viral dna. immunohistochemistry was performed on brain tissue by the avidin dh-biotinylated horseradish peroxidase technique using polyclonal antibody raised against the papovaviral capsid protein. viral protein and dna were detected in 4 of 10 patients. j ...19911656842
is jc virus latent in brain? 19911656843
[a case of neoplastic angioendotheliosis--possible mechanism of jc virus infection for the selective growth of tumor cells in the blood vessel].a case of 55-year-old man pathologically proven as neoplastic angioendotheliosis was reported. he initially developed sensory disturbance and motor weakness in the lower extremities. after admission, he showed progressive deterioration of higher brain functions with moderate fever. routine laboratory examinations revealed elevated serum ldh level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate without leukocytosis or increased serum globulin level. immunological tests were normal, except positive ra. immunoc ...19911662571
activity and enhancer binding factors for jc virus regulatory elements in differentiating embryonal carcinoma cells.we have studied cell-type-specific expression by jc virus (jcv) dna regulatory sequences using embryonal carcinoma (ec) cells as a model system. in transient transfection assays, jcv enhancer demonstrated activity in retinoic acid-differentiated neuronal type cells but not in undifferentiated or dmso-differentiated muscle type cells. to correlate in vivo activity with the binding of transcription factors, we performed dnasel footprinting experiments. retinoic acid-treated ec cell extracts provid ...19902164735
progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy-remission with cytarabine.a 51-year-old woman who was in complete remission from non-hodgkin's lymphoma, developed a rapidly progressive dementia. progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) was diagnosed on the basis of a rising antibody titre to jc polyomavirus in cerebro-spinal fluid and serum and the presence of diffuse white matter changes on magnetic resonance imaging. she was treated initially with intravenous cytarabine and showed minimal improvement. rapid improvement occurred when intrathecal cytarabine wa ...19902153729
[bk and jc viruses--2 polyomaviruses causing disease in immunosuppressed patients].bk and jc viruses are two polyoma viruses designated by the initials of the patients from whom they were first isolated. after the primary infection, usually occurring in childhood or early school age, the viruses become latent. reactivation occurs during immunosuppression, and the bk virus has been shown to be the main cause of viral hemorrhagic cystitis in bone marrow transplanted patients, while the jc virus has been found to cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, pml. the paper co ...19921334184
progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus.lesions of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) often have mononuclear cell infiltrates so intense that they obscure the nature of the lesion. this response may be especially prominent in stereotactic biopsies of contrast-enhancing areas. of 10 consecutive pml lesions biopsied stereotactically, three were markedly, two were moderately, and five were mildly inflamed. there were few to no enlarged oligodendrocytic nuclei ...19921592389
a novel sequence-specific dna-binding protein, lcp-1, interacts with single-stranded dna and differentially regulates early gene expression of the human neurotropic jc virus.we have identified a novel brain-derived single-stranded-dna-binding protein that interacts with a region of the human neurotropic jc virus enhancer designated the lytic control element (lce). this nuclear factor, lcp-1 (for lytic control element-binding protein 1), specifically recognizes the lce, as determined by gel retardation assays. alkylation interference showed that specific nucleotides within the lce were contacted by lcp-1. subsequent experiments revealed that point mutations within th ...19921331500
multifocal central nervous system lesions and retropharyngeal lymphadenopathy on magnetic resonance imaging: an association that suggested progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with acute aphasia. 19901701327
localization of common cytotoxic t lymphocyte recognition epitopes on simian papovavirus sv40 and human papovavirus jc virus t antigens.human papovavirus jc virus (jcv) and simian virus 40 (sv40) tumor or t antigens demonstrate considerable sequence homology which is reflected by antibody cross-reactivity. this similarity raised the possibility that jcv and sv40 t antigen also might contain common cytotoxic t lymphocyte (ctl) recognition epitopes. in this study we identified and mapped such sites on the jcv t antigen. c57bl/6 cell lines transformed by jcv/sv40 t antigen chimeras were generated and tested for susceptibility to ly ...19911711255
factors contributing to the restricted dna replicating activity of jc virus.the basis for the restricted host range behavior of jc virus (jcv) in vitro was investigated by focusing on its dna replicating activity and comparing it to that of simian virus 40 (sv40). prototype, mutant, and hybrid jcv and sv40 dnas were tested for their replicating activity in cells permissive for one or both of the viruses. results from these experiments indicated that, relative to its sv40 counterpart, the jcv t antigen functioned less efficiently and was more specific in its interactions ...19911845827
regulation of jcvl promoter function: evidence that a pentanucleotide "silencer" repeat sequence agggaaggga down-regulates transcription of the jc virus late promoter.the human neurotropic papovavirus jcv contains sequences within the two 98-bp tandem repeats which play a key role in glial-specific transcription of the viral early and late promoters. previous analysis of the 98-bp sequence has delineated several protein-binding domains that are recognized by nuclear factors present in human brain cells. in the present study, by deletion mutation analysis, we have identified a region within each 98-bp repeat that reduces transcriptional activity of the jcv lat ...19911845829
human fetal schwann cells support jc virus multiplication.the human papovavirus jc virus (jcv), the etiologic agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, displays a narrow host range for growth, preferentially infecting oligodendrocytes, the myelin-producing cells of the central nervous system. in tissue culture, human fetal brain cells have been used for jcv propagation because of their ability to support jcv virion production. in this study, we evidence that a human fetal cell type derived from the peripheral nervous system can be productive ...19911846179
glial cells of the human developing brain and b cells of the immune system share a common dna binding factor for recognition of the regulatory sequences of the human polyomavirus, jcv.cells of the nervous system and the immune system perform highly specialized functions which reflect the tissue-specific regulation of their genes. however there are some functions between these two cell systems such as antigen presentation, cytokine release, and expression of mhc molecules which suggest a common mechanism for regulation of certain genes. we present data that extend this observation to include the recognition of specific neurotropic viral dna sequences by glial cells and b cells ...19901964178
incrimination of aedes provocans as a vector of jamestown canyon virus in an enzootic focus of northeastern new york.a 2-year field study was conducted in southern saratoga county, new york, to determine which species of the aedes communis group mosquitoes were potential vectors of jamestown canyon (jc) virus. a total of 23,890 mosquitoes (890 pools) were processed for virus isolation in 1988-89, yielding 17 jc virus isolates from ae. provocans and one isolate each from ae. communis, ae. intrudens and ae. punctor. minimum field infection rates (mfir) and daily mfirs as high as 1:219 and 1:38, respectively, wer ...19902230781
a new transcription element in the jc virus enhancer.the enhancer of jc virus restricts its gene expression to the brain. in a previous study, we demonstrated an enhancer element, nuclear factor i (nfi) motif, in the middle of the enhancer. here, we demonstrate that the nfi motif is a tissue-specific element. we further present a new tissue-specific element, saci motif, just upstream from the nfi motif. these motifs showed transcriptional enhancement both in vitro and in vivo and acted upon a heterologous adenovirus major late promoter. dnase i fo ...19902167938
dna replication of human polyomavirus jc is stimulated by nf-i in vivo.using a combination of bal31 deletion mutagenesis and site-directed mutagenesis, we analyzed the sequence requirements for the dna replication of the human neurotropic polyomavirus jc. in addition to defining the late side boundary of the viral core origin we demonstrated that the viral enhancer stimulates replication in vivo. three regions within the viral enhancer increased the rate of replication, with sequences directly adjacent to the late side of the core origin exhibiting the strongest ef ...19911850908
a recombinant cdna derived from human brain encodes a dna binding protein that stimulates transcription of the human neurotropic virus jcv.the human neurotropic virus jcv contains a 98-base pair repeat enhancer/promoter sequence that confers glial-specific transcription to the viral early and late promoters. the central region of this repeat, designated the b-domain, binds to a glial-derived nuclear protein that stimulates transcription of the viral promotor in vitro. we now report the isolation of a recombinant cdna clone, termed glial factor-1 (gf1), from a brain expression library that encodes a novel protein which interacts wit ...19911714899
trans-activation of the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat sequence by dna viruses.to investigate whether dna viruses can augment gene expression of the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), cotransfection experiments were carried out in which a recombinant plasmid containing the hiv long terminal repeat (ltr) linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene was transfected into cultured cells along with plasmids containing dna from various distinct classes of dna viruses. molecular clones containing jc virus, bk virus, lymphotropic papovavirus, bovine papilloma virus, ...19862432602
cell type-specific expression of jc virus t antigen in primary and established cell lines from transgenic mice.the highly restricted host range of jc virus (jcv) has made it difficult to study the biology of this common human papovavirus. to increase our understanding of the tissue specificity of this virus, we have examined the expression of the t antigen (t-ag) in primary and established cell lines from various tissues of transgenic mice containing the jcv early region. in contrast to earlier results from a simian virus 40-containing transgenic mouse, there was no t-ag expression in mesenchymal fibrobl ...19902154532
trans-activation of the jc virus late promoter by the tat protein of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus in glial cells.progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by the jc virus (jcv), a human papovavirus. pml is a relatively rare disease seen predominantly in immunocompromised individuals and is a frequent complication observed in aids patients. the significantly higher incidence of pml in aids patients than in other immunosuppressive disorders has suggested that the presence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) in the brain may dir ...19902159152
a nuclear protein derived from brain cells stimulates transcription of the human neurotropic virus promoter, jcve, in vitro.the 98-base pair enhancer/promoter sequence is critical for cell type-specific transcription of the human neurotropic viral promoter, jcve, in glial cells. transcriptionally active extracts were prepared from glial cells and used to identify cis- and trans-acting regulatory elements that are involved in the glial-specific activation of the jcve promoter. results indicate that multiple regulatory sequences within the 98-base pair repeat specifically bind to nuclear proteins present in glial cells ...19902166044
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