a severe ranavirus outbreak in captive, wild-caught box turtles.a ranavirus outbreak in a captive population of wild-caught individuals was monitored using clinical evaluations and real-time pcr in 317 wild box turtles held in captivity during translocation. during the 2-year study period, the population experienced 71.6% mortality, suggesting that ranaviruses can rapidly attenuate populations. wide variation in infection rate (7-94% per sampling period) was observed, which may have been driven by clearing and reinfection, adaptive immunity, or imperfect det ...201728766064
ranaviruses and other members of the family iridoviridae: their place in the virosphere.members of the family iridoviridae, collectively referred to as iridovirids, are large, double-stranded dna-containing viruses that infect invertebrates and cold-blooded (ectothermic) vertebrates. infections in the former often lead to massive levels of virus replication resulting in iridescence of the infected animal and ultimately death. among the latter, infections target a variety of organs and are capable of causing high levels of morbidity and mortality among commercially and ecologically ...201728648249
delineating the roles of cellular and innate antiviral immune parameters mediating ranavirus susceptibility using rainbow trout cell lines.frog virus 3 is the type species of the ranavirus genus and the causative agent of massive mortalities of aquatic species worldwide. a critical step in limiting virus replication, particularly early in infection, is the innate immune response. presently, little is known regarding what innate immune strategies limit fv3 at the cellular level. to this end, the present study uses two rainbow trout cell lines, rtg-2 and rtgutgc, which demonstrate susceptible and relatively resistant phenotypes to fv ...201728634115
mass mortality of eastern box turtles with upper respiratory disease following atypical cold weather.emerging infectious diseases cause population declines in many ectotherms, with outbreaks frequently punctuated by periods of mass mortality. it remains unclear, however, whether thermoregulation by ectotherms and variation in environmental temperature is associated with mortality risk and disease progression, especially in wild populations. here, we examined environmental and body temperatures of free-ranging eastern box turtles terrapene carolina during a mass die-off coincident with upper res ...201728425422
anuran susceptibilities to ranaviruses: role of species identity, exposure route, and a novel virus isolate.ranaviruses are responsible for widespread amphibian die-offs, particularly with larval anurans. to understand the factors that may be contributing to the emergence of ranaviruses, we conducted 3 experiments that exposed 3 species of larval anurans to either endemic frog virus 3 (fv3) or an fv3-like isolate from a ranaculture facility. our goals were to (1) determine the susceptibility of each species to each virus, (2) determine whether direct ingestion of virions or exposure to virions in a wa ...201020402227
pathogen richness and abundance predict patterns of adaptive major histocompatibility complex variation in insular amphibians.the identification of the factors responsible for genetic variation and differentiation at adaptive loci can provide important insights into the evolutionary process and is crucial for the effective management of threatened species. we studied the impact of environmental viral richness and abundance on functional diversity and differentiation of the mhc class ia locus in populations of the black-spotted pond frog (pelophylax nigromaculatus), an iucn-listed species, on 24 land-bridge islands of t ...201728734069
screening of a long-term sample set reveals two ranavirus lineages in british herpetofauna.reports of severe disease outbreaks in amphibian communities in mainland europe due to strains of the common midwife toad virus (cmtv)-like clade of ranavirus are increasing and have created concern due to their considerable population impacts. in great britain, viruses in another clade of ranavirus-frog virus 3 (fv3)-like-have caused marked declines of common frog (rana temporaria) populations following likely recent virus introductions. the british public has been reporting mortality incidents ...201728931029
complete genome sequence of frog virus 3, isolated from a strawberry poison frog (oophaga pumilio) imported from nicaragua into the netherlands.frog virus 3 was isolated from a strawberry poison frog (oophaga pumilio) imported from nicaragua via germany to the netherlands, and its complete genome sequence was determined. frog virus 3 isolate op/2015/netherlands/uu3150324001 is 107,183 bp long and has a nucleotide similarity of 98.26% to the reference frog virus 3 isolate.201728860243
transcriptome analysis of frog virus 3, the type species of the genus ranavirus, family iridoviridae.frog virus 3 is the best characterized species within the genus ranavirus, family iridoviridae. fv3's large ( approximately 105 kbp) dsdna genome encodes 98 putative open reading frames (orfs) that are expressed in a coordinated fashion leading to the sequential appearance of immediate early (ie), delayed early (de) and late (l) viral transcripts. as a step toward elucidating molecular events in fv3 replication, we sought to identify the temporal class of viral messages. to accomplish this objec ...200919608212
differentiation-dependent antiviral capacities of amphibian (xenopus laevis) macrophages.infections by ranaviruses such as frog virus 3 (fv3) are significantly contributing to the worldwide amphibian population declines. notably, amphibian macrophages (mφs) are important to both the fv3 infection strategies and the immune defense against this pathogen. however, the mechanisms underlying amphibian mφ fv3 susceptibility and resistance remain unknown. mφ differentiation is mediated by signaling through the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (csf-1r), which is now known to be bound by ...201729259133
effect of imidacloprid on the survival of xenopus tadpoles challenged with wild type frog virus 3.the sensitivity of amphibians to ranavirus may be increased by exposure to other environmental stressors, including chemical contaminants. neonicotinoid insecticides comprise 27% of the global insecticide market and have been detected in wetlands and other aquatic habitats. the present study focused on the effects of exposure of pre-metamorphic xenopus laevis to the neonicotinoid, imidacloprid (imi) on sensitivity to frog virus 3 (fv3) infection. it was hypothesized that exposure of tadpoles to ...029179150
detection of ranavirus using bone marrow harvested from mortality events in eastern box turtles ( terrapene carolina carolina).the causes of free-living chelonian mortality events are often unknown because of infrequent recovery of remains and rapid postmortem decomposition. this study describes a technique to harvest bone marrow and detect frog virus 3-like ranavirus (fv3) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in skeletonized eastern box turtles ( terrapene carolina carolina) ( n = 87), and assesses agreement with concurrent perimortem samples ( n = 14). fv3 was detected in bone marrow samples from 12 turtle she ...201729297832
waterborne infectivity of the ranavirus frog virus 3 in xenopus laevis.ranaviruses like frog virus 3 (fv3) are responsible for emerging infectious diseases spreading worldwide to fish, amphibian and reptilian species. we have developed, in xenopus laevis, an experimental model to investigate viral transmission. we show that fv3 released in water by immunocompromised infected adults can infect adult and larval stages of xenopus within 3h of exposure. time course of virus load and viral transcription in different tissues suggests that early waterborne fv3 infection t ...201121783222
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