TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
effect of imidacloprid on the survival of xenopus tadpoles challenged with wild type frog virus 3.the sensitivity of amphibians to ranavirus may be increased by exposure to other environmental stressors, including chemical contaminants. neonicotinoid insecticides comprise 27% of the global insecticide market and have been detected in wetlands and other aquatic habitats. the present study focused on the effects of exposure of pre-metamorphic xenopus laevis to the neonicotinoid, imidacloprid (imi) on sensitivity to frog virus 3 (fv3) infection. it was hypothesized that exposure of tadpoles to ...029179150
viruses and renal carcinoma of rana pipiens. 3. the relationship between input multiplicity of infection and inclusion body formation in frog virus 3-infected cells. 19674166975
viruses and renal carcinoma of rana pipiens. iv. nucleic acid synthesis in frog virus 3-infected bhk 21/13 cells. 19674964866
viruses and renal carcinoma of rana pipiens. v. effect of frog virus 3 on developing frog embryos and larvae. 19684966291
viruses and renal carcinoma of rana pipiens. vi. interrelationships of macromolecular synthesis and infectious virus production in frog virus 3-infected bhk 21/13 cells. 19685643637
deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in fv-3-infected mammalian cells.deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) synthesis and virus growth in frog virus 3 (fv-3)-infected mammalian cells in suspension were examined. the kinetics of thymidine incorporation into dna was followed by fractionating infected cells. the cell fractionation procedure separated replicating viral dna from matured virus. incorporation of isotope into the nuclear fraction was depressed 2 to 3 hr postinfection; this inhibition did not require protein synthesis. about 3 to 4 hr postinfection, there was an inc ...19685749374
induction and regulation of dna nucleotidyltransferase activity in fish cells infected with frog virus 3. 19694975945
inhibition by frog virus 3 of vaccinia virus and host cell dna replication in kb cells. 19695362662
[radioautographic study of the development of the virus 3 of the frog (fv3) on renal cells of calf fetus]. 19705461275
the inhibition of vaccinia virus dna synthesis in kb cells infected with frog virus 3. 19705477329
restricted replication of frog virus 3 in selected variants of bhk cells.synthesis and maturation of frog virus 3 deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) in bhk cells and selected variants, in chick fibroblasts, and in minnow cells were compared. wide ranges in rates of dna synthesis and assembly of virions were found. at least three variants of bhk cells can be obtained: (i) fully permissive, characterized by rapid dna synthesis and assembly to give a high yield of infective virus; (ii) semipermissive, in which viral dna is synthesized slowly for extended periods of time, and t ...19705488804
[inhibition of synthesis of cellular dna and rna in kb cells infected by virus 3 of frog (fv3)]. 19704987655
[inhibition of production and intiviral action of chicken interferon by frog 3 virus (fv3)]. 19704991497
[action of frog virus 3 (fv3) on the synthesis of rna by sindbis virus]. 19714995280
[lethality for mice of the frog virus 3 (fv3)]. 19714997102
proteins of polyhedal cytoplasmic deoxyvirus. ii. nucleotide phosphohydrolase activity associated with frog virus 3.a nucleotide phosphohydrolase is firmly associated with a purified polyhedral cytoplasmic deoxyvirus, frog virus 3. this adenosine triphosphatase is distinguishable from known mammalian cell adenosine triphosphatases and from adenosine triphosphatase of an unrelated cytoplasmic replicating virus grown in the same host cell. the enzyme activity has a high specificity for adenosine triphosphate; the product of the reaction is adenosine diphosphate. the presence of similar activities in reovirus an ...19714327890
proteins of a polyhedral cytoplasmic deoxyvirus. 3. structure of frog virus 3 and location ov virus-associated adenosine triphosphate phosphohydrolase.the adenosine triphosphatase associated with frog virus 3 shows high specificity for atp or deoxyadenosine triphosphate and appears to be distinct from the corresponding activity in host cells, poxvirus, or reovirus. the enzyme activity is probably integrated into virus particles since it is firmly associated with subviral particles produced when approximately 50 to 60% of the outer viral protein is removed by detergent treatment. the occurrence of adenosine triphosphatase activity within three ...19714108931
viruses and renal carcinoma of rana pipiens. xi. isolation of frog virus 3 temperature-sensitive mutants; complementation and genetic recombination. 19715105771
inhibition of host-specific dna and rna synthesis in kb cells following infection with frog virus 3. 19715165854
degradation of single- and double-stranded rna by frog virus 3.purified preparations of frog virus 3 possess ribonuclease activities directed against single-and double-stranded rna. double-stranded rnas isolated from purified reovirus type 3 and from hela cells infected with poliovirus and single-stranded poliovirus rna from purified virus are readily degraded by incubation with frog virus 3. the mode of action of the nucleases is endonucleolytic. under the assay conditions used for the viral enzyme, crude extracts of uninfected hela, l, and baby hamster ki ...19724335069
virus-associated nucleases: location and properties of deoxyribonucleases and ribonucleases in purified frog virus least three nuclease activities are associated with purified frog virus 3. these activities are endodeoxyribonuclease (ph 7.5, double-stranded [ds] and single-stranded [ss] deoxyribonucleic acid [dna]); endodeoxyribonuclease (ph 5.0, ds and ss dna); endoribonuclease (ds and ss ribonucleic acid [rna], ph 7.5). these activities are not adsorbed to the surface of the virion but are within the viral capsid and require detergent disruption of virions to unmask enzyme activity. only one activity, d ...19724342238
[histological and virological study of acute degenerative hepatitis produced by the fv3 (frog virus 3) in mice]. 19724625136
[inhibition of cellular protein synthesis in kb cells infected by frog virus 3 (fv3)]. 19724632291
[fv3 (frog virus 3) toxicity for the mouse]. 19725053604
photoreactivation of a cytoplasmic virus.ultraviolet light-inactivated frog virus 3 is efficiently photoreactivated by chick embryo cells. a cellular enzyme is presumably responsible for this repair of viral deoxyribonucleic acid, for the phenomenon is insensitive to an inhibitor of protein synthesis and is not seen in mammalian cells that are known to lack photoreactivating enzyme. since frog virus 3 is a cytoplasmic virus, functionally significant amounts of photoreactivating enzyme are probably present in the cytoplasm of chick embr ...19725062749
acute hepatitis produced by frog virus 3 in mice. brief report. 19724553583
impairment of host cell ribonucleic acid polymerase ii after infection with frog virus 3.evidence is presented that, in frog virus 3-infected bhk cells, inhibition of ribonucleic acid (rna) synthesis is paralleled by a decreased activity of host cell rna polymerase ii, while the template ability of host cell nuclei and chromatin is unaffected.19724553680
[early ultrastructural changes in the nuclei of mouse hepatocytes during acute degenerative hepatitis induced by fv3 (frog virus 3)]. 19734588127
viruses and renal carcinoma of rana pipiens. xiv. temperature-sensitive mutants of frog virus 3 with defective encapsidation. 19734542031
early ultrastructural changes induced in bhk cell nuclei by frog virus 3. a possible mechanism for the impairment of cellular dna synthesis. 19734543391
[immunization of mice against acute degenerative hepatitis induced by fv3 (frog virus). methods and results of vaccination]. 19734729290
[pathogenesis of the toxic hepatitis of mice provoked by fv 3 (frog virus 3): inhibition of liver macromolecular synthesis (author's transl)]. 19734733696
preparation and properties of an inhibitory extract from frog virus 3 particles.the structural constituents of the frog virus 3 particle were solubilized by treatment with a nonionic detergent followed by the addition of a high salt concentration. this soluble viral extract (sve) inhibits host nucleic acid synthesis. its activity on rna synthesis was studied in kb cells and found to be dependent on the presence of deae dextran. inactivation of the inhibitory properties of sve were obtained by trypsin digestion, treatment with urea, or heat denaturation. neutralization of th ...19734736109
phosphorylation of animal virus proteins by a virion protein kinase.compared with several other enveloped viruses, purified virions of frog virus 3 contained a relatively high activity of a protein kinase which catalyzed the phosphorylation of endogenous polypeptides or added substrate proteins. virions also contained a phosphoprotein phosphatase activity which released phosphate covalently linked to proteins. it was possible to select reaction conditions where turnover of protein phosphoesters was minimal, as the phosphatase required mn(2+) ions for activity wh ...19734355852
the effect of frog virus 3 on the biological activity of various rna viruses. 19734357374
[ultrastructure of frog virus 3 (fv3)]. 19734124866
[correlation between the location of antigens detected by immunofluorescence and the ultrastructural stages of the morphogenesis of fv 3 (frog virus 3)]. 19744211371
[demonstration of surface antigens in bhk 21 cells infected with fv 3 (frog virus 3), using the mixed agglutination technic]. 19744212605
macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. i. virus-specific protein synthesis and its regulation. 19744276315
electron microscopic observations on early events of frog virus 3 replication. 19744362435
inhibition of simian virus 40 dna synthesis by frog virus 3. 19744365490
inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease virus replicase by frog virus 3 particles. 19744367303
lipid composition of frog virus 3. 19744472187
electron microscopic studies on frog virus 3 infection in hela cells at permissive and non-permissive temperatures. 19744474866
budding of frog virus 3 studied by immunological and cytochemical methods in electron microscopy. 19744475038
thymidine kinase induction in frog virus 3 infected mouse cells. 19744821695
rna synthesis in cells infected with an icosahedral cytoplasmic deoxyvirus (frog virus 3).in cells infected with frog virus 3 there was extensive but not complete inhibition of host rna synthesis. host rna processing was not impaired. the electrophoretic pattern of frog virus 3 specific rna transcripts in infected fhm cells has been determined. when analyzed by gel electrophoresis, the transcripts separated in a size range of 6 to 16s with the bulk migrating around 16s. these rna's contain polyadenylic acid stretches of approximately 150 to 200 nucleotides. in the absence of viral dn ...19744824712
inhibition of dna synthesis by isolated liver nuclei from frog virus 3 infected mice. 19744827833
effect of non-permissive temperature on the assembly of frog virus 3 particles. 19744836909
macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. ii. evidence for post-transcriptional control of a viral structural protein. 19744841177
frog virus 3 deoxyribonucleic acid. 19744852099
immunization of mice against the toxic hepatitis produced by fv3: inhibition of virus penetration into the liver. 19744852356
replication of influenza virus in chick embryo fibroblasts after inhibition of host cell macromolecular synthesis by frog virus 3. 19744856572
fibrillar bodies in hepatocyte nuclei during the course of the toxic hepatitis produced by frog virus 3 in mice. 1975163907
[a novel model of experimental toxic hepatitis/acute degenerative hepatitis induced by frog virus 3 (fv3) in the mouse (author's transl)].the i.p. or i.v. injection of frog virus 3 (fv3) in mice produces a hepatitis which leads to the death of the animals within 24 h. this hepatitis is of a purely toxic nature since the virus does not develop at 37 degrees c. the toxic effect of the virus, which can be differentiated from the infectious effect, involves one or more structural proteins. the first pathological changes occur during the first few hours after the injection in the vicinity of the nuclei of the liver parenchyma cells in ...19751081877
arginine requirement for frog virus 3 development. 19751167719
effects on host cell polyribosomes following infection with frog virus 3 at a non-permissive temperature. brief report. 19751168042
frog virus 3 replication: electron microscope observations on the sequence of infection in chick embryo fibroblasts.the replication of frog virus 3 in primary chick embryo fibroblasts has been studied by examination of thin sections with the electron microscope and the assay of infectious viurs. uptake of frog virus 3 by the cells was observed to occur by pinocytosis and this may be the method of entry. early in infection (i h p.i.) marked margination of the nuclear chromatin occurred and the chromatin remained in this condition throughtout the infection. foci of infection were first detected in the cytoplasm ...19751168241
modifications of cellular rna-polymerase ii after infection with frog virus 3.rna-polymerase ii extracted from fv3-infected and uninfected bhk cells were compared by measuring their abilities to bind [3-h]-amanitin and ribonucleoside triphosphates. binding sites for [3-h]-amanitin and the dissociation constant of the complex between [3h]-amanitin and rna-polymerase ii were significantly modified following fv3 infection. the apparent km's for ribonucleoside triphosphates remained unchanged.19751170279
macromolecular synthesis in cells infected with frog virus 3. iii. virus-specific protein synthesis by temperature-sensitive mutants. 19751171552
[hyperammonemia and hypoglycemia in acute degenerative hepatitis induced in mice by frog virus 3]. 19751219252
localization of polypeptides in frog virus 3 by radioiodination technique.frog virus 3 is an amphibian icosahedral deoxyribovirus which replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells. the radioiodination of purified virions using the enzyme lactoperoxidase has shown that the major component of the structural proteins is only partially exposed through the lipoprotein membrane that constitutes the outer layer of the icosahedral capsid.19751230060
frog virus 3 replication: electron microscope observations on the terminal stages of infection in chronically infected cell examination of bhk, cef, and fhm cells chronically infected with frog virus 3 has been made by scanning and transmission (thin section, freeze fracture, and surface replica) electron microscopy. with minor differences the pattern of virus development is similar in all three cell line. virus particles were detected in cell nuclei which subsequently became degenerate very late in infection. three inclusions were associated with frog virus 3 cytoplasmic foci of infection; lamella structures, ext ...19751236936
[new data on the structure and the budding of fv3 (frog virus 3) (author's transl)].the freeze-etching technique when applied to fv3 suspensions revealed the perfectly icosahedral structure of the viral nucleocapsids. this allowed a fine substructure suggesting the existence of numerous subunits of small dimensions to be detected at their surface. observations of the replicas of infected cells obtained by freeze-etching revealed modifications of the external face of the cytoplasmic membrane occurring at the level of the budding viral particles; in these zones parallel stripes a ...19751241755
proteins solubilized from frog virus 3 particles: effect on transcription.the treatment of kb cells with viral proteins solubilized from frog virus 3 particles (sve) induced a rapid shutoff of host rna synthesis. the rna polymerase activities of sve-treated cells were drastically depressed, corresonding, at least for rna polymerase b, to a decrease in the number of enzyme molecules. in vitro, sve had no direct effect on rna polymerases but was capable of binding with calf thymus dna to form an sve-dna complex modifying the template capacity. the effect of sve on a tra ...19761255875
budding of frog virus 3 (fv3) studied by means of sequential immunocytochemical labeling. 1976785020
macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. iv. regulation of virus-specific rna synthesis. 1976944493
macromolecular synthesis in cells infected with frog virus 3. v. the absence of polyadenylic acid in the majority of frog virus 3-specific mrna species. 1976960576
effect of non-permissive temperature on protein synthesis of frog virus 3 infected the present paper we describe the kinetics of virus specific protein synthesis in fv3-infected bhk cells incubated at the non-permissive temperature of 33 degrees c. some quantitative differences were detected, in comparison with proteins synthesized at permissive temperature (26 degrees c). thereafter we studied the fate of polypeptides pulse labelled at non-permissive temperature, by shifting the infected cells to permissive temperature. in such experimental conditions infectious virus is r ...19761016578
purification and properties of a virion protein kinase.the protein kinase associated with virions of frog virus 3 was purified to apparent homogeneity by ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. the enzyme protein appeared as a single polypeptide of molecular weight 50,000 to 55,000 as determined by gel filtration, glycerol gradient sedimentation, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and comprised approximately 0.4% of the total virion protein. the activity was classified as a cyclic nucleotide-independent protein ki ...19765456
hepatocellular necrosis during frog virus 3-induced hepatitis of mice: an electron microscopic study. 1977885221
cell killing by frog virus 3: evidence for cell killing by single viral particles or single viral subunits. 1977921788
macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. vi. frog virus 3 replication is dependent on the cell nucleus.previous evidence indicated that frog virus 3 (fv3), an icosahedral dna virus, replicates exclusively in the cytoplasm. however, data presented here demonstrate that fv3 does not replicate in uv-irradiated or enuleated chicken embryo or bsc-1 cells and that virus-specific dna synthesis is not initiated in such cells. primary transcription was not detected in infected enucleated cells. these results demonstrate that a functional nucleus is essential for fv3 replication.1977556785
macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. vii. transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of virus gene expression.we have used improved techniques for separating individual species of rna and protein to study the mechanisms that control gene expression by frog virus 3, a eucaryotic dna virus. forty-seven species of viral rna and 35 viral polypeptide species were resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the relative molar ratios of virus-specific polypeptides synthesized at various times after infection were determined by computer planimetry and were compared with the molar ratios of appropriate-sized ...1977561861
frog virus 3 morphogenesis: effect of temperature and metabolic inhibitors.the different stages of frog virus 3 (fv 3) morphogenesis have been investigated in chick embryo fibroblasts infected at an optimal temperature for virus growth (29 degrees c). the metabolic requirements for morphogenesis were determined by adding inhibitors of macromolecular synthesis at different periods in the virus growth cycle. the effect of a non-permissive temperature for fv 3 replication (37 degrees c) was also studied in shift up experiments. the following results were obtained: (i) whe ...1977562390
[sinusoidal cells of the liver in toxic hepatitis induced by the fv3 (frog virus 3): ultrastructural changes in kupffer cells and endothelial cells]. 1977609297
[sinusoidal cells of the liver in toxic hepatitis induced by the fv3 (frog virus 3): functional repercussions of morphological changes]. 1977609298
macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. viii. the nucleus is a site of frog virus 3 dna and rna synthesis. 1978619492
phagocytic properties displayed by mouse hepatocytes after virus induced damage of the sinusoidal lining.frog virus 3 (fv 3) inoculated intravenously into mice damages sinusoidal cells and produces a decrease in the carbon uptake capacity of the liver. histological and ultrastructural examinations have shown that in fv 3 infected animals part of the inoculated carbon is taken up by the hepatocytes and can be located inside cytoplasmic vesicles or dense bodies. the hepatocytes are also able to phagocyte latex particles of 312 nm in diameter. these observations demonstrate that once the kupffer cells ...1978667283
macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. ix. two temporal classes of early viral rna. 1978566482
inhibition of vesicular stomatitis virus replication by frog virus 3. selective action on secondary transcription. 1978213882
the inhibition of vesicular stomatitis virus protein synthesis by frog virus 3. 1979220794
[protection of mice with bacterial phospholipids against the lethal effect of frog virus 3 (fv 3) (author's transl)].a bacterial phospholipid extract (ebp) inoculated intraveinously at a dose of 1 mg/25 g body weight 30 hours before infection protects mice against the lethal effect of frog virus 3 (fv 3). the anti-fv 3 resistance produced by ebp requires protein synthesis during the period of pretreatment. the treatment with the bacterial extract has no effect on the inhibition of the macromolecular synthesis of the liver (rna and dna) which is observed at the beginning of the infection. however 48 hours after ...1979388298
multiplication of vaccina virus in the livers of mice after frog virus 3-induced damage to sinusoidal cells. 1979390146
macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. x. inhibition of cellular protein synthesis by heat-inactivated virus. 1979506065
macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. xi. a ts mutant of frog virus 3 that is defective in late transcription. 1979506066
nongenetic reactivation of frog virus 3 dna. 1979506069
a low resolution structure of frog virus 3. 1979516448
macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. xii. viral regulatory proteins in transcriptional and post-transcriptional controls.using fluorophenylalanine (fpa) to interfere with functional viral protein synthesis, we have investigated the complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional controls that operate in cells infected with frog virus 3. our previous data, obtained by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of viral rnas and proteins, showed that the addition of fpa at the beginning of infection completely prevented the synthesis of late viral rnas and late viral proteins and blocked the normal progressive decline in t ...1979574166
[effect of a water-soluble derivative of silymarin on morphological and functional alterations of mouse hepatocytes induced by frog virus 3 (author's transl)].pretreatment of mice with silymarin dihemisuccinate sodium salt (shs-na) 300 mg/kg 24 and 16 h before infection completely protected against the lethal effect of frog virus 3 (fv3). after the inoculation of 1 ld100 of virus it could be shown that: a) the same amount of radioactively labelled virus was found in the liver of control and shs-na treated animals, b) in shs-na pretreated animals the shut-off of macromolecular syntheses in the liver was considerably less extensive, c) the histological ...1979582977
inhibition of erythrophagocytosis by cultured rat kupffer cells infected with frog virus 3. 19806159473
frog virus 3 dna is heavily methylated at cpg sequences. 19806255678
macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. xiii. cell-free translation of immediate early viral mrnas. 19807352375
structural polypeptides of frog virus 3, phosphorylated proteins. 19807371861
induction of intranuclear microtubules in chick embryo fibroblasts by frog virus 3.intranuclear microtubules appear in chick embryo fibroblasts upon infection with frog virus 3 (fv 3). both the diameter and the annular shape of the microtubule profiles, established from electron microscopic observations using a goniometer, suggest that they are identical to naturally occurring cytoplasmic microtubules. furthermore, the use of vinblastine allowed demonstration of the tubulin composition of the intranuclear microtubules.19807397769
macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. xiv. characterization of the methylated nucleotide sequences in viral messenger rnas. 19807445431
frog virus 3 replication: analysis of structural and nonstructural polypeptides in infected bhk cells by acidic and basic two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.analysis of frog virus 3-infected bhk cells by two-dimensional, acidic and basic gel electrophoresis showed that at least 90 infected cell-specific polypeptides could be detected. these polypeptides represent between 70 and 85% of the coding capacity of the viral genome. the polypeptides were sequentially induced in at least three phases. the virus gradually suppressed host cell polypeptide synthesis during infection, although the synthesis of a few cell polypeptides may be "switched off" early ...198016789185
frog virus 3 replication: induction and intracellular distribution of polypeptides in infected cells.the synthesis of the polypeptides induced in frog virus 3-infected cells was analyzed by high-resolution sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of radiolabeled cell extracts. purified frog virus 3 contained 22 polypeptides, with molecular weights in the range 9 x 10(3) to 114 x 10(3). all of the structural and an additional seven nonstructural polypeptides were detected in infected cell lysates. the following three classes of induced polypeptides (under temporal control) were ...198016789186
phosphonoacetic acid inhibition of frog virus 3 replication.phosphonoacetic acid at concentrations above 200 mug/ml inhibited the replication of frog virus 3 in bhk cells. the inhibition of viral dna replication observed in these cells was reversible and correlated with the inhibition of the virus-induced dna polymerase activity in an in vitro assay. the synthesis of frog virus 3-induced late or gamma polypeptides was also inhibited by phosphonoacetic acid, although the early (alpha and beta) polypeptides were unaffected.198016789189
frog virus 3 requires rna polymerase ii for its replication.the involvement of host cell rna polymerase ii in the replication of frog virus 3 (fv 3) was examined in alpha-amanitin-sensitive or -resistant chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells in the presence and absence of alpha-amanitin. in the presence of alpha-amanitin, fv 3 replicated normally in resistant cho cells but failed to do so in sensitive cho cells. synthesis of virus-specific rnas and proteins was inhibited in sensitive cells infected in the presence of alpha-amanitin, but in alpha-amanitin-res ...19817218429
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