t-cell responses to the m3 immune evasion protein of murid gammaherpesvirus 68 are partially protective and induced with lytic antigen kinetics.dna vaccination with the m3 gene, encoding an immune evasion molecule expressed during both the acute lytic and persistent phases of murid gammaherpesvirus 68 infection, yielded a significantly lower titer of virus in the lung than controls. the protection seen was dependent on t cells, and we mapped an epitope recognized by cd8 t cells. the immune response to this epitope follows the same kinetics as lytic cycle antigens, despite the fact that this gene is expressed in both lytic and persistent ...200415367651
the gammaherpesvirus 68 latency-associated nuclear antigen homolog is critical for the establishment of splenic reading frame 73 (orf 73) is conserved among the gamma-2-herpesviruses (rhadinoviruses) and, in kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv) and herpesvirus saimiri (hvs), has been shown to encode a latency-associated nuclear antigen (lana). the kshv and hvs lanas have also been shown to be required for maintenance of the viral genome as an episome during latency. lana binds both the viral latency-associated origin of replication and the host cell chromosome, thereby ensuring efficient pa ...200312970414
transcription program of murine gammaherpesvirus 68.murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (mhv-68 [also referred to as gammahv68]) is phylogenetically related to kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv [also referred to as hhv-8]) and epstein-barr virus (ebv). however, unlike kshv or ebv, mhv-68 readily infects fibroblast and epithelial cell lines derived from several mammalian species, providing a system to study productive and latent infections as well as reactivation of gammaherpesviruses in vivo and in vitro. to carry out rapid genome-wide analysi ...200312970434
the genome of herpesvirus saimiri c488 which is capable of transforming human t cells.herpesvirus saimiri (hvs), the rhadinovirus prototype, is apathogenic in the persistently infected natural host, the squirrel monkey, but causes acute t cell leukemia in other new world primate species. in contrast to subgroups a and b, only strains of hvs subgroup c such as c488 are capable of transforming primary human t cells to stable antigen-independent growth in culture. here, we report the complete 155-kb genome sequence of the transformation-competent hvs strain c488. the a+t-rich unique ...200314554077
three-dimensional structures of the a, b, and c capsids of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus: insights into gammaherpesvirus capsid assembly, maturation, and dna packaging.rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv) exhibits high levels of sequence homology to human gammaherpesviruses, such as kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, and grows to high titers in cell cultures, making it a good model system for studying gammaherpesvirus capsid structure and assembly. we have purified rrv a, b, and c capsids, thus for the first time allowing direct structure comparisons by electron cryomicroscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction. the results show that the shells of these ca ...200314645575
de novo infection with rhesus monkey rhadinovirus leads to the accumulation of multiple intranuclear capsid species during lytic replication but favors the release of genome-containing virions.rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv) is one of the closest phylogenetic relatives to the human pathogen kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv), yet it has the distinct experimental advantage of entering efficiently into lytic replication and growing to high titers in culture. rrv therefore holds promise as a potentially attractive model with which to study gammaherpesvirus structure and assembly. we have isolated rrv capsids, determined their molecular composition, and identified the genes e ...200314645602
orf73 of murine herpesvirus-68 is critical for the establishment and maintenance of vitro studies have established that the latency-associated nuclear antigen encoded by human kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and the related orf73 gene product of herpesvirus saimiri interact with virus origins of replication to facilitate maintenance of episomal dna. such a function implies a critical role for orf73 in the establishment and maintenance of latency in vivo. to determine the role of orf73 in virus pathogenesis, the orf73 gene product encoded by murine herpesvirus-68 (mhv ...200314645921
detection of bovine gammaherpesviruses by a nested duplex pcr.the two bovine gammaherpesviruses (alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, alhv-1; bovine herpesvirus 4, bohv-4) are distributed worldwide in cattle populations. since the animals are frequently infected latently with no or low seropositivity, a dna based diagnostic method would be useful for surveys and detection of these viruses. in the present study a nested duplex pcr was established for the sensitive and specific simultaneous detection of both viruses. the primers were designed for the gene of the major ...200414656465
murine gamma-herpesvirus-68-induced il-12 contributes to the control of latent viral burden, but also contributes to viral-mediated leukocytosis.early ifn-alpha/beta production, followed by the development of a viral-specific ctl response, are critical factors in limiting the level of murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 (gammahv-68) infection. development of a long-lived ctl response requires t cell help, and these ctls most likely function to limit the extent of infection following reactivation. the importance of il-12 in the development and/or activity of th1 cells and ctls is well documented, and we investigated the kinetics and magnitude of ...200414688362
kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv/hhv8): key aspects of epidemiology and pathogenesis.the search for a transmissible infectious agent as the cause of kaposi's sarcoma lead to the discovery in 1994 of kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv), also known as human herpesvirus type 8 (hhv8). kshv is the only human gamma2 herpesvirus (rhadinovirus) known so far, and is also associated with two other aids-related lymphoproliferative disorders: primary effusion lymphoma (pel) and the plasma-cell variant of multicentric castleman's disease (mcd). this review addresses key aspects o ...200315012001
establishment and maintenance of long-term murine gammaherpesvirus 68 latency in b cells in the absence of cd40.murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (gammahv68), like epstein-barr virus (ebv), establishes a chronic infection in its host by gaining access to the memory b-cell reservoir, where it persists undetected by the host's immune system. ebv encodes a membrane protein, lmp1, that appears to function as a constitutively active cd40 receptor, and is hypothesized to play a central role in ebv-driven differentiation of infected naive b cells to a memory b-cell phenotype. however, it has recently been shown that th ...200515709008
the latency-associated nuclear antigen of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus inhibits viral replication through repression of orf50/rta transcriptional activation.rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv) is a gamma-2-herpesvirus that is closely related to kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8. we have previously reported that the transcript for rrv latency-associated nuclear antigen (r-lana) is expressed during lytic replication in rhesus fibroblasts. in this article, we report the development of a latent culture system for rrv and show that mrna specific for r-lana is expressed during latency as well. we have characterized the r-lana protei ...200515709032
novel gamma-2-herpesvirus of the rhadinovirus 2 lineage in gibbons.we obtained 475 nucleotides of the dna polymerase gene of a novel human herpesvirus 8 homolog sequence in a gibbon. the finding of this new gibbon virus, which clusters with a related chimpanzee virus in the rhadinovirus 2 genogroup, suggests the existence of a novel gamma-2-herpesvirus in humans.200415200826
differential activation of murine herpesvirus 68- and kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded orf74 g protein-coupled receptors by human and murine chemokines.infection of mice with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (mhv-68) is a well-characterized small animal model for the study of gammaherpesvirus infection. mhv-68 belongs to the same herpesvirus family as herpesvirus saimiri (hvs) of new world squirrel monkeys and human herpesvirus 8 (hhv-8) (also referred to as kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [kshv]). the open reading frame orf74 of hvs, kshv, and mhv-68 encodes a protein with homology to g protein-coupled receptors and chemokine receptors in pa ...200415016856
viral degradation of the mhc class i peptide loading complex.the murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 mk3 protein inhibits cd8(+) t cell recognition by ubiquitinating the cytoplasmic tails of classical mhc class i heavy chains. here we show that mk3 also provides the first example of a protein that degrades tapasin and tap. the degradation was mk3 ring finger dependent and primarily affected tap. mk3 associated with tap1 in the absence of tapasin or tap2, suggesting that tap1 was a primary binding partner in the peptide loading complex. tap2 also played a major ro ...200415030774
novel herpesviruses of suidae: indicators for a second genogroup of artiodactyl gammaherpesviruses.five novel herpesviruses were identified in suid species from africa (common warthog, phacochoerus africanus) and south-east asia (bearded pig, sus barbatus; babirusa, babyrousa babyrussa) by detection and analysis of their dna polymerase genes. three of the novel species, p. africanus cytomegalovirus 1, p. africanus lymphotropic herpesvirus 1 (pafrlhv-1) and s. barbatus lymphotropic herpesvirus 1 (sbarlhv-1), were closely related to known beta- (porcine cytomegalovirus) and gammaherpesviruses [ ...200415039528
comparison of the rta/orf50 transactivator proteins of gamma-2-herpesviruses.the viral immediate-early transactivator rta/orf50 is necessary and sufficient to initiate kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 (kshv/hhv-8) reactivation from latently infected cells. since rta/orf50 is conserved among all known gamma-2-herpesviruses, we investigated whether the murine gamma-68-herpesvirus (mhv-68) and rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv) homologs can functionally substitute for kshv rta/orf50. (i) our comparison of 12 kshv promoters showed that most responded ...200415113928
identification of a region of the virus genome involved in murine gammaherpesvirus 68-induced splenic pathology.infection with the murine gammaherpesvirus mhv-68 has profound effects on splenic and mediastinal lymph node pathology in mice which lack the interferon-gamma receptor (ifn-gamma r(-/-)). in these mice mhv-68 infection causes fibrosis and loss of lymphocytes in the spleen and the mediastinal lymph node as well as interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and fibrotic changes in the liver. the changes are associated with transient elevated latent virus loads in the spleen. four independent virus mutants wi ...200415166421
the t-cell lymphokine interleukin-26 targets epithelial cells through the interleukin-20 receptor 1 and interleukin-10 receptor 2 chains.the cellular members of the interleukin-10 (il-10) cytokine family share sequence homology with il-10, whereas their sites of expression and their functions are divergent. one of these factors, ak155 or il-26, was discovered because of its overexpression in human t lymphocytes after growth transformation by the simian rhadinovirus herpesvirus saimiri. in addition, the gene is transcribed in various types of primary and immortalized t-cells. here we describe epithelial cells, namely colon carcino ...200415178681
cell transformation by herpesvirus saimiri.herpesvirus saimiri (saimiriine herpesvirus-2), a gamma2-herpesvirus (rhadinovirus) of non-human primates, causes t-lymphoproliferative diseases in susceptible organisms and transforms human and non-human t lymphocytes to continuous growth in vitro in the absence of stimulation. t cells transformed by h. saimiri retain many characteristics of intact t lymphocytes, such as the sensitivity to interleukin-2 and the ability to recognize the corresponding antigens. as a result, h. saimiri is widely u ...200515389624
t-cell transformation and oncogenesis by gamma2-herpesviruses.gamma2-herpesviruses, also termed rhadinoviruses, have long been known as animal pathogens causing lymphoproliferative diseases such as malignant catarrhal fever in cattle or t-cell lymphoma in certain neotropical primates. the rhadinovirus prototype is herpesvirus saimiri (hvs), a t-lymphotropic agent of squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus); herpesvirus ateles (hva) is closely related to hvs. the first human rhadinovirus, human herpesvirus type 8 (hhv-8), was discovered a decade ago in kaposi's ...200515797445
the m2 gene product of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 is required for efficient colonization of splenic follicles but is not necessary for expansion of latently infected germinal centre b cells.infection of mice with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 is characterized by a marked transient expansion of latently infected splenic germinal centre (gc) b cells, which is followed by lower levels of persistent infection in gc and memory b cells. virus transcription within gc b cells is restricted to a number of latency-associated open reading frames, including m2. this gene encodes a structurally unique protein of unknown function, which has been shown to be essential for the transient peak of virus ...200415448339
pathogenetical characterization of isolate mhv-60 of mouse herpesvirus strain 68.infection of mice with mouse herpesvirus strain 68 (mhv-68) is an excellent small animal model of gammaherpesvirus pathogenesis in a natural host. we carried out comparative studies on mhv-60, another isolate of mhv-68. the acute infection of balb/c mice inoculated intranasally (i.n.) with mhv-60 as well as its impact on tumor development were investigated. during the acute phase of infection the lungs were the main tissues infected. our results show that mhv-60 has similar pathological features ...200415462284
a mouse herpesvirus induces relapse of experimental autoimmune arthritis by infection of the inflammatory target is not known what is required for successive relapses in autoimmune diseases or evolution to a progressive chronic disease. autoimmune arthritis caused by passive transfer of autoantibodies against glucose 6-phosphate isomerase is transient and therefore lends itself well to test for what might extend the disease. herpesviruses have long been suspected of contributing to human autoimmune disease. we infected mice with a murine gamma-herpesvirus (mhv-68). in immunodeficient mice, transient art ...200415470069
intracellular localization and protein interactions of the gene 1 protein p28 during mouse hepatitis virus replication.coronaviruses encode the largest replicase polyprotein of any known positive-strand rna virus. replicase protein precursors and mature products are thought to mediate the formation and function of viral replication complexes on the surfaces of intracellular double-membrane vesicles. however, the functions of only a few of these proteins are known. for the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (mhv), the first proteolytic processing event of the replicase polyprotein liberates an amino-terminal 28-kd ...200415479796
role of cxcr3 in the immune response to murine gammaherpesvirus 68.the chemokine ip-10 (cxcl10) and its cellular receptor cxcr3 are upregulated in the lung during murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (mhv-68) infection. in order to determine the role of the cxcr3 chemokine receptor in the immune response to mhv-68, cxcr3-/- mice were infected with the virus. cxcr3-/- mice showed delayed clearance of replicating mhv-68 from the lungs. this correlated with delayed t-cell recruitment to the lungs and reduced cytolytic activity prior to viral clearance. splenomegaly and the ...200515994833
protein kinase ck2 phosphorylation regulates the interaction of kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus regulatory protein orf57 with its multifunctional partner hnrnp k.orf57 protein of kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus has a counterpart in all herpesvirus of mammals and birds and regulates gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. orf57 was capable of self-interaction and bound a rapidly migrating form of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein k (hnrnp k), a multifunctional cellular protein involved in gene expression. in virus infected cell extracts, orf57 was present in a complex with hnrnp k that had protein kinase ck2 activ ...200415486205
inhibition of interferon-mediated antiviral activity by murine gammaherpesvirus 68 latency-associated m2 protein.upon viral infection, the major defense mounted by the host immune system is the activation of the interferon (ifn)-mediated antiviral pathway. in order to complete their life cycle, viruses that are obligatory intracellular parasites must modulate the host ifn-mediated immune response. murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (gammahv68) infects a wide range of cell types and establishes latent infections in mice. here we demonstrate that the gammahv68 latency-associated m2 protein has a cell-type-dependent ...200415507628
granzymes and caspase 3 play important roles in control of gammaherpesvirus latency.gammaherpesviruses can establish lifelong latent infections in lymphoid cells of their hosts despite active antiviral immunity. identification of the immune mechanisms which regulate gammaherpesvirus latent infection is therefore essential for understanding how gammaherpesviruses persist for the lifetime of their host. recently, an individual with chronic active epstein-barr virus infection was found to have mutations in perforin, and studies using murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (gammahv68) as a sma ...200415507639
autocrine stimulation of rhadinovirus-transformed t cells by the chemokine ccl1/i-309.the rhadinovirus herpesvirus saimiri transforms human t lymphocytes to stable growth in culture. besides the viral oncogenes stpc and tip, little is understood about the transformation process at the cellular level. to identify cellular factors that might contribute to growth transformation, we compared cellular gene expression in pairs of herpesvirus saimiri-transformed and nontransformed human t-cell clones. using cdna arrays and suppressive subtractive hybridization, we were able to identify ...200415378023
the dna architectural protein hmgb1 facilitates rta-mediated viral gene expression in gamma-2 herpesviruses.replication and transcription activator (rta), an immediate-early gene product of gamma-2 herpesviruses including kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv) and murine gamma herpesvirus 68 (mhv-68), plays a critical role in controlling the viral life cycle. rta acts as a strong transcription activator for several downstream genes of kshv and mhv-68 through direct dna binding, as well as via indirect mechanisms. hmgb1 (also called hmg-1) protein is a highly conserved nonhistone chromatin prot ...200415542646
characterization of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 glycoprotein b.murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (mhv-68) glycoprotein b (gb) was identified in purified virions by immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunoelectron microscopy. it was synthesized as a 120-kda precursor in infected cells and cleaved into 65-kda and 55-kda disulfide-linked subunits close to the time of virion release. the n-linked glycans on the cleaved, virion gb remained partially endoglycosidase h sensitive. the processing of mhv-68 gb therefore appears similar to that of kaposi's sarcoma-ass ...200415542690
shedding of ovine herpesvirus 2 in sheep nasal secretions: the predominant mode for transmission.ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2), the major causative agent of malignant catarrhal fever in ruminant species worldwide, has never been propagated in vitro. using real-time pcr, a striking, short-lived, peak of viral dna, ranging from 10(5) to over 10(8) copies/2 microg of dna, was detected in nasal secretions from over 60.7% of adolescent sheep (n = 56) at some point during the period from 6 to 9 months of age. in contrast, only about 18% of adult sheep (n = 33) experienced a shedding episode during ...200415583281
equine herpes virus 2 infection in horse populations in poland.the prevalence of equine herpesvirus 2 (ehv-2) infections in the horse populations in poland was investigated. peripheral blood leukocytes (pbls) of 139 horses were tested. the animals were divided into four groups: clinically healthy horses, horses suffering from respiratory disorders, mares with a recent abortion and horses with diagnosed ataxia. thirty-four virus isolates were obtained from leukocytes of the tested animals by cocultivation with equine dermal cells and were identified as ehv-2 ...200415595214
a novel subgroup of rhadinoviruses in the course of investigating the malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) subgroup of rhadinoviruses, seven novel rhadinoviruses were identified in a variety of ruminants, including domestic sheep, bighorn sheep, bison, black-tailed deer, mule deer, fallow deer, elk and addax. based on the dna polymerase gene sequences, these newly recognized viruses clustered into a second distinct subgroup in ruminants with three members identified previously in cattle, goats and oryx. phylogenetic analysis revealed ...200516227223
murine gammaherpesvirus 68 bcl-2 homologue contributes to latency establishment in vivo.the gammaherpesviruses are characteristically latent in lymphocytes and exploit lymphocyte proliferation to establish a large, persistent pool of latent genomes. murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (mhv-68) allows the in vivo analysis of viral genes that contribute to this and other aspects of host colonization. in this study, the mhv-68 bcl-2 homologue, m11, was disrupted either in its bh1 homology domain or upstream of its membrane-localizing c-terminal domain. each m11 mutant showed normal lytic repli ...200515604429
development of a real-time qpcr assay for the detection of rv2 lineage-specific rhadinoviruses in macaques and baboons.two distinct lineages of rhadinoviruses related to kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv/hhv8) have been identified in macaques and other old world non-human primates. we have developed a real-time quantitative pcr (qpcr) assay using a taqman probe to differentially detect and quantitate members of the rhadinovirus-2 (rv2) lineage. pcr primers were derived from sequences within orf 60 and the adjacent orf 59/60 intergenic region which were highly conserved between the macaque rv2 rhadino ...200515634356
on phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of the gammaherpesvirinae.phylogenetic relationships within the subfamily gammaherpesvirinae of the family herpesviridae were investigated for three species in the genus lymphocryptovirus (or gamma1 group) and nine in the genus rhadinovirus (or gamma2 group). alignments of amino acid sequences from up to 28 genes were used to derive trees by maximum-likelihood and bayesian monte carlo markov chain methods. two problem areas were identified involving an unresolvable multifurcation for a clade within the gamma2 group, and ...200515659749
isolation of equine herpesvirus-2 from the lung of an aborted fetus.this study describes the isolation of equine herpesvirus-2 (ehv-2) from the lung of an aborted equine fetus in argentina. the isolated virus was confirmed as ehv-2 by indirect immunofluorescence using a rabbit anti-ehv-2 polyclonal antiserum and by virus-neutralization test using an equine polyclonal antibody against ehv-2. restriction endonuclease dna fingerprinting with bamhi also confirmed the identity of the virus as ehv-2. furthermore, viral nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain rea ...200516312249
comparative transmission of multiple herpesviruses and simian virus 40 in a baboon breeding colony.little is known about the natural history of herpesviruses indigenous in baboons. here, we describe the development of elisas for five herpesviruses. these assays were used to test more than 950 serum samples collected from approximately 210 infant/juvenile and 130 adult baboons in a captive breeding colony over a period of seven years. results indicated that baboon cytomegalovirus, lymphocryptovirus, and rhadinovirus are transmitted efficiently within the colony and are acquired at an early age ...200415679269
murine gammaherpesvirus 68 open reading frame 11 encodes a nonessential virion reading frame 11 (orf11) is a conserved gammaherpesvirus gene that remains undefined. we identified the product of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (mhv-68) orf11, p43, as a virion component with a predominantly perinuclear distribution in infected cells. mhv-68 lacking p43 grew normally in vitro but showed reduced lytic replication in vivo and a delay in seeding to the spleen. subsequent latency amplification was normal. thus, mhv-68 orf11 encoded a virion component that was important for in viv ...200515709035
kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 rta reactivates murine gammaherpesvirus 68 from latency.murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (mhv-68), kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (hhv-8), and epstein-barr virus (ebv) are all members of the gammaherpesvirus family, characterized by their ability to establish latency in lymphocytes. the rta protein, conserved in all gammaherpesviruses, is known to play a critical role in reactivation from latency. here we report that hhv-8 rta, not ebv rta, was able to induce mhv-68 lytic viral proteins and dna replication and processing and produce viable mhv-68 ...200515709045
splicing of rhesus rhadinovirus r15 and orf74 bicistronic transcripts during lytic infection and analysis of effects on production of vcd200 and vgpcr.rhesus macaque rhadinovirus (rrv) is the rhesus macaque homologue of human herpesvirus 8 (hhv-8). here we examine expression of rrv r15 and orf74, homologues of k14 and orf74 of hhv-8, respectively. as in hhv-8, transcripts encoding rrv r15 and orf74 are bicistronic. however, unlike what has been suggested for hhv-8, rrv r15- and orf74-encoding transcripts are expressed late during lytic infection and undergo unique splicing events that result in the production of transcripts capable of encoding ...200515731284
lung infection with gamma-herpesvirus induces progressive pulmonary fibrosis in th2-biased mice.idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (ipf) is a progressive, fibrotic lung disease of unknown etiology. a viral pathogenesis in ipf has been suggested since >95% of ipf patients have evidence of chronic pulmonary infection with one or more herpesviruses. to determine whether pulmonary infection with herpesvirus can cause lung fibrosis, we infected mice with the murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (mhv68). because ipf patients have a t helper type 2 (th2) pulmonary phenotype, we used ifn-gammar-/-, a strain of ...200515734789
identification of viral genes essential for replication of murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 using signature-tagged mutagenesis.gamma-herpesviruses, epstein-barr virus, and kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus are important human pathogens, because they are involved in tumor development. murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 (mhv-68 or gammahv-68) has emerged as a small animal model system for the study of gamma-herpesvirus pathogenesis and host-virus interactions. to identify the genes required for viral replication in vitro and in vivo, we generated 1,152 mutants using signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis on an infectious ...200515738413
herpesvirus sylvilagus in cottontail rabbits: antibody prevalence and flea burden relationships.a serologic survey of a wild cottontail rabbit (sylvilagus floridanus) population in southern wisconsin was conducted from november-march, 1971-72 and november-april, 1972-73, to determine prevalence of antibody against herpesvirus sylvilagus. flea burdens on each live-trapped cottontail were quantified by species. all but six of the 5029 fleas collected were cediopsylla simplex. no correlation was found between flea infestation and viral antibody. of 101 cottontail rabbits trapped, only six had ...197616498867
malignant catarrhal fever-like disease in sheep after intranasal inoculation with ovine herpesvirus-2.a malignant catarrhal fever (mcf)-like disease was induced experimentally in 3 sheep after aerosol inoculation with ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2). each of 3 ovhv-2-negative sheep was nebulized with 2 ml of nasal secretions containing approximately 3.07 x 10(9) ovhv-2 dna copies from a sheep experiencing an intensive viral-shedding episode. ovine herpesvirus-2 dna became detectable by polymerase chain reaction in the peripheral blood leukocytes of all 3 sheep within 3 days, and all 3 seroconverted ...200515825499
intestinal stromal tumors in a simian immunodeficiency virus-infected, simian retrovirus-2 negative rhesus macaque (macaca mulatta).multifocal submucosal stromal tumors were diagnosed in a 5.5-year-old rhesus macaque (macaca mulatta) experimentally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus, strain sivsme660, and cd4+ t cell depleted. the animal was negative for simian retroviruses, srv-1, -2, and -5. polymerase chain reaction analysis of dna from tumor and spleen tissue revealed abundant, preferential presence of retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus, the macaque homologue of the kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (h ...200515872392
contribution to the problem of infection of humans with a murine gammaherpesvirus. 200616599189
[epidemiological aspects of human herpesvirus 8 infection and of kaposi's sarcoma].hhv-8 belongs to the herpesviridae family, to the gammaherpesvirinae subfamily, and to the rhadinovirus genus. whereas several viral homologues exist in non human primates, hhv-8 is the only rhadinovirus known in human. hhv-8 is mainly the etiological agent of the four clinico-epidemiological forms of kaposi's sarcoma (classic, endemic, post-transplant, and epidemic/hiv associated). hhv-8 is not an ubiquitous virus. it is mainly endemic in areas of high endemicity for classic or endemic kaposi's ...200515907610
whole-genome transcription profiling of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus.rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv) and kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv; also called human herpesvirus 8) belong to the gamma-2 grouping of herpesviruses. rrv and kshv share a high degree of sequence similarity, and their genomes are organized in a similar fashion. rrv serves as an excellent animal model system to study the gamma herpesvirus life cycle both in vitro and in vivo. we have developed a high-sensitivity, high-throughput, high-specificity real-time quantitative reverse tran ...200515956606
a real-time pcr assay for measuring alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 dna.alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (alhv-1) is a rhadinovirus that causes malignant catarrhal fever in certain ruminant species and is an important pathogen in africa and other areas where carrier species and clinically susceptible ruminants intermingle. in this study, a real-time pcr for alhv-1 dna was developed and compared to an established nested pcr. the nested pcr amplifies a region of the alhv-1 gene coding for a transactivator protein (orf 50), while the real-time pcr assay targets the alhv-1 gen ...200515998545
human herpesvirus 8: biology and role in the pathogenesis of kaposi's sarcoma and other aids-related malignancies.human herpesvirus type 8, or kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv), is the only known human g(2) herpesvirus (rhadinovirus) and the most recently discovered tumor virus. kshv is associated with kaposi's sarcoma and two other lymphoproliferative disorders in the aids setting: primary effusion lymphoma and the plasma cell variant of multicentric castleman's disease. this review offers an update on the epidemiology and the role of kshv genes in the development of disease.200416091217
intercellular gamma-herpesvirus dissemination involves co-ordinated intracellular membrane protein transport.the murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 (mhv-68) orf27 encodes gp48, a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein that contributes to intercellular viral spread. gp48 is expressed on the surface of infected cells but is retained intracellularly after transfection. in this study, we show that the multimembrane spanning orf58 gene product is both necessary and sufficient for gp48 to reach the cell surface. orf58-deficient mhv-68 expressed orf27 in normal amounts, but retained it in the endoplasmic reticulum (er). ...200516101681
characterization of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 v-cyclin interactions with cellular cdks.all known gamma2-herpesviruses encode a cyclin homolog with significant homology to mammalian d-type cyclins. the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (gammahv68) viral cyclin (v-cyclin) has been shown to be oncogenic when expression is targeted to thymocytes in transgenic mice and to be critical for virus reactivation from latency. here, we investigate the interaction of the gammahv68 v-cyclin with cellular cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks). we show that, in contrast to the kaposi's sarcoma-associated herp ...200516102793
infection of dendritic cells by a gamma2-herpesvirus induces functional modulation.the murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 (gammahv68) establishes viral latency in dendritic cells (dcs). in the present study, we examined the specific consequences of dc infection by gammahv68, both in vivo and in vitro. ex vivo analysis of infected mice showed that the virus colonizes respiratory dcs very early after infection and that all subsets of splenic dcs analyzed are viral targets. we have developed and characterized an in vitro model of gammahv68 infection of dcs. using this model, we demonstr ...200516116213
equine herpesvirus 2-associated granulomatous dermatitis in a horse.granulomatous dermatitis in horses has been linked to many etiologies, including various parasites, fungi, and bacteria. idiopathic forms of granulomatous inflammation-producing diseases, some of which are localized to the skin, also have been reported in horses. herein we describe a case of recurrent equine granulomatous skin disease characterized by intranuclear viral inclusions within macrophages and giant cells. the histologic changes were primarily noted in the deep dermis and included mult ...200616846998
murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 latency protein m2 binds to vav signaling proteins and inhibits b-cell receptor-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in wehi-231 b cells.the mhv-68 latent protein, m2, does not have homology to any known viral or cellular proteins, and its function is unclear. to define the role played by m2 during mhv-68 latency as well as the molecular mechanism involved, we used m2 as bait to screen a yeast two-hybrid mouse b-cell cdna library. vav1 was identified as an m2-interacting protein in two independent screenings. subsequent yeast two-hybrid interaction studies showed that m2 also binds to vav2, but not vav3, and that three "pxxp" mot ...200516150693
antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 4 are highly prevalent in wild african buffaloes throughout eastern and southern africa.bovine herpesvirus 4 (bohv-4) has been isolated from cattle throughout the world. interestingly, a survey of wild african buffaloes mainly from the maasai mara game reserve in kenya revealed that 94% of the animals tested had anti-bohv-4 antibodies [rossiter, p.b., gumm, i.d., stagg, d.a., conrad, p.a., mukolwe, s., davies, f.g., white, h., 1989. isolation of bovine herpesvirus-3 from african buffaloes (syncerus caffer). res. vet. sci. 46, 337-343]. these authors also proposed that the serologic ...200516153785
herpesviruses: a cofactor in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis? 200516214821
viral flip enhances wnt signaling downstream of stabilized beta-catenin, leading to control of cell growth.death receptor-mediated apoptosis is potently inhibited by viral flip (flice/caspase 8 inhibitory protein), which is composed of two tandemly repeated death effector domains (deds), through reduced activation of procaspase 8. here, we show that equine herpesvirus 2-encoded viral flip e8 enhances wnt/beta-catenin signaling in a variety of cell lines. e8 was shown to strikingly augment wnt3a signaling, as shown both in a luciferase assay for t-cell factor/beta-catenin and through induction of endo ...200516227577
virological and serological evidence of bovine herpesvirus type 4 in cattle in northern ireland.bovine herpesvirus type 4 (bhv-4), a member of the genus rhadinovirus, subfamily gammaherpesvirinae, within the family herpesviridae, was isolated in fetal bovine lung cells from samples of vaginal discharge taken from a dairy herd in which approximately 50 per cent of the cattle developed metritis after calving. the identity of the isolate was confirmed by immunofluorescent staining with a bhv-4-specific monoclonal antibody and partial sequencing of a portion of the glycoprotein b gene. serolog ...200516258133
functional divergence of kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and related gamma-2 herpesvirus thymidine kinases: novel cytoplasmic phosphoproteins that alter cellular morphology and disrupt adhesion.the nucleoside kinase encoded by kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv) is a relatively inefficient enzyme with substrate specificity for thymidine alone, unlike alphaherpesvirus thymidine kinases (tks). similar to all gammaherpesvirus tks, kshv tk is composed of two distinct domains, a conserved c-terminal kinase and a novel and uncharacterized n terminus. ectopic expression of kshv tk in adherent cells induced striking morphological changes and anchorage independence although cells sur ...200516282465
pathogenesis of gammaherpesvirus infections.gammaherpesviruses are members of an emerging subfamily among the herpesviridae. two genera are discriminated: (i) lymphocryptovirus, including its type species epstein-barr virus (ebv), and (ii) rhadinovirus, including viruses of interest for medicine, veterinary medicine, and biomedical research, i.e. alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, equine herpesvirus 2, human herpesvirus 8, mouse herpesvirus 68, and ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2). the perception that these viruses have a narrow ...200616332416
a genetic system for rhesus monkey rhadinovirus: use of recombinant virus to quantitate antibody-mediated neutralization.rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv), a simian gamma-2 herpesvirus closely related to the kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, replicates lytically in cultured rhesus monkey fibroblasts and establishes persistence in b cells. overlapping cosmid clones were generated that encompass the entire 130-kilobase-pair genome of rrv strain 26-95, including the terminal repeat regions required for its replication. cloned rrv that was produced by cotransfection of overlapping cosmids spanning the entire rrv26 ...200616415030
mass spectrometric analyses of purified rhesus monkey rhadinovirus reveal 33 virion-associated proteins.the repertoire of proteins that comprise intact gammaherpesviruses, including the human pathogen kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv), is likely to have critical functions not only in viral structure and assembly but also in the early stages of infection and evasion of the host's rapidly deployed antiviral defenses. to develop a better understanding of these proteins, we analyzed the composition of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv), a close phylogenetic relative of kshv. unlike kshv, rr ...200616415032
a gammaherpesvirus 68 gene 50 null mutant establishes long-term latency in the lung but fails to vaccinate against a wild-type virus challenge.the gammaherpesvirus immediate-early genes are critical regulators of virus replication and reactivation from latency. rta, encoded by gene 50, serves as the major transactivator of the lytic program and is highly conserved among all the gammaherpesviruses, including epstein-barr virus, kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (gammahv68). introduction of a translation stop codon in gammahv68 gene 50 (gene 50.stop gammahv68) demonstrated that rta is essential for v ...200616415035
identification of spliced gammaherpesvirus 68 lana and v-cyclin transcripts and analysis of their expression in vivo during latent infection.regulation of orf73 (lana) gene expression is critical to the establishment and maintenance of latency following infection by members of the gamma-2 herpesvirus (rhadinovirus) family. previous studies of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (gammahv68) have demonstrated that loss of lana function results in a complete failure to establish virus latency in the spleens of laboratory mice. here we report the characterization of alternatively spliced lana and v-cyclin (orf72) transcripts encoded by gammahv68. ...200616439562
amplification of autoimmune disease by infection.reports of infection with certain chronic persistent microbes (herpesviruses or chlamydiae) in human autoimmune diseases are consistent with the hypothesis that these microbes are reactivated in the setting of immunodeficiency and often target the site of autoimmune inflammation. new experimental animal models demonstrate the principle. a herpesvirus or chlamydia species can be used to infect mice with induced transient autoimmune diseases. this results in increased disease severity and even rel ...200515743493
defective b cell responses in the absence of sh2d1a.more than half of patients with x-linked lympho-proliferative disease, which is caused by a defect in the intracellular adapter protein sh2d1a, suffer from an extreme susceptibility to epstein-barr virus. one-third of these patients, however, develop dysgammaglobulenemia without an episode of severe mononucleosis. here we show that in sh2d1a(-/-) mice, both primary and secondary responses of all ig subclasses are severely impaired in response to specific antigens. because germinal centers were a ...200515774582
high constitutive activity of a virus-encoded seven transmembrane receptor in the absence of the conserved dry motif (asp-arg-tyr) in transmembrane helix 3.the highly conserved arg in the so-called dry motif (asp-arg-tyr) at the intracellular end of transmembrane helix 3 is in general considered as an essential residue for g protein coupling in rhodopsin-like seven transmembrane (7tm) receptors. in the open reading frame 74 (orf74) receptor encoded by equine herpesvirus 2 (ehv2), the dry motif is substituted with a dtw motif. nevertheless, this receptor signaled with high constitutive activity through gi as determined by a receptor-mediated inhibit ...200515788740
infection and persistence of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus in immortalized b-cell lines.similar to its close relative human herpesvirus 8, rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv) persists predominantly in b cells of its natural host. rhesus monkey b-cell lines immortalized by the epstein-barr-related virus from rhesus monkeys (rhebv) were used as targets for infection by rrv. these cultured b cells were susceptible to infection by rrv and continued to produce low titers of rrv for months of continuous culture. infection by rrv did not detectably alter the growth rates of these b-cell line ...200616537632
infection with a novel gammaherpesvirus in northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris).twenty juvenile northern elephant seals (mirounga angustirostris) that died between 1998 and 2004 had ulcers on the tongue, palatine mucosa, and/or tonsils. histologic examination of the lesions revealed cytoplasmic swelling, nuclear pyknosis, and eosinophilic to amphophilic intranuclear inclusions bodies suggestive of herpesviral infection. electron microscopic examination and polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the presence of a herpesvirus. subsequent dna sequencing identified this t ...200617255451
regulation of intracellular signalling by the terminal membrane proteins of members of the gammaherpesvirinae.the human gamma(1)-herpesvirus epstein-barr virus (ebv) and the gamma(2)-herpesviruses kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv), rhesus rhadinovirus (rrv), herpesvirus saimiri (hvs) and herpesvirus ateles (hva) all contain genes located adjacent to the terminal-repeat region of their genomes, encoding membrane proteins involved in signal transduction. designated 'terminal membrane proteins' (tmps) because of their localization in the viral genome, they interact with a variety of cellular s ...200616603506
murine gammaherpesvirus-68 glycoprotein h-glycoprotein l complex is a major target for neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.herpesviruses characteristically persist in immune hosts as latent genomes, but to transmit infection they must reactivate and replicate lytically. the interaction between newly formed virions and pre-existing antibody is therefore likely to be a crucial determinant of viral fitness. murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (mhv-68) behaves as a natural pathogen of conventional, inbred mice and consequently allows such interactions to be analysed experimentally in a relatively realistic setting. here, monoclo ...200616690911
deregulation of dna damage signal transduction by herpesvirus latency-associated m2.infected cells recognize viral replication as a dna damage stress and elicit a dna damage response that ultimately induces apoptosis as part of host immune surveillance. here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism where the murine gamma herpesvirus 68 (gammahv68) latency-associated, anti-interferon m2 protein inhibits dna damage-induced apoptosis by interacting with the ddb1/cop9/cullin repair complex and the atm dna damage signal transducer. m2 expression constitutively induced ddb1 nuclear localiza ...200616731925
activation of vav by the gammaherpesvirus m2 protein contributes to the establishment of viral latency in b lymphocytes.gammaherpesviruses subvert eukaryotic signaling pathways to favor latent infections in their cellular reservoirs. to this end, they express proteins that regulate or replace functionally specific signaling proteins of eukaryotic cells. here we describe a new type of such viral-host interaction that is established through m2, a protein encoded by murine gammaherpesvirus 68. m2 associates with vav proteins, a family of phosphorylation-dependent rho/rac exchange factors that play critical roles in ...200616731951
molecular interactions between porcine and human gammaherpesviruses: implications for xenografts?reactivation of latent herpesviruses is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in human transplantation. this issue might be further complicated in the case of xenotransplantation. zoonotic viruses could reactivate and replicate in the transplanted tissue, and interactions with homologous human viruses could take place. since the pig is a favoured animal as donor of organs for human transplants, we analysed the possibility of interactions between porcine and human herpesviruses. porcine l ...200616768724
temporal detection of equine herpesvirus infections of a cohort of mares and their foals.the objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of equine herpesviruses (ehv) 1-5 in the nasal secretions (ns) of a cohort of 12 mares and their foals from birth to 6 months of age, estimate the prevalence of ehv-1-5 infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) of selected foals, and investigate phylogenetic relationships amongst the various strains of ehv-2 and 5. virus-specific pcr assays were used to detect ehv-1-5 in ns and pbmc. a homologous portion of the glycoprotei ...200616774810
[equine herpesvirus 2: a study on the relation between viral excretion and respiratory disease in thoroughbred horses].equine herpesvirus 2 (ehv-2) was isolated from healthy animals; therefore, the association between ehv-2 infection and respiratory disease raises the question of the role of this agent in this pathology. to date, there are no reports that relate viral excretion to health, this study then analysed 153 nasal swabs from horses in different age groups (older and younger than 1 year old) and state of health (clinically healthy and with respiratory symptoms). results showed that the percentage of hors ...200617370575
murine gammaherpesvirus (mhv) mk3 gene sequence diversity among 72, 4556, and 68 strains.murid herpesvirus 4 (muhv-4) currently serves as a model for study of human gamma-herpesvirus pathogenesis. it codes for mk3 protein that similarly as k5 protein of kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus are members of a family of structurally related viral immune evasion molecules possessing ring-ch finger domain with ubiquitin ligase activity. murine herpesvirus 72 (mhv-72) isolated from the same species of free-living small rodent is considered as closely related to murine herpesvirus 68 (mh ...200616791419
rfhvmn orf73 is structurally related to the kshv orf73 latency-associated nuclear antigen (lana) and is expressed in retroperitoneal fibromatosis (rf) tumor cells.retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus (rfhv), the macaque homolog of the human rhadinovirus, kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv), was first identified in retroperitoneal fibromatosis (rf) tumor lesions of macaques with simian aids. we cloned and sequenced the orf73 latency-associated nuclear antigen (lana) of rfhvmn from the pig-tailed macaque. rfhvmn lana is structurally analogous to kshv orf73 lana and contains an n-terminal serine-proline-rich region, a large internal glutamic a ...200616879850
cd80 and cd86 control antiviral cd8+ t-cell function and immune surveillance of murine gammaherpesvirus 68.the interactions between cd80 and cd86 on antigen-presenting cells and cd28 on t cells serve as an important costimulatory signal in the activation of t cells. although the simplistic two-signal hypothesis has been challenged in recent years by the identification of different costimulators, this classical pathway has been shown to significantly impact antiviral humoral and cellular immune responses. how the cd80/cd86-cd28 pathway affects the control of chronic or latent infections has been less ...200616940527
murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 limits naturally occurring cd4+cd25+ t regulatory cell activity following infection.during microbial infections, naturally occurring cd4+cd25+ t regulatory cells can suppress protective host responses or they can limit pathogen-induced inflammatory responses. the particular role played by these cells seems to depend upon the infectious agent being investigated. gamma-herpesviruses are efficacious pathogens which are well-known for their ability to induce lymphoproliferative disease and to establish latency in the host. however, no studies have investigated the importance of nat ...200616982906
prevalence of equine herpesvirus type 2 (ehv-2) dna in ocular swabs and its cell tropism in equine conjunctiva.equine herpes virus 2 (ehv-2), a gamma(2)-herpesvirus, is common in horses of all ages. its role as a primary pathogen is unclear but there is an association between ehv-2, respiratory disease and keratoconjunctivitis. the purpose of this study was to gain more information on the prevalence of ehv-2 dna in conjunctival swabs from horses with and without ocular disease and to define the anatomical site and cell type harbouring viral genome or antigen. by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) 22 out of ...200616996233
occurrence of ovine herpesvirus type-2 infection in sheep and cattle in samsun province, turkey.july 2004, a cow with clinical signs of ovine herpesvirus type-2 infection which is known as sheep associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf) was reported in samsun province in turkey. blood samples were collected from the suspected cow, 10 sheep housed with it, and from 150 healthy sheep and 29 healthy cattle randomly selected from different places in samsun province. nested polymerase chain reaction (n-pcr) was used to detect ovine herpesvirus type-2 (ovhv-2) dna in the suspected cow and co ...200617009812
identification of novel rodent herpesviruses, including the first gammaherpesvirus of mus musculus.rodent herpesviruses such as murine cytomegalovirus (host, mus musculus), rat cytomegalovirus (host, rattus norvegicus), and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (hosts, apodemus species) are important tools for the experimental study of human herpesvirus diseases. however, alphaherpesviruses, roseoloviruses, and lymphocryptoviruses, as well as rhadinoviruses, that naturally infect mus musculus (house mouse) and other old world mice are unknown. to identify hitherto-unknown rodent-associated herpesviruses ...200717507487
malignant catarrhal fever-like lesions associated with ovine herpesvirus-2 infection in three goats.this is the first description of malignant catarrhal fever-like lesions associated with ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) infection in goats with central nervous symptoms. the diagnosis was based on typical histological lesions characterized by systemic lymphohistiocytic and fibrinoid vasculitis and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of the detected ovhv-2 sequences.200717543478
glycoprotein l disruption reveals two functional forms of the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 glycoprotein h.the herpesvirus glycoprotein h (gh) and gl associate to form a heterodimer that plays a central role in virus-driven membrane fusion. when archetypal alpha- or betaherpesviruses lack gl, gh misfolds and progeny virions are noninfectious. in order to define the role that gl plays in gamma-2 herpesvirus infections, we disrupted its coding sequence in murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (mhv-68). mhv-68 lacking gl folded gh into a conformation antigenically distinct from the form that normally predominates ...200717050601
rhesus monkey rhadinovirus: a model for the study of kshv.rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv) is one of the closest phylogenetic relatives to the human pathogen kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv)-a gamma-2 herpesvirus and the etiologic agent of three malignancies associated with immunosuppression. in contrast to kshv, rrv displays robust lytic-phase growth in culture, replicating to high titer, and therefore holds promise as an effective model for studying primate gammaherpesvirus lytic gene transcription as well as virion structure, assembly, a ...200717089793
the rta/orf50 transactivator proteins of the gamma-herpesviridae.the replication and transcription activator protein, rta, is encoded by orf50 in kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv) and other known gammaherpesviruses including epstein-barr virus (ebv), rhesus rhadinovirus (rrv), herpesvirus saimiri (hvs), and murine herpesvirus 68 (mhv-68). each rta/orf50 homologue of each gammaherpesvirus plays a pivotal role in the initiation of viral lytic gene expression and lytic reactivation from latency. here we discuss the rta/orf50 of kshv in comparison to ...200717089794
murine gammaherpesvirus-68 glycoprotein b presents a difficult neutralization target to monoclonal antibodies derived from infected mice.persistent viruses disseminate from immune hosts. they must therefore resist neutralization by antibody. murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (mhv-68) represents an accessible model with which to address how resistance to neutralization is achieved and how overcoming it might improve infection control. the mhv-68 glycoprotein b (gb), like that of other herpesviruses, is a virion protein that is essential for infectivity. as such, it presents a potential neutralization target. in order to test whether viru ...200617098966
high levels of retroperitoneal fibromatosis (rf)-associated herpesvirus in rf lesions in macaques are associated with orf73 lana expression in spindleoid tumour cells.two distinct lineages of rhadinoviruses related to kaposi's sarcoma (ks)-associated herpesvirus (kshv; human herpesvirus 8), the causative agent of ks, have been identified. in macaques, the rv1 lineage is represented by retroperitoneal fibromatosis (rf) herpesvirus (rfhv), the homologue of kshv, whilst the rv2 lineage is represented by rhesus rhadinovirus (rrv), a more distantly related virus. real-time quantitative pcr was used to estimate the loads of rv1 and rv2 rhadinoviruses in simian acqu ...200617098967
cd4+ t cells specific for a model latency-associated antigen fail to control a gammaherpesvirus in vivo.cd4(+) t cells play a major role in containing herpesvirus infections. however, their cellular targets remain poorly defined. in vitro cd4(+) t cells have been reported to kill b cells that harbor a latent gammaherpesvirus. we used the b cell-tropic murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (mhv-68) to test whether this also occurred in vivo. mhv-68 that expressed cytoplasmic ovalbumin (ova) in tandem with its episome maintenance protein, orf73, stimulated cd8(+) t cells specific for the h2-k(b)-restricted ova ...200617109468
no link between viral findings in the prostate and subsequent cancer an investigation of 201 prostate tissue samples from patients with benign prostate hyperplasia that later progressed to prostate cancer and 201 matched controls that did not, there were no differences in the prevalence of adenovirus, herpesvirus, papilloma virus, polyoma virus and candida albicans dna.200717117176
limited il-6 production following infection with murine gammaherpesvirus 68.murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (gammahv-68) was found to induce il-6 secretion following in vitro infection of macrophages, but not cultured dendritic or epithelial cells. a detectable, but very limited il-6 response was observed in the lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes following intranasal infection. surprisingly, no detectable in vivo il-6 production was observed in the spleen or sera of infected mice despite observable systemic leukocytosis. these studies demonstrate that endogenous il-6 producti ...200616489506
rhesus rhadinovirus r15 encodes a functional homologue of human cd200.a viral cd200 homologue (vcd200) encoded by open reading frame r15 of rhesus rhadinovirus (rrv), a gammaherpesvirus closely related to human herpesvirus 8 (hhv-8), is described here. rrv vcd200 shares 30% and 28% amino acid identity with human cd200 (hucd200) and hhv-8 vcd200, respectively. in vitro analysis indicated that an fc fusion (vcd200-fc) is expressed as a glycoprotein with a core molecular mass of 53 kda. utilizing monoclonal antibodies raised against vcd200-fc, vcd200 expression was d ...200616501121
inhibition of nf-kappab activation in vivo impairs establishment of gammaherpesvirus latency.a critical determinant in chronic gammaherpesvirus infections is the ability of these viruses to establish latency in a lymphocyte reservoir. the nuclear factor (nf)-kappab family of transcription factors represent key players in b-cell biology and are targeted by gammaherpesviruses to promote host cell survival, proliferation, and transformation. however, the role of nf-kappab signaling in the establishment of latency in vivo has not been addressed. here we report the generation and in vivo cha ...200717257062
molecular characterization of the rhesus rhadinovirus (rrv) orf4 gene and the rrv complement control protein it encodes.the diversity of viral strategies to modulate complement activation indicates that this component of the immune system has significant antiviral potential. one example is the kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv) complement control protein (kcp), which inhibits progression of the complement cascade. rhesus rhadinovirus (rrv), like kshv, is a member of the subfamily gammaherpesvirinae and currently provides the only in vivo model of kshv pathobiology in primates. in the present study, we ...200717287274
resistance to malignant catarrhal fever in american bison (bison bison) is associated with mhc class iia polymorphisms.the rhadinovirus ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) is the most common causative agent of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in clinically susceptible ruminants including cattle and bison. american bison (bison bison) are highly susceptible to clinical mcf. nevertheless, approximately 20% of bison on ranches or in feedlots become infected with the virus without developing clinical disease. defining the genetic basis for differences in susceptibility between bison could facilitate development of improved ...200717326800
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