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herpesvirus sylvilagus in cottontail rabbits: antibody prevalence and flea burden relationships.a serologic survey of a wild cottontail rabbit (sylvilagus floridanus) population in southern wisconsin was conducted from november-march, 1971-72 and november-april, 1972-73, to determine prevalence of antibody against herpesvirus sylvilagus. flea burdens on each live-trapped cottontail were quantified by species. all but six of the 5029 fleas collected were cediopsylla simplex. no correlation was found between flea infestation and viral antibody. of 101 cottontail rabbits trapped, only six had ...197616498867
[identification of the corn mosaic virus, a rhabdovirus, in costa rica].maize mosaic virus (mmv), a rhabdovirus, was identified associated to maize field plants, showing stunting and continuous chlorotic stripes uniformly distributed over the leaf blade. the virus was detected in field samples by agar-gel immunodifussion. enveloped, bacilliform virus particles were observed by electron microscopy in thin sections of naturally infected leaf tissue.19947701083
viral transformation of human t lymphocytes. 19948036988
alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 has a semaphorin-like gene.alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1, a rhadinovirus causing malignant catarrhal fever of ruminants, has an 1959 nucleotide open reading frame with significant homologies to semaphorin genes. while truncated genes of similar structure have been found in poxviruses, this is the first known example of a semaphorin-like gene in a herpesvirus.19959049359
partial characterization of two serologically related dna-binding proteins specified by the cottontail rabbit herpesvirus cthv.we have previously described two serologically related dna-binding phosphoproteins of different apparent molecular mass (75 kda and 35 kda) produced in cottontail rabbit herpesvirus (cthv)-infected cells. the 75 kda protein appeared before the 35 kda protein in the infectious cycle. here, we extend the characterization of these proteins. protease v8 fingerprints of methionine-labelled 35 kda protein showed four major peptide products, three of which co-migrated with major peptides from digests o ...19957661701
primary characterization of a herpesvirus agent associated with kaposi's sarcomae.detection of novel dna sequences in kaposi's sarcoma (ks) and aids-related body cavity-based, non-hodgkin's lymphomas suggests that these neoplasms are caused by a previously unidentified human herpesvirus. we have characterized this agent using a continuously infected b-lymphocyte cell line derived from an aids-related lymphoma and a genomic library made from a ks lesion. in this cell line, the agent has a large episomal genome with an electrophoretic mobility similar to that of 270-kb linear d ...19968523568
kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv or hhv8) in primary effusion lymphoma: ultrastructural demonstration of herpesvirus in lymphoma cells.recent molecular evidence suggests an association with a new herpesvirus, kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv/hhv-8), and primary effusion lymphomas (pels). pels have a characteristic morphology, phenotype, and clinical presentation, with malignant effusions in the absence of a contiguous solid tumor mass. we have established a cell line (ks-1) from a kshv-positive human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-negative patient with pleural cavity-based lymphoma that was passaged into triple-immun ...19968652805
kaposi's sarcoma (ks)-associated herpesvirus and its role in ks.epidemiologic studies have long suggested that kaposi's sarcoma (ks) is caused by a sexually transmissible infectious agent. a new, and presumably human, herpesvirus, kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv/hhv-8), has been detected in ks lesions from aids patients by sequence-based detection techniques. kshv is present in almost all ks lesions from all forms of ks. the virus is a rhadinovirus or gamma-2 herpesvirus most closely related to herpesvirus saimiri (hvs), and possesses several g ...19968884366
cell-homologous genes in the kaposi's sarcoma-associated rhadinovirus human herpesvirus 8: determinants of its pathogenicity? 19979151804
primary structure of the alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 genome.alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (ahv-1) causes wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever, a lymphoproliferative syndrome in ungulate species other than the natural host. based on biological properties and limited structural data, it has been classified as a member of the genus rhadinovirus of the subfamily gammaherpes-virinae. here, we report on cloning and structural analysis of the complete genome of ahv-1 c500. the low gc content dna (l-dna) region of the genome consists of 130,608 bp with lo ...19979261371
a herpesvirus of rhesus monkeys related to the human kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.a herpesvirus that is related to but distinct from the kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv, or human herpesvirus 8) was isolated from rhesus monkeys. the sequence of 10.6 kbp from virion dna revealed the presence of an interleukin-6 homolog similar to what is present in kshv and a closer relatedness of the dna polymerase and glycoprotein b reading frames to those of kshv than to those of any other herpesvirus. this rhesus monkey herpesvirus replicated lytically and to high titers in cu ...19979371642
kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8. 19979612713
human herpes virus 8 (kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus).human herpes virus 8 (hhv-8) is a recently discovered herpesvirus related to herpesvirus saimiri and epstein-barr virus (ebv). it has been assigned to the rhadinovirus genus (gamma-2 herpesvirus) on the basis of its genomic sequence and structure. hhv-8 is the first member of this genus known to infect humans and it is now evident that it is the likely cause of kaposi's sarcoma (ks). the virus is present in endothelial and spindle cells of ks, and in hiv disease the presence of hhv-8 in peripher ...19989659514
human herpesvirus 8--the first human rhadinovirus.kaposi's sarcoma (ks)-associated herpesvirus, also known as human herpesvirus 8 (hhv-8), is the first known human member of the genus rhadinovirus. it is regularly found by polymerase chain reaction in all forms of ks, in certain types of castleman's disease, and in body cavity-based b-cell lymphoma. other members of this virus group occur in nonhuman primates, ungulates, rabbits, and mice and cause in part fulminant lymphomas and other neoplastic disorders of the hematopoietic system. rhadinovi ...19989709307
identification of a thymidylate synthase gene within the genome of chilo iridescent virus.the thymidylate synthase (ts, ec 2.1.1.45) is essential for the de novo synthesis of dtmp in pro- and eucaryotic organisms. consequently it plays a major role in the replication of the dna genome of a cell or a dna virus. the gene encoding the ts of chilo iridescent virus (civ) was identified by nucleotide sequence analysis of the viral genome and was mapped within the ecori civ dna fragments g and r. computer assisted analysis of the dna nucleotide sequence between the genome coordinates 0.482 ...19989926400
stimulation of cyclin-dependent kinase activity and g1- to s-phase transition in human lymphocytes by the human t-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 tax protein.the human t-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 (htlv-1) induces a malignant lymphocytic disease. the htlv-1 transactivator protein, tax, is believed to be crucial for the development of the disease since it is transforming in vitro and induces tumors in transgenic animals. although the transcriptional modulation of viral and cellular gene expression by tax has been analyzed thoroughly, it has remained unclear how the tax functions act on the cell cycle of primary t cells. to investigate the ...19989420268
a human t-cell leukemia virus tax variant incapable of activating nf-kappab retains its immortalizing potential for primary t-lymphocytes.the human t-cell leukemia virus type 1 (htlv-1) transactivator (tax) has been shown to interfere with regulated cellular proliferation. many studies have focused on the ability of tax to transform rodent fibroblasts; however, none has defined the molecular requirements for tax transformation of human lymphoid cells. we show here that tax induces permanent growth of human primary t-lymphocytes by using a transformation/immortalization defective rhadinovirus vector. the cells phenotypically resemb ...19989506967
deregulation of cell growth by the k1 gene of kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.at a position equivalent to the gene encoding the saimiri transforming protein (stp) of herpesvirus saimiri (hvs), kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv) contains a distinct open reading frame called k1. although kshv and hvs are related members of the rhadinovirus subgroup of gamma herpesviruses, k1 and stp exhibit no similarity in amino acid sequence or in structural organization. since stp is required for the oncogenic potential of hvs, we investigated the functional consequence of k1 ...19989546789
sequence and genomic analysis of a rhesus macaque rhadinovirus with similarity to kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8.we have sequenced the long unique region (lur) and characterized the terminal repeats of the genome of a rhesus rhadinovirus (rrv), strain 17577. the lur as sequenced is 131,364 bp in length, with a g+c content of 52.2% and a cpg ratio of 1.11. the genome codes for 79 open reading frames (orfs), with 67 of these orfs similar to genes found in both kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv) (formal name, human herpesvirus 8) and herpesvirus saimiri. eight of the 12 unique genes show similarit ...199910074154
herpesvirus ateles gene product tio interacts with nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases.herpesvirus ateles is a gamma-2-herpesvirus which naturally infects spider monkeys (ateles spp.) and causes malignant lymphoproliferative disorders in various other new world primates. the genomic sequence of herpesvirus ateles strain 73 revealed a close relationship to herpesvirus saimiri, with a high degree of variability within the left terminus of the coding region. a spliced mrna transcribed from this region was detected in new world monkey t-cell lines transformed by herpesvirus ateles in ...199910233922
identification of the r1 oncogene and its protein product from the rhadinovirus of rhesus monkeys.rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv) is a gamma-2 herpesvirus that is most closely related to the human kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv). we have identified a distinct open reading frame at the left end of rrv and designated it r1. the position of the r1 gene is equivalent to that of the saimiri transforming protein (stp) of herpesvirus saimiri (hvs) and of k1 of kshv, other members of the gamma-2 or rhadinovirus subgroup of herpesviruses. the r1 sequence revealed an open reading frame ...199910233975
a rhesus macaque rhadinovirus related to kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 encodes a functional homologue of interleukin-6.the rhesus rhadinovirus strain 17577 (rrv strain 17577) genome is essentially colinear with human herpesvirus 8 (hhv8)/kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv) and encodes several analogous open reading frames (orfs), including the homologue of cellular interleukin-6 (il-6). to determine if the rrv il-6-like orf (rvil-6) is biologically functional, it was expressed either transiently in cos-1 cells or purified from bacteria as a glutathione s-transferase (gst)-rvil-6 fusion and analyzed by ...199910364379
rhesus rhadinovirus establishes a latent infection in b lymphocytes in vivo.recent dna sequence analysis indicates that rhesus rhadinovirus (rrv) is a member of the lymphotropic gamma-2 herpesvirus family. to determine if rrv is lymphotropic, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from naturally infected monkeys were separated by immunomagnetic bead depletion and analyzed for the presence of rrv by virus isolation and nested pcr. the recovery and consistent detection of rrv in the cd20(+)-enriched fraction clearly demonstrates that b lymphocytes are a major site of virus pe ...199910438883
identification, sequence analysis and characterisation of equine herpesvirus 5 glycoprotein b.the complete nucleotide sequence of the gammaherpesvirus equine herpesvirus 5 (ehv5) glycoprotein b (gb) was determined and the deduced amino acid sequence compared with that of the second equine gammaherpesvirus ehv2. ehv5 gb is an 870 amino acid protein and is 79% similar and 66% identical with ehv2 gb at the amino acid level. ehv5 gb like ehv2 gb is a disulphide linked heterodimer with subunits of 92 and 68 kda. ehv5 gb is an integral membrane glycoprotein containing only n-linked oligosaccha ...199910470254
induction of b cell hyperplasia in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques with the simian homologue of kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.a simian homologue of kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv), the eighth human herpesvirus (hhv8), was isolated from a simian immunodeficiency virus (siv)-infected rhesus macaque (macaca mulatta) that developed a multicentric lymphoproliferative disorder (lpd). this simian rhadinovirus is genetically similar to a recently described rhesus rhadinovirus (rrv) (desrosiers, r.c., v.g. sasseville, s.c. czajak, x. zhang, k.g. mansfield, a. kaur, r.p. johnson, a.a. lackner, and j.u. jung. 1997. ...199910499921
primate herpesviral oncogenes.gammaherpesviruses are the most rapidly growing members of the herpesviridae family. gamma herpesviruses share similarity in their genome organizations and in early and late lytic genes that are required for viral replication. a distinct characteristic of gamma herpesviruses is their ability to establish latent infection in lymphoid cells, and some of these viruses are closely associated with abnormal proliferation and cancer in primates. the first open reading frame of the primate gamma herpesv ...199910515596
experimental infection of rhesus and pig-tailed macaques with macaque rhadinoviruses.the recognition of naturally occurring rhadinoviruses in macaque monkeys has spurred interest in their use as models for human infection with kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8). rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) and pig-tailed macaques (macaca nemestrina) were inoculated intravenously with rhadinovirus isolates derived from these species (rhesus rhadinovirus [rrv] and pig-tailed rhadinovirus [prv]). nine rhadinovirus antibody-negative and two rhadinovirus antibody-positiv ...199910559350
genetic analysis of the bovine herpesvirus type 4 gene locus for the putative terminase.the complete dna sequence of the 10-45 kbp hindiii b fragment of bovine herpesvirus type 4 (bohv-4) was determined. this fragment contains nine complete and two incomplete open reading frames (orfs), all of which are homologous to herpesvirus saimiri (hvs), kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (hhv-8) and epstein-barr virus (ebv). particularly, the arrangement of the gene for the terminase-related protein with the two coding exons 29a/29b is conserved among all herpesviruses sequenced to date ...199910595416
primary structure of the herpesvirus ateles genome.herpesvirus ateles is an agent indigenous to spider monkeys (ateles spp.) and causes fulminant lymphomas in various new world primates. structural and genetic relatedness led to the classification of this virus as a member of the genus rhadinovirus. it is most closely related to herpesvirus saimiri. the 108,409-bp light dna segment of the herpesvirus ateles strain 73 genome has two genes for u-rna-like transcripts and 73 open reading frames, of which at least 6 show significant homologies to cel ...200010623770
two distinct gamma-2 herpesviruses in african green monkeys: a second gamma-2 herpesvirus lineage among old world primates?primate gamma-2 herpesviruses (rhadinoviruses) have so far been found in humans (kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [kshv], also called human herpesvirus 8), macaques (macaca spp.) (rhesus rhadinovirus [rrv] and retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus [rfhv]), squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus) (herpesvirus saimiri), and spider monkeys (ateles spp.) (herpesvirus ateles). using serological screening and degenerate consensus primer pcr for the viral dna polymerase gene, we have detected seq ...200010627572
activation of lymphocyte signaling by the r1 protein of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus.rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv) is a gamma-2 herpesvirus that exhibits a considerable degree of similarity to the human kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv). the r1 protein of rrv is distantly related to the k1 protein of kshv, and r1, like k1, can contribute to cell growth transformation. in this study we analyzed the ability of the cytoplasmic tail of r1 to function as a signal transducer. the cytoplasmic domain of the r1 protein contains several tyrosine residues whose phosphorylat ...200010684288
the primary sequence of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus isolate 26-95: sequence similarities to kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and rhesus monkey rhadinovirus isolate 17577.the primary sequence of the long unique region l-dna (l for low gc) of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv) isolate 26-95 was determined. the l-dna consists of 130,733 bp that contain 84 open reading frames (orfs). the overall organization of the rrv26-95 genome was found to be very similar to that of human kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv). blast search analysis revealed that in almost all cases rrv26-95 coding sequences have a greater degree of similarity to corresponding kshv sequences ...200010708456
glycoprotein b of human herpesvirus 8 is a component of the virion in a cleaved form composed of amino- and carboxyl-terminal fragments.human herpesvirus 8 (hhv-8) or kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv) is the only known human member of the rhadinovirus genus of the gammaherpesvirus subfamily. antibodies against peptides representing portions of the amino- and carboxyl-termini of hhv-8 gb were produced and used to detect gb expression in vero cells transfected with the gb gene, in the hhv-8-harboring cell line, bcbl-1, and in purified virions. expression of gb was detected in approximately 3% of uninduced bcbl-1 cells ...200010725194
characterization of the human herpesvirus 8 (kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) oncogene, kaposin (orf k12).background: human herpesvirus 8 (hhv-8) has been implicated in the etiology of kaposi's sarcoma (ks), a highly angiogenic tumor of complex histology, and two lymphoproliferative diseases, primary effusion lymphoma (pel) and multicentric castleman's disease (mcd). a number of hhv-8 encoded genes have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of ks and pel and a few have been shown to be oncogenic in heterologous systems (reyes gr, lafemina r, hayward sd, hayward gs. morphological transform ...200010738139
characterization of two divergent lineages of macaque rhadinoviruses related to kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.we have cloned and characterized the entire dna polymerase gene and flanking regions from kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv) and two closely related macaque homologs of kshv, retroperitoneal fibromatosis-associated herpesvirus-macaca nemestrina (rfhvmn) and -macaca mulatta (rfhvmm). we have also identified and partially characterized the corresponding genomic region of another kshv-like herpesvirus, provisionally named "m. nemestrina rhadinovirus type 2 (mnerv-2)," with close similar ...200010775636
kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8): epidemiology and pathogenesis.kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv), or human herpesvirus type 8 (hhv-8), is a gamma2 herpesvirus (rhadinovirus) and the most recently discovered human tumour virus. it is involved in the pathogenesis of kaposi's sarcoma (ks), primary effusion lymphoma and the plasma cell variant of multicentric castleman's disease. kshv is not pathogenic in most otherwise healthy individuals but is highly oncogenic in hiv-1-infected and iatrogenically immunosuppressed individuals. it establishes a la ...200010855768
t-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in an aged rhesus macaque.a cd8+ t-cell leukemia was diagnosed in an aged female rhesus macaque. although leukemia and lymphoma in nonhuman primates are commonly associated with simian t-lymphotropic virus, gibbon ape leukemia virus, oncogenic herpesviruses, and types c, d, and e retroviruses, this monkey was not infected with any of these viruses. however, the monkey did have antibodies against herpesvirus saimiri. this likely represents cross-reactivity of the herpesvirus saimiri assay with rhesus monkey rhadinovirus ( ...200010935045
cloning of the rhesus lymphocryptovirus viral capsid antigen and epstein-barr virus-encoded small rna homologues and use in diagnosis of acute and persistent infections.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with the development of several human malignancies. a closely related herpesvirus in the same lymphocryptovirus (lcv) genera as ebv naturally infects rhesus monkeys and provides an important animal model for studying ebv pathogenesis. we cloned the small viral capsid antigen (svca) homologue from the rhesus lcv and developed a peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to determine whether epit ...200010970361
kshv-like herpesviruses in chimps and gorillas. 200011001045
characterization of rkz isolate of ovine herpesvirus 1.cytopathic effect (cpe) characterized mainly by foci of rounded cells was observed in cultures of primary plexus choroideus cells from healthy lamb following cryopreservation. it was possible to transmit the infectious agent to other primary cells of ovine origin by co-cultivation with infected cells. by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy it was found that high percentage of sheep (65-80% in 3 different herds from slovakia) are infected with this infectious agent. electron microscopy of cell ...200011332276
species specificity of macaque rhadinovirus glycoprotein b sequences.all members of the herpesviridae family contain sequences for a highly conserved glycoprotein b (gb) gene. we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of gb sequences from eight independent rhadinovirus isolates obtained from three species: rhesus (macaca mulatta), cynomologus (macaca fasicularis), and pig-tailed (macaca nemestrina) macaques. samples were derived from monkeys housed at four separate facilities. analysis of these eight independent gb sequences revealed five regions of heteroge ...200010590154
rhadinoviruses (gamma2-herpesviruses) of old world primates: models for kshv/hhv8-associated disease? 200011086845
simian homologues of human gamma-2 and betaherpesviruses in mandrill and drill monkeys.recent serological and molecular surveys of different primate species allowed the characterization of several kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv) homologues in macaques, african green monkeys, chimpanzees, and gorillas. identification of these new primate rhadinoviruses revealed the existence of two distinct genogroups, called rv1 and rv2. using a degenerate consensus primer pcr method for the herpesvirus dna polymerase gene, the presence of kshv homologues has been investigated in tw ...200011090203
common metastatic carcinoma of california sea lions (zalophus californianus): evidence of genital origin and association with novel gammaherpesvirus.tissues from 10 adult california sea lions (zalophus californianus, seven females and three males) that had metastatic carcinoma in sublumbar area lymph nodes were examined histologically. a distinctive epithelial proliferative lesion interpreted as intraepithelial neoplasia was found in genital tracts of all ten animals; in vagina (5/7), cervix (7/7), uterus (3/7), penis (3/3) and prepuce (3/3). intraepithelial neoplasia closely resembled metastatic carcinomas and was directly contiguous with i ...200011105950
a chimpanzee rhadinovirus sequence related to kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8: increased detection after hiv-1 infection in the absence of disease.to look for a virus related to kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv) or human herpesvirus 8 (hhv8) in chimpanzees and to investigate phylogenetic and biological similarities to kshv.200011125908
genome sequence of bovine herpesvirus 4, a bovine rhadinovirus, and identification of an origin of dna replication.bovine herpesvirus 4 (bohv-4) is a gammaherpesvirus of cattle. the complete long unique coding region (lur) of bohv-4 strain 66-p-347 was determined by a shotgun approach. together with the previously published noncoding terminal repeats, the entire genome sequence of bohv-4 is now available. the lur consists of 108,873 bp with an overall g+c content of 41.4%. at least 79 open reading frames (orfs) are present in this coding region, 17 of them unique to bohv-4. in contrast to herpesvirus saimiri ...200111152491
molecular virology of kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv), the most recently discovered human tumour virus, is the causative agent of kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and some forms of castleman's disease. kshv is a rhadinovirus, and like other rhadinoviruses, it has an extensive array of regulatory genes obtained from the host cell genome. these pirated kshv proteins include homologues to cellular cd21, three different beta-chemokines, il-6, bcl-2, several different interferon regulatory factor ...200111313008
simian homologues of human herpesvirus 8.gamma-herpesviruses can be found in most primates including old world an new world monkeys. the gamma-herpesvirinae are grouped into two classes: lymphocryptoviruses (gamma1) and rhadinoviruses (gamma2). the lymphocryptoviruses include epstein-barr virus, lymphocryptovirus of rhesus monkeys, and herpesvirus papio of baboons. rhadinoviruses that infect new world monkeys include herpesvirus saimiri, whose natural host is the squirrel monkey, and herpesvirus ateles, which infects spider monkeys. rh ...200111313010
comparative pathobiology of hiv- and siv-associated lymphoma. 200111429114
a novel gamma 2-herpesvirus of the rhadinovirus 2 lineage in chimpanzees.old world monkeys and, recently, african great apes have been shown, by serology and polymerase chain reaction (pcr), to harbor different gamma2-herpesviruses closely related to kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv). although the presence of two distinct lineages of kshv-like rhadinoviruses, rv1 and rv2, has been revealed in old world primates (including african green monkeys, macaques, and, recently, mandrills), viruses belonging to the rv2 genogroup have not yet been identified from g ...200111544194
the use of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to detect infections of equine herpesvirus type 2 (ehv-2).a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to detect antibodies to equine herpesvirus 2 in serum samples of horses. by measuring the binding to a single epitope, this blocking elisa gives a good picture of the antibody status in the animal. the test is based on a monoclonal antibody with neutralizing activity and had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 100%. antibodies due to newly acquired infection in foals were successfully detected with this blocking elisa.200111580059
detection of equine herpesvirus type 2 (ehv-2) in horses with keratoconjunctivitis.the prevalence of ehv-2 in 27 horses with keratoconjunctivitis and 21 clinically healthy horses of different ages and stocks were analyzed. we demonstrated that ehv-2 was present in 12 keratoconjunctivitis cases as shown by nested pcr on ocular swabs. this is statistically more often than in the control group, where only two ocular swabs were ehv-2 positive. cocultivation was successful on peripheral blood leukocytes of healthy and diseased horses but not on swabs. we isolated ten ehv-2 strains ...200111597754
identification of the rhesus macaque rhadinovirus lytic origin of dna replication.we have identified a lytic origin of dna replication (orilyt) for rhesus macaque rhadinovirus (rrv), the rhesus macaque homolog of human herpesvirus 8 (hhv-8), also known as kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. rrv orilyt maps to the region of the genome between open reading frame 69 (orf69) and orf71 (vflip) and is composed of an upstream a+t-rich region followed by a short (300-bp) downstream g+c-rich dna sequence. a set of overlapping cosmids corresponding to the entire genome of rrv was ...200111689621
identification of equine herpesvirus 3 (equine coital exanthema virus), equine gammaherpesviruses 2 and 5, equine adenoviruses 1 and 2, equine arteritis virus and equine rhinitis a virus by polymerase chain reaction.to develop rapid (< 8 hour) tests using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the diagnosis of equine herpesvirus 3 (ehv3; equine coital exanthema virus), equine gammaherpesviruses 2 (ehv2) and ehv5, equine adenovirus 1 (eadv1), eadv2, equine arteritis virus (eav), equine rhinitis a virus (erav; formerly equine rhinovirus 1)200111712710
the role of antigen in the localization of naive, acutely activated, and memory cd8(+) t cells to the lung during influenza pneumonia.the role of ag in the recruitment and localization of naive, acutely activated, and memory cd8(+) t cells to the lung during influenza infection was explored using tcr-transgenic (tg) mice. naive, thy1.2(+)cd8(+) ot-i tcr-tg cells were primed and recruited to the lung after transfer into congenic thy1.1(+) recipients challenged with a genetically engineered influenza virus (influenza a/wsn/33 (wsn)-ova(i)) containing the k(b) restricted ova(257-264) epitope (siinfekl) in the viral neuraminidase ...200111739518
relative deficiency in cpg dinucleotides is a widespread but not unique feature of gammaherpesvirinae genomes.since methylcytosine is relatively unstable, a deficiency of cpg dinucleotides and accumulation of mutations that manifest as tpg (and its complement cpa) is a diagnostic feature of higher eukaryotic dna sequences subjected to methylation by dna (cytosine-5) methyltransferases. latent viral genomes may also be affected by dna methylation in their host cells. we calculated, therefore, frequencies of dinucleotides in 20 completely sequenced herpesvirus genomes. we found a relative deficiency of cp ...200111791338
factors controlling levels of cd8+ t-cell lymphocytosis associated with murine gamma-herpesvirus infection.intranasal infection of mice with murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (mhv-68) elicits a striking cd8+ t-cell lymphocytosis following the establishment of latency, which includes a marked increased frequency of vbeta4+ cd8+ t cells. the vbeta4+ cd8+ t cells do not recognize a conventional viral peptide, but are stimulated by an uncharacterized ligand expressed on latently infected, activated b cells. the selective expansion of vbeta4+ cd8+ t cells after mhv-68 infection is observed in all mouse strains ...200111792068
comparative analysis of the transforming mechanisms of epstein-barr virus, kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, and herpesvirus saimiri.members of the gamma herpesvirus family include the lymphocryptoviruses (gamma-1 herpesviruses) and the rhadinoviruses (gamma-2 herpesviruses). gammaherpesvirinae uniformly establish long-term, latent, reactivatable infection of lymphocytes, and several members of the gamma herpesviruses are associated with lymphoproliferative diseases. epstein-barr virus is a lymphocryptovirus, whereas kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and herpesvirus saimiri are members of the rhadinovirus family. genes en ...200111034540
antigen expression during murine gamma-herpesvirus infection.gammaherpesviruses (gammahv) establish a life-long latency in the host and are associated with a number of malignant human diseases. it is generally believed that t cells play a major role in controlling the initial acute infection and subsequently maintaining the virus in a quiescent state. however, the nature of the t cell response to gamma-herpesvirus infections is poorly understood. in the current report we took advantage of a mouse model of gammahv infection (murine herpesvirus-68, mhv-68) ...200111846230
influence of equine herpesvirus type 2 infection on monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 gene transcription in equine blood mononuclear cells.representational difference analysis (rda) was used to compare gene expression in equine mononuclear cells either infected with equine herpesvirus-2 (ehv-2) or adsorbed with inactivated ehv-2. seven clones identified in non-infected cells after three rounds of selective subtraction and enrichment for differentially expressed genes contained sequences homologous to equine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (mcp-1). this suggested that ehv-2 may down-regulate mcp-1 transcription in infected cells. ...200111883888
generation of a life-expanded rhesus monkey fibroblast cell line for the growth of rhesus rhadinovirus (rrv).rrv, the rhesus macaque equivalent to hhv-8 or kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv) was recently isolated from a simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) infected macaque with a lymphoproliferative disorder. the growth of rrv in tissue culture requires propagation of primary rhesus monkey fibroblasts (rfs). in an effort to extend the life of these primary cells in tissue culture, the catalytic subunit of telomerase (htert) was introduced into rf cells using a recombinant retrovirus. this ne ...200211890526
critical role for a high-affinity chemokine-binding protein in gamma-herpesvirus-induced lethal meningitis.chemokines are involved in recruitment and activation of hematopoietic cells in sites of infection and inflammation. the m3 gene of the gamma-herpesvirus gammahv68 encodes an abundant secreted protein that binds cc chemokines with high affinity. we report here that this gene is essential for efficient induction of lethal meningitis by gammahv68. an m3 mutant gammahv68 (gammahv68-m3.stop) was 100-fold less virulent than wild-type or marker rescue control (gammahv68-m3.mr) viruses after intracereb ...200211927617
enhanced atherogenesis is not an obligatory response to systemic herpesvirus infection in the apoe-deficient mouse: comparison of murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 and herpes simplex virus-1.viral and bacterial infectious agents have been implicated in the etiology of atherosclerosis. we have previously shown that a gamma-herpesvirus can accelerate atherosclerosis in the apolipoprotein e-deficient (apoe-/-) mouse. to address whether a virally induced systemic immune response is sufficient to trigger enhanced atheroma formation, we infected apoe-/- mice with murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 (mhv-68) or herpes simplex virus-1 (hsv-1). in this study, we show that both viruses were able to i ...200212006392
a mouse model for infectious mononucleosis.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is a ubiquitous human gamma-herpesvirus that establishes life-long latency and is associated with lymphoproliferative disorders and the development of several malignancies. ebv infection is frequently, but not always, associated with the development of a syndrome termed infectious mononucleosis. the recent isolation and characterization of a murine gamma-herpesvirus, mhv-68 (gammahv-68) has provided the first small animal model for studying immunity and pathogenesis of a ...200212018460
prevalence of equine herpesvirus types 2 and 5 in horse populations by using type-specific pcr assays.equineherpesvirustypes 2 and 5 (ehv-2andehv-5)have a rather unclearpathogenicity and distribution within the equid population. in order to gain more information on the prevalence of these two viruses, type-specific pcr assays were developed to detect viral dna in nasal specimens and in peripheral blood leukocytes (pbls) of adult horses and foals from various regions of europe, i.e. sweden, hungary and the united kingdom. in adult horses, the prevalence of ehv-2 in pbls was up to 68% in sweden an ...200212056476
spectrum of kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, or human herpesvirus 8, diseases.human herpesvirus 8 (hhv-8), also known as kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv), discovered in 1994, is a human rhadinovirus (gamma-2 herpesvirus). unlike other human herpesviruses (herpes simplex virus, epstein-barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, hhv-6, and hhv-7), it is not widespread in the general population and has many unique proteins. hhv-8 is strongly associated with all subtypes of kaposi's sarcoma (ks), multicentric castleman's disease, and a rare form of b-c ...200212097251
k3-mediated evasion of cd8(+) t cells aids amplification of a latent gamma-herpesvirus.the murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 (mhv-68) k3 protein, like that of the kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus, down-regulates major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i expression. however, how this contributes to viral replication in vivo is unclear. after intranasal mhv-68 infection, k3 was transcribed both during acute lytic infection in the lung and during latency establishment in lymphoid tissue. k3-deficient viruses were not cleared more rapidly from the lung, but the number of latentl ...200212101398
the mouse is not permissive for equine herpesvirus 2 (ehv-2), however viral dna persisted in lung and spleen depending on the inoculation route.balb/c mice were inoculated with 3 ehv-2 low passage isolates. after intranasal inoculation, viral dna was detected by virus-specific nested pcr in the lung up to day 30 post inoculation and in nasal turbinates till day 7. in trigeminal ganglia, olfactory bulb, brain and lymph nodes viral dna was randomly shown by pcr. after intraperitoneal inoculation viral dna was present in lymphoid tissues. the spleen was pcr positive up to day 30 and showed a splenomegaly. clinical signs, virus replication ...200212111417
identification of the bzip and rta homologues in the genome of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus.rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv) is a gamma2-herpesvirus identified from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta). serologic studies suggested that the infections of rrv are prevalent among rhesus monkeys. rrv can be efficiently propagated and grows to a high titer in cultured rhesus monkey fibroblasts, thus providing a valuable model to study the rhadinovirus replication. by comparative genomic studies, here we describe the identification of two potential trans ...200212127781
critical role of complement and viral evasion of complement in acute, persistent, and latent gamma-herpesvirus infection.several gamma-herpesviruses encode homologs of host regulators of complement activation (rca) proteins, suggesting that they have evolved immune evasion strategies targeting complement. we evaluated the role of complement factor c3 (c3) and the murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (gammahv68) rca protein in viral pathogenesis. deletion of the gammahv68 rca protein decreased virulence during acute cns infection, and this attenuation was specifically reversed by deletion of host c3. the gammahv68 rca prote ...200212196286
immunophenotyping of leukocytes in peripheral blood of balb/c mice infected with mouse herpesvirus isolate 72.we characterized leukocytes in peripheral blood of balb/c mice infected with mouse herpesvirus isolate 72 (mhv-72) representing an isolate of mouse herpesvirus strain 68 (mhv-68, species murid herpesvirus 4, genus rhadinovirus, subfamily gammaherpesvirinae, family herpesviridae) (van regenmortel et al., 2000). in acute infection (up to day 30 post infection (p.i.)) the number of cd8+ t cells increased, reaching a maximum at day 11 p.i. this increase correlated with that of cd4+ t, activated cd 1 ...200212197630
pathogenetic characterization of a mouse herpesvirus isolate sumava.balb/c mice inoculated intranasally (i.n.) with the mouse herpesvirus isolate sumava (mhv-sumava) did not show apparent symptoms of illness. however, they showed an increase in the number of leukocytes and appearance of atypical leukocytes in peripheral blood. the infiltration of spleen with atypical cells resulted in splenomegaly. in the course of the infection the virus persisted in lungs, spleen, thymus, bone marrow, mammary glands, peritoneal macrophages and liver. we regard mhv-sumava as on ...200212197633
malignant catarrhal fever-like disease in barbary red deer (cervus elaphus barbarus) naturally infected with a virus resembling alcelaphine herpesvirus 2.eight barbary red deer (cervus elaphus barbarus) developed clinical signs suggestive of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) over a 28-day period. these animals were housed outdoors with four other species of ruminants. affected red deer had lethargy, ocular signs, and nasal discharge and were euthanatized within 48 h. lesions included ulcers of the muzzle, lips, and oral cavity associated with infiltrates of neutrophils and lymphocytes. serologically, six of seven red deer tested during the outbreak ...200212202582
kinetics of expression of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv) and identification and characterization of a polycistronic transcript encoding the rrv orf50/rta, rrv r8, and r8.1 genes.rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv) is a close relative of kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv; human herpesvirus 8). rrv serves as an in vitro and an in vivo model for kshv, and the mapping of its transcription program during lytic replication is significant since it represents de novo infection in the absence of stimulation with phorbol esters. further, the rrv lytic system facilitates the making of recombinant viruses, and hence transcription profiling of the wild-type virus is importa ...200212208960
elevated chemokine responses are maintained in lungs after clearance of viral infection.we observed two patterns of chemokine expression in the lungs of mice infected with murine gammaherpesvirus 68: peaks of chemokine expression correlated with or occurred after the peak of viral gene expression. chemokine expression remained elevated through 29 days postinfection.200212239330
irf3 mediates a tlr3/tlr4-specific antiviral gene program.we have identified a subset of genes that is specifically induced by stimulation of tlr3 or tlr4 but not by tlr2 or tlr9. further gene expression analyses established that upregulation of several primary response genes was dependent on nf-kappab, commonly activated by several tlrs, and interferon regulatory factor 3 (irf3), which was found to confer tlr3/tlr4 specificity. also identified was a group of secondary response genes which are part of an autocrine/paracrine loop activated by the primar ...200212354379
gammaherpesviruses encode functional dihydrofolate reductase activity.we overexpressed and purified from escherichia coli the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) of the gammaherpesviruses human herpesvirus 8 (hhv-8), herpesvirus saimiri (hvs), and rhesus rhadinovirus (rrv). all three enzymes proved catalytically active. the k(m) value of hhv-8 dhfr for dihydrofolate (dhf) was 2.02+/-0.44 microm, that of hvs dhfr was 4.31+/-0.56 microm, and that of rrv dhfr is 7.09+/-0.11 microm. these values are approximately 5-15-fold higher than the k(m) value reported for the human ...200212359216
a battle for survival: immune control and immune evasion in murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 infection.cd8(+) t cells are generally considered a key defence against herpesviruses. the murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 encodes two proteins that limit their efficacy. m3 neutralizes chemokines, while k3 downregulates mhc class i glycoproteins. the consequence of this evasion is that cd4(+) t cells are essential to the control of persistent infection.200212361918
isolation and expression of three open reading frames from ovine herpesvirus-2.ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2), a member of the gammaherpesviruses (genus rhadinovirus), asymptomatically infects its natural host, the sheep, but causes malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in susceptible hosts, such as cattle, deer and pigs. a permissive cell culture system for virus replication has not been identified but viral dna is present within lymphoblastoid cell lines (lcls) established from cases of mcf. during this study, a cdna expression library generated from lcls was screened with sheep ...200211842248
the human herpes virus 8-encoded viral flice inhibitory protein protects against growth factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis via nf-kappa b activation.the human herpes virus 8 (hhv8)-encoded viral flice (fas-associating protein with death domain-like interleukin-1-converting enzyme) inhibitory protein (vflip) is believed to protect cells against death receptor-mediated apoptosis. in the present study we demonstrate that expression of hhv8 vflip in a growth factor-dependent tf-1 leukemia cell line protects against growth factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis. unlike vector-expressing cells, those expressing hhv8 vflip maintain their mitochondrial ...200312406869
a gammaherpesvirus g protein-coupled receptor homologue is required for increased viral replication in response to chemokines and efficient reactivation from latency.the open reading frame (orf) 74 of gamma-2-herpesviruses encodes a g protein-coupled receptor which is highly conserved in members of this subfamily and is homologous to the cxcr2 chemokine receptor. the viral g protein-coupled receptor has been implicated in viral pathogenesis. however, the advantage of such chemokine receptor homologues to the virus is currently unknown. to address this, we constructed orf74 deletion mutants of a mouse gamma-2-herpesvirus (mhv-68) and examined the effect of th ...200312496406
a g protein-coupled receptor encoded by rhesus rhadinovirus is similar to orf74 of kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.rhesus rhadinovirus (rrv) is a gamma-2 herpesvirus and is the rhesus macaque homologue of human herpesvirus 8 (hhv-8), also known as kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. dna sequence analysis of rrv indicates that it shares numerous open reading frames (orfs) with hhv-8, including one (orf74) encoding a seven-transmembrane-spanning g protein-coupled receptor (gpcr) with similarity to cellular chemokine receptors. examination of the predicted amino acid sequence of rrv orf74 reveals that it e ...200312525607
herpesvirus saimiri: a potential gene delivery vector (review).the success of human gene therapy relies on efficient delivery and appropriate expression of therapeutic genes which will cure or slow the progression of a disease. however, current viral vectors do not possess the full complement of properties that are generally believed necessary in an ideal gene delivery system. therefore, alongside attempts to improve current gene delivery vectors, the identification and evaluation of new viral vectors is crucial to the long-term success of gene therapy. her ...200312525867
the wood mouse is a natural host for murid herpesvirus 4.infection of laboratory mice by the murid herpesvirus 4 (mhv-4) is a much studied model system for gammaherpesvirus pathogenesis. little, however, is known about its natural host range, epidemiology and pathogenesis outside the laboratory. we have studied mhv-4 infection in free-living murids in the uk. using a combination of serology and pcr analysis, we found that mhv-4 was endemic in wood mice (apodemus sylvaticus) but not in two species of voles (clethrionomys glareolus, microtus agrestis). ...200312533706
reduced ctl response and increased viral burden in substance p receptor-deficient mice infected with murine gamma-herpesvirus 68.one component of the protective host response against mucosal pathogens includes the local production and increased expression of certain neuropeptides and their receptors. the present study further demonstrates this fact by investigating the contribution that substance p receptor expression makes toward immunity against a gamma-herpesvirus infection. following intragastric inoculation with murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (gamma hv-68), expression of substance p and its receptor was increased in muc ...200312594288
murine gammaherpesvirus-68 infects microglia and induces high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine production.murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (mhv-68) has been established as a tractable model for the study of human herpesvirus infections. recent associations between herpesvirus infections and inflammatory central nervous system (cns) disorders, including multiple sclerosis (ms), have prompted us to investigate the susceptibility of cultured microglia and astrocytes to mhv-68 infection. in the present study, we demonstrate that mhv-68 can infect both cell types. importantly, we show that mhv-68-infected micr ...200312620645
human herpesvirus 8: biology and role in the pathogenesis of kaposi's sarcoma and other aids-related malignancies.human herpesvirus type 8, or kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv), is the only known human g(2) herpesvirus (rhadinovirus) and the most recently discovered tumor virus. kshv is associated with kaposi's sarcoma and two other lymphoproliferative disorders in the aids setting: primary effusion lymphoma and the plasma cell variant of multicentric castleman's disease. this review offers an update on the epidemiology and the role of kshv genes in the development of disease.200312642004
analysis of 4.3 kilobases of divergent locus b of macaque retroperitoneal fibromatosis-associated herpesvirus reveals a close similarity in gene sequence and genome organization to kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.we previously identified retroperitoneal fibromatosis-associated herpesvirus (rfhv) as a simian homolog of kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv) in a fibroproliferative malignancy of macaques that has similarities to kaposi's sarcoma. in this report, we cloned 4.3 kb of divergent locus b (dl-b) flanking the dna polymerase gene from two variants of rfhv from different species of macaque with a consensus degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primer approach. within the dl-b region of rfhv, vi ...200312692211
the latency-associated nuclear antigen homolog of herpesvirus saimiri inhibits lytic virus replication.herpesvirus saimiri (hvs), a t-lymphotropic tumor virus of neotropical primates, and the kaposi's sarcoma-associated human herpesvirus 8 (kshv) belong to the gamma-(2)-herpesvirus (rhadinovirus) subfamily and share numerous features of genome structure and organization. the kshv latency-associated nuclear antigen (lana) protein appears to be relevant for viral persistence, latency, and transformation. it binds to dna, colocalizes with viral episomal dna, and presumably mediates efficient persist ...200312719584
rhesus rhadinovirus infection in healthy and siv-infected macaques at tulane national primate research center.rhesus rhadinovirus (rrv) infection was quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from healthy and simian immunodeficiency virus (siv)-infected rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) at the tulane national primate research center and in a large collection of simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome--(saids)-associated lymphomas. quantification of rrv load was performed by real-time pcr using amplification primers specific for the rrv interleukin-6 homologue (rrv vil-6). rrv infection wa ...200312733596
exacerbation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rodents infected with murine gammaherpesvirus-68.viral infections have long been suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. in the present study, two different rodent models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (eae) were used to demonstrate the ability of murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (gammahv-68) to exacerbate development of neurological symptoms. sjl mice received uv-inactivated gammahv-68 or intranasalgammahv-68, followed by immunization against proteolipid-protein peptide 139-151. infected mice became moribun ...200312811845
novel kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus homolog in baboons.kaposi's sarcoma (ks) and lymphoproliferative diseases induced by ks-associated herpesvirus (kshv/human herpesvirus 8) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. to understand kshv biology it is useful to investigate closely related rhadinoviruses naturally occurring in nonhuman primates. here we report evidence for a novel kshv homolog in captive baboon species (papio anubis and other). using degenerate pcr we identified a novel rhadinovirus, ...200312829855
rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv): construction of a rrv-gfp recombinant virus and development of assays to assess viral replication.rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv) is a gamma-2-herpesvirus that is closely related to kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv/hhv-8). lack of an efficient culture system to grow high titers of virus, and the lack of an in vivo animal model system, has hampered the study of kshv replication and pathogenesis. rrv is capable of replicating to high titers on fibroblasts, thus facilitating the construction of recombinant rhadinoviruses. in addition, the ability to experimentally infect naïve rhe ...200312890626
murid herpesvirus 4 strain 68 m2 protein is a b-cell-associated antigen important for latency but not lymphocytosis.this work describes analyses of the function of the murid herpesvirus 4 strain 68 (mhv-68) m2 gene. a frameshift mutation was made in the m2 open reading frame that caused premature termination of translation of m2 after amino acid residue 90. the m2 mutant showed no defect in productive replication in vitro or in lungs after infection of mice. likewise, the characteristic transient increase in spleen cell number, vbeta4 t-cell-receptor-positive cd8(+) t-cell mononucleosis, and establishment of ...200312915582
the gammaherpesvirus 68 latency-associated nuclear antigen homolog is critical for the establishment of splenic latency.open reading frame 73 (orf 73) is conserved among the gamma-2-herpesviruses (rhadinoviruses) and, in kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv) and herpesvirus saimiri (hvs), has been shown to encode a latency-associated nuclear antigen (lana). the kshv and hvs lanas have also been shown to be required for maintenance of the viral genome as an episome during latency. lana binds both the viral latency-associated origin of replication and the host cell chromosome, thereby ensuring efficient pa ...200312970414
transcription program of murine gammaherpesvirus 68.murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (mhv-68 [also referred to as gammahv68]) is phylogenetically related to kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv [also referred to as hhv-8]) and epstein-barr virus (ebv). however, unlike kshv or ebv, mhv-68 readily infects fibroblast and epithelial cell lines derived from several mammalian species, providing a system to study productive and latent infections as well as reactivation of gammaherpesviruses in vivo and in vitro. to carry out rapid genome-wide analysi ...200312970434
the genome of herpesvirus saimiri c488 which is capable of transforming human t cells.herpesvirus saimiri (hvs), the rhadinovirus prototype, is apathogenic in the persistently infected natural host, the squirrel monkey, but causes acute t cell leukemia in other new world primate species. in contrast to subgroups a and b, only strains of hvs subgroup c such as c488 are capable of transforming primary human t cells to stable antigen-independent growth in culture. here, we report the complete 155-kb genome sequence of the transformation-competent hvs strain c488. the a+t-rich unique ...200314554077
three-dimensional structures of the a, b, and c capsids of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus: insights into gammaherpesvirus capsid assembly, maturation, and dna packaging.rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv) exhibits high levels of sequence homology to human gammaherpesviruses, such as kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, and grows to high titers in cell cultures, making it a good model system for studying gammaherpesvirus capsid structure and assembly. we have purified rrv a, b, and c capsids, thus for the first time allowing direct structure comparisons by electron cryomicroscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction. the results show that the shells of these ca ...200314645575
de novo infection with rhesus monkey rhadinovirus leads to the accumulation of multiple intranuclear capsid species during lytic replication but favors the release of genome-containing virions.rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv) is one of the closest phylogenetic relatives to the human pathogen kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv), yet it has the distinct experimental advantage of entering efficiently into lytic replication and growing to high titers in culture. rrv therefore holds promise as a potentially attractive model with which to study gammaherpesvirus structure and assembly. we have isolated rrv capsids, determined their molecular composition, and identified the genes e ...200314645602
orf73 of murine herpesvirus-68 is critical for the establishment and maintenance of latency.in vitro studies have established that the latency-associated nuclear antigen encoded by human kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and the related orf73 gene product of herpesvirus saimiri interact with virus origins of replication to facilitate maintenance of episomal dna. such a function implies a critical role for orf73 in the establishment and maintenance of latency in vivo. to determine the role of orf73 in virus pathogenesis, the orf73 gene product encoded by murine herpesvirus-68 (mhv ...200314645921
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