effect of cytomegalovirus and epstein-barr virus replication on intestinal mucosal gene expression and microbiome composition of hiv-infected and uninfected is associated with dramatic changes in the intestinal mucosa. the impact of other viral pathogens is unclear.201728906277
heterogeneity of the epstein-barr virus (ebv) major internal repeat reveals evolutionary mechanisms of ebv and a functional defect in the prototype ebv strain b95-8.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is a ubiquitous pathogen of humans that can cause several types of lymphoma and carcinoma. like other herpesviruses, ebv has diversified through both coevolution with its host and genetic exchange between virus strains. sequence analysis of the ebv genome is unusually challenging because of the large number and lengths of repeat regions within the virus. here we describe the sequence assembly and analysis of the large internal repeat 1 of ebv (ir1; also known as the bamw ...201728904201
epstein-barr virus bkrf4 gene product is required for efficient progeny production.epstein-barr virus (ebv), a member of human gammaherpesvirus, infects mainly b cells. ebv has two alternative life cycles, latent and lytic, and is reactivated occasionally from the latent stage to the lytic cycle. to combat ebv-associated disorders, understanding the molecular mechanisms of the ebv lytic replication cycle is also important. here, we focused on an ebv lytic gene, bkrf4. using our anti-bkrf4 antibody, we revealed that the bkrf4 gene product is expressed during the lytic cycle wit ...201728904200
combination of tumor volume and epstein-barr virus dna improved prognostic stratification of stage ii nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the imrt era: a large-scale cohort study.little is known about combination of the circulating epstein-barr viral (ebv) dna and tumor volume in prognosis of stage ii nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc) patients in the intensity modulated radiotherapy (imrt) era. we conducted this cohort study to evaluate the prognostic values of combining these two factors.201728903550
histone modification alteration coordinated with acquisition of promoter dna methylation during epstein-barr virus infection.aberrant dna hypermethylation is a major epigenetic mechanism to inactivate tumor suppressor genes in cancer. epstein-barr virus positive gastric cancer is the most frequently hypermethylated tumor among human malignancies. herein, we performed comprehensive analysis of epigenomic alteration during ebv infection, by infinium humanmethylation 450k beadchip for dna methylation and chip-sequencing for histone modification alteration during ebv infection into gastric cancer cell line mkn7. among 7,7 ...201728903418
pretreatment nomograms for local and regional recurrence after radical radiation therapy for primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma.background: the aim of this study was to build nomograms to predict local recurrence (lr) and regional recurrence (rr) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc) underwent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (imrt). patients and methods : a total of 1811 patients with non-metastatic npc treated with imrt (with or without chemotherapy) between october 2009 and february 2012 at our center were involved for building the nomograms. nomograms for lr-free rate and rr-free rate at 3- and 5- year ...201728900497
regulatory network changes between cell lines and their tissues of origin.cell lines are an indispensable tool in biomedical research and often used as surrogates for tissues. although there are recognized important cellular and transcriptomic differences between cell lines and tissues, a systematic overview of the differences between the regulatory processes of a cell line and those of its tissue of origin has not been conducted. the rna-seq data generated by the gtex project is the first available data resource in which it is possible to perform a large-scale transc ...201728899340
ebv and hhv-6 circulating subtypes in people living with hiv in burkina faso, impact on cd4 t cell count and hiv viral load.epstein barr virus (ebv) and human herpes virus 6 (hhv-6) are responsible for severe diseases, particularly in immunocompromised persons. there is limited data of the infection of these opportunistic viruses in burkina faso. the purpose of this study was to characterize ebv and hhv-6 subtypes and to assess their impact on cd4 t cell count, hiv-1 viral load and antiretroviral treatment in people living with hiv-1. the study population consisted of 238 hiv-positive patients with information on the ...201728894558
epstein-barr virus-associated lymphomas.epstein-barr virus (ebv), originally discovered through its association with burkitt lymphoma, is now aetiologically linked to a remarkably wide range of lymphoproliferative lesions and malignant lymphomas of b-, t- and nk-cell origin. some occur as rare accidents of virus persistence in the b lymphoid system, while others arise as a result of viral entry into unnatural target cells. the early finding that ebv is a potent b-cell growth transforming agent hinted at a simple oncogenic mechanism by ...201728893938
epstein-barr virus infection and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is associated with multiple types of human cancer, including lymphoid and epithelial cancers. the closest association with ebv infection is seen in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc), which is endemic in the southern chinese population. a strong association between npc risk and the hla locus at chromosome 6p has been identified, indicating a link between the presentation of ebv antigens to host immune cells and npc risk. ebv infection in npc is clonal in ori ...201728893937
tumour viruses and innate cells sense viral infection through pattern recognition receptors (prrs), which detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns (pamps) and stimulate an innate immune response. prrs are localized to several different cellular compartments and are stimulated by viral proteins and nucleic acids. prr activation initiates signal transduction events that ultimately result in an inflammatory response. human tumour viruses, which include kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, epstein-barr virus, h ...201728893934
tumour virus epidemiology.a viral etiology of cancer was first demonstrated in 1911 by peyton rous who injected cell-free filtrate from a chicken sarcoma into healthy chickens and found it induced a tumour. since the discovery over 50 years ago of the epstein-barr virus as the cause of burkitt lymphoma, seven other human viruses or groups of viruses-hepatitis b virus, hepatitis c virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, some human papillomaviruses, human t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, kaposi sarcoma-associated herp ...201728893933
molecular profile of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: analysing tumour suppressor gene promoter hypermethylation by multiplex ligation-dependent probe assess differences in methylation profiles, and thus pathogenesis, between epstein-barr virus (ebv)-positive and negative nasopharyngeal carcinomas (npcs). also, promoter hypermethylation is a common phenomenon in early carcinogenesis to inactivate tumour suppressor genes. since epigenetic changes are reversible, the therapeutic application of methylation inhibitors could provide treatment options.201728893862
efficacy of recombinant adenovirus expressing a fusion gene from gm-csf and epstein-barr virus lmp2a in a mouse tumor this study, purified gm-csf and lmp2a mrnas were amplified by pcr. then, the gm-csf and lmp2a sequences were connected by the polypeptide linker (gly4ser)3 using gene splicing by overlap extension. the constructed fusion gene gc2a was inserted into the adenovirus vector. then the recombinant vector was introduced into hek 293t cells by calcium phosphate transfection to package the adenovirus. the levels of antibodies against the gm-csf and lmp2afusion proteins were measured by elisa, and the ...201728892414
changes in tonsil b cell phenotypes and ebv receptor expression in children under 5-years-old.palatine tonsils are principally b cell organs that are the initial line of defense against many oral pathogens, as well as the site of infection for others. while the size of palatine tonsils changes greatly in the first five years of life, the cellular changes during this period are not well studied. epstein barr virus (ebv) is a common orally transmitted virus that infects tonsillar b cells. naïve b cells are thought to be the target of primary infection with ebv in vivo, suggesting that they ...201728885784
jq1 reduces epstein-barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease in mice without sustained oncogene repression. 201728885069
cytotoxic response against epstein barr virus coexists with diffuse large b-cell lymphoma tolerogenic microenvironment: clinical features and survival impact.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is present in neoplastic cells of 15% of asian and latin-american diffuse large b-cell lymphoma (dlbcl) patients. even though a tolerogenic microenvironment was recently described in dlbcl, little is known concerning immunomodulatory features induced by ebv. as suggested in hodgkin lymphoma, ebv-specific cytotoxic t-cells are increased but showing immune exhaustion features. hence, host immunity suppression may play a critical role in tumor progression. this study aimed ...201728883511
positive regulation of taz expression by ebv-lmp1 contributes to cell proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.the epstein-barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (lmp1) is an integral membrane protein. lmp1 has been reported to activate the nf-κb and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. however, these effects alone are unable to account for the profound oncogenic properties of lmp1. taz is one of the nuclear effectors of hippo-related pathways and highly expressed in many human tumors. here, we reported that taz was frequently expressed in lmp1-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma. in npc cell lines, we ...201728881733
screening for epstein-barr virus status and risk of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in children with inflammatory bowel disease on azathioprine. 201728881189
the usefulness of serologic testing for epstein-barr virus before initiation of therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. 201728881185
a rare case of epstein-barr virus-related plasmacytoma involving maxillary sinus mucosa.extramedullary plasmacytomas, epstein-bar virus (ebv) associated, are rarely encountered and usually have a fairly good clinical outcome. ebv+ plasmacytoma may cause a diagnostic dilemma as it phenotypically resembles an aggressive plasmablastic lymphoma (pbl). herein, we report a unique case with maxillary ebv+ plasmacytoma from a 76-year-old immunocompetent individual.201728878909
prognostic role of tumour-associated macrophages and regulatory t cells in ebv-positive and ebv-negative nasopharyngeal carcinoma.tumour-associated macrophages (tams) and regulatory t cells (tregs) form a special niche supporting tumour progression, and both correlate with worse survival in head and neck cancers. however, the prognostic role of tam and tregs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc) is still unknown. therefore, we determined differences in tams and tregs in different npc subtypes, and their prognostic significance.201728877959
extranodal natural killer/t-cell lymphoma in malawi: a report of three cases.extranodal nk/t-cell lymphoma (enktcl) reports from sub-saharan africa (ssa) are remarkably rare, despite early childhood acquisition and high prevalence of the causative infectious agent, epstein-barr virus (ebv), and frequent occurrence of other lymphoproliferative disorders causally associated with ebv.201728877678
clinicopathologic investigation of methotrexate-induced lymphoproliferative disorders, with a focus on regression.although recent accumulative data reveal the clinicopathogenesis of regression in methotrexate-induced lymphoproliferative disorders (mtx-lpds), the precise understanding including this category remains controversial. in this study, we analyzed 62 patients with mtx-lpd. forty-three patients showed regression (reg group), with high rates of hodgkin lymphoma (hl) and lpd (90 and 88%, respectively). among the 43 patients of the reg group, 14 patients (33%) relapsed. the median duration before relap ...201728877615
epstein-barr virus mir-bart6-3p inhibits the rig-i pathway.recognition of viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns by pattern recognition receptors (prrs) is the first step in the initiation of a host innate immune response. as a prr, rig-i detects either viral rna or replication transcripts. avoiding rig-i recognition is a strategy employed by viruses for immune evasion. epstein-barr virus (ebv) infects the majority of the human population worldwide. during the latent infection period there are only a few ebv proteins expressed, whereas ebv-encoded ...201728877527
gata3 immunohistochemical staining in hodgkin lymphoma: diagnostic utility in differentiating classic hodgkin lymphoma from nodular lymphocyte predominant hodgkin lymphoma and other mimicking entities.classic hodgkin lymphoma (chl) and nodular lymphocyte predominant hodgkin lymphoma (nlphl) are clinically distinct entities, with different prognostic and treatment implications. in addition, several large b-cell lymphomas and some t-cell lymphomas can mimic chl. differentiating these entities from chl is crucial for ensuring appropriate therapy. gata3 is a t-cell transcription factor involved in t-cell maturation and has been previously shown to be overexpressed in chl cells via gene expression ...201728877074
viral etiology of sporadic cases of parotitis among children in korea during 2013-2014.recent years have seen a high incidence of mumps, which is generally diagnosed based on clinical features, especially parotitis, without laboratory confirmation in korea. to better understand the epidemiology of mumps in korean children, we investigated sporadic suspected mumps cases with parotitis. in total, 237 buccal swabs or throat swabs collected from children with parotitis who had been clinically diagnosed with mumps were tested using real-time pcr for the detection of six viruses (epstei ...201828876460
lytic ebv infection investigated by detection of soluble epstein-barr virus zebra in the serum of patients with ptld.the zebra protein (encoded by the bzlf1 gene), is the major transcription factor of ebv, expressed upon ebv lytic cycle activation. several studies highlighted the critical role of ebv lytic infection as a risk factor for lymphoproliferative disorders like post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (ptld). here, we use an antigen-capture elisa assay specifically designed to detecting the circulating soluble zebra (szebra) in serum samples (threshold value determined at 40ng/ml). we retrospectiv ...201728874674
extranodal nasal-type natural killer/t-cell lymphoma with penile involvement: a case report and review of the literature.extranodal natural killer/t-cell lymphoma (enktl) usually presents as a localized disease in the nasal cavity; extension to the male genitourinary system is very rare and has been characterized only recently. most cases present with predominantly extranodal involvement, advanced stage disease, highly aggressive course, and strong association with epstein-barr virus (ebv). while metastasis is common in enktls, the penis is rarely involved in both nasal and non-nasal enktls and only one report was ...201728874193
primary cutaneous nk/t-cell lymphoma of nasal type: an age-related lymphoproliferative disease?among extranodal nk/t-cell lymphoma of nasal type (nktl), the extranasal variant (enktl) is known to have a worse prognosis with advanced clinical stage than the nasal variant of nktl. however, detailed clinicopathological features of the localized extranasal disease have not been well documented in english literature. here, we described the clinicopathological profiles of 14 patients with stage i enktl, including 7 in the skin, 5 in the gastrointestinal tract, and 2 in the central nervous syste ...201728873353
transforming growth factor-β, interleukin-10, and serological markers in ebv-associated gastric carcinoma.the association between epstein-barr virus (ebv) and gastric cancer (gc) has been reported by many researchers. immunosuppressive cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (il-10) and transforming growth factor β (tgfβ), play an important role in the tumor process. the aim of the present study was to detect antibodies against ebv and explore the levels of tgfβ and il-10 in polish gc patients.201728870905
unexplained dyspnea in a young adult with epstein-barr virus infectious mononucleosis: pulmonary involvement or co-infection with mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia?clinically, in young immunocompetent adults, epstein-barr virus (ebv) usually manifests as infectious mononucleosis (im). typical clinical findings of ebv im include fever, profound fatigue, pharyngitis, bilateral posterior cervical adenopathy, and splenomegaly. respiratory involvement with ebv im may occur, but is distinctly rare. we present a case of a 20 year old female who with classic ebv im, but was inexplicably dyspneic and hypoxemic. further diagnostic testing confirmed co-infection with ...201728869530
epstein-barr virus infection in children with renal transplantation: a single-center experience.this study aimed to investigate the incidence, timing, manifestations, managements, and outcomes of epstein-barr virus (ebv) infection in pediatric renal transplant recipients in korea.201728869325
massive splenomegaly due to concurrent primary epstein-barr virus and cytomegalovirus infection in a patient on adalimumab.a 32-year-old man who was receiving adalimumab for seronegative rheumatoid arthritis presented with a 4-week history of fever, night sweats, fatigue, myalgias and diarrhoea. on examination, he had obvious splenomegaly but no lymphadenopathy or pharyngitis. full blood count revealed mild neutropenia and significant lymphocytosis, with a blood film showing atypical lymphocytes. liver function tests were mildly deranged with a mixed hepatitic and obstructive pattern. ultrasound confirmed massive sp ...201728864556
beating 'guangdong cancer': a review and update on nasopharyngeal cancer.once endemic in southern china, nasopharyngeal cancer is becoming less prevalent in hong kong. this is probably due to a better understanding of the risk factors associated with the disease, its genomic landscape, advances in radiotherapy technology, and development of effective systemic agents. more specifically, the close relationship between epstein-barr virus and nasopharyngeal cancer opens up the possibility of using epstein-barr virus dna as a biomarker for early detection and monitoring o ...201728862144
epstein-barr virus-encoded small rnas in idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor tissues: a comparative case investigate the positive rate and types of cells that express epstein-barr virus-encoded small rnas (ebers) and to determine the distribution of eber-expressing cells in idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor (ioip) tissues.201728861354
infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome with high lymphocytosis and positive igm ebv and cmv antibodies in a three-year-old girl.primary epstein-barr virus (ebv) and cytomegalovirus (cmv) infection usually affects preadolescent children or young adults, causing similar clinical presentation. signs and symptoms are typically mild, and the majority of clinical and laboratory findings resolve spontaneously within one month after onset. in adulthood, the risk of fulminant ebv infection and severe complications is much higher, which may be related to increasing memory cd8+ t-cell population with age. it is still not clear what ...201728860939
interleukin-6-dependent growth in a newly established plasmablastic lymphoma cell line and its therapeutic targets.plasmablastic lymphoma (pbl) is a rare, highly aggressive subtype of non-hodgkin lymphoma with plasma-cell differentiation occurring typically in immune-suppressed patients such as those with aids. this study reports the establishment and characterization of a new cell line, pbl-1, derived from a patient with aids-associated pbl. morphological assessment of pbl-1 indicated plasma-cell differentiation with a cd20(-) cd38(+) cd138(+) immunophenotype and igh/c-myc translocation. the cell line harbo ...201728860565
the major histocompatibility complex class i immunopeptidome of extracellular vesicles.extracellular vesicles (evs) are released by most cell types and have been associated with multiple immunomodulatory functions. mhc class i molecules have crucial roles in antigen presentation and in eliciting immune responses and are known to be incorporated into evs. however, the mhc class i immunopeptidome of evs has not been established. here, using a small-scale immunoisolation of the antigen serotypes hla-a*02:01 and hla-b*27:05 expressed on the epstein-barr virus-transformed b cell line j ...201728860189
epstein-barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein 1 induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition by inducing v-set ig domain containing 4 (vsig4) expression via nf-kb in renal tubular epithelial hk-2 cells.the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (emt), a hallmark of chronic kidney disease, is a key event in the conversion from tubular epithelial cells to myofibroblasts in renal fibrosis. epstein-barr virus (ebv) is a γ-herpes oncovirus associated with chronic kidney disease. however, the relationship between ebv and the emt process in renal tubular epithelial cells is not well understood. among ebv-latent genes, ebv-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (lmp1) induces emt by regulating a variety of m ...201728859984
a gain-of-function mutation in tnfrsf13b is a candidate for predisposition to familial or sporadic immune thrombocytopenia.essentials positive family histories suggest the existence of hereditary immune thrombocytopenia (itp). the predisposing gene for familial itp was screened in two familial itp patients. the g76s mutation on tnfrsf13b led to immune dysfunction and induced megakaryocyte apoptosis. the g76s mutation on tnfrsf13b is a gain-of-function mutation and a predisposing variant for itp.201728834165
cutaneous intravascular natural killer/t cell lymphoma with peculiar immunophenotype.intravascular lymphoma (ivl) is a rare entity. most cases are a variant of extranodal diffuse large b cell lymphoma, and fewer than 10% of the published cases are of t cell origin. only intravascular b cell lymphoma is recognized as a distinct entity in the most recent world health organization (who) classification of lymphoproliferative disorders. we describe a case of cutaneous natural killer (nk)/t ivl, with a cytotoxic immunophenotype and epstein-barr virus (ebv) positivity. however, our cas ...201728766736
ebv-hlh children with reductions in cd4+ t cells and excessive activation of cd8+ t cells.backgroundin this report, we analyzed the number and activation profiles of t cells in epstein-barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (ebv-hlh) patients and assessed their value for the diagnosis of ebv-hlh.methodswe compared the quantity of cd4+ t cells and cd8+ t cells in peripheral blood among hlh patients, a sepsis group, and healthy controls. we then analyzed variations in the activation marker in cd4+ t and cd8+ t cells.resultsthe percentage of cd4+ t cells decreased in t ...201728738028
selective expression of ccr10 and cxcr3 by circulating human herpes simplex virus-specific cd8 t cells.herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection is restricted to epithelial cells and neurons and is controlled by cd8 t cells. these cells both traffic to epithelial sites of recurrent lytic infection and to ganglia and persist at the dermal-epidermal junction for up to 12 weeks after lesion resolution. we previously showed that cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (cla), a functional e-selectin ligand (esl), is selectively expressed on circulating hsv-2-specific cd8 t cells. cla/esl mediates adhesion ...201728701399
what is that rash?a healthy 15-month-old girl presented to the emergency department with a 24-hour history of fever and rash. the initial blanching rash developed into non-blanching areas with associated leg swelling. she had received no recent medications, had no known drug allergies and no unwell contacts.on examination, she was feverish at 38.6°c, capillary refill time was <2 s with warm peripheries, heart rate 169 bpm and blood pressure 94/59 mm hg. a palpable purpuric rash was evident on all four limbs and f ...201827799151
nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk prediction via salivary detection of host and epstein-barr virus genetic variants.genetic susceptibility and epstein-barr virus (ebv) infection are important etiological factors in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc). in this study, in southern china, where npc is endemic, a single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) in the ebv-encoded rpms1 gene (locus 155391: g > a [g155391a]) and seven host snps (rs1412829, rs28421666, rs2860580, rs2894207, rs31489, rs6774494, and rs9510787) were confirmed to be significantly associated with npc risk in 50 npc cases versus 54 hospital-based controls ...201729221111
diagnostic value of the epstein-barr virus serological markers in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in cases of undetectable primary tumor location.the goal of this work was to describe a method for diagnosis of the non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (nnpc) in cases of the undetectable primary tumor location. the method is based on evaluation of igg and iga antibody levels to the capsid (vca) and early antigens (ea) of the epstein-barr virus (ebv). the diagnosis of nnpc is established by a so-called decision rule. the latter was created by mathematical processing of the method of multifactor analysis of the results of anti-ebv antibo ...201829323852
prognostic value of molecular markers and implication for molecular targeted therapies in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: an update in an era of new targeted molecules development.the aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of molecular biomarkers which could provide information for more accurate prognostication and development of novel therapeutic strategies for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc). npc is a unique malignant epithelial carcinoma of head and neck region, with an intimate association with the epstein-barr virus (ebv). currently, the prediction of npc prognosis is mainly based on the clinical tnm staging; however, npc patients with the same c ...201529147412
epstein-barr virus and cytomegalovirus induced acute hepatitis in young female patient.acute hepatitis is a disorder that goes with liver cell necrosis and liver inflammation. among the causes of acute hepatitis, the most common reasons are viral hepatitis. about 95% of the acute hepatitis generate because of hepatotropic viruses. epstein-barr virus (ebv) and cytomegalovirus (cmv) are from the family of herpes viruses and rare causes of acute hepatitis. in this case report, acute hepatitis due to ebv and cmv coinfection will be described.201729201691
spontaneous hepatic rupture associated with epstein-barr virus negative aggressive natural killer cell leukemia.aggressive natural killer cell leukemia (ankl) is a rare subtype of large granular lymphocyte (lgl) leukemia, which typically presents in young adults of asian descent. it is an aggressive disease, characterized initially by fever, pancytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly, which rapidly progresses to organ failure and death over the course of months. spontaneous hemorrhagic complications have been reported to occur in ankl in a handful of case reports, including lethal intestinal and cerebral hemorrh ...201429147405
correction: epstein barr virus and helicobacter pylori co-infection are positively associated with severe gastritis in pediatric patients.[this corrects the article doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062850.].201329294470
primary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung in a 13 year old girl.lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, a large cell carcinoma with pronounced lymphocyte infiltration, is a rare entity mostly seen in the nasopharynx. but primary pulmonary lelc in children & adolescents is extremely rare. here we present a 13 year old girl with chief complaint of fever, cough, shortness of breath and heaviness in the left side of chest. she underwent left upper lobectomy. histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen confirmed it to be a case of large cell carcinoma of lung, ...201228861186
hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in association with clostridium difficile infection and cutaneous t-cell lymphoma.hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (hlh) or macrophage activation syndrome (mas) is a potentially life threatening disorder that presents with fever, suppressed blood cell counts, hepatosplenomegaly and multi-organ failure. hlh has been reported in association with genetic mutations, infections, autoimmune disorders, and various malignancies. however to the best of our knowledge, hlh in association with clostridium difficile infection has never been reported. we present a case of hlh in a patien ...201129147237
retroperitoneal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor: case report and immunohistochemistry study.inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (imt) are a rare clinicopathological entity of yet unknown etiology and those located retroperitoneally are even rarer. clinical outcome is unpredictable and complete surgical resection of the tumor remains the principal treatment. we report the case of a 41-year old man presented with abdominal pain. an abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a retroperitoneal tumor located between the pancreas, stomach small curvature and big vessels. a laparotomy ...201029147187
infectious brief a two-step infection by the epstein-barr virus accounts for the characteristic features of infectious mononucleosis (im). new serologic tests for viral antigens exist, but a rapid kit test for heterophil antibody usually suffices to confirm the diagnosis. general management is supportive only. splenic rupture is very rare, almost never fatal if diagnosed early, and, in most cases, is probably best treated by splenectomy. athletes tend to recover from im faster than nonathletes. when the ...199629275769
a conserved eph family receptor-binding motif on the gh/gl complex of kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and rhesus monkey rhadinovirus.kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv) is a human oncogenic virus associated with kaposi's sarcoma and two b-cell malignancies. the rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv) is a virus of nonhuman primates that is closely related to kshv. eph family receptor tyrosine kinases (ephs) are cellular receptors for the gh/gl glycoprotein complexes of both kshv and rrv. through sequence analysis and mutational screens, we identified conserved residues in the n-terminal domain of kshv and rrv glycoprotein ...201829432452
antibody-mediated immune subset depletion modulates the immune response in a rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus) model of epstein-barr virus infection.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is a γ-herpesvirus which infects over 90% of the adult human population. most notably, this virus causes infectious mononucleosis but it is also associated with cancers such as hodgkin and burkitt lymphoma. ebv is a species-specific virus and has been studied in many animal models, including nonhuman primates, guinea pigs, humanized mice, and tree shrews. however, none of these animal models are considered the "gold standard" for ebv research. recently, rabbits have emer ...202032972486
macaca arctoides gammaherpesvirus 1 (strain herpesvirus macaca arctoides): virus sequence, phylogeny and characterisation of virus-transformed macaque and rabbit cell lines.herpesvirus macaca arctoides (hvma) has the propensity to transform macaque lymphocytes to lymphoblastoid cells (mal-1). inoculation of rabbits with cell-free virus-containing supernatant resulted in the development of malignant lymphomas and allowed isolation of immortalised hvma-transformed rabbit lymphocytes (htrl). in this study, the hvma genome sequence (approx. 167 kbp), its organisation, and novel aspects of virus latency are presented. ninety-one open reading frames were identified, of w ...201930291474
viral opportunistic infections in mauritian cynomolgus macaques undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation mirror human transplant infectious disease complications.allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (hsct) and xenotransplantation are accompanied by viral reactivations and virus-associated complications resulting from immune deficiency. here, in a mauritian cynomolgus macaque model of fully mhc-matched allogeneic hsct, we report reactivations of cynomolgus polyomavirus, lymphocryptovirus, and cytomegalovirus, macaque viruses analogous to hsct-associated human counterparts bk virus, epstein-barr virus, and human cytomegalovirus. viral replica ...202031930750
experimental co-transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) and the macaque homologs of the kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv) and epstein-barr virus (ebv).macaque rfhv and lcv are close homologs of human kshv and ebv, respectively. no experimental model of rfhv has been developed due to the lack of a source of culturable infectious virus. screening of macaques at the washington national primate research center detected rfhv in saliva of siv-infected macaques from previous vaccine studies. a pilot experimental infection of two naïve juvenile pig-tailed macaques was initiated by inoculation of saliva from siv-infected pig-tailed and cynomolgus macaq ...201830444879
t-cell/histiocyte-rich large b-cell lymphoma of the larynx in a juvenile japanese macaque (macaca fuscata).an 11-month-old female japanese macaque (macaca fuscata), born in captivity in a research institute, suddenly died without clinical signs. necropsy examination revealed a nodular mass protruding from the left ventral aspect of the larynx, compressing the epiglottis anteriorly. histopathologically, the laryngeal mass was comprised of medium- to large-sized atypical cells. immunohistochemically, these were positive for cd20 and partially positive for cd79α. among the atypical cells were cd3+ t cel ...201931159945
neutralizing antibodies protect against oral transmission of lymphocryptovirus.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is a cancer-associated pathogen for which there is no vaccine. successful anti-viral vaccines elicit antibodies that neutralize infectivity; however, it is unknown whether neutralizing antibodies prevent ebv acquisition. here we assessed whether passively delivered ammo1, a monoclonal antibody that neutralizes ebv in a cell-type-independent manner, could protect against experimental ebv challenge in two animal infection models. when present prior to a high-dose intraveno ...202032724901
gammaherpesvirus rnas come full circle.after an adaptive immune response is mounted, gammaherpesviruses achieve persistence through the utilization of viral noncoding rnas to craft a suitable host cell environment in an immunologically transparent manner. while gammaherpesvirus long noncoding rnas (lncrnas) and micrornas have been recognized for some time and have been actively investigated, a recent spate of reports have now identified repertoires of the circular rna (circrna) class of noncoding rnas in both the lymphocryptovirus an ...201930940699
comparative analysis of gammaherpesvirus circular rna repertoires: conserved and unique viral circular rnas.recent studies have identified circular rnas (circrnas) expressed from the epstein-barr virus (ebv) and kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (kshv) human dna tumor viruses. to gain initial insights into the potential relevance of ebv circrnas in virus biology and disease, we assessed the circrnaome of the interspecies homologue rhesus macaque lymphocryptovirus (rlcv) in a naturally occurring lymphoma from a simian immunodeficiency virus (siv)-infected rhesus macaque. this analysis revealed rlcv ortholog ...201930567979
a virome sequencing approach to feline oral squamous cell carcinoma to evaluate viral causative factors.feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (foscc) may be the best naturally-occurring model of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (hnscc). hnscc can be broadly divided into human papillomavirus (hpv)-negative cancers and hpv-positive cancers where hpv is the causative agent. previous studies in foscc have used both species-specific and species-nonspecific pcr primers that may be insensitive to the detection of pvs and other viruses that may be divergent from known sequences. virocap is a targ ...202031902496
post-translational protein deimination signatures in serum and serum-extracellular vesicles of bos taurus reveal immune, anti-pathogenic, anti-viral, metabolic and cancer-related pathways for deimination.the bovine immune system is known for its unusual traits relating to immunoglobulin and antiviral responses. peptidylarginine deiminases (pads) are phylogenetically conserved enzymes that cause post-translational deimination, contributing to protein moonlighting in health and disease. pads also regulate extracellular vesicle (ev) release, forming a critical part of cellular communication. as pad-mediated mechanisms in bovine immunology and physiology remain to be investigated, this study profile ...202032325910
alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 genes a7 and a8 regulate viral spread and are essential for malignant catarrhal fever.alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (alhv-1) is a gammaherpesvirus that is carried asymptomatically by wildebeest. upon cross-species transmission to other ruminants, including domestic cattle, alhv-1 induces malignant catarrhal fever (mcf), which is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease resulting from proliferation and uncontrolled activation of latently infected cd8+ t cells. two laboratory strains of alhv-1 are used commonly in research: c500, which is pathogenic, and wc11, which has been attenuated by l ...202032176737
recombinant epstein-barr virus glycoprotein 350 as a serological antigen.epstein-barr virus (ebv) glycoprotein 350 (gp350) is the most abundant glycoprotein expressed on the ebv envelope, the major target for neutralizing antibodies and also essential for virion attachment to b lymphocytes. several studies have addressed ebv gp350 as a vaccine candidate, but less commonly as a potential antigen for serological assays. the aim of the current study was to develop a diagnostic tool to quantify ebv gp350-specific igg in previously ebv-infected individuals. a construct en ...202032650039
optimization of a high-cell-density polyethylenimine transfection method for rapid protein production in cho-ebna1 cells.for pre-clinical evaluation of biotherapeutic candidates, protein production by transient gene expression (tge) in chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells offers important advantages, including the capability of rapidly and cost-effectively generating recombinant proteins that are highly similar to those produced in stable cho clones. we have established a novel cho clone (cho-3e7) expressing a form of the epstein-barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (ebna-1) with improved tge productivity relative to parenta ...201829886030
co-amplification of ebna-1 and pylt through dhfr-mediated gene amplification for improving foreign protein production in transient gene expression in cho cells.despite the relatively low transfection efficiency and low specific foreign protein productivity (qp) of chinese hamster ovary (cho) cell-based transient gene expression (tge) systems, tge-based recombinant protein production technology predominantly employs cho cells for pre-clinical research and development purposes. to improve tge in cho cells, epstein-barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (ebna-1)/polyoma virus large t antigen (pylt)-co-amplified recombinant cho (rcho) cells stably expressing ebna-1 ...201829654557
development of an improved epstein-barr virus (ebv) neutralizing antibody assay to facilitate development of a prophylactic gp350-subunit ebv licensed vaccine is available for prevention of ebv-associated diseases, and robust, high-throughput bioanalytical assays are needed to evaluate immunogenicity of gp350 subunit-based candidate ebv vaccines. here we have developed an improved ebv-gfp based neutralization assay for such a vaccine's pre-clinical and clinical validation to measure ebv specific neutralizing antibodies in human donors. the supplementation of guinea pig complement of our previously published high-throughput ebv-gfp ...202032180911
north american big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) harbor an exogenous deltaretrovirus.bats are the reservoir for a large number of zoonotic viruses, including members of coronaviridae (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus [sars-cov] and sars-cov-2), paramyxoviridae (hendra and nipah viruses), rhabdoviridae (rabies virus), and filoviridae (ebola virus) as exemplars. many retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus, are similarly zoonotic; however, only infectious exogenous gammaretroviruses have recently been identified in bats. here, viral metagenomic sequencing o ...202032968009
herpes virus reactivation in astronauts during spaceflight and its application on earth.latent herpes virus reactivation has been demonstrated in astronauts during shuttle (10-16 days) and international space station (≥180 days) flights. following reactivation, viruses are shed in the body fluids of astronauts. typically, shedding of viral dna is asymptomatic in astronauts regardless of mission duration; however, in some cases, live/infectious virus was recovered by tissue culture that was associated with atopic-dermatitis or skin lesions during and after spaceflight. hypothalamic- ...201930792698
effect of epstein-barr virus dna on the incidence and severity of arthritis in a rheumatoid arthritis mouse model.we recently demonstrated that ebv dna is correlated with proinflammatory responses in mice and in rheumatoid arthritis (ra) patients; hence, we utilized an ra mouse model to examine whether ebv dna enhances the risk and severity of arthritis and to assess its immunomodulatory effects.202134040613
marek's disease virus meq oncoprotein interacts with chicken hdac 1 and 2 and mediates their degradation via proteasome dependent pathway.marek's disease virus (mdv) encodes a basic-leucine zipper (bzip) protein, meq, which is considered the major mdv oncoprotein. it has been reported that the oncogenicity of meq is associated with its interaction with c-terminal binding protein 1 (ctbp), which is also an interaction partner of epstein-barr virus encoded ebna3a and ebna3c oncoproteins. since both ebna3c and ctbp interact with histone deacetylase 1 (hdac1) and hdac2, we examined whether meq shares this interaction with chicken hdac ...202133437016
plxdc family members are novel receptors for the rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv).the rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (rrv), a γ2-herpesvirus of rhesus macaques, shares many biological features with the human pathogenic kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv). both viruses, as well as the more distantly related epstein-barr virus, engage cellular receptors from the eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases (ephs). however, the importance of the eph interaction for rrv entry varies between cell types suggesting the existence of eph-independent entry pathways. we therefore aime ...202133657166
catching viral breast cancer.we have considered viruses and their contribution to breast cancer.202134108009
establishing an induced pluripotent stem cell line from neonatal common marmoset fibroblasts by an all-in-one episomal vector approach.epstein-barr virus (ebv)-based episomal vector system enables persistent transgene expression, which is advantageous for efficient derivation of transgene-free induced pluripotent stem cells (ipscs) without viral transduction. here, we report establishment of an ipsc line from somatic fibroblasts of a neonatal common marmoset monkey (marmoset; callithrix jacchus) using an all-in-one episomal vector that we newly developed. the established ipsc line, named nm-ips, showed standard characteristics ...202134088009
neutralizing antibodies against epstein-barr virus infection of b cells can protect from oral viral challenge in the rhesus macaque animal model.epstein-barr virus (ebv) and related lymphocryptoviruses (lcvs) from nonhuman primates are transmitted through oral secretions, penetrate the mucosal epithelium, and establish persistent infection in b cells. to determine whether neutralizing antibodies against epithelial or b cell infection could block oral transmission and persistent lcv infection, we use rhesus macaques, the most accurate animal model for ebv infection by faithfully reproducing acute and persistent infection in humans. naive ...202134337567
novel gammaherpesvirus associated with primary gastric t-cell lymphoma in a free-ranging giant armadillo in brazil.the number of viral-associated neoplasms reported in wildlife has increased over the last decades, likely because of growing research efforts and a potentially greater burden of carcinogenic pathogens. herein, we describe a primary gastric t-cell lymphoma in one free-ranging giant armadillo (priodontes maximus) from brazilian pantanal infected by a novel gammaherpesvirus, proposed as cingulatid gammaherpesvirus 1 (cihv-1). by chromogenic in situ hybridisation against epstein-barr virus some neop ...202134132049
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