primary central nervous system t-cell lymphoma with aberrant expression of cd20 and cd79a: a diagnostic pitfall.primary central nervous system t-cell lymphoma (pcnstcl) is rare, accounting for 2% of cns lymphomas. we report the first case of pcnstcl with aberrant expression of cd20 and cd79a in an 81-year-old man with a left periventricular brain mass. a biopsy revealed dense lymphoid infiltrate consisting of medium-sized cells in a background of gliosis and many histiocytes. the lymphoid cells were positive for cd2, cd3, cd7, cd8, t-cell intracellular antigen-1, granzyme b, cd20, and cd79a and negative f ...201728612664
genetics and molecular biology of epstein-barr virus-encoded bart microrna: a paradigm for viral modulation of host immune response genes and genome stability.epstein-barr virus, a ubiquitous human herpesvirus, is associated through epidemiologic evidence with common autoimmune syndromes and cancers. however, specific genetic mechanisms of pathogenesis have been difficult to identify. in this review, the author summarizes evidence that recently discovered noncoding rnas termed microrna encoded by epstein-barr virus barf (bamhi a right frame) termed bart (bamhi a right transcripts) are modulators of human immune response genes and genome stability in i ...201728612032
malignant salivary gland tumors and epstein-barr virus (ebv) infection: a systematic review and meta-analysisbackground: salivary gland tumors are rare head and neck tumors with lymphoepithelial carcinoma (lec) as a particularly infrequent variant. this study was an evaluation of the incidence of ebv infection in malignant salivary gland tumors with the emphasis on tumor type and geographical area. methods: five databases (pubmed, sciencedirect, scopus, web of science and cochrane library) were searched for data on the prevalence of ebv in malignant salivary gland tumors. a random-effects meta-analysis ...201728610402
lymphoproliferative disorders of the lung.this review aims to describe some of the most frequent lymphoproliferative disorders arising from the lung: pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (malt) lymphoma, lymphomatoid granulomatosis (lg), multicentric castleman disease (mcd), primary effusion lymphoma (pel), and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (nlh). primary pulmonary lymphoma is defined as a clonal lymphoproliferative disorder affecting one or both lungs, without extrapulmonary involvement 3 months after diagnosis, and includes pulm ...201728609772
an essential role of virus-infected b cells in the marmoset experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model.infection with epstein-barr virus (ebv) has been associated with an enhanced risk of genetically susceptible individuals to develop multiple sclerosis (ms). however, an explanation for the contrast between the high ebv infection prevalence (60-90%) and the low ms prevalence (0.1%) eludes us. here we propose a new concept for the ebv-ms association developed in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model in marmoset monkeys, which are naturally infected with the ebv-related γ1-herpesvirus ...201728607749
epstein-barr virus-induced up-regulation of tcab1 is involved in the dna damage response in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.telomerase cajal body protein 1 (tcab1), which is involved in cajal body maintenance, telomere elongation and ribonucleoprotein biogenesis, has been linked to cancer predisposition, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc), due to its oncogenic properties. however, there are no specific reports to date on the functional relevance of tcab1 and epstein-barr virus (ebv), which is considered to be a risk factor for npc. in this study, we first examined npc clinical tissues and found a notable overex ...201728607398
serological profiling of the ebv immune response in chronic fatigue syndrome using a peptide microarray.epstein-barr-virus (ebv) plays an important role as trigger or cofactor for various autoimmune diseases. in a subset of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (cfs) disease starts with infectious mononucleosis as late primary ebv-infection, whereby altered levels of ebv-specific antibodies can be observed in another subset of patients.201728604802
limited nucleotide pools restrict epstein-barr virus-mediated b-cell immortalization.activation of cellular oncogenes as well as infection with tumor viruses can promote aberrant proliferation and activation of the host dna damage response. epstein-barr virus (ebv) infection of primary human b cells induces a transient period of hyper-proliferation, but many of these infected cells succumb to an ataxia telangiectasia mutated/checkpoint kinase 2 (atm/chk2)-mediated senescence-like growth arrest. in this study, we assessed the role of dna replicative stress and nucleotide pool lev ...201728604764
prognostic value of serum epstein-barr virus antibodies in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and undetectable pretreatment epstein-barr virus dna.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is closely associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc). serum iga antibodies against early antigen (ea-iga) and viral capsid antigen (vca-iga) are the most commonly used to screen for npc in endemic areas. however, the prognostic value of serum ea-iga and vca-iga in patients with npc is less clear. we hypothesize that serum ea-iga and vca-iga levels have prognostic impact for survival outcomes in npc patients with undetectable pretreatment ebv (pebv) dna. in this seri ...201728603915
ebv infection and msi status significantly influence the clinical outcomes of gastric cancer patients.epstein-barr virus (ebv) and microsatellite instability (msi) are associated with the carcinogenesis of many kinds of tumors, including gastric cancer (gc). however, the impact of ebv and msi status on the prognosis of stage ii and iii gc is still unclear. the aim of this study was to find out the prognostic value of ebv and msi status in a population of gc patients from southern china.201728601671
rare case of epstein-barr virus-associated early gastric cancer with multiple synchronous intramucosal lesions. 201728597982
epstein-barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders: review and update on 2016 who classification.epstein-barr virus (human herpesvirus-4) is very common virus that can be detected in more than 95% of the human population. most people are asymptomatic and live their entire lives in a chronically infected state (igg positive). however, in some populations, the epstein-barr virus (ebv) has been involved in the occurrence of a wide range of b-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (lpds), including burkitt lymphoma, classic hodgkin's lymphoma, and immune-deficiency associated lpds (post-transplant ...201728592786
micrornas of epstein-barr virus control innate and adaptive antiviral immunity.epstein-barr virus (ebv) has established lifelong infection in more than 90% of humanity. while infection is usually controlled by the immune system, the human host fails to completely eliminate the pathogen. several herpesviral proteins are known to act as immunoevasins, preventing or reducing recognition of ebv-infected cells. only recently were micrornas of ebv identified to reduce immune recognition further. this gem summarizes what we know about immunomodulatory micrornas of herpesviruses.201728592533
a case report of lymphoid intestitial pneumonia in common variable immunodeficiency: oligoclonal expansion of effector lymphocytes with preferential cytomegalovirus-specific immune response and lymphoproliferative disease promotion.lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (lip) is a rare disease with lymphocytic infiltration of the alveolar interstitial and air spaces, sometimes classified as a clonal lymphoproliferative disease (lpd) with high prevalence in patients with immunodysregulation. although association of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (malt) lymphoma development with infectious agents has been well described, it is not so in the case of lip. attempts to demonstrate an infective cause by direct microbe detection have ...201728591035
epstein-barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcer mimicking rectal carcinoma at 18f-fdg pet/ct.we report focally intense f-fdg pet/ct rectal activity (suvmax = 25) with a horseshoe distribution in an 81-year-old man with b-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and suspected richter transformation. while imaging findings were typical for rectal adenocarcinoma, histology revealed epstein-barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcer.201728590301
bromodomain and extraterminal inhibitors block the epstein-barr virus lytic cycle at two distinct steps.lytic infection by the epstein-barr virus (ebv) poses numerous health risks, such as infectious mononucleosis and lymphoproliferative disorder. proteins in the bromodomain and extraterminal (bet) family regulate multiple stages of viral life cycles and provide promising intervention targets. synthetic small molecules can bind to the bromodomains and disrupt function by preventing recognition of acetylated lysine substrates. we demonstrate that jq1 and other bet inhibitors block two different ste ...201728588024
clinical significance of p53 protein expression, beta-catenin expression and her2 expression for epstein-barr virus-associated gastric cancer.this study assessed the expression of the p53 protein, beta-catenin, and her2 and their prognostic implications in patients with ebv-associated gastric cancer (ebvagc). after reviewing 1318 consecutive cases of surgically resected or endoscopic submucosal dissected gastric cancers, 117 patients were identified as ebv-positive using ebv-encoded rna in-situ hybridization. the immunohistochemistry results were interpreted as follows: strong p53 nuclear expression in at least 50% of tumor nuclei was ...201728584793
comprehensive genomic profiling of different subtypes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma reveals similarities and differences to guide targeted date, no targeted therapy has been approved for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc), and this underscores the need for an in-depth understanding of clinically relevant genomic alterations (crgas).201728581676
preemptive therapy with rituximab for epstein-barr virus reactivation after haplo-hsct.epstein-barr virus-related post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (ebv-ptld) is a serious complication in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (hsct) recipients.201728581032
successful resolution of epstein-barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis during the treatment course of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. 201728579038
differential prevalence and correlates of whole blood epstein-barr virus dna between hiv-positive and hiv-negative men who have sex with men in shanghai, china.this cross-sectional study aimed to examine and compare prevalence and correlates of whole blood epstein-barr virus (ebv) dna between hiv-positive and hiv-negative men who have sex with men (msm). five hundred and four hiv-positive msm and 504 age-matched hiv-negative msm were recruited from an hiv counseling and testing clinic in shanghai, china from november 2014 to november 2015 and were administered with a face-to-face questionnaire interview. whole blood ebv dna was tested by nested polymer ...201728578749
leflunomide/teriflunomide inhibit epstein-barr virus (ebv)- induced lymphoproliferative disease and lytic viral replication.ebv infection causes mononucleosis and is associated with specific subsets of b cell lymphomas. immunosuppressed patients such as organ transplant recipients are particularly susceptible to ebv-induced lymphoproliferative disease (lpd), which can be fatal. leflunomide (a drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis) and its active metabolite teriflunomide (used to treat multiple sclerosis) inhibit de novo pyrimidine synthesis by targeting the cellular dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, thereby decreasing ...201728574826
haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adult patients with epstein-barr virus-associated hemophagocytic assess the efficacy of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (hsct) in adult patients with epstein-barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (ebv-hlh), we retrospectively analyzed 30 cases that presented at our institution. at the time of hsct, 20 patients (66.7%) had achieved a response after receiving hlh-94 or salvage therapies. all patients underwent myeloablative conditioning followed by peripheral blood hsct from their related, haploidentical donors. twen ...201728573910
aberrant gene promoter methylation of e-cadherin, p16 (ink4a) , p14 (arf) , and mgmt in epstein-barr virus-associated oral squamous cell carcinomas.the etiology of oral carcinogenesis appears to be multifactorial. there is emerging evidence of the presence of epstein-barr virus (ebv) in epithelial oral squamous cell carcinoma (oscc), but an association of ebv with oral carcinogenesis has not yet been established. although epigenetic alterations, such as aberrant dna methylation, are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of oral cancer, the relationship of such alterations with ebv infection is little known. this study aimed to investigate ...201728573642
clinical significance of overexpression of nrg1 and its receptors, her3 and her4, in gastric cancer patients.neuregulin 1 (nrg1), a ligand for human epidermal growth factor (her) 3 and her4, can activates cell signaling pathways to promote carcinogenesis and metastasis.201728573357
serum ebv antibodies and lmp-1 in polish patients with oropharyngeal and laryngeal cancer.the association between epstein-barr virus (ebv) and the development of head and neck cancer was reported by many researchers. the aim of the present study was to detect ebv dna and ebv antibodies in 110 polish patients with oropharyngeal and laryngeal cancer compared to 40 healthy individuals.201728572837
the 150 most important questions in cancer research and clinical oncology series: questions 31-39 : edited by chinese journal of accelerate our endeavors to overcome cancer, chinese journal of cancer has launched a program of publishing 150 most important questions in cancer research and clinical oncology. in this article, 9 more questions are presented as follows. question 31: how does aging process inhibit the formation of sarcoma? question 32: is intratumoral morphological heterogeneity the consequence of tumor genomic instability or the cause of aggressive tumor behavior? can we identify more aggressive tumors by c ...201728571582
the role of oxidative stress in ebv lytic reactivation, radioresistance and the potential preventive and therapeutic implications.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is an important cancer causing virus. cancer associated with ebv account for approximately 1.5% of all cancers, and represent 1.8% of all cancer deaths worldwide. ebv reactivation plays an important role in the development of ebv-related diseases and is closely related with patients' survival and clinical stages of ebv-related cancers. the therapy regarding to ebv-related cancers is very urgent, especially in endemic areas. generating oxidative stress is a critical mecha ...201728571118
the effect of adding neoadjuvant chemotherapy to concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma and undetectable pretreatment epstein-barr virus assess the effect of adding neoadjuvant chemotherapy (nact) to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (ccrt) in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc) and undetectable pretreatment epstein-barr virus (pebv) dna.201728570869
coexistence of lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland and submandibular gland pleomorphic adenoma.lymphoepithelial carcinoma is a variant of undifferentiated carcinoma with characteristic dense lymphoid stroma in which nasopharynx is site of predilection. racial and geographic association and epstein-barr virus positivity in endemic areas are other characteristics of this rare neoplasm. lymphoepithelial carcinoma accounts for only 0.4% of malignant salivary gland tumors. the authors present a patient with epstein-barr virus positive lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland in a nonend ...201728570397
development of extranodal nk/t-cell lymphoma nasal type in cerebrum following epstein-barr virus-positive uveitis.a 74-year-old woman developed bilateral uveitis with high epstein-barr virus (ebv) dna load in the vitreous fluid without lymphoma cells. four years after the onset, t2-weighted contrast-enhanced mri revealed hyperintense lesions in the right occipital and parietal lobe. a biopsy resulted in the diagnosis of extranodal nk/t-cell lymphoma nasal type (enkl). the repeat region of lmp1, an ebv gene, detected in the brain lesion was identical to that detected in the vitreous fluid. enkl of the centra ...201728566607
drug modulators of b cell signaling pathways and epstein-barr virus lytic activation.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is a ubiquitous human gammaherpesvirus that establishes a latency reservoir in b cells. in this work, we show that ibrutinib, idelalisib, and dasatinib, drugs that block b cell receptor (bcr) signaling and are used in the treatment of hematologic malignancies, block bcr-mediated lytic induction at clinically relevant doses. we confirm that the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporine and tacrolimus also inhibit bcr-mediated lytic induction but find that rapamycin does not in ...201728566383
circulating pre-treatment epstein-barr virus dna as prognostic factor in locally-advanced nasopharyngeal cancer in a non-endemic area.the prognostic value of pre-treatment epstein-barr virus (ebv) dna viral load for non-endemic, locally-advanced, ebv-related nasopharyngeal cancer (npc) patients is yet to be defined. all patients with ebv encoded rna (eber)-positive npc treated at our institution from 2005 to 2014 with chemotherapy (ct) concurrent with radiation (rt) +/- induction chemotherapy (ict) were retrospectively reviewed. pre-treatment baseline plasma ebv dna (b-ebv dna) viral load was detected and quantified by pcr. me ...201728562354
her-2/epstein-barr virus crosstalk in human gastric carcinogenesis: a novel concept of oncogene/oncovirus interaction.gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. additionally, it is well-known that metastatic cancer disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. several investigations reported that her-2 (erbb-2 receptor) and epstein-barr virus (ebv) are important etiological factors in human gastric cancer, where either oncogene/oncovirus alone can derive a major event of cancer progression and metastasis via epithelial-mesen ...201728562165
immunotherapy for esophageal and gastric cancer.pd-l1 upregulation occurs in approximately 40% of gastroesophageal cancers. however, unlike other solid tumors, there is minimal pd-l1 expressed on the cancer cells; rather, expression occurs predominantly on infiltrating myeloid cells. preliminary clinical data involving single-agent pd-1/pd-l1 inhibitors in metastatic gastroesophageal cancer have reported response rates of 22%-27% for patients with pd-l1(+) tumors and 10%-17% for unselected patients. the phase iii ono-4538-12 (attraction 2) tr ...201728561677
barriers to generating pdx models of hpv-related head and neck cancer.delineate factors impacting the creation and use of patient-derived xenografts (pdxs) of human papilloma virus-related (hpv+) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (hnsccs).201728561270
epstein-barr virus and thyroid cancer: the controversy remains. 201728560569
rna-seq detects pharmacological inhibition of epstein-barr virus late transcription during spontaneous reactivation.the stepwise and sequential expression of viral genes underlies progression of the infectious life cycle. the epstein-barr virus (ebv) is both a tractable model for elucidating principles of transcription as well as a global health threat. we describe an experimental protocol and bioinformatics pipeline for functional identification of ebv true late genes, the last step of transcription prior to virion packaging and egress. all data have been uploaded to the gene expression omnibus under accessi ...201728560170
establishing and applying nomograms based on the 8th edition of the uicc/ajcc staging system to select patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who benefit from induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy.the subgroups of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc) who benefit from induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy (ic+ccrt) remain unclear.201728559028
primary vitreoretinal lymphoma -- a review.primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (pvrl) is the most common intraocular lymphoma occurring in the eye. it is a high-grade typically b-cell malignancy, arising in the retina, and is often associated with central nervous system (cns) disease and thereby a poor prognosis. it needs to be distinguished from choroidal low-grade b-cell lymphomas, which do not disseminate to the brain and have a good prognosis. because of the rarity of pvrl, information is lacking regarding its true incidence, its geograph ...201728558176
cancer risk after pediatric solid organ transplantation.the effects of pediatric solid organ transplantation on cancer risk may differ from those observed in adult recipients. we described cancers in pediatric recipients and compared incidence to the general population.201728557749
evidence for the association of epstein-barr virus in breast cancer in indian patients using in-situ hybridization technique.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is etiologically linked to burkitt lymphoma (bl), nasopharyngeal carcinoma, post-transplant lymphomas, hodgkin disease, and possibly other tumors. however, the association of oncogenic ebv with breast carcinoma (bc) is still controversial and a matter of debate. we aimed to study the presence of ebv genome in bc cases in indian patients and its association with the clinicopathological features. the formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues from 83 women with primary invas ...201728557251
lessons learned: early termination of a randomized trial of calcineurin inhibitor and corticosteroid avoidance using belatacept.the intent of this national institutes of health-sponsored study was to compare a belatacept-based immunosuppressive regimen with a maintenance regimen of tacrolimus and mycophenolate. nineteen primary, epstein-barr virus-immune renal transplant recipients with a negative cross-match were randomized to one of three groups. all patient groups received perioperative steroids and maintenance mycophenolate mofetil. patients in groups 1 and 2 were induced with alemtuzumab and maintained on tacrolimus ...201728556519
a case of ulcerative colitis with squamous cell carcinomas and multiple foci of squamous dysplasia.squamous cell carcinoma (sqcc) in ulcerative colitis (uc) is rare. a 38 year-old japanese woman, who suffered from left-sided uc for 18 years, underwent total colectomy due to sqccs in the rectum and the sigmoid colon. they were well differentiated sqcc, and metastasis was found in the paracolic lymph nodes. multiple small foci of squamous dysplasia (sd) were noted in the rectal mucosa. glandular dysplasia was not found. tp53 was not detected in sd. approximately 40% of cells were immunostained ...201728556347
surgical treatment for epstein-barr virus otomastoiditis complicated by facial nerve paralysis: a case report of two young brothers and review of literature.we report the case of two young brothers with epstein-barr virus (ebv) otomastoiditis complicated by a facial nerve paralysis. the boys, aged 7 months (patient a) and 2 years and 8 months (patient b), were diagnosed with a facial nerve paralysis house-brackmann (hb) grade iv (a) and v (b). after unsuccessful pharmacological treatment, patient a underwent mastoidectomy and atticoantrotomy and patient b underwent a transmastoidal surgical decompression of the facial nerve. they recovered to hb gra ...201728555605
evaluation of the presence of epstein-barr virus (ebv) in iranian patients with thyroid papillary carcinoma.papillary thyroid carcinoma (ptc) is the most common thyroid cancer. ebv is one of the most important viruses related to different types of malignancies. this study investigated the relationship between ebv and papillary thyroid carcinoma.201728554750
methodological approach to the ex vivo expansion and detection of t. cruzi-specific t cells from chronic chagas disease patients.the discovery of t cell epitopes is essential not only for gaining knowledge about host response to infectious disease but also for the development of immune-intervention strategies. in chagas disease, given the size and complexity of the trypanosoma cruzi proteome and its interaction with the host's immune system, the fine specificity of t cells has not been extensively studied yet, and this is particularly true for the cd4+ t cell compartment. the aim of the present work was to optimize a prot ...201728552984
an epstein-barr virus-positive classical hodgkin lymphoma with exclusive sinusoidal growth pattern: an unusual morphologic variant.classical hodgkin lymphoma (chl) typically involves lymph node parenchyma, and a case with hodgkin cells confined within nodal sinusoids is extremely rare. herein we report a case of chl with a sinusoidal growth pattern. this 15-year old patient presented with b symptoms and was found to have bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and an anterior mediastinal mass. biopsy of a cervical lymph node demonstrated cohesive clusters of reed-sternberg (rs)-like cells suggestive of sinusoidal growth with an ...201728552534
serum ebv ea-iga and vca-iga antibodies can be used for risk group stratification and prognostic prediction in extranodal nk/t cell lymphoma: 24-year experience at a single institution.although extranodal nk/t cell lymphoma (enktcl) is consistently associated with epstein-barr virus (ebv) infection, the manifestation and prognostic value of serum ebv antibodies still remain unknown. one hundred and forty-one patients with enktcl were evaluated for serum ebv ea-iga and vca-iga antibodies levels in the past 24 years in our institution. their correlation with clinicopathological features, plasma ebv dna load, and patients' outcomes was analyzed. ebv ea-iga ≥1:10 and vca-iga ≥1:16 ...201728550598
the enigmatic role of viruses in multiple sclerosis: molecular mimicry or disturbed immune surveillance?multiple sclerosis (ms) is a t cell driven autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (cns). despite its association with epstein-barr virus (ebv), how viral infections promote ms remains unclear. however, there is increasing evidence that the cns is continuously surveyed by virus-specific t cells, which protect against reactivating neurotropic viruses. here, we discuss how viral infections could lead to the breakdown of self-tolerance in genetically predisposed individuals, and how the re ...201728549714
ebv-negative aggressive nk-cell leukemia/lymphoma: a clinical and pathological study from a single institution.aggressive natural killer (nk)-cell leukemia/lymphoma is a systemic nk-cell neoplasm that preferentially affects asians with a fulminant clinical course and is almost always associated with epstein-barr virus (ebv). the data on ebv-negative aggressive nk-cell leukemia/lymphoma are limited. here we report a series of three patients (two caucasians, one african-american) with ebv-negative aggressive nk-cell leukemia/lymphoma from a single institution, including a case diagnosed on post-mortem exam ...201728548121
two sides of the epstein-barr virus (ebv) coin: long-term control of ebv after liver transplantation? 201728544040
the effect of ebv on wif1, nlk, and apc gene methylation and expression in gastric carcinoma and nasopharyngeal cancer.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is an important dna tumor virus that is associated with approximately 10% of gastric carcinomas and 99% of nasopharyngeal cancers (npc). dna methylation and micrornas (mirnas) are the most studied epigenetic mechanisms that can prompt disease susceptibility. this study aimed to detect the effect of ebv on wnt inhibitory factor 1 (wif1), nemo-like kinase (nlk), and adenomatous polyposis coli (apc) gene methylation, and expression in gastric carcinoma and npc. the wif1, nl ...201728543390
viruses and endogenous retroviruses in multiple sclerosis: from correlation to causation.multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated disease with an environmental component. according to a long-standing but unproven hypothesis dating to initial descriptions of multiple sclerosis (ms) at the end of the 19th century, viruses are either directly or indirectly implicated in ms pathogenesis. whether viruses in ms are principally causal or simply contributory remains to be proven, but many viruses or viral elements-predominantly epstein-barr virus, human endogenous retroviruses (hervs) and h ...201728542724
expression profile of epstein-barr virus and human adenovirus small rnas in tonsillar b and t lymphocytes.we have used high-throughput small rna sequencing to characterize viral small rna expression in purified tonsillar b and t lymphocytes isolated from patients tested positive for epstein-barr virus (ebv) or human adenovirus (hadv) infections, respectively. in the small set of patients analyzed, the expression profile of ebv and hadv mirnas could not distinguish between patients diagnosed with tonsillar hypertrophy or chronic/recurrent tonsillitis. the ebv mir-bart expression profile among the pat ...201728542273
the complexity in herpesvirus entry.enveloped viruses have evolved diverse transmembrane proteins and protein complexes to enable host cell entry by regulating and activating membrane fusion in a target cell-specific manner. in general terms, the entry process requires a receptor binding step, an activation step and a membrane fusion step, which can be encoded within a single viral protein or distributed among multiple viral proteins. hiv and influenza virus, for example, encode all of these functions in a single trimeric glycopro ...201728538165
[expression and prognostic significance of microenvironment related prognostic factors in patients with classical hodgkin's lymphoma].objective: to observe the expression of three microenvironment related prognostic factors, i. e. programmed death 1 (pd-1), forkhead box protein 3(foxp3) and colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor(csf-1r) protein in classical hodgkin's lymphoma (chl) patients, and to explore the correlation between the protein expression and the prognosis of the patients. methods: a total of 45 cases of chl patients, who had been admitted to the tianjin medical university cancer institute and hospital and chinese ...201728535626
posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder: otolaryngological manifestations and management.objective posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (ptld) is a unifying term for a spectrum of lymphoid expansion entities brought about by immunosuppression and is strongly associated with epstein-barr virus (ebv). otolaryngological findings tend to present early in the clinical course; therefore, disease awareness among otolaryngologists is of utmost importance. this review synthesizes the body of literature pertaining to ptld involving the head and neck, summarizes contemporary management, ...201728535360
clinical and mucosal immune correlates of hiv-1 semen levels in antiretroviral-naive men.this study was done to characterize parameters associated with semen human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-1 ribonucleic acid (rna) viral load (vl) variability in hiv-infected, therapy-naive men.201728534034
epstein-barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumor as the initial presentation of hiv infection: a case report. 201728532583
is pretreatment epstein-barr virus dna still associated with 6-year survival outcomes in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma?purpose: the objective of this study was to confirm the association between pretreatment epstein-barr virus (ebv) dna (pre-dna) load and survival outcomes after long-term follow-up in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (la-npc). materials and methods: between november 2009 and february 2012, a total of 1036 patients with la-npc were enrolled. there were 762 patients in stage iii and 274 in stage iva-b. all patients were treated with radical radiotherapy with or withou ...201728529609
multiple sclerosis treatment with fingolimod: profile of non-cardiologic adverse events.fingolimod was the first oral medication approved for management of multiple sclerosis and is currently used by tens of thousands patients worldwide. fingolimod acts via the sphingosine 1-phosphate (s1p) receptor, maintaining peripheral lymphocytes entrapped in the lymph nodes. in consequence, there is a reduction in the infiltration of aggressive lymphocytes into the central nervous system. the drug is safe and effective, and its first hours of use are associated with related to s1p receptors i ...201728528469
casual or causal? two unique cases of hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report and literature review.background immunosuppressive diseases and therapies have long been connected to risk of malignancies, especially lymphoma. with some diseases and drugs, the association is well established but the data is mostly anecdotal because of the rarity of the situation. case report we present 2 rare cases. the first patient had psoriasis, was on etanercept, and developed hodgkin's lymphoma. this case is rare because psoriasis and etanercept do not usually cause lymphoma, and if they do, it is predominant ...201728522794
il-35 expression is increased in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and in the peripheral blood of patients.interleukin-35 (il-35) has been proposed as a novel immune-suppressing cytokine. however, the function of il-35 in malignant diseases is yet to be elucidated. the present study investigated il-35 expression levels in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (lscc) tissues and the peripheral blood of patients to explore the potential involvement of il-35 in lscc progression. in the present study, il-35 expression levels in tissues and peripheral blood were analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative ...201728521437
natural variation of epstein-barr virus genes, proteins, and primary microrna.viral gene sequences from an enlarged set of about 200 epstein-barr virus (ebv) strains, including many primary isolates, have been used to investigate variation in key viral genetic regions, particularly lmp1, zp, gp350, ebna1, and the bart microrna (mirna) cluster 2. determination of type 1 and type 2 ebv in saliva samples from people from a wide range of geographic and ethnic backgrounds demonstrates a small percentage of healthy white caucasian british people carrying predominantly type 2 eb ...201728515295
[the detection of the human papilloma virus during hyperplastic processes in the nose, ears and throat].the objective of the present work was to carry out the virological and histological studies of various neoplastic and hyperplastic processes in the nose, ears, and throat with a view to identifying the presence of human papilloma virus and epstein-barr virus. the brush biopsies and remote neoplasms obtained from 18 patients (including 2 children and 16 adults) presenting with various ent diseases and tumours were available for the virological investigation with the use of the polymerase chain re ...201728514365
epstein-barr virus encephalitis in solid organ transplantation.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is typically associated with post transplant lymphoproliferative disease (ptld) after solid organ and stem cell transplantation. however, it is rarely associated with neurological complications. we report a case of severe encephalitis complicating primary ebv infection six months post renal transplantation, and review the literature on ebv encephalitis in solid organ transplantation in adults. a 55-year-old male presented 6 months post cadaveric renal transplant with hea ...201728513810
epstein-barr virus-encoded lmp2a stimulates migration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via the egfr/ca(2+)/calpain/itgβ4 axis.epstein-barr virus (ebv)-encoded latent membrane protein 2a (lmp2a) promotes the motility of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc) cells. previously, we have shown that the localization of integrin β4 (itgβ4) is regulated by lmp2a, with itgβ4 concentrated at the cellular protrusions in lmp2a-expressing npc cells. in the present study, we aim to further investigate mechanisms involved in this process and its contribution to cell motility. we show that expression of lmp2a was correlated with increased ep ...201728512118
post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in liver transplant lymphoproliferative syndrome (ptld) is a rare and potentially life-threatening complication after liver transplantation. the aim of this study was to analyze the clinicopathologic features related to ptld in a single institution after liver transplantation.201728508661
a barf1-specific mab as a new immunotherapeutic tool for the management of ebv-related tumors.the use of monoclonal antibodies (mab) for the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies is acquiring an increasing clinical importance, thanks to their specificity, efficacy and relative easiness of use. however, in the context of epstein-barr virus (ebv)-related malignancies, only cancers of b-cell origin can benefit from therapeutic mab targeting specific b-cell lineage antigens. to overcome this limitation, we generated a new mab specific for barf1, an ebv-encoded protein with transforming and ...201728507812
hla dependent immune escape mechanisms in b-cell lymphomas: implications for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy?antigen presentation by tumor cells in the context of human leukocyte antigen (hla) is generally considered to be a prerequisite for effective immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. we evaluated cell surface hla class i, hla class ii and cytoplasmic hla-dm staining by immunohistochemistry (ihc) in 389 classical hodgkin lymphomas (chl), 22 nodular lymphocyte predominant hodgkin lymphomas (nlphl), 137 diffuse large b-cell lymphomas (dlbcl), 39 primary central nervous system lymphomas (pcnsl) and 19 ...201728507804
the novel negative checkpoint regulator vista is expressed in gastric carcinoma and associated with pd-l1/pd-1: a future perspective for a combined gastric cancer therapy?a combined blockade of v-domain ig suppressor of t-cell activation (vista) and pd-1 is a promising new cancer treatment option, which was efficient in murine tumor models and is currently tested in first phase i studies. here, we analyzed the vista expression in a large and well-characterized gastric cancer (gc) cohort on 464 therapy-naive gc samples and 14 corresponding liver metastases using immunohistochemistry. staining results were correlated with clinico-pathological characteristics, genet ...201728507801
human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and epstein-barr virus (ebv) related lymphomas, pathology view point.the contribution of epstein barr virus (ebv) and kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (kshv) to the development of specific types of malignant lymphomas occurring in the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) setting has been extensively studied since the beginning of the hiv epidemic 35 years ago. the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapies (haart) in 1996 has changed dramatically the incidence of hiv-related malignancies. nevertheless, malignant lymphomas continue to be the major group of ma ...201728506687
gastric cancer with primitive enterocyte phenotype: an aggressive subgroup of intestinal-type adenocarcinoma.a primitive cell-like gene expression signature is associated with aggressive phenotypes of various cancers. we assessed the expression of phenotypic markers characterizing primitive cells and its correlation with clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics in gastric cancer. immunohistochemical analysis of a panel of primitive phenotypic markers, including embryonic stem cell markers (oct4, nanog, sall4, cldn6, and lin28) and known oncofetal proteins (afp and gpc3), was performed using tiss ...201728505005
epstein-barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and guillain-barre syndrome in a 16-month-old child.a 16-month-old girl was diagnosed with epstein-barr virus hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and transferred to our hospital on the 58th day of the hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis after treatment failure according to the hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-2004 protocol. on admission to our hospital, she had a flaccid paralysis of her lower limbs. nerve conduction studies showed a acute motor axonal neuropathy, and a diagnosis of guillain-barre syndrome was established. intravenous immunoglobu ...201728503601
umbilical cord blood transplantation without antithymocyte globulin results in similar survival but better quality of life compared with unrelated peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for the treatment of acute leukemia-a retrospective study in china.although previous studies have demonstrated improved outcomes in umbilical cord blood transplantation (ucbt) by omitting antithymocyte globulin (atg) in the conditioning regimen, this approach has not been comparatively studied in unrelated peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (upbsct). to compare the risks and benefits between ucbt without atg and upbsct in patients with acute leukemia (al), we conducted a multicenter retrospective study of 79 patients who underwent ucbt (myeloablative co ...201728499936
epstein-barr virus and rheumatoid arthritis.rheumatoid arthritis (ra) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases, with a 0.5% worldwide prevalence. the cause of ra remains unknown, however both genetic and environmental factors may contribute to its development. among these is the epstein-barr virus (ebv). here, we discuss several aspects of the close relationship between ebv and ra. patients with ra have impaired control of ebv infection. indeed, they have high titres of antibodies against ebv antigens. their peripheral blood t lympho ...201728499895
pathogenesis and fdg-pet/ct findings of epstein-barr virus-related lymphoid neoplasms.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is one of the most common viruses, infecting more than 90% of the adult population worldwide. ebv genome is detected in some lymphoid neoplasms. not only their histopathological subtypes, but also their backgrounds and their clinical courses are variable. a number of b-cell lymphoproliferative disorders associated with the immunocompromised state are related to ebv infection. the incidences of these disorders have been increasing along with generalization of organ transp ...201728497429
massive intracerebral epstein-barr virus reactivation in lethal multiple sclerosis relapse after natalizumab withdrawal.rebound of disease activity in multiple sclerosis patients after natalizumab withdrawal is a potentially life-threatening event. to verify whether highly destructive inflammation after natalizumab withdrawal is associated with epstein-barr virus (ebv) reactivation in central nervous system infiltrating b-lineage cells and cytotoxic immunity, we analyzed post-mortem brain tissue from a patient who died during a fulminating ms relapse following natalizumab withdrawal. numerous ebv infected b cells ...201728495131
crispr/cas9 screens reveal epstein-barr virus-transformed b cell host dependency factors.epstein-barr virus (ebv) causes endemic burkitt lymphoma (bl) and immunosuppression-related lymphomas. these b cell malignancies arise by distinct transformation pathways and have divergent viral and host expression programs. to identify host dependency factors resulting from these ebv+, b cell-transformed cell states, we performed parallel genome-wide crispr/cas9 loss-of-function screens in bl and lymphoblastoid cell lines (lcls). these highlighted 57 bl and 87 lcl genes uniquely important for ...201728494239
transcriptome-wide analysis of alternative rna splicing events in epstein-barr virus-associated gastric carcinomas.multiple human diseases including cancer have been associated with a dysregulation in rna splicing patterns. in the current study, modifications to the global rna splicing landscape of cellular genes were investigated in the context of epstein-barr virus-associated gastric cancer. global alterations to the rna splicing landscape of cellular genes was examined in a large-scale screen from 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas using high-throughput rna sequencing data. rt-pcr analysis, mass spectrom ...201728493890
epstein-barr virus rta-mediated accumulation of dna methylation interferes with ctcf binding in both host and viral genomes.rta, an epstein-barr virus (ebv) immediate-early protein, reactivates viral lytic replication that is closely associated with tumorigenesis. in previous studies, we demonstrated that in epithelial cells rta efficiently induced cellular senescence, which is an irreversible g1 arrest likely to provide a favorable environment for productive replications of ebv and kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (kshv). to restrict progression of the cell cycle, rta simultaneously upregulates cdk inhibitors ...201728490592
chronic active epstein-barr virus infection associated with hemophagocytic syndrome and extra-nodal natural killer/t-cell lymphoma in an 18-year-old girl: a case report.chronic active epstein-barr virus infection (caebv) associated with hemophagocytic syndrome (hps) and extra-nodal natural killer (nk)/t-cell lymphoma (enkl) is a rare life-threatening disorder. this disease is easily misdiagnosed because of its varied presentations.201728489771
clinical and virologic outcomes in high-risk adult epstein-barr virus mismatched organ transplant recipients.epstein-barr virus (ebv) d+/r- organ transplant recipients are a high-risk group for developing post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (ptld). little data are available for prevention in the adult ebv mismatched population. we conducted a retrospective study of ebv d+/r- organ transplants performed during 2002-2014. of the 153 patients identified, 82.4% patients received antiviral prophylaxis with valganciclovir for a median of 4.5 months (range: 0.8-22 months) and 36.6% underwent viral loa ...201728489256
dorsolumbar spine epstein barr virus associated leiomyosarcoma in a human immunodeficiency virus patient. 201728488650
new daily persistent headache: historical review and an interview with dr. walter daily persistent headache (ndph) is an idiopathic headache syndrome characterized by the abrupt onset of an unremitting, daily, continuous headache without an antecedent escalating headache pattern, and not attributable to other primary or secondary headache disorders. we review the history of ndph in terms of its characterization and classification, and then interview dr. walter vanast, the neurologist who initially described ndph three decades ago, to gain his perspective now that there is ...201728488355
ebv-negative monomorphic b-cell posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder with marked morphologic pleomorphism and pathogenic mutations in asxl1, bcor, cdkn2a, nf1, and tp53.posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (ptlds) are a diverse group of lymphoid or plasmacytic proliferations frequently driven by epstein-barr virus (ebv). ebv-negative ptlds appear to represent a distinct entity. this report describes an unusual case of a 33-year-old woman that developed a monomorphic ebv-negative ptld consistent with diffuse large b-cell lymphoma (dlbcl) 13 years after heart-lung transplant. histological examination revealed marked pleomorphism of the malignant cells inc ...201728487787
a rare case of angioimmunoblastic t-cell lymphoma with epstein-barr virus-negative reed-sternberg-like b-cells, chylous ascites, and chylothorax.angioimmunoblastic t-cell lymphoma is a rare non-hodgkin lymphoma with dismal prognosis. the median age of presentation ranges from 62 to 69 years with generalized lymphadenopathy, b symptoms, and hepatosplenomegaly as the most prevalent symptoms. the combination of b-cell and t-cell proliferations is common in aitl and the b-cell component may resemble reed-sternberg-like b-cells. epstein-barr virus is estimated to be present in 80-95% of aitl biopsies. only a handful of ebv-negative aitl cases ...201728487786
the methylation status and expression of epstein-barr virus early genes barf1 and bhrf1 in epstein-barr virus-associated gastric carcinomas.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is an important dna virus which establishes latent infection in human malignancies. expression of ebv-encoded genes in the associated tumors is strongly modulated by promoter cpg methylation of ebv genome. this study aimed to explore the methylation status of the promoters of ebv bamhi-a rightward frame 1 (barf1) and bamhi-h rightward open reading frame 1 (bhrf1) and their influence on transcriptional expression, to further understand the roles of barf1 and bhrf1 in the ...201728487730
cd30 expression in extranodal natural killer/t-cell lymphoma, nasal type among 622 cases of mature t-cell and natural killer-cell lymphoma at a single institution in south china.mature t-cell and natural killer (nk)-cell lymphomas compose a heterogeneous group of non-hodgkin lymphomas, and extranodal nk/t-cell lymphoma, nasal type (enktl) is an aggressive subtype with sporadic cd30 expression. however, the significance of cd30 expression in enktl is controversial. we aimed to classify a large cohort of patients with mature t-cell and nk-cell lymphomas according to the 2016 world health organization (who) classification guidelines and to study the association between cd3 ...201728486951
epstein-barr virus-induced vegf and gm-csf drive nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis via recruitment and activation of macrophages.chronic inflammation induced by persistent microbial infection plays an essential role in tumor progression. although it is well documented that epstein-barr virus (ebv) infection is closely associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc), how ebv-induced inflammation promotes npc progression remains largely unknown. here, we report that tumor infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (tam) and expression of ccl18, the cytokine preferentially secreted by tam, closely correlate with serum ebv i ...201728484077
checkpoint inhibitors in hematological malignancies.inhibitory molecules such as pd-1, ctla-4, lag-3, or tim-3 play a role to keep a balance in immune function. however, many cancers exploit such molecules to escape immune surveillance. accumulating data support that their functions are dysregulated in lymphoid neoplasms, including plasma cell myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome, and acute myeloid leukemia. in lymphoid neoplasms, aberrations in 9p24.1 (pd-l1, pd-l2, and jak2 locus), latent epstein-barr virus infection, pd-l1 3'-untranslated region ...201728482851
[two families of x-linked lymphoproliferative disease type 1 characterized by agammaglobulinemia].objective: to investigate the clinical and immunological laboratory features, mutations in sh2d1a gene and sap protein expression in four children of two families with x-linked lymphoproliferative disease type 1(xlp-1). method: four patients (family a including patient 1 and patient 2, family b including patient 3 and patient 4) and their maternal relatives were enrolled in this study. the clinical manifestation, ebv infection status and chest ct scan were analyzed. the absolute and relative num ...201728482391
the spread of ebv to ectopic lymphoid aggregates may be the final common pathway in the pathogenesis of me/cfs.according to the hypothesis presented here, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (me/cfs) develops over 3 steps: step 1 is characterized by the aggregation of lymphoid cells in dorsal root ganglia or other nervous structures. the cause of this formation of ectopic lymphoid aggregates may be an acute infection, asymptomatic reactivations of a common neurotropic virus, exposure to a neurotoxin, or physical injury to peripheral nerves. in step 2, epstein-barr virus (ebv)-infected lymp ...201728478837
epstein-barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders in the skin.epstein-barr virus (ebv)-associated lymphoproliferations involving the skin are a rare but important group of diseases with a broad spectrum of behavior, ranging from self-limiting spontaneously resolving disorders to highly aggressive malignancies. they may be of b, t, or natural killer (nk) cell type and include ebv-positive mucocutaneous ulcer, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, ebv-positive diffuse large b-cell lymphoma, hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoproliferative disorder, and extranodal nk/t-ce ...201728477890
primary cutaneous extranodal natural killer/t-cell lymphoma presenting as bilateral erythematous patches on the arms.natural killer/t-cell lymphoma is a rare, epstein-barr virus-associated type of cytotoxic lymphoma thatpresents mainly in the nasal cavity and its vicinity. very few cases of primary cutaneous extranodal natural killer/t-cell lymphoma have been reported till date. all the previously reported cases of primary cutaneous extranodalnatural killer/t-cell lymphoma presented as lesions resembling cellulitis, subcutaneous nodules or ulcers. we report a rare case which presented as erythematous and purpu ...201728474639
emerging insights on the pathogenesis and treatment of extranodal nk/t cell lymphomas (enktl).extranodal nk/t-cell lymphoma (enktl) is a rare aggressive extranodal non-hodgkin lymphoma (nhl) universally associated with epstein-barr virus (ebv). enktl most commonly occurs in non-elderly immune competent males in asia and south america. a number of antecedent lymphoproliferative disorders (lpds) have been described in asian and south american patients, but the majority of caucasian enktl patients have no known preceding lpd or underlying immunodeficiency. other than ebv, no environmental o ...201728472613
characterizing the cellular immune response to parainfluenza virus 3.parainfluenza virus type 3 (piv3) infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals, with no approved therapies. our group has demonstrated the safety and efficacy of adoptively transferred virus-specific t cells for the prevention and treatment of a broad range of viral infections including bk virus, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, human herpesvirus 6, and epstein-barr virus. however, this approach is restricted to well-characterized viruses with known immuno ...201728472480
immunodeficiency-associated lymphoid hyperplasia as a cause of intussusception in a case of activated pi3k-δ syndrome.activated pi3k-δ syndrome refers to a recently described primary immunodeficiency syndrome consisting of recurrent sinopulmonary infections, lymphadenopathy, mucosal lymphoid aggregates, increased susceptibility to epstein-barr virus and cytomegalovirus, and increased incidence of b-cell lymphomas. variants in pik3cd, which encodes the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta isoform, enhance membrane association and kinase activity, resulting in increased signal tr ...201728469999
two alternate strategies for innate immunity to epstein-barr virus: one using nk cells and the other nk cells and γδ t cells.most humans become infected with epstein-barr virus (ebv), which then persists for life. infrequently, ebv infection causes infectious mononucleosis (im) or burkitt lymphoma (bl). type i ebv infection, particularly type i bl, stimulates strong responses of innate immune cells. humans respond to ebv in two alternative ways. of 24 individuals studied, 13 made strong nk and γδ t cell responses, whereas 11 made feeble γδ t cell responses but stronger nk cell responses. the difference does not correl ...201728468758
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