functionality testing of stem cell grafts to predict infectious complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (hsct) is a routine clinical procedure performed to treat patients with haematological malignancies, primary immune deficiencies or metabolic disorders. infections during lymphopenia after allogeneic hsct are associated with high mortality and morbidity. typical infectious agents are epstein-barr virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus and fungi. the study aim was to evaluate whether measurement of the responses of a ...201728466551
[varicella gastritis under immunosuppression : case report of a woman after lung transplantation due to granulomatosis with polyangiitis].a 35-year-old woman who had previously undergone a lung transplantation presented with severe abdominal pain and vomiting. the gastroscopy showed diffuse ulcerative gastric lesions. tests for varicella zoster virus and epstein-barr virus via polymerase chain reactions (pcr) on endoscopically obtained gastric biopsies were found to be positive and confirmed varicella gastritis. intravenous antiviral therapy with acyclovir was administered resulting in a normalization of all clinical symptoms, esp ...201728405696
epidemiology of multiple herpes viremia in previously immunocompetent patients with septic shock.systemic reactivations of herpesviruses may occur in intensive care unit (icu) patients, even in those without prior immune deficiency. however, the clinical relevance of these events is uncertain.201728158551
crystal structure of the dna-binding domain of human herpesvirus 6a immediate early protein 2.immediate early proteins of human herpesvirus 6a (hhv-6a) are expressed at the outset of lytic infection, and thereby regulate viral gene expression. immediate early protein 2 (ie2) of hhv-6a is a trans-activator that drives a variety of promoters. the c-terminal region of hhv-6a ie2 is shared among ie2 homologs in beta-herpesviruses, and is involved in dimerization, dna binding, and transcription factor binding. in this study, the structure of the c-terminal domain (ie2-ctd) was determined by x ...201728794035
structural basis for potent antibody-mediated neutralization of human cytomegalovirus.human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) is the leading viral cause of birth defects and organ transplant rejection. the hcmv gh/gl/ul128/ul130/ul131a complex (pentamer) is the main target of humoral responses and thus a key vaccine candidate. we report two structures of pentamer bound to human neutralizing antibodies, 8i21 and 9i6, at 3.0 and 5.9 å resolution, respectively. the hcmv gh/gl architecture is similar to that of epstein-barr virus (ebv) except for amino-terminal extensions on both subunits. the ...201728783665
the human cytomegalovirus nuclear egress complex unites multiple functions: recruitment of effectors, nuclear envelope rearrangement, and docking to nuclear capsids.nuclear replication represents a common hallmark of herpesviruses achieved by a number of sequentially unrolled regulatory processes. a rate-limiting step is provided by nucleo-cytoplasmic capsid export, for which a defined multiregulatory protein complex, namely, the nuclear egress complex (nec), is assembled comprising both viral and cellular components. the nec regulates at least 3 aspects of herpesviral nuclear replication: (1) multimeric recruitment of nec-associated effector proteins, (2) ...201728664574
a temporal proteomic map of epstein-barr virus lytic replication in b cells.epstein-barr virus (ebv) replication contributes to multiple human diseases, including infectious mononucleosis, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, b cell lymphomas, and oral hairy leukoplakia. we performed systematic quantitative analyses of temporal changes in host and ebv proteins during lytic replication to gain insights into virus-host interactions, using conditional burkitt lymphoma models of type i and ii ebv infection. we quantified profiles of >8,000 cellular and 69 ebv proteins, including >500 ...201728514666
a histological study of fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus related to human cytomegalovirus reactivation.fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus (t1dm) is thought to be partly caused by virus infection.201728398495
the transcription factor hobit identifies human cytotoxic cd4(+) t cells.the t cell lineage is commonly divided into cd4-expressing helper t cells that polarize immune responses through cytokine secretion and cd8-expressing cytotoxic t cells that eliminate infected target cells by virtue of the release of cytotoxic molecules. recently, a population of cd4(+) t cells that conforms to the phenotype of cytotoxic cd8(+) t cells has received increased recognition. these cytotoxic cd4(+) t cells display constitutive expression of granzyme b and perforin at the protein leve ...201728392788
effects of metal-rich particulate matter exposure on exogenous and endogenous viral sequence methylation in healthy steel-workers.inhaled particles have been shown to produce systemic changes in dna methylation. global hypomethylation has been associated to viral sequence reactivation, possibly linked to the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways occurring after exposure. this observation provides a rationale to investigate viral sequence (both exogenous and endogenous) methylation in association to metal-rich particulate matter exposure. to verify this hypothesis, we chose the wp promoter of the epstein-barr virus (ebv-w ...201728858759
recreational exposure during algal bloom in carrasco beach, uruguay: a liver failure case january 2015, a 20-month-old child and her family took part in recreational activities at carrasco and malvín beaches (montevideo, uruguay). an intense harmful algae bloom (hab) was developing along the coast at that time. a few hours after the last recreational exposure episode, the family suffered gastrointestinal symptoms which were self-limited except in the child's case, who was admitted to hospital in uruguay with diarrhea, vomiting, fatigue, and jaundice. the patient had increased seru ...201728858213
tcr-like antibodies mediate complement and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against epstein-barr virus-transformed b lymphoblastoid cells expressing different hla-a*02 microvariants.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is a common gammaherpesvirus associated with various human malignancies. antibodies with t cell receptor-like specificities (tcr-like mabs) provide a means to target intracellular tumor- or virus-associated antigens by recognising their processed peptides presented on major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i (pmhc) complexes. these antibodies are however thought to be relevant only for a single hla allele. here, we show that hla-a*02:01-restricted ebv antigenic pep ...201728855662
epstein-barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and multiple sclerosis susceptibility: a multiethnic determine whether epstein-barr virus (ebv) or cytomegalovirus (cmv) seropositivity is associated with multiple sclerosis (ms) in blacks and hispanics and to what extent measures of the hygiene hypothesis or breastfeeding could explain these findings. ebv and cmv have been associated with ms risk in whites, and the timing and frequency of both viruses vary by factors implicated in the hygiene hypothesis.201728855411
human genetic determinants of viral diseases.much progress has been made in the identification of specific human gene variants that contribute to enhanced susceptibility or resistance to viral diseases. herein we review multiple discoveries made with genome-wide or candidate gene approaches that have revealed significant insights into virus-host interactions. genetic factors that have been identified include genes encoding virus receptors, receptor-modifying enzymes, and a wide variety of innate and adaptive immunity-related proteins. we d ...201728853921
cytolytic virus activation therapy and treatment monitoring for epstein-barr virus associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a mouse tumor model.undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc) is 100% associated with epstein-barr virus (ebv). expression of viral proteins in the tumor cells is highly restricted. ebv reactivation by cytolytic virus activation (clva) therapy triggers de novo expression of early viral kinases (pk and tk) and uses antiviral treatment to kill activated cells. the mechanism of tumor elimination by clva was analyzed in npc mouse model using c666.1 cells. valproic acid (vpa) was combined with gemcitabine (gcb) to ...201728853217
genomic analysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma reveals tme-based subtypes.nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc) is an epstein-barr virus (ebv) associated cancer characterized by a poor prognosis and a high level of lymphocyte infiltrate. genetic hallmarks of npc are not completely known but include deletion of the p16 (cdkn2a) locus and mutations in nf-kb pathway components, with a relatively low total mutational load. to better understand the genetic landscape, an integrated genomic analysis was performed using a large clinical cohort of treatment-naïve npc tumor specimens. ...201728851814
the impact of targeting repetitive bamhi-w sequences on the sensitivity and precision of ebv dna quantification.viral load monitoring and early epstein-barr virus (ebv) dna detection are essential in routine laboratory testing, especially in preemptive management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. targeting the repetitive bamhi-w sequence was shown to increase the sensitivity of ebv dna quantification, but the variability of bamhi-w reiterations was suggested to be a source of quantification bias. we aimed to assess the extent of variability associated with bamhi-w pcr and its impact on the ...201728850597
improved outcomes of kidney transplantation in infants (age < 2 years): a single center experience.infants (age < 2 years) with end stage renal disease (esrd) have increased morbidity and mortality. we evaluated our long-term outcomes of kidney transplants (ktx) in infants.201728846558
[high oncogenic risk human papillomavirus and urinary bladder cancer].to determine the role of human papillomavirus (hpv) of high oncogenic risk in the development of urinary bladder cancer.201728845940
pediatric multiple sclerosis: genes, environment, and a comprehensive therapeutic approach.pediatric multiple sclerosis is an increasingly recognized and studied disorder that affects 3%-10% of all patients. the risk for pediatric multiple sclerosis is thought to be secondary to a complex interplay between environmental and genetic risk factors.201728843454
human immunodeficiency virus type 1 persistence following systemic chemotherapy for malignancy.systemic chemotherapies for various malignancies have been shown to significantly, yet transiently, decrease numbers of cd4+ t lymphocytes, a major reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) infection. however, little is known about the impact of cytoreductive chemotherapy on hiv-1 reservoir dynamics, persistence, and immune responses.201728838149
valganciclovir for the suppression of epstein-barr virus replication.epstein-barr virus (ebv) causes infectious mononucleosis and can lead to lymphoproliferative diseases. we evaluated the effects of valganciclovir on oral ebv shedding in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. twenty-six men received oral valganciclovir or daily placebo for 8 weeks, followed by a 2-week "washout period" and then 8 weeks of the alternative treatment. valganciclovir reduced the proportion of days with ebv detected from 61.3% to 17.8% (relative risk, 0.28; 95% confide ...201728838145
humanized mouse models for epstein barr virus is essential for the human immune system to control epstein barr virus (ebv), because this common human γ-herpesvirus efficiently spreads through the human population with more than 90% being persistently infected after 20 years of age even in developed countries. moreover, it threatens each host with its potent growth transforming properties, readily immortalizing human b cells into persistently growing lymphoma cell lines. since this virus only infects humans, mice with reconstituted human ...201728837889
concurrent chemoradiotherapy with or without cetuximab for stage ii to ivb nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-control study.this study aimed to evaluate the long-term outcome and toxicities in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc) treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (ccrt) with/without adding cetuximab.201728836950
asymptomatic primary infection with epstein-barr virus: observations on young adult cases.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is typically acquired asymptomatically in childhood. by contrast, infection later in life often leads to infectious mononucleosis (im), a febrile illness characterised by anti-ebv igm antibody-positivity, high loads of circulating latently-infected b cells, and a marked lymphocytosis caused by hyper-expansion of ebv-specific cd8(+) t cells plus milder expansion of cd56(dim) nkg2a(+) kir(-) nk cells. how the two situations compare is unclear due to the paucity of studies ...201728835490
epstein-barr virus lmp1 mediated oncogenicity.epstein-barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (lmp1) is expressed in multiple human malignancies, including nasopharynegeal carcinoma, hodgkin and immunosuppression-associated lymphomas. lmp1 mimics cd40 signaling to activate multiple growth and survival pathways, in particular nf-κb. lmp1 has critical roles in ebv-driven b-cell transformation, and its expression causes fatal lymphoproliferative disease in immunosuppressed mice. here, we review recent developments in studies of lmp1 signaling, lm ...201728835489
ruxolitinib for secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: first case report.hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (hlh) is an immune-mediated disorder resulting in hyper-activation of inflammatory cytokines. if left untreated, the uncontrolled inflammatory response can lead to significant tissue injury and potentially life-threatening multi-organ dysfunction. conventional immunosuppressive agents are available for the management of hlh, including dexamethasone, cyclosporine, and etoposide; however, patients may not respond to these therapies. clinicians may turn toward alt ...201728834694
evaluation of nasal and nasopharyngeal swab collection for the detection of epstein-barr virus in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.ebv detection using nasopharyngeal swabs has been suggested as a potential screening test that could improve the specificity of current ebv-based serological assays. however, application requires insertion of the swab deep into the nasopharynx, a procedure not amenable to non-clinic screening. we reasoned that swabbing the more easily accessible nasal cavity might provide an appealing alternative for npc detection.201728833336
long-term outcome of epstein-barr virus dnaemia and ptld with the use of preemptive rituximab following allogeneic hsct.we studied retrospectively the outcome of epstein-barr virus (ebv)-related disease with ebv monitoring and preemptive rituximab to prevent post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (ptld) in 319 consecutive allogeneic stem cell transplantations 2004-2012. patients who received anti-thymocyte globulin (atg) or alemtuzumab were regarded as high-risk for ptld (n = 214). ebv dnaemia ≥1000 copies/ml plasma was observed in 50 (23%) of the high-risk patients. thirty-three of the high-risk (15%) and ...201728831836
encephalitis with reversible splenial and deep cerebral white matter lesions associated with epstein-barr virus infection in adults.approximately 200 cases of mild encephalitis with reversible splenial (mers) and deep cerebral white matter lesions have been reported since mers was first defined in 2004. mers occurs more frequently in children; in adults, only ~60 cases have been reported. until now, only four cases of mers in adults have been associated with epstein-barr virus (ebv).201728831257
nasopharyngeal carcinoma super-enhancer-driven etv6 correlates with prognosis.nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc) most frequently occurs in southern china and southeast asia. epidemiology studies link npc to genetic predisposition, epstein-barr virus (ebv) infection, and environmental factors. genetic studies indicate that mutations in chromatin-modifying enzymes are the most frequent genetic alterations in npc. here, we used h3k27ac chromatin immune precipitation followed by deep sequencing (chip-seq) to define the npc epigenome in primary npc biopsies, npc xenografts, and an ...201728831010
degradation of cofilin is regulated by cbl, aip4 and syk resulting in increased migration of lmp2a positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.expression of cofilin is directly associated with metastatic activity in many tumors. here, we studied the role of latent membrane protein 2 a (lmp2a) of epstein-barr virus (ebv) in the accumulation of cofilin observed in nasopharyngeal cancer (npc) tumor cells. we used lmp2a transformed npc cell lines to analyze cofilin expression. we used mutation analysis, ectopic expression and down-regulation of cbl, aip4 and syk in these cell lines to determine the effect of the lmp2a viral protein on cofi ...201728827787
enhanced aerobic glycolysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by epstein-barr virus latent membrane protein 1.latent membrane protein 1 (lmp1) is a principal viral oncoprotein in epstein-barr virus (ebv)-associated malignancies, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc), which acts through regulating tumorigenesis and metabolic reprogramming of cancers. in the presence of oxygen, we demonstrated that glucose consumption, lactate production and lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) activity were significantly increased upon lmp1 expression in npc cells and in a lmp1 variant derived from npc patients-transformed bal ...201728827059
spontaneous resolution of epstein-barr virus-induced haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in still's disease treated by tocilizumab: a case report. 201728826312
the complete remission of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated isolated central nervous system lymphomatoid granulomatosis: a case report and review of the literature.a 49-year-old man presented with gradually progressive aphasia one month after being diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple brain lesions with punctate and linear enhancement. a polymerase chain reaction detected epstein-barr virus (ebv) in the patient's cerebrospinal fluid. a diagnosis of isolated central nervous system lymphomatoid granulomatosis (cns-lyg) was made based on the brain biopsy findings. the complete remission of ...201728824078
risk factors of lung cancer in nonsmoker.generally, the cause of lung cancer is attributed to tobacco smoking. but many of the new lung cancer cases have been reported in nonsmokers. apart from smoking; air pollution, environmental exposure, mutations, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms are known to be associated with lung cancer. improper diet, alcohol consumption, marijuana smoking, estrogen, infections with human papillomavirus (hpv), hiv, and epstein-barr virus are suggested to be linked with lung cancer but clear evidences to asc ...201728823540
[effect of complicated hemophagocytic syndrome on clinical prognosis of patients with non-hodgkin's lymphoma and analysis of its affecting factors].to investigate the effect of complicatal hemophagocytic syndrome on clinical prognosis of patients with non-hodgkin's lymphoma (nhl) and analyze its factors affecting prognosis.201728823265
combined immunodeficiency with ebv positive b cell lymphoma and epidermodysplasia verruciformis due to a novel homozygous mutation in rasgrp1.rasgrp1 is a guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor essential for map-kinase mediated signaling in lymphocytes. we report the second case of rasgrp1 deficiency in a patient with a homozygous nonsense mutation in the catalytic domain of the protein. the patient had epidermodysplasia verruciformis, suggesting a clinically important intrinsic t cell function defect. like the previously described patient, our proband also presented with cd4(+) t cell lymphopenia, impaired t cell proliferation to mitogen ...201728822832
progression of understanding for the role of epstein-barr virus and management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc) is very common in southern china and southeast asia. in regions where npc is endemic, undifferentiated subtypes constitute most cases and are invariably associated with epstein-barr virus (ebv) infection, whereas the differentiated subtype is more common in other parts of the world. undifferentiated npc is a unique malignancy with regard to its epidemiology, etiology, and clinical presentation. clinically, npc is highly invasive and metastatic, but sensitive to bot ...201728819752
corrigendum to "epstein-barr virus-induced gene 3 (ebi3) blocking leads to induce antitumor cytotoxic t lymphocyte response and suppress tumor growth in colorectal cancer by bidirectional reciprocal-regulation stat3 signaling pathway".[this corrects the article doi: 10.1155/2016/3214105.].201728819340
how herpesviruses pass on their genomes.herpesvirus genomes exist and replicate as episomes inside the host cell nucleus during latent infection. chiu et al. (2017. j. cell biol. find that unlike epstein-barr virus, which partitions viral genomes faithfully during cell division, kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus clusters viral genomes into loci that are distributed unequally to daughter cells.201728819012
a french cohort study of kidney retransplantation after post-transplant lymphoproliferative lymphoproliferative disorders arising after kidney transplantation portend an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. retransplantation of patients who had developed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder remains questionable owing to the potential risks of recurrence when immunosuppression is reintroduced. here, we investigated the feasibility of kidney retransplantation after the development of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.201728818847
electromagnetic fields may act via calcineurin inhibition to suppress immunity, thereby increasing risk for opportunistic infection: conceivable mechanisms of action.while a good number of studies have demonstrated that modern, man-made ambient electromagnetic fields can have both stimulatory and inhibitory effect on immune system function, the precise mechanisms have yet to be completely elucidated. it is hypothesized here that, depending on the parameters, one of the means by which long-term electromagnetic field exposure has the potential to eventually lead to immunosuppression is via downstream inhibition of the enzyme calcineurin - a protein phosphatase ...201728818275
x-linked lymphoproliferative disease type 1 in a patient with the p.gly93asp sh2d1a gene mutation and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is characterized by uncontrolled activation of the immune system that leads to systemic hyperinflammation. lymphoproliferative syndrome linked to the x chromosome is a hereditary immunodeficiency characterized by an inability to mount an adequate immune response to an epstein-barr virus infection. hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is one of the main clinical features of x-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. we report the case of a patient who presented with p ...201728816794
characteristic elevation of soluble tnf receptor ii to i ratio in macrophage activation syndrome with systemic juvenile idiopathic investigate the clinical significance of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (stnfr) ii/i ratio as an indicator of the diagnosis of macrophage activation syndrome (mas) complicating systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (s-jia), we measured the serum stnfri and ii levels in 117 patients with s-jia, including 29 patients with mas, 15 with epstein-barr virus-induced hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (ebvhlh), 15 with kawasaki disease (kd), and 28 healthy controls (hcs). we determined their ...201728815559
[aggressive primary cutaneous b-cell lymphomas and novel ebv+ entities].primary cutaneous large b‑cell lymphomas (pcblt), ebv-positive large b‑cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified (ebv+ dlbcl, nos), and primary cutaneous intravascular large b‑cell lymphomas (pcivlbl) are recognized as cutaneous lymphomas with intermediate to poor prognosis. differentiation from indolent b‑cell lymphomas or other pathologies of the skin can be complex, both clinically and histologically, but vital for the outcome of the patient. the combination of immunotherapy and polychemotherap ...201728815289
outcomes of adding induction chemotherapy to concurrent chemoradiotherapy for stage t3n0-1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a propensity-matched study.our objective was to examine whether adding induction chemotherapy to concurrent chemoradiotherapy improved survival in stage iii nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc) patients, especially in low-risk patients at stage t3n0-1.201728814884
neonatal and adult recent thymic emigrants produce il-8 and express complement receptors cr1 and cr2.the maintenance of peripheral naive t lymphocytes in humans is dependent on their homeostatic division, not continuing emigration from the thymus, which undergoes involution with age. however, postthymic maintenance of naive t cells is still poorly understood. previously we reported that recent thymic emigrants (rtes) are contained in cd31+cd25- naive t cells as defined by their levels of signal joint t cell receptor rearrangement excision circles (sjtrecs). here, by differential gene expression ...201728814669
a rare case of pulmonary lymphomatoid this report, we discuss an unusual case of pulmonary lymphomatoid granulomatosis (lyg), a rare form of angiocentric and angiodestructive lymphoproliferative disorder. this disease is thought to be caused by epstein-barr virus-induced lymphoproliferation. a 39-year-old male with no signi ficant past medical history presented with flu-like symptoms. upon further evaluation, laboratory studies noted pancytopenia, and a chest x-ray showed bilateral nodular densities. a computerized tomography (ct ...201728810098
application of epstein-barr virus for optimization of immortalized b-lymphocyte production as a positive control in genetic studies.infection of b-cells with epstein-barr virus (ebv) leads to more and subsequent immortalization. this is considered as the method of choice for generating lymphoblastoid cell lines (lcls). producing lcls, although very useful but is very time consuming and troublesome, drives the requirement for quicker and more reliable methods for ebv-driven b-cell transformation.201728808646
pet/ct in an 8-year-old girl with epstein-barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumor.epstein-barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumor is a rare indolent neoplasm, which can occur in unusual locations. it has been reported in immunosuppressed individuals in only 3 settings: posttransplant, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and primary immunodeficiency. here, we present ct, mri, and f-fdg pet/ct findings of epstein-barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumor in an 8-year-old girl with primary immunodeficiency and metachronous adrenal involvement.this is an open access article ...201728806251
incidence and outcomes of primary central nervous system lymphoma in solid organ transplant recipients.primary central nervous system lymphoma (pcnsl) risk is greatly increased in immunosuppressed hiv-infected people. using data from the united states transplant registry linked with 17 cancer registries (1987-2014), we studied pcnsl and systemic non-hodgkin lymphoma (nhl) in 288,029 solid organ transplant recipients. transplant recipients had elevated incidence for pcnsl compared with the general population (standardized incidence ratio=65.1; n=168), and this elevation was stronger than for syste ...201728805292
epstein-barr virus hepatitis: importance of pcr assay/serology and significance of γ-gtp. 201728804977
regulation of tumour related genes by dynamic epigenetic alteration at enhancer regions in gastric epithelial cells infected by epstein-barr virus.epstein-barr virus (ebv) infection is associated with tumours such as burkitt lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and gastric cancer. we previously showed that ebv(+) gastric cancer presents an extremely high-methylation epigenotype and this aberrant dna methylation causes silencing of multiple tumour suppressor genes. however, the mechanisms that drive ebv infection-mediated tumorigenesis, including other epigenomic alteration, remain unclear. we analysed epigenetic alterations induced by ebv i ...201728801683
seroprevalence of iga anti epstein-barr virus is high among family members of nasopharyngeal cancer patients and individuals presenting with chronic complaints in head and neck area.epstein-barr (ebv) infection and presence of a nasopharyngeal cancer (npc) case in the family increases the risk of developing npc. aberrant anti-ebv immunoglobulin a (iga) antibodies (ebv-iga) may be present in the sera of non-cancer individuals and predict npc. limited studies report the presence of ebv-iga antibodies within non-cancer individuals in indonesia where the disease is prevalent. this study aimed at exploring whether ebv-iga was found more frequently among first degree relatives of ...201728800616
rna in situ hybridization for epstein-barr virus and cytomegalovirus: comparison with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.the rnascope utilizes in situ hybridization (rish) technology to detect single rna molecules in a variety of tissue samples, including formalin fixed paraffin embedded (ffpe) tissues. epstein-barr virus (ebv) and cytomegalovirus (cmv) are found in association with neoplastic tissues and inflammatory lesions, and immunohistochemistry (ihc) or other techniques (ish) are utilized to identify them. we compared the rnascope rish to ish and ihc in the detection of ebv and cmv respectively to determine ...201728800011
epstein barr virus infection can be a secondary event in b-cell lymphomas: a review of 338 cases and a novel finding of zonal eber+ tumor cells showing features of progression from underlying ebv-negative lymphoma.cases of b-cell lymphoma over an 8-year interval with diagnosis of eber positivity were retrieved from archives and reviewed for classification and pattern of epstein barr virus (ebv) expression. of 46 cases that were ebv early rna (eber)+ by in situ hybridization staining, 7 had nonuniform staining among the neoplastic cells. four of those cases showed a uniform admixture of eber+ and eber- tumor cells, compatible with the prevailing theory of episomal ebv loss with cell replication. three case ...201728800008
diagnosis of oral hairy leukoplakia: the importance of ebv in situ hybridization.oral hairy leukoplakia (ohl) is caused by the epstein-barr virus (ebv), which has been related to hiv infection. in situ hybridization (ish) is the gold-standard diagnosis of ohl, but some authors believe in the possibility of performing the diagnosis based on clinical basis. the aim of this study is diagnose incipient lesions of ohl by ebv ish of hiv-infected patients and the possible correlations with clinical characteristics of the patients. ninety-four patients were examined and those presen ...201728798771
industrial pollutants and nasopharyngeal cancer: an open question.nasopharyngeal carcinoma represents 0.7% of the total cancer cases in the world with an asr index of 1.7 and is widely associated with epstein-barr virus. it is not common in italy (asr index of 0.5) while in china (asr 1.9), one third of the clinical cases are observed in guangdong (asr index 11.3). it is also quite common in malaysia and indonesia. the activation of the cancerogenesis process happens after the exposure to some environmental parameters that epidemiological studies have indicate ...201728798007
pd-l1 and gastric cancer prognosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.the expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (pd-l1) is observed in many malignant tumors and is associated with poor prognosis including gastric cancer (gc). the relationship between pd-l1 expression and prognosis, however, is controversial in gc. this paper purports to use a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between pd-l1 expression and prognosis in gc. for this study, the following databases were searched for articles published from june 2003 until february 2017: pubmed, ebsco ...201728796808
epstein-barr virus-related acute genital ulcer successfully treated with colchicine. 201728795759
molecular diversity of igg responses to epstein-barr virus proteins in asymptomatic epstein-barr virus carriers.the epstein-barr virus (ebv) is a ubiquitous pathogen that infects over 90 % of adults. ebv is the primary etiological agent of infectious mononucleosis and is closely associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, hodgkin lymphoma and burkitt lymphoma. clinical serological assays for ebv diagnosis only survey a small portion of the viral proteome, which does not represent the total antigenic breadth presented to the immune system during viral infection. in this study, we have gene ...201728795661
an epstein-barr virus microrna blocks il-1 signaling by targeting the interleukin-1 receptor 1.epstein-barr virus (ebv) encodes >44 viral micrornas (mirnas) that are differentially expressed throughout infection, can be detected in ebv-positive tumors, and manipulate several biological processes including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and immune responses. here, we show that ebv bhrf1-2 mirnas block nf-kb activation following treatment with pro-inflammatory cytokines, specifically interleukin-1 beta. analysis of ebv par-clip mirna targetome datasets combined with pathway analysis reveale ...201728794034
coordinate regulation of tet2 and ebna2 control dna methylation state of latent epstein-barr virus.epstein-barr virus (ebv) latency and its associated carcinogenesis are regulated by dynamic changes in dna methylation of both virus and host genomes. we show here that the ten-eleven translocation 2 (tet2) gene, implicated in hydroxymethylation and active dna demethylation, is a key regulator of ebv latency type dna methylation patterning. ebv latency types are defined by dna methylation patterns that restrict expression of viral latency genes. we show that tet2 mrna and protein expression corr ...201728794029
tumor suppressor p53 stimulates the expression of epstein-barr virus latent membrane protein 1.epstein-barr virus (ebv) is associated with multiple human malignancies. ebv latent membrane protein 1 (lmp1) is required for the efficient transformation of primary b lymphocytes in vitro and possibly in vivo the tumor suppressor p53 plays a seminal role in cancer development. in some ebv-associated cancers, p53 tends to be wild-type and overly expressed, however, the effects of p53 on lmp1 expression is not clear. we find lmp1 expression is associated with p53 expression in ebv-transformed cel ...201728794023
plasma epstein-barr virus dna for screening. 201728792884
analysis of plasma epstein-barr virus dna to screen for nasopharyngeal cancer.circulating cell-free epstein-barr virus (ebv) dna is a biomarker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. we conducted a prospective study to investigate whether ebv dna in plasma samples would be useful to screen for early nasopharyngeal carcinoma in asymptomatic persons.201728792880
viral surveillance using pcr during treatment of aml and all.while viral surveillance of cytomegalovirus (cmv), epstein-barr virus (ebv), and adenovirus using pcr is routine in patients undergoing hematopoetic stem cell transplant and solid organ transplant, the utility in the nontransplant pediatric leukemia population is unknown. our institution screens patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (all) and acute myeloid leukemia (aml) for viral dnaemia by pcr as part of clinical care.201728792686
regulation of telomere homeostasis during epstein-barr virus infection and immortalization.the acquisition of unlimited proliferative potential is dependent on the activation of mechanisms for telomere maintenance, which counteracts telomere shortening and the consequent triggering of the dna damage response, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. the capacity of epstein barr virus (ebv) to infect b-lymphocytes in vitro and transform the infected cells into autonomously proliferating immortal cell lines underlies the association of this human gamma-herpesvirus with a broad variety of lymph ...201728792435
a systematic comparison of treatment modalities for nasal extranodal natural killer/t-cell lymphoma in early stages between concurrent chemoradiotherapy and sequential chemotherapy.nasal extranodal natural killer/t-cell lymphoma (nasal enktl), which is strongly associated with the epstein-barr virus infection, is a common disease in asia and latin america. we conducted a retrospective study to compare the overall survival (os) following concurrent or sequential treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with early stage enktl.201728790853
epstein-barr virus biomarkers for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in non-endemic regions.the epstein-barr virus (ebv) plays a key role in the development of undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (unpc). in unpc endemic regions ebv-specific antibodies and plasma ebv dna load are used as markers for the early detection of unpc and monitoring of the disease. in non-endemic regions, such studies were practically not conducted. the aim of this study was to compare the clinical significance of ebv serological markers and plasma ebv dna levels for unpc patients in a non-endemic region, ...201728786806
epstein-barr virus infection antedating bilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy with the igg anti-galnac-gd1a antibody. 201728786092
off-the-shelf virus-specific t cells to treat bk virus, human herpesvirus 6, cytomegalovirus, epstein-barr virus, and adenovirus infections after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.purpose improvement of cure rates for patients treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (hsct) will require efforts to decrease treatment-related mortality from severe viral infections. adoptively transferred virus-specific t cells (vsts) generated from eligible, third-party donors could provide broad antiviral protection to recipients of hsct as an immediately available off-the-shelf product. patient and methods we generated a bank of vsts that recognized five common vira ...201728783452
diffuse large b cell lymphoma associated with chronic inflammation arising within atrial myxoma: aggressive histologic features but indolent clinical behaviour.primary cardiac lymphoma (pcl) is a rare neoplasm. pcl is fatal, unless it is diagnosed and treated early. recently, a small number of cases of diffuse large b cell lymphoma (dlbcl) arising within atrial myxoma have been reported in immunocompetent patients and showed aggressive histologic features but an indolent clinical behaviour.201728782131
tumor microenvironment contributes to epstein-barr virus anti-nuclear antigen-1 antibody production in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.nuclear antigen-1 (na1) protein of epstein-barr virus (ebv) is expressed in ebv-infected cells in the microenvironment of cancer. since immune cells infiltrate abundantly in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc) tumor tissues, we hypothesized that the local tumor microenvironment may perform an important role in the production of antibodies directed at na1. furthermore, we hypothesized that anti-na1 antibody originating in the local microenvironment could be secreted into the saliva of patients with np ...201728781683
post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease is associated with early sternotomy and left ventricular hypoplasia during infancy: a population-based retrospective review.heart transplantation has been an option for children in sweden since 1989. as our unit faced an increased rate of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, the objective of the study was to identify possible risk factors.201728780922
epstein-barr virus: a master epigenetic all herpesviruses, the ability of epstein-barr virus (ebv) to establish life-long persistent infections is related to a biphasic viral lifecycle that involves latency and reactivation/lytic replication. memory b cells serve as the ebv latency compartment where silencing of viral gene expression allows maintenance of the viral genome, avoidance of immune surveillance, and life-long carriage. upon viral reactivation, viral gene expression is induced for replication, progeny virion production, ...201728780440
dna hypermethylation induced by epstein-barr virus in the development of epstein-barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma.epstein-barr virus (ebv)-associated gastric carcinoma (ebvagc) is a recently recognized disease entity defined by the presence of ebv in gastric carcinoma cells. ebv infection causes major epigenetic alterations in the ebv genome and its cellular host genome, suggesting that ebv acts as a direct epigenetic driver for ebvagc. one of the major epigenetic events in the viral and cellular genomes to control transcription is dna hypo- or hyper-methylation. particularly, local and global hypermethylat ...201728779374
antibodies to the epstein-barr virus proteins bfrf3 and brrf2 cross-react with human proteins.we hypothesize that the immune response to epstein-barr virus (ebv) drives the autoimmune damage in multiple sclerosis (ms). we investigated whether antibodies to two ebv proteins targeted by ms patients cross-react with self proteins. using affinity columns, immunoprecipitation, and mass spectrometry, we found that antibodies to the ebv protein bfrf3 cross-react with the cytoplasmic protein septin-9, and antibodies to brrf2 also bind mitochondrial proteins. using western blots and elisa, we dem ...201728778437
pancreatitis combined with epstein-barr virus-induced infectious mononucleosis. 201728776557
lovastatin inhibits cancer stem cells and sensitizes to chemo- and photodynamic therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc) is an epstein-barr virus-associated malignancy occurring at high incidence in southeast asia and southern china. in spite of the good response to radio- and chemo-therapy at the early stage, resistance and recurrence develop in npc patients in the advanced setting. cancer stem cells (cscs) play an important role in drug resistance and cancer recurrence. here we report that lovastatin, a natural compound and a lipophilic statin that has already been used in the clin ...201728775785
epstein barr virus, abdominal pain, and jaundice. 201728774939
an autopsy case of epstein-barr virus‒associated diffuse large b-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system in an immunocompromised host.lymphomas arising in the central nervous system (cns) of immunocompromised hosts represent non-hodgkin's lymphomas exclusively associated with epstein-barr virus (ebv). here we report an autopsy case of ebv-associated cns diffuse large b-cell lymphoma (dlbcl) in a host suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus who underwent immunosuppressive therapy. after autopsy, ebv-associated cns dlbcl as well as pulmonary mixed aspergillosis and pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia were added to the clinical ...201728774170
ebv epigenetically suppresses the b cell-to-plasma cell differentiation pathway while establishing long-term latency.mature human b cells infected by epstein-barr virus (ebv) become activated, grow, and proliferate. if the cells are infected ex vivo, they are transformed into continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cell lines (lcls) that carry ebv dna as extra-chromosomal episomes, express 9 latency-associated ebv proteins, and phenotypically resemble antigen-activated b-blasts. in vivo similar b-blasts can differentiate to become memory b cells (mbc), in which ebv persistence is established. three related l ...201728771465
the interaction between anti-ro/ssa and anti-la/ssb autoantibodies and anti-infectious antibodies in a wide spectrum of auto-immune diseases: another angle of the autoimmune mosaic.the presence of anti-ro/ssa and anti-la/ssb antibodies has been linked with autoimmunity in general and with several autoimmune diseases (aid) in particular. in the current study we evaluated these antibodies in a wide spectrum of aid as well as the links between them and anti-infectious antibodies.201728770708
herpesviral micrornas in cellular metabolism and immune responses.the micrornas (mirnas) function as a key regulator in many biological processes through post-transcriptional suppression of messenger rnas. recent advancements have revealed that mirnas are involved in many biological functions of cells. not only host cells, but also some viruses encode mirnas in their genomes. viral mirnas regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and the cell cycle to establish infection and produce viral progeny. particularly, mirnas encoded by herpes virus fam ...201728769892
small intestine follicular dendritic cell sarcoma with liver metastasis: a case report.follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (fdcs) is a rare neoplasia composed of spindle or oval cells with follicular dendritic cell differentiation, usually occurring in lymphoid tissue. in this report, we present a case of fdcs of the small intestine with liver metastasis.201728767565
probable acute epstein-barr virus encephalitis in a 6-year-old girl. 201728767164
programmed death 1 is highly expressed on cd8+cd57+ t cells in patients with stable multiple sclerosis and inhibits their cytotoxic response to ebv.growing evidence points to a deregulated response to epstein-barr virus (ebv) in the cns of patients with multiple sclerosis (pwms) as a possible cause of disease. in this study, we have investigated the response of a subpopulation of effector cd8+ t cells to ebv in 36 healthy donors and in 35 pwms in active and inactive disease. we have measured the expression of markers of degranulation, the release of cytokines, cytotoxicity and the regulation of effector functions by inhibitory receptors, su ...201728767147
[ebv-positive central nervous system lymphoproliferative disease associated with immunosuppression after organ transplantation: long-term remission without chemotherapy].primary central nervous system (cns) lymphomas account for 13-20% of the posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (ptld) and rank among the most aggressive conditions. reduction of immunosuppressive therapy should be mandatory to treat ptld, but this is rarely used as the only therapy option. chemotherapy regimens for ptld involving the cns most commonly include high-dose rituximab and high-dose methotrexate and/or cytarabine. the efficiency only of discontinuation of immunosuppressive thera ...201728766544
henoch-schonlein purpura associated with primary active epstein-barr virus infection: a case report.henoch-schönlein purpura (hsp) is the most common form of childhood vasculitis. various viral and bacterial infections, drugs, vaccines, food allergy and even insect bites have been considered as triggering factors in pathogenesis of hsp. epstein-barr virus (ebv) infection, which is associated with hsp, have been rarely reported. herein we present hsp patient possibly caused by ebv infection. a 8-year old boy was admitted to our department with fever, rashes on legs and arms and intermittent mil ...201728761605
lymphoproliferative disorders in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in the era of widespread use of methotrexate: a review of the literature and current perspective.lymphoproliferative disorders (lpd) in patients receiving methotrexate (mtx) have gained strong attention. in this article, i reviewed the basic and clinical findings of this issue. patients with ra possess a high risk of lymphoma, but epidemiological evidence showing an association between the use of mtx and lymphoma is still limited. rapid regression of lpd after stopping mtx in patients with ra strongly suggests that there is a causative relationship. genetic predisposition, accumulated infla ...201728758827
antibodies against the mono-methylated arginine-glycine repeat (mma-rg) of the epstein-barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (ebna2) identify potential cellular proteins targeted in viral transformation.the epstein-barr virus is a human herpes virus with oncogenic potential. the virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 (ebna2) is a key mediator of viral tumorigenesis. ebna2 features an arginine-glycine (rg) repeat at amino acids (aa)339-354 that is essential for the transformation of lymphocytes and contains symmetrically (sdma) and asymmetrically (adma) di-methylated arginine residues. the sdma-modified ebna2 binds the survival motor neuron protein (smn), thus mimicking smd3, a cellular sdma-containing ...201728758620
the role of epigenetic regulation in epstein-barr virus-associated gastric cancer.the epstein-barr virus (ebv) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. in ebv-associated gastric carcinoma (ebvagc), all tumor cells harbor the clonal ebv genome. the expression of latent ebv genes is strictly regulated through the methylation of ebv dna. the methylation of viral dna regulates the type of ebv latency, and methylation of the tumor suppressor genes is a key abnormality in ebvagc. the methylation frequencies of several tumor suppressor genes and cell ...201728757548
concomitant epstein-barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumor and granulomatous inflammation of the liver.epstein-barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumor (ebv-smt) is a rare mesenchymal tumor typically seen in immunocompromised patients. here, we report a case of ebv-smt and associated granulomatous inflammation in the liver of a 32-year-old man with history of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (hiv/aids). to our knowledge, an association of these two lesions has not been previously reported. we review the literature and discuss pathogenesis, differential diagnosis a ...201728756985
epstein-barr virus and multiple sclerosis: updating pender's hypothesis.substantial epidemiological evidence supports the involvement of the epstein-barr virus (ebv) in multiple sclerosis (ms). mechanisms through which ebv may increase ms risk are reviewed here. most individuals contract ebv in early childhood yet only develop ms in early adulthood, by which time ebv has been latent for decades. when latent, ebv is confined to a minute subset of memory b cells: about 1000 cells in peripheral blood and 500,000 cells in the lymphoid system, mainly in the mouth. reacti ...201728755684
ebv and ms: major cause, minor contribution or red-herring?multiple sclerosis (ms) is a chronic neurological disease with genetic and environmental risk factors. epstein barr-virus (ebv) has been closely associated with ms but with a significant amount of conflicting evidence. some of the evidence for ebv involvement in ms includes: almost 100% of ms patients showing past ebv infection, an association with infectious mononucleosis (acute ebv infection), higher titres of ebv antibodies associated with an increased risk of ms development, and an overall a ...201728755681
multiparametric detection of antibodies against different ebv antigens to predict risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a high-risk population of this study, we aimed to use the combined detection of multiple antibodies against epstein-barr virus (ebv) antigens to develop a model for screening and diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc). samples of 300 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and 494 controls, including 294 healthy subjects (hc), 99 non-nasopharyngeal carcinoma cancer patients (nnpc), and 101 patients with benign nasopharyngeal lesions (bnl), were incubated with the euroline anti-ebv profile 2, and band intensities were u ...201728754665
successful treatment with anti-programmed-death-1 antibody in a relapsed natural killer/t-cell lymphoma patient with multi-line resistance: a case report.extranodal natural killer/t-cell lymphoma (nktcl), nasal type, is an aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis. currently, there is no recommended standard therapy for relapsed nktcl.201728754096
epstein-barr virus-positive ileal carcinomas associated with crohn's disease. 201728752215
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