epstein-barr virus behavior in different populations and implications for control of epstein-barr virus-associated tumors.the epidemiology of epstein-barr virus (ebv) infection in populations at different risk for ebv-associated diseases indicates significant differences between the populations. ebv infection takes place much earlier in uganda, where all children are infected before the age of 2 to 3 years, than in southeast asia, where nasopharyngeal carcinoma is prevalent. it is proposed that such early infection in equatorial africa is related to the risk for burkitt's lymphoma. four possible interventions to co ...19761253156
in vivo and in vitro studies of immunotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with transfer factor.epstein-barr virus, the apparent cause of infectious mononucleosis, may also be an etiological agent in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and burkitt's lymphoma. lymphocytes from normal individuals with anti-epstein-barr virus antibody activity may be sensitized to epstein-barr virus and contain transfer factor with the potential to program and/or recruit other lymphocytes to react against the virus and/or viral antigens. a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma refractory to conventional therapy was trea ...19761253157
[serological study of the specificity of leukocyte hepatitis virus].for investigation of the specificity of leukocyte hepatitis virus (lhv) in botkin's disease, 369 patients with virus hepatitis, 96 donors and 61 patients with acute respiratory diseases were examined. the occurrence of specific antibody to lhv was determined by a micromodification of the conventional cft. lhv was passaged in leukocyte culture stimulated with phytohemagglutinin. a control antigen was a leukocyte culture from the same donor not infected with lhv. an additional control was epstein- ...19761258459
guillain-barré syndrome following administration of live measles a 19 month old girl and a 10 month old girl the guillain-barre syndrome developed within a week after they received, respectively, live measles-rubella vaccine and live measles vaccine. the older child was immune to the rubella at the time of vaccination, but both girls demonstrated a primary measles antibody response. serum obtained during the acute and convalescent stages from the younger child was tested for antibodies against the herpes viruses (herpes simplex, epstein-barr virus, cytomeg ...19761258890
human monoclonal antibodies against plasmodium falciparum: production, stabilization and characterization.nine human monoclonal antibodies (moabs) recognizing 7 different antigenic structures of blood-stages of the human malarial parasite p. falciparum (pf) were produced by epstein-barr virus transformed b-cell lines (ebv-tcl) with or without fusion to the lymphoblastoid cell line kr4. the peripheral blood b-lymphocytes were obtained from 8 gambian donors immune to pf malaria. two of the ebv-tcl could be expanded and maintained for more than 6 months but neither one could be cloned. six additional e ...19921279503
lack of dexamethasone modulation of mrnas involved in the glucocorticoid signal transduction pathway in two cell systems.glucocorticoids are final effectors of the stress response. these hormones exert negative feedback action at multiple levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and regulate a large number of central nervous system and peripheral target genes. the inactive form of the glucocorticoid receptor in the cytoplasm appears to be bound to heat shock proteins of the 90k family (hsp90 alpha and hsp90 beta). this interaction facilitates binding of glucocorticoid to its receptor and, therefore, its a ...19921279841
functional characterization of a novel anti-b7 monoclonal antibody.for optimal activation of t cells, binding of their t cell receptor to antigenic peptides in the context of major histocompatibility complex molecules on antigen-presenting cells (apc) is not sufficient. accessory signals, provided by accessory cells, are needed to induce proliferation and clonal expansion of normal t cells. it has been shown previously that the b7 molecule, present on the cell surface of activated apc, can provide the second signal by binding to the cd28 molecule on t cells. he ...19921280221
hepatitis in children with thalassemia major.since thalassemia major patients are transfusion dependent, they are at a particularly high risk of contracting post-transfusion hepatitis. in this study, 36 transfusion-dependent children were followed up for evidence of viral hepatitis. of 23 with increased alt levels, 17 were anti-cmv and 12 were anti-hcv positive, 9 were positive for both cmv and hcv. of 13 children with normal transaminase levels, 5 were cmv positive and 3 were hcv positive. these results show that cmv may be a very common ...19921280508
properties of soluble cr2 in human serum.a soluble form of complement receptor number 2 (scr2) found in human serum closely resembles that produced in culture by b lymphoblastoid cells. epitope analysis with a panel of cd21 monoclonal antibodies revealed only minor differences between antigen from the two sources. purified scr2 from both sources bound to c3dg prepared from human or mouse serum and to u.v.-inactivated epstein-barr virus. sds-page analysis of culture supernates of b-lymphoid cells labelled by growth in medium containing ...19921280620
frequent association of epstein-barr virus in japanese patients with burkitt's japanese patients with burkitt's lymphoma (bl), residing in hokkaido, were studied during the period, 1979-1991. immunological analyses of their lymphoma cells showed all to express surface and/or cytoplasmic immunoglobulins. chromosomal analysis was performed in five cases. four of the five lymphomas had the chromosomal translocation, t(8;14), and one had t(2;8). three patients had extremely high igg antibody titers to epstein-barr virus (ebv) viral capsid antigen (vca) and to ebv early a ...19921281896
deficient surface expression of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in b cell lines established from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (pnh) is an acquired type hemolytic disorder. hematopoietic cells of patients with pnh are deficient in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi) anchored membrane proteins. since some membrane-bound complement inhibitors, such as cd59 and decay accelerating factor (daf), are gpi anchored proteins, abnormal cells from patients with pnh are sensitive to complement attack. their myeloid and erythroid cells are affected more than their lymphoid cells. patients whose b c ...19921282030
immune escape by epstein-barr virus (ebv) carrying burkitt's lymphoma: in vitro reconstitution of sensitivity to ebv-specific cytotoxic t cells.epstein-barr virus (ebv) positive burkitt's lymphoma (bl) cells are markedly less sensitive to ebv-specific cytotoxic t cell (ctl) recognition than ebv-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines of normal b cell origin. three features of the bl cell phenotype might contribute to this reduced susceptibility: (i) low expression of cell adhesion molecules, (ii) low expression of hla class i and selective down-regulation of particular alleles, and (iii) down-regulation of all transformation-associated eb ...19921282031
sequence determination and genetic content of an 8.9-kb restriction fragment in the short unique region and the internal inverted repeat of marek's disease virus type 1 dna.the dna sequence (8.9 kb) covering about 70% of the short unique region (us) and part of the short inverted repeat of the marek's disease virus type 1 ga strain was determined. computer analysis of the sequence showed the presence of nine potential open reading frames (orfs), consisting of more than 300 nucleotides in the us region. of these orfs, four were found to be homologous to us10 (minor virion protein), us3 (protein kinase), us2, and us6 (gd) in the us region of alpha-herpesvirus herpes ...19921282282
cd5 and immunoglobulin vh gene expression in b-cell lines from patients with autoimmune diseases.we studied the cd5 mrna expression and vh gene family usage in epstein-barr virus (ebv)-immortalized b-cell lines derived from the blood of patients with type 1 diabetes (iddm) of recent onset and of patients with polyneuritis cranialis multiplex (cranial neuritis; cn). after immortalization with ebv, at least 10 cell lines from each subject were tested for surface cd5 and cd20. mrna expression was studied using cdna probes for the six vh families as well as for cd5. the ebv lines from the iddm ...19921283153
primary b cell lymphoma of the rectum in a patient coinfected with hiv-1 and htlv-i.this report describes a clinical case of a large cell, immunoblastic plasmacytoid malignant b-cell lymphoma of the rectum in an aids patient coinfected with htlv-i. the malignant cells showed clonal genetic rearrangement of the hc (jh) and lck genes. infection by ebv was demonstrated serologically and with slot blots using genomic dna of the cancer cells. southern blot analysis with dna extracted from the lymphoma cells were negative for htlv-i. the patient received seven cycles of vaco-b which ...19921283227
[bcl-2 in potentials precursors of nodular paragranuloma and its dedifferentiated variant (large cell b-lymphoma)].we have investigated seven cases of large cell lymphomas (lcl) developing simultaneously or metachronously to nodular lymphocyte-predominant hodgkin's disease (nodular paragranuloma, np) for the presence of ebv and the chromosomal translocation t(14;18) by use of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the expression of the bcl-2 oncogene product in these cases and in five cases of progressive transformation of germinal centres as a potential precursor of np was detected immunohistochemically with ...19921283252
[influence of epstein-barr virus genome on patient survival in hodgkin's disease].in the literature ebv is considered a possible etiologic factor for hodgkin's disease (hd). we investigated 187 cases of hd for the presence of epstein barr virus using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded lymph node tissue to clarify the clinical importance of the incidence of this genome. the 187 cases included all subtypes. 66 cases (35.2%) were positive for ebv dna. the statistical analysis of follow-up data from 130 patients revealed no influenc ...19921283253
[nodular paragranuloma and epstein-barr virus: frequency of ebv dna and clinical relevance].studies demonstrating epstein-barr virus (ebv) dna in hodgkin's disease (hd) provide little information about the ebv-status in the lymphocyte predominant subtype (nodular paragranuloma) which is due to the small number of cases investigated. therefore we studied 99 typical cases of nodular paragranuloma for the presence of ebv-dna using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique. genomic dna was amplifiable in 71 cases; 29 cases (= 40%) were positive for ebv-dna (ebna-1). in situ hybridizati ...19921283254
[demonstration of epstein-barr virus dna and determination of immunoglobulin and t-cell receptor gene rearrangerments in diagnostic lymph node biopsies from patients with hodgkin's disease].lymph node biopsies of 52 patients with hodgkin's disease were analyzed by southern blot hybridization for the presence of monoclonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin and t cell receptor genes. the same tissues were tested for epstein-barr virus dna by the polymerase chain reaction using four different sets of primers. monoclonal rearrangements were identified in only four tumors, whereas epstein-barr virus was present in 79% of biopsies. a correlation between the degree of infiltration by reed- ...19921283255
[opportunistic malignant lymphomas in siv infected primates--a model for epstein-barr virus associated lymphomas in aids].in a series of 33 cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (siv), strain smm3, 13 animals developed malignant non-hodgkin lymphomas. these lymphomas presented with unusual primary manifestations like in the orbita, testes, and brain. the morphological features and immunophenotyping identified the tumors as high malignant b-cell lymphomas. in all tumors as well as in tumor-derived cell lines a cynomolgus b-lymphotropic herpes virus (cblv) ...19921283256
[ebv in malignant lymphomas].pcr and in-situ-hybridization were used to detect ebv-dna within hodgkin- and non-hodgkin-lymphomas. by the use of primers for the bam h1 w fragment we could show ebv-dna to be associated with 45% hodgkin- and 25% t-lymphomas, whereas we could not find ebv-dna within b-lymphomas. in about one third of the pcr-positive cases we could localize ebv-dna mostly in the tumor cell nuclei by in-situ-hybridization.19921283257
[detection of epstein-barr virus genomes in various entities of low and high grade t-cell lymphomas].72 t-cell lymphomas were analyzed for the presence of epstein-barr virus dna using southern or dot blot hybridization. ebv dna was found in 25 peripheral t-cell lymphomas and in none of 6 t-lymphoblastic tumors. a high prevalence of ebv was detected in aild type, lennert's, pleomorphic medium and large cell nodal lymphomas and in upper aerodigestive tract lymphoma biopsies. clonotypic analysis revealed monoclonal as well as oligoclonal viral populations. the possible influence of ebv in lymphoma ...19921283258
[heterogeneous epstein-barr virus infection patterns in peripheral t cell lymphoma of the angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy type].32 cases of t cell lymphoma of angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy type (aild-tcl) were investigated for their association with epstein-barr virus (ebv). polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for detection of ebv-dna and in situ hybridization for ebv-encoded small nuclear rnas (eber) produced almost identical results, showing that all but one of aild-tcl cases contained ebv genomes. three distinctive patterns of ebv infection were observed after immunophenotypical characterization of eber positive cell ...19921283259
[classification and virus expression of primary cerebral lymphomas].fourty-three primary cerebral lymphomas (pcl) were histologically classified and examined for genome expression of epstein barr virus (ebv) and human herpes virus 6 (hhv6) using dot blotting, polymerase chain reaction, and southern blotting. only 20 tumors (16 high grade and 4 low grade lymphomas) could be suitably placed into a category of the updated kiel classification, whereas the non-classified 23 tumors were highly malignant b-lymphomas and referred to as small-cell (sc) or large-cell (lc) ...19921283260
[ebv-lymphadenitis: diagnostic possibilities using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization].ebv infections were studied in paraffin embedded lymph node specimens (n = 20) on dna, protein, and histological level. the lymph nodes were obtained from 20 patients all testing positive for ebv serologically. the ebv dna was detected by non radioactive in-situ-hybridisation using the bamhi w fragment of the virus. the ebv latent membrane protein was detected immunohistochemically using the lmp antibody (dako). infected cells were characterized by monoclonal b cell antibodies. by in-situ-hybrid ...19921283261
[expression of apo-1, a cell surface molecule mediating apoptosis, during normal b cell ontogeny and in b cell tumors. co-expression and coregulation of apo-1 and icam-1 (cd54) in germinal central cells].apo-1 is a 48kda transmembrane glycoprotein and belongs to the ngf/tnf receptor family of surface molecules. cross-linking of apo-1 induces apoptotic cell death in sensitive cells. here we show that apo-1 is an activation molecule on b cells. it could be induced/enhanced on dense and buoyant tonsillar b cells, respectively, through surface immunoglobulin cross-linking in combination with interleukin-2 or by interferon-gamma together with tumor necrosis factor-alpha. these conditions also increas ...19921283266
[epstein-barr virus associated lymphocyte proliferation].in recent years, techniques, probes, and reagents became available to reliably visualize individual epstein-barr virus (ebv)-infected cells, to assess ebv gene expression, and to analyze the clonal composition of ebv genomes in human tissues. application of these techniques to more than 1000 lymphoid tissue specimens revealed (1) characteristic cellular and compartmental distribution patterns of ebv-infected cells in normal lymph nodes, reflecting the interference of ebv with physiologic b cell ...19921283280
recombinant antigens in viral diagnosis.dna fragments coding for a variety of different viral antigens have been cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. selected purified recombinant antigens were used for detection of specific antibodies by means of the elisa technique. this approach has been used for the development of four different elisas for the detection of hiv- and ebv-specific antibodies.19921284774
various responses of lymphocytes to epstein-barr virus in patients with common variable immunodeficiency.the responses of lymphocytes to epstein-barr virus (ebv) were investigated in five patients with common variable immunodeficiency (cvid). in three patients with cvid in whom the percentages of cd20+ cells and cd21/ebv receptor+ cells were markedly reduced, pbmcs and/or b cells did not respond (or scarcely) to ebv. this may be due to reduction of b cell numbers or reduction of ebv receptor bearing cells. in one patient with cvid in whom the percentages of cd20+ cells and cd21/ebv receptor+ cells ...19921285068
therapeutic human antibodies derived from pcr amplification of b-cell variable regions.despite advances in the in vitro immunization of human b cells (borrebaeck et al. 1988) and the development of immunodeficient mice (mccune et al. 1988) for the reconstitution of the human immune system ex vivo, immortalization of antigen-specific human b cells remains the limiting step in the generation of human monoclonal antibodies. typically this is performed with the aid of epstein-barr virus transformation followed by subcloning, confirmation of antigen binding and hybridization of the b l ...19921286873
detection of herpesvirus dna in the large intestine of patients with ulcerative colitis and crohn's disease using the nested polymerase chain reaction.the prevalence of herpesvirus dna was examined in inflammatory bowel disease tissue. dna was extracted from resection and biopsy specimens of the large intestine from patients with ulcerative colitis (n = 21), patients with crohn's disease (n = 29), and patients with noninflammatory bowel disease (controls) (n = 21). the nested polymerase chain reaction was used to detect viral dna using primer pairs specific for either cytomegalovirus (cmv), herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv1), human herpesvirus 6 (h ...19921287131
establishment of stable cell lines producing anti-pseudomonas aeruginosa monoclonal antibodies and their protective effects for the infection in mice.human-human hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies (moabs) specific for five major serotypes of pseudomonas aeruginosa were developed by fusing p. aeruginosa primed and epstein-barr virus-transformed cells with human myeloma p109 cells using polyethyleneglycol. the moabs which were produced by the hybridomas were protective against lethal intraperitoneal (i.p.) challenge of p. aeruginosa (10 ld50) in mice. the 50% effective dose (ed50) values of moabs ranged from 0.5 to 10.2 micrograms/mouse ...19921287405
[prenatal virus infections and orofacial clefts].a potential teratogenic activity of virus infections caused by the viruses of rubella, influenza, parotitis, hepatitis b, cytomegalovirus and the epstein-barr virus was investigated. specific antibodies against these viruses were examined serologically in children with orofacial clefts and in their mothers and the results were compared with those obtained in control children and their mothers. different micromethods were used in performing the examinations (elisa, ria, nir, kfr, hit). evaluation ...19921288828
[a new modification of the horse erythrocyte agglutination test for the detection of heterophilic antibodies in infectious mononucleosis].the new modification (hea test) is based on the presence of a singularly distinct agglutination of native horse erythrocytes in a serum dilution 1:10 and more from cases with epstein-barr virus infectious mononucleosis. in 1665 sera the hea test was equally often positive as the och test (in 5.2%) whereas the im test with formal-treated horse erythrocytes was positive only in 3.7%. the sensitivity of the im test in comparison with the och test was 61%, the specificity 99.5%. the sensitivity of t ...19921291110
human b cell lines express the interferon gamma gene.interferon gamma (ifn-gamma) production has been attributed exclusively to activated t cells and nk cells. we sought to determine whether human b cells express ifn-gamma. we studied 28 b cell lines including epstein-barr virus (ebv)+ normal lymphoblastoid b cell lines (n = 7), ebv+ b cell lines derived from patients with burkitt's lymphoma with (n = 6) or without aids (n = 8), as well as seven ebv- b cell lines. all cell lines were studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-p ...19921292629
p53 mutation in human nasopharyngeal carcinomas.nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc) is the third most common cancer in the southern provinces of china, but a rare cancer in other parts of the world. epidemiological studies suggested a multifactorial etiology of npc involving infection of epstein barr virus (ebv), genetic predisposition, environmental factors, such as consumption of salted fish, and other unknown factors. p53 mutation is a common event in many forms of human cancers but its possible involvement in the pathogenesis of npc has not be ...19921295443
non-a, non-b viral hepatitis in egypt.a study was carried out on 200 patients of ages 20-40 years suffering from acute viral hepatitis. sera were tested for markers of hepatitis b (hbsag, and igm anti-hbc) and hepatitis a (igm-anti-hav) by the elisa technique. sera negative for the markers of both viruses: hepatitis a (hav) and hepatitis b (hbv) were subsequently tested for igm heterophil antibodies against epstein-barr virus (ebv) by the monospot slide test to diagnose acute infectious mononucleosis and tested for anti-cmv (igm) by ...19921295944
proteasome subunits encoded by the major histocompatibility complex are not essential for antigen presentation.major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i molecules bind and deliver peptides derived from endogenously synthesized proteins to the cell surface for survey by cytotoxic t lymphocytes. it is believed that endogenous antigens are generally degraded in the cytosol, the resulting peptides being translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum where they bind to mhc class i molecules. transporters containing an atp-binding cassette encoded by the mhc class ii region seem to be responsible for this tr ...19921299222
[oral hairy leukoplakia in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients: clinical and etiopathogenic aspects].clinical and etiopathogenetic features of oral hairy leukoplakia in 5 patients positive for human immunodeficiency virus were studied. oral hairy leukoplakia were located on the lateral borders of the tongue and showed a corrugated/hairy aspect in all the cases. histological examination showed hyperparakeratosis, acanthosis, hair like projection (n = 4) koilocyte-like-cells and moderate subepidermal inflammation. immunohistochemistry revealed positive results for epstein-barr virus indicating an ...19921299282
illegitimate transcription of phenylalanine hydroxylase for detection of mutations in patients with phenylketonuria.illegitimately transcribed phenylalanine hydroxylase mrna was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction from both fibroblasts and epstein-barr virus-transformed lymphocytes. this method was used to study mutations of this gene in patients with phenylketonuria and known point mutations were easily detected. illegitimate transcription was successful for studying splicing defects and it was found that the previously described mutation which changes g to a at the 5' donor site of intron 7 causes ...19921301202
diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by dna amplification of tissue obtained by fine-needle nasopharyngeal carcinoma the primary lesion is often difficult to find. metastatic lesions occur frequently but are difficult to distinguish from other head and neck tumors. the viral genome of the epstein-barr virus (ebv) can be identified in the cells of this carcinoma.19921309196
head and neck cancer with an occult primary tumor. 19921309197
three pathways of epstein-barr virus gene activation from ebna1-positive latency in b lymphocytes.previous studies on epstein-barr virus (ebv)-positive b-cell lines have identified two distinct forms of virus latency. lymphoblastoid cell lines generated by virus-induced transformation of normal b cells in vitro, express the full spectrum of six ebnas and three latent membrane proteins (lmp1, lmp2a, and lmp2b); furthermore, these lines often contain a small fraction of cells spontaneously entering the lytic cycle. in contrast, burkitt's lymphoma-derived cell lines retaining the tumor biopsy c ...19921309242
characterization of an r-binding site mediating the r-induced activation of the epstein-barr virus bmlf1 cells latently infected with epstein-barr virus, the switch from latency to productive infection is linked to the expression of two epstein-barr virus transcription factors called eb1 and r. r is an enhancer factor, and an r-responsive element (rre) has been identified in the bmlf1 promoter. in this study, we have used bidirectional deletion mutagenesis to delineate the bmlf1 rre (rre-m) to a 44-bp sequence. we also show that r expressed from a recombinant vaccinia virus protects rre-m agains ...19921309256
ebna1 can link the enhancer element to the initiator element of the epstein-barr virus plasmid origin of dna replication.the plasmid origin of dna replication of epstein-barr virus, orip, is replicated once per cell division, employing cellular replication machinery and only one viral protein. to understand how replication from this origin is initiated and regulated, we purified this viral protein, ebna1. ebna1 was expressed in cv-1p cells by using an infectious simian virus 40 vector containing the ebna1 gene. it was purified in two chromatographic steps to apparent homogeneity. the purified protein is capable of ...19921309258
host cell and ebna-2 regulation of epstein-barr virus latent-cycle promoter activity in b lymphocytes.the six latent-cycle nuclear antigens (ebnas) of epstein-barr virus (ebv), whose genes share 5' leader exons and two promoters (cp and wp), are differentially expressed by cells of the b lineage. to examine the possibility that ebna gene expression is regulated through selective use of cp and wp, we monitored the activity of promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene constructs transfected into ebv-positive and ebv-negative b lymphocytes and burkitt's lymphoma cells. wp was a much str ...19921309259
reciprocal antagonism of steroid hormones and bzlf1 in switch between epstein-barr virus latent and productive cycle gene expression.bzlf1 repression of transcription from the epstein-barr virus bc-r2 promoter (cp) was shown to require a glucocorticoid response element in cis and glucocorticoids in trans. the mechanism of the repression is indirect and involves up regulation of the cellular c-fos proto-oncogene. glucocorticoids maintain epstein-barr virus latency, and removal of glucocorticoids from the cell culture medium results in activation of the productive cycle. this inverse regulation of the expression of latent and p ...19921309265
a system for the high efficiency replication of hiv-1 in neural cells and its application to anti-viral evaluation.stable transfection of h4 neuroglioma cells with the epstein-barr virus-based eucaryotic cd4 expression vector pks286 generated the cell line, h4/cd4, in which greater than 90% of cells express surface cd4 receptors. optimal conditions for infection of h4/cd4 cells with hiv-1 were determined; these included a cocultivation with growth-arrested, chronically infected t cells. under these conditions, 3-days after infection up to 50% of h4/cd4 cells expressed hiv-1 antigens as detected by immunofluo ...19921309276
immunoglobulin a against viral capsid antigen of epstein-barr virus and indirect mirror examination of the nasopharynx in the detection of asymptomatic nasopharyngeal evaluate the efficacy of population screening for early stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc) in southern china, the authors recruited 42,048 and 10,402 apparently healthy subjects residing in a high incidence and a low incidence area, respectively; all subjects were between the ages of 30 and 59 years. the subjects' serum specimens were tested for immunoglobulin (ig) a antibody against viral capsid antigen (iga/vca) of epstein-barr virus (ebv). of the subjects from the high incidence area, 28 ...19921309307
epstein-barr virus induced lymphoproliferative tumors in severe combined immunodeficient mice are oligoclonal.severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice reconstituted with lymphocytes from epstein-barr virus (ebv) negative human donors develop aggressive tumors after the chimeric mice are infected with ebv. the tumors were composed of human b cells that expressed ebv encoded antigens (latent membrane protein and ebv nuclear antigen2). southern blot analysis of dna from 16 scid/hu tumors with human ig gene probes showed that each tumor contained multiple heavy and light chain gene rearrangements. ig kap ...19921309425
chronic fatigue syndrome: a conundrum.chronic fatigue syndrome (cfs) is a multi-faceted disorder for which no etiology has been determined. this paper discusses the implications of the new clinical case definition of cfs on previous and future studies of this illness. the authors' own management approach is also discussed.19921309484
the cellular oncogene c-myb can interact synergistically with the epstein-barr virus bzlf1 transactivator in lymphoid cells.regulation of replicative functions in the epstein-barr virus (ebv) genome is mediated through activation of a virally encoded transcription factor, z (bzlf1). we have shown that the z gene product, which binds to ap-1 sites as a homodimer and has sequence similarity to c-fos, can efficiently activate the ebv early promoter, bmrf1, in certain cell types (i.e., hela cells) but not others (i.e., jurkat cells). here we demonstrate that the c-myb proto-oncogene product, which is itself a dna-binding ...19921309587
viral proteins associated with the epstein-barr virus transactivator, zebra.the bamhi z epstein-barr replication activator (zebra) mediates disruption of latency and induction of epstein-barr virus (ebv) early gene expression in latently infected lymphocytes. polyclonal rabbit sera raised against zebra were used to immunoprecipitate zebra-associated proteins (zaps). zaps of 19, 21, 23, and 42 kda were coimmunoprecipitated with zebra from extracts of ebv-producing lymphoid cell lines. zaps were not recognized directly by the rabbit sera, but they were antigenic for ebv+ ...19921309613
characterization and comparison of two newly established epstein-barr virus (ebv)-negative and ebv-positive burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. ebv-negative cell line with a low level of expression of icam-1 molecule and ebv-positive cell line with a high level of expression of icam-1 molecule.two human burkitt's lymphoma cell lines (hbl-4 and hbl-5) were established individually from two patients with small noncleaved cell lymphoma (burkitt's type). the hbl-4 cell line is epstein-barr virus (ebv)-negative, and the hbl-5 cell line is ebv-positive. cytogenetically, both cell lines had the same chromosomal translocation, t(8;14)(q24;q32) as those observed in the primary malignant cells from individual patients. morphologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular studies confirmed ...19921309680
multiple sclerosis, sarcoidosis and other diseases in patients with pars planitis. 19921309708
local growth of a burkitt's lymphoma versus disseminated invasive growth of the autologous ebv-immortalized lymphoblastoid cells and their somatic cell hybrids in scid mice.specific host-graft interactions, as well as intrinsic properties of transferred cell, determine tumorigenicity in xenogeneic systems. we compared the growth characteristics of human b-lymphoid cell lines in scid mice with the well characterized growth pattern in nude mice and observed striking differences in malignancy in the respective hosts. two cell lines derived from the same individual, the epstein-barr-virus(ebv)-positive burkitt's lymphoma bl 60 (bl) and the autologous ebv-immortalized l ...19921309726
role of epstein-barr virus and interleukin 6 in the development of lymphomas of human origin in scid mice engrafted with human tonsillar mononuclear cells.mice with severe combined immunodeficiency were inoculated intraperitoneally with 50 x 10(6) human tonsillar mononuclear cells (hu-tmcs) from epstein-barr virus (ebv) antibody seropositive or seronegative human subjects. between 5 and 11 weeks later, 29.4% (10/34) of mice injected with hu-tmcs from ebv seropositive donors, but none of 34 animals receiving hu-tmcs from ebv seronegative donors, developed intraabdominal and/or intrathoracic tumours (p, 0.002). by means of in situ hybridization usin ...19921309857
enzymatic diagnosis of nonketotic hyperglycinemia with lymphoblasts.we developed a new enzymatic assay for the glycine cleavage system that used epstein-barr virus-transformed lymphoblasts instead of liver biopsy specimens. patients with nonketotic hyperglycinemia from a deficiency of p-protein could be clearly distinguished from control subjects by activities in their lymphoblasts, suggesting the clinical usefulness of this method.19921309867
interaction of epstein-barr virus nuclear antigen 1 with the viral latent origin of replication.the epstein-barr virus latent origin of replication (orip) requires only one viral protein, the epstein-barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (ebna-1), for activity. orip consists of two spatially separated, essential sequence elements, regions i and ii, both of which contain multiple ebna-1-binding sites. region ii contains, or is close to, the site at which dna synthesis initiates. the role of region i, a transcriptional enhancer in cells that express ebna-1, in replication is not understood. to determ ...19921309908
second-site homologous recombination in epstein-barr virus: insertion of type 1 ebna 3 genes in place of type 2 has no effect on in vitro infection.this study was undertaken to develop a general strategy for the introduction of mutations into specific sites in the epstein-barr virus (ebv) genome. previous approaches were limited by the need for physical linkage of the transfected ebv dna fragment to a positive selection marker. in our experiments, a positive selection marker was introduced into one site in the ebv genome and a distant, nonlinked, marker was introduced into another site. each marker was on a large ebv dna fragment and was in ...19921309912
characterization of the epstein-barr virus bzlf1 protein transactivation domain.initiation of the epstein-barr virus (ebv) lytic cycle is dependent on expression of the viral transactivator zta, which is encoded by the bzlf1 gene. described here is an initial mapping of the regions of zta involved in activating transcription. the data indicate that the amino-terminal 153 amino acids of zta are important for activity, and in particular the region from residues 28 to 78 appears to be critical for zta function. however, other features of zta may be important for activity since ...19921309920
herpesvirus saimiri encodes homologues of g protein-coupled receptors and cyclins.herpesvirus saimiri (hvs) is a t-lymphotropic gammaherpesvirus which establishes asymptomatic infections in its natural host the squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus), but which causes fatal lymphoproliferative diseases in other new world primates. sequencing studies show hvs is closely related to the human b-lymphotropic gammaherpesvirus epstein-barr virus (ebv). however, despite the general colinearity between the genomes of hvs and ebv, hvs contains genes not found in ebv or in the genomes of an ...19921309943
a familial lymphoproliferative disorder presenting with primary pulmonary manifestations.a familial lymphoproliferative disorder presented in three male siblings with primary pulmonary involvement manifested as either lymphoid interstitial pneumonia or an angiodestructive polymorphous infiltrate morphologically resembling lymphomatoid granulomatosis. the polymorphous infiltrate consisted chiefly of mature t-cells with a few b-cells and plasma cells, and gene rearrangement studies failed to show clonality. epstein-barr virus, frequently associated with proliferative lesions in males ...19921309966
the b cell repertoire in rheumatoid arthritis. iii. preferential homing of rheumatoid factor-producing b cell precursors in the synovial fluid.we sought to compare the frequencies of precursors producing igm rheumatoid factors (igm-rfs) in synovial fluid and peripheral blood b cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (ra).19921310022
cutaneous angiocentric t-cell lymphoma associated with epstein-barr virus.two unusual cases of cutaneous angiocentric t-cell lymphoma were found to be associated with epstein-barr virus infection.19921310097
frequency of epstein-barr viral dna in "western" sinonasal and waldeyer's ring non-hodgkin's lymphomas.sinonasal non-hodgkin's lymphomas (snhl) of b- or t-cell immunophenotype have been associated with the epstein-barr virus (ebv) in asian patients. we investigated eight sinonasal and 10 waldeyer's ring nhl from western patients for evidence of ebv genomes using a sensitive in situ hybridization technique. ebv dna was detected in each of three sinonasal nhl with a t-cell immunophenotype and two of five cases with a b-cell immunophenotype. two of 10 b-cell waldeyer's ring nhl were positive for ebv ...19921310241
gene analysis and epstein-barr viral genome studies of hodgkin's disease. 19921310295
heart allograft involvement with epstein-barr virus-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.we describe a 60-year-old man who underwent heart transplant and died 5 months later. at autopsy, the patient was found to have posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (ptld), which was not suspected ante mortem. the ptld involved the lung, lymph nodes, spleen, and kidney and the intima of right coronary artery of the transplanted heart. epstein-barr virus infection was demonstrated on direct gel and dot blot after polymerase chain reaction amplification. in situ hybridization for epstein-ba ...19921310382
serologic evidence of active epstein-barr virus infection in epstein-barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders of children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.the dna and nuclear antigens of epstein-barr virus (ebv) have been detected in specimens of tissue of non-hodgkin lymphoma and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. to determine whether there is serologic evidence of an active ebv infection in these disorders, we conducted a case-control study. the case patients were 10 children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and ebv genome-positive pneumonitis or lymphoma. we randomly selected one o ...19921310507
demyelinating disease after neurologically complicated primary epstein-barr virus infection.this report describes five patients who, following a neurologically complicated primary epstein-barr virus infection, developed progressive or relapsing neurologic deficits. the sequelae in four patients followed 4 to 12 years led to the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (ms). the fifth patient presented with acute disseminated sclerosis and exhibits diffuse neurologic deficits that have persisted for 2 years. we suggest that the diagnosis of an unexplained acute neurologic or psychiatric syndrome ...19921310528
association of epstein-barr virus with human neoplasia. 19921310536
three transcriptionally distinct forms of epstein-barr virus latency in somatic cell hybrids: cell phenotype dependence of virus promoter usage.phenotypically distinct human b cell lines display two transcriptionally distinct forms of epstein-barr virus (ebv) latency. latency i (lat i) in group i burkitt's lymphoma (bl) cell lines is characterized by selective expression of the virus-coded nuclear antigen ebna 1 from a uniquely spliced mrna driven by the fp promoter. latency iii (lat iii) in group iii bl and ebv-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (lcls) is characterized by expression of ebnas 1, 2, 3a, 3b, 3c, and -lp from mrnas driv ...19921310556
structure-activity relationship between (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)- and 5-vinyl-1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyluracil (bv-arau, v-arau) in inhibition of epstein-barr virus replication.the structure-activity relationship between (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)- and 5-vinyl-1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyluracil (bv-arau and v-arau) in inhibition of epstein-barr virus (ebv) was evaluated. both v-arau and bv-arau effectively inhibited ebv replication in virus-producer p3hr-1(ls) cells, as determined by dna-dna hybridization. the 50% effective doses (ed50) for viral dna replication were 0.005 and 0.3 microm for v-arau and bv-arau, respectively. the in vitro therapeutic index was 4000 for v-arau an ...19921310582
primary gastrointestinal malignant lymphomas associated with epstein-barr virus after heart transplantation.gastrointestinal involvement has been reported in 12-21% of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders but is unusual in the setting of heart transplantation. we report four post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders observed among the 174 heart transplant recipients of our series, all of which were primary malignant lymphomas of and confined to the digestive tract. the mean onset time from transplantation was 22 months. small intestine lesions were present in all four patients, with gastr ...19921310668
ebna1 distorts orip, the epstein-barr virus latent replication origin.the epstein-barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (ebna1) protein binds and activates the latent replication origin (orip) of the epstein-barr virus. we have been studying ebna1 to determine how it activates replication at orip. here we demonstrate that upon binding of ebna1 to orip, two thymine residues become reactive to potassium permanganate (kmno4), indicating a helical distortion at these sites. the kmno4-reactive thymines are 64 bp apart in the region of dyad symmetry of orip. dimethyl sulfate pro ...19921310782
sequence analysis of the bzlf 1 gene of epstein-barr virus derived from a new variant isolated in taiwan. 19921310809
analysis of monoclonal rheumatoid factors obtained from the b-cell repertoire in rheumatoid arthritis.we have sought to determine whether rheumatoid factors (rf) produced in rheumatoid arthritis (ra) were different from physiological rf produced in normal, healthy adults. rf-secreting clones were established following epstein-barr virus (ebv) stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. ten rf-secreting clones were established from seven ra patients and 16 from six healthy controls. all monoclonal rf (mrf), except two in each group, were monoreactive and ten of these were shown to have low to me ...19921310812
correlation of the expression of epstein-barr virus latent membrane protein and in situ hybridization with biotinylated bamhi-w probes in hodgkin's disease.the detection of epstein-barr virus (ebv) nucleic acids by in situ hybridization (ish) with biotinylated bamhi-w probes was correlated with the expressions of ebv latent membrane protein (lmp) and eb nuclear antigen 2 (ebna2), in 107 cases of hodgkin's disease (hd) of different immunomorphologic subtypes. epstein-barr virus nucleic acids were present and restricted to the pathogenic cells in 4 of 40 (10%) cases of nodular sclerosis (ns) and 33 of 55 (60%) cases of mixed cellularity (mc), but wer ...19921310829
epstein-barr virus-related persistent erythema multiforme in chronic fatigue syndrome.erythema multiforme (em) has been rarely reported in epstein-barr virus (ebv)-associated diseases; this includes patients with chronic fatigue syndrome who have chronic or recurrent and disabling illness and an abnormal antibody reactivity to ebv. we describe a patient fulfilling the chronic fatigue syndrome diagnostic criteria who had developed an unusually persistent em resistant to corticosteroids therapy. the ebv dna was studied in skin em lesions, throat washings, peripheral mononuclear cel ...19921310844
establishment and characterization of a human t-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma cell line (ht-1) carrying an inversion of chromosome 14.a new human lymphoblastic lymphoma cell line was established (designated ht-1) from the pleural fluid lymphoma cells of a patient with lymphoblastic lymphoma of t-cell type. the ht-1 cells expressed cd1, cd2, cd3, cd4, cd5, cd7, cd8, cd57, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (tdt) but lacked b-cell-associated antigens and myeloid-associated antigens. in addition, ht-1 cells had rearranged t-cell receptor (tcr) beta-chain gene and gamma-chain gene but retained germlines of immunoglobulin (i ...19921310890
b-cell lymphoproliferative disorders in solid-organ transplant patients: detection of epstein-barr virus by in situ hybridization.b-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (blpds) occur in approximately 2% of transplant recipients and are frequently fatal. indirect serologic evidence has implicated epstein-barr virus (ebv) as an etiologic factor in these lesions. direct evidence of the presence of ebv in these lesions has been obtained in relatively few cases. we used in situ hybridization (ish) with a probe for the bamhi-w region of the ebv genome to study 52 tissue specimens from 28 solid-organ transplant patients who had blp ...19921310951
detection of epstein-barr virus sequences in patients with kawasaki disease by means of the polymerase chain reaction.we used a selective dna amplification technique to detect epstein-barr virus (ebv) dna in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with kawasaki disease (kd). by means of the polymerase chain reaction ebv sequences were indentified directly in 21 (60%) of 35 kd patients within 2 weeks after the onset of kd. furthermore, ebv sequences were detected in all of 6 repeatedly tested patients with kd within 3 months after disease onset. in contrast, only 2 (12%) of 17 control dna samples were p ...19921310957
human papillomavirus 16/18 and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.sixteen cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (eight anaplastic and eight well differentiated squamous types) were examined for the presence of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 genomes using the polymerase chain reaction on paraffin wax embedded biopsy specimens. although nasopharyngeal carcinoma, particularly the anaplastic type, is strongly associated with epstein-barr virus, other factors may be involved in its pathogenesis. no dna of either human papillomavirus subtype was detected. it is co ...19921311002
molecular and immunophenotypic characterization of aids-associated, epstein-barr virus-negative, polyclonal lymphoma.a molecular analysis of non-hodgkin's lymphomas (nhls) from patients with aids was undertaken to determine the prevalence and immunophenotype of polyclonal b-cell lymphoma.19921311023
a general and fast method to generate multiple site directed mutations. 19921311073
analysis of african burkitt's and high-grade b cell non-burkitt's lymphoma for epstein-barr virus genomes using in situ hybridization.we investigated the association of epstein-barr virus (ebv) with african cases of burkitt's lymphoma (bl) and high grade b cell non-burkitt's lymphoma (non-bl) occurring in areas where bl is endemic. the presence of ebv genomes was analysed in 24 cases using in situ hybridization with a 35s-labelled ebv probe applied to paraffin sections. ebv dna was detected in each of 10 cases of bl in which technically satisfactory results were obtained, the virus being homogeneously distributed in all identi ...19921311194
histogenetic correlations between subcategories of small noncleaved cell assess the biologic relevance of the morphologic distinctions between subtypes of small noncleaved cell lymphomas (sncl), ie, the sporadic burkitt's type (sbt) and the non-burkitt's type (nbt), we have examined the molecular organization of several lymphomagenic oncogenes (c-myc, bcl-1, bcl-2) and the potential pathogenetic contribution of the epstein-barr virus (ebv). twenty-nine cases of sncl, not associated with immunodeficiency syndromes, were reviewed and classified as sbt (18 cases) or ...19921311213
inhibition of endosomal proteolytic activity by leupeptin blocks surface expression of mhc class ii molecules and their conversion to sds resistance alpha beta heterodimers in endosomes.the biosynthesis of mhc class ii molecules starts with the assembly of the alpha and beta subunits and the invariant chain. intracellular transport of class ii molecules was followed in pulse-chase experiments of a human epstein-barr virus-transformed b lymphoblastoid cell line. entry of class ii molecules into the endocytotic pathway and their cell surface appearance were monitored using neuraminidase as a fluid endocytotic marker and as a surface probe, respectively. in the course of intracell ...19921311249
construction of yeast artificial chromosome (yac) clone banks covering three genome equivalents and isolation of yacs containing the human gene encoding tumor necrosis factor receptor beta.yeast artificial chromosome (yac) banks covering in total about three haploid genome equivalents were constructed using a human epstein-barr-virus-transformed b lymphocytic cell line. two clone banks were made: 20,000 clones with average inserts of 350 kb in the pyac4 vector and 9850 clones with average inserts of 180 kb using vectors pjs89 and pjs91. direct comparison of pyac4 with pjs89 and pjs91 showed pyac4 to be the most suitable cloning vector. two partial banks with average insert sizes o ...19921311278
cell phenotype (cd23)-dependent variation in ebv genome copy numbers within lymphoblastoid cell lines (lcl).three epstein-barr-virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (lcl) were analysed on the basis of their cd23 expression. levels of ebv-dna were compared in the positive and negative subpopulations. two lines were further analysed with regard to ebna, cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (cig) and lytic (ea/vca) protein expression. both subpopulations had a similar mhc class-ii transcription, but the cd23- subpopulation had a lower plating efficiency and a lower rate of dna synthesis. in the b6, nad50 and ...19921311286
short-term assays for detection of conditional cancerogens. i. construction of dr-cat raji cells and some of their characteristics as tester cells.a number of agents including the tumor promoter 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (tpa) (tpa) can induce an abortive virus cycle in the ebv-non-producer burkitt's-lymphoma line raji. two distant regions, dl and dr, of the ebv genome with almost complete homology carry strong promoters which are induced in an abortive or lytic cycle and additionally function as lytic origins of viral dna replication. to set up a system in which the activity of ebv-inducing agents can be measured in a quantita ...19921311288
prognosis of hodgkin's disease is not influenced by epstein-barr virus latent membrane protein. 19921311289
transcriptional regulation of the human ige receptor (fc epsilon rii/cd23) by ebv. identification of ebv-responsive regulatory elements in intron 1.ebv infection of b cells induces the b cell activation ag, cd23 (fc epsilon rii). cd23 remains constitutively expressed at high levels in all ebv-immortalized b cells and likely plays an important role in the initiation and maintenance of immortalization by ebv. by utilizing an ebv-negative burkitt's lymphoma line (bjab) and ebv-positive sublines derived from it by in vitro infection, we have examined the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of cd23 by ebv. by nuclear runoff analysis, ...19921311350
protective immunization against epstein-barr virus-induced disease in cottontop tamarins using the virus envelope glycoprotein gp340 produced from a bovine papillomavirus expression vector.inoculation with epstein-barr virus (ebv) induces malignant lymphomas in the cottontop tamarin (saguinus oedipus oedipus). this provides an experimental animal model for assessing the efficacy of candidate ebv vaccines which are intended to reduce the incidence of human tumours associated with ebv infection. previous work has shown that experimental vaccines based on the major virus envelope glycoprotein gp340 prepared from the membranes of ebv-infected cells are effective in protecting cottonto ...19921311367
one-step typing of epstein-barr virus by polymerase chain reaction: predominance of type 1 virus in japan.the prevalence of two types of epstein-barr virus (ebv) in japan was studied by using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the u2 region encoding ebv nuclear antigen 2 (ebna-2) was chosen as the target of amplification. consensus primers were synthesized from sequences common to the two types but encompassing a large stretch of deletion in the sequence of type 1 ebv. the primers were capable of amplifying both types at the same time but allowed differentiation of each type by the size of the amp ...19921311368
prevalence of the a and b types of epstein-barr virus dna in nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies from southern china.epstein-barr virus (ebv) exists in the human population in two genetic forms, usually referred to as type a and type b. although many earlier studies had indicated that the a type was generally predominant, there were suggestions that the b type may exhibit a preferential tropism for nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. this study examines the prevalence of the two forms of ebv dna present in nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies obtained from the high incidence area of southern china. the results obtai ...19921311369
immunohistochemical demonstration of the epstein-barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein in paraffin sections of hodgkin's disease.paraffin sections from 46 cases of hodgkin's disease were examined for the presence of the epstein-barr virus (ebv)-encoded latent membrane protein (lmp) using a sensitive (double layer alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase) immunohistochemical method. lmp was detected in 22 cases, the majority of positive cases being of nodular sclerosis (12/24), mixed cellularity (6/7), and lymphocyte depletion (3/3) subtypes. only one of 12 cases of lymphocyte predominant disease was positive. in all ...19921311374
meeting report. report of meeting of section of clinical immunology and allergy, 11 march 1991. 19921311382
[hodgkin's disease. genetic factors or environmental factors?]. 19921311445
reversal of the effects of a low extracellular potassium concentration on the number and activity of na+/k+ pumps in an epstein-barr virus-transformed human lymphocyte cell line.a reduction in the extracellular concentration of potassium to 0.5 mm (low k) in epstein-barr (eb) virus-transformed lymphocytes caused changes in the number and activity of na+/k+ pumps in the cell membrane, with increases in the bmax and apparent kd of ouabain binding, and concomitant increases in the vmax and apparent km of potassium (rubidium) influx. however, recovery from the effects of low k occurred more quickly than the original up-regulation. furthermore, there were differences in the ...19921311581
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