TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
neurological signs in a horse due to metastases of an intestinal adenocarcinoma.a 22-year-old dutch warmblood mare was referred to utrecht university with progressive left hind limb paresis and hyporeflexia. the preliminary clinical diagnosis was the neurological form of equine herpes virus (ehv-1) infection. within 1 day of admission, the mare became recumbent and deteriorated rapidly. postmortem examination revealed an adenocarcinoma of the caecum, with metastases in all regional lymph nodes and extending from the lumbar nodes into the vertebral canal, causing spinal cord ...200111206003
egress of alphaherpesviruses: comparative ultrastructural study.egress of four important alphaherpesviruses, equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (iltv), and pseudorabies virus (prv), was investigated by electron microscopy of infected cell lines of different origins. in all virus-cell systems analyzed, similar observations were made concerning the different stages of virion morphogenesis. after intranuclear assembly, nucleocapsids bud at the inner leaflet of the nuclear membrane, resulting in ...200111264357
equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in a 14-year-old quarter horse stallion.a 14-year-old, quarter horse stallion was presented in lateral recumbency, unable to rise. equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy was diagnosed, based on presentation, clinical signs, and the ruling out of other possibilities. after initial rapid improvements, ataxia remained, as did chronic cystitis secondary to bladder paralysis. he was euthanized after 2 months.200111265193
infection of endothelial cells with equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) occurs where there is activation of putative adhesion molecules: a mechanism for transfer of virus.evidence is presented to show that activation of endothelial and leucoyte adhesion molecules is a key step in transferring virus from infected leucocytes; and determines the restricted tissue tropism. a range of tissues from 2 experimentally infected mares in late pregnancy at 4 and 8 days after infection with ehv-1 were compared with those from normal pregnant and nonpregnant mares. rabbit antisera to equine activated endothelial cell molecules were used to identify which tissues expressed thes ...200111266062
neurological disease associated with ehv-1-infection in a riding school: clinical and virological outbreak of neurological disease caused by ehv-1 infection is described with emphasis on diagnosis and prognosis for recumbent horses. in april 1995, an outbreak of the neurological form of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) occurred in a well-managed riding school with 41 horses: 34 horses showed a temperature spike and 20 some degree of neurological signs, of which 10 were nursed intensively in the indoor arena of the riding school for 3 to 20 days, 8 having to be maintained in slings for 2- ...200111266070
multiple immediate-early gene-deficient herpes simplex virus vectors allowing efficient gene delivery to neurons in culture and widespread gene delivery to the central nervous system in vivo.herpes simplex virus (hsv) has several potential advantages as a vector for delivering genes to the nervous system. the virus naturally infects and remains latent in neurons and has evolved the ability of highly efficient retrograde transport from the site of infection at the periphery to the site of latency in the spinal ganglia. hsv is a large virus, potentially allowing the insertion of multiple or very large transgenes. furthermore, hsv does not integrate into the host chromosome, removing a ...200111287583
herpes simplex inhibits the capacity of lymphoblastoid b cell lines to stimulate cd4+ t cells.hsv establish a lifelong persistent infection in their host even among immunocompetent persons. the viruses use a variety of immune evasion strategies, presumably to assist persistent replication in the human host. we have observed that infection of human b lymphoblastoid cells (b-lcl) by hsv resulted in a strong inhibition of their ability to induce cd4(+) t cell clone proliferation and cytokine secretion. this inhibitory effect occurs in a variety of both hsv- and hiv-specific clones from thre ...200111342647
deletion of gene 52 encoding glycoprotein m of equine herpesvirus type 1 strain rach results in increased immunogenicity.the immunogenicity of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) strain rach was compared to a rach virus in which gene 52 encoding glycoprotein m (gm) was interrupted by insertion of lacz (hdeltagm-ins) and a rach with 75% of gene 52 was deleted and replaced by lacz (hdeltagm-hs). hdeltagm-ins failed to produce full-length gm, but the carboxy-terminal portion was still expressed. no gm expression was detected in hdeltagm-hs-infected cells. mice were immunised once with 1x10(3) to 1x10(5) plaque-forming ...200111390105
molecular characterizations of the equine herpesvirus 1 etif promoter region and translation initiation site.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) homolog of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) tegument phosphoprotein, alphatif (vmw65; vp16), was identified previously as the product of open reading frame 12 (orf12), was shown to trans-activate immediate-early (ie) gene promoters, and was described as a 60-kda virion component designated etif. however, the etif promoter region and transcription initiation site were not identified. the poly(a) signal of the gene 11 (ul49 homolog) lies just upstream of the ...200111448176
clinical and virological evaluation of the efficacy of an inactivated ehv1 and ehv4 whole virus vaccine (duvaxyn ehv1,4). vaccination/challenge experiments in foals and pregnant mares.pregnant mares and young foals were vaccinated with duvaxyn ehv1,4, an inactivated and adjuvanted vaccine containing both the ehv-1 and 4 antigens. sn and cf antibody titres were induced two weeks after first vaccination. antibody levels were boosted after second vaccination, however they never reached the levels induced after virus challenge. young foals were challenged with virulent ehv-1 and ehv-4 field viruses. pregnant mares were challenged with the highly abortigenic ehv-1 strain ab4. vacc ...200111457558
mitogen stimulation favours replication of equine herpesvirus-1 in equine blood mononuclear cells by inducing cell proliferation and formation of close intercellular the present study, equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1)-infected cells were identified in ionomycin/phorbol dibutyrate (iono/pdb)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) and the mechanism by which stimulation increases the percentage of infected cells was examined. in the population of viral antigen-positive pbmc, 38.4+/-4.5% were cd5(+) t-lymphocytes (18.1+/-3.2% cd4(+) 13.6+/-1.8% cd8(+)), 18.1+/-5.4% were b-lymphocytes, 8.5+/-3.9% were monocytes and 35% remained unidentified. the role ...200111458002
pulmonary vasculotropic ehv-1 infection in equids. 200111467487
a polymerase chain reaction for detection of equine herpesvirus-1 in routine diagnostic submissions of tissues from aborted foetuses.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is the causative agent of abortion, perinatal foal mortality, neurological and acute respiratory diseases in horses. conventional laboratory diagnosis involving viral isolation from aborted foetuses is laborious and lengthy and requires processing of samples within 24 h of collection, which is problematic for samples that come from long distances. the aim of this study was to develop a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay useful in argentina to detect dna sequences ...200111471844
equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein d expressed in pichia pastoris is hyperglycosylated and elicits a protective immune response in the mouse model of ehv-1 disease.equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein d (ehv-1 gd) has been shown in mouse models and in the natural host to have potential as a subunit vaccine, using various expression systems that included escherichia coli, baculovirus and plasmid dna. with the aim of producing secreted recombinant protein, we have cloned and expressed ehv-1 gd, lacking its native signal sequence and c-terminal transmembrane region, into the methylotrophic yeast pichia pastoris. the truncated glycoprotein d (gd) gene was placed ...200111551653
mapping the sequences that mediate interaction of the equine herpesvirus 1 immediate-early protein and human tfiib.the sole immediate-early (ie) gene of equine herpesvirus 1 encodes a 1,487-amino-acid (aa) regulatory phosphoprotein that independently activates expression of early viral genes. coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that the ie protein physically interacts with the general transcription factor tfiib. using a variety of protein-binding assays that employed a panel of ie truncation and deletion mutants expressed as in vitro-synthesized or glutathione s-transferase fusion proteins, we mapped a ...200111581390
identification of equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 by polymerase chain develop and validate specific, sensitive and rapid (< 8 hour) diagnostic tests using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the diagnosis of abortion and respiratory disease caused by equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1; equine abortion virus) and ehv4 (equine rhinopneumonitis virus).200111599819
the equine herpesvirus 1 immediate-early protein interacts with eap, a nucleolar-ribosomal protein.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) immediate-early (ie) phosphoprotein is essential for the activation of transcription from viral early and late promoters and regulates transcription from its own promoter. the ie protein of 1487 amino acids contains a serine-rich tract (srt) between residues 181 and 220. deletion of the srt decreased transactivation activity of the ie protein. previous results from investigation of the icp4 protein, the ie homolog of herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1), revealed that ...200111145900
the equine herpesvirus 1 ul45 homolog encodes a glycosylated type ii transmembrane protein and is involved in virus egress.experiments to analyze the product of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) ul45 homolog were conducted. using an antiserum generated against the carboxylterminal 114 amino acids of the ehv-1 ul45 protein, proteins of m(r) 32,000, 40,000, and 43,000 were detected specifically in ehv-1-infected cells. neither form of the protein was located in purified virions of ehv-1 wild-type strain racl22 or the modified live vaccine strain rach, but ul45 was demonstrated to be expressed as a late (gamma-2) p ...200111145911
rapid acquisition of entire dna polymerase gene of a novel herpesvirus from green turtle fibropapilloma by a genomic walking technique.a 4837-bp sequence of a newfound green turtle herpesvirus (gthv), implicated in the etiology of green turtle fibropapilloma, was obtained from tumor tissues of a green turtle with fibropapilloma using a genomic walking method based on restriction enzyme digestion, self-ligation and inverse polymerase chain reaction (ipcr). the 4837-bp sequence was 56.23% g/c rich and contained three nonoverlapping open reading frames (orf). the largest orf (3507-bp) encoded the dna polymerase gene (pol gene), wh ...200111164500
duration of immunity induced by an adjuvanted and inactivated equine influenza, tetanus and equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 combination adjuvanted vaccine containing inactivated equine influenza, herpesvirus antigens, and tetanus toxoid was administered to young seronegative foals of 8 months of age by deep intramuscular injection in the neck (group a). the first two vaccinations were given 4 weeks apart. the third was administered 6 months later. another group of foals (group b) was vaccinated according to the same scheme at the same time with monovalent equine herpes virus (ehv) vaccine (ehv1.4) vaccine. antibody responses ...200111765243
neutralizing and complement-fixing monoclonal antibodies as an aid to the diagnosis of equine herpesvirus-1 complement-fixing (c-mab) and three complement-dependent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (n-mabs) were raised against hisar-90-7 equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) strain. the target antigen of the c-mab (2a5) and two of the n-mabs (1h6, 9c4) was identified as a 140 kda polypeptide in western blotting. the target antigen of n-mab (9c6) could not be identified. purified polypeptides of five ehv-1 strains isolated from different regions and at different times gave intense bands at 140 kda when re ...200111767013
the mucosal humoral immune response of the horse to infective challenge and vaccination with equine herpesvirus-1 antigens.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) remains a frequent cause of upper respiratory tract infection and abortion in horses worldwide. however, little is known about the local antibody response elicited in the upper airways of horses following exposure to ehv-1. this study analysed the mucosal humoral immune response of weanling foals following experimental infection with virulent ehv-1, or vaccination with either of 2 commercial vaccines. twenty weanlings were assigned to 5 groups and were inoculated wit ...200111770985
herpes simplex virus gene products required for viral inhibition of expression of g1-phase functions.hsv infection blocks g1 events in the cell cycle and arrests host cell growth in the g1 phase. to further define the mechanism of the effect and determine the viral gene product(s) responsible, we examined various mutant viruses for their effects on cell cycle regulatory proteins (prb, cyclin d1, and cdk4) and on cell cycle progression into s phase. unlike the wild-type virus, the icp27 mutant virus was defective for blocking the phosphorylation of prb proteins, and the normal prb pattern was re ...200111883196
ehv-1 gene63 is not essential for in vivo replication in horses and mice, nor does it affect reactivation in the horse: short communication.the aim of this study was to investigate the role of immediate early gene (gene63) in the pathogenesis of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) acute and latent infections in equine and murine models. ehv-1 gene63 mutant virus (g63mut) along with ehv-1 (ab4) was used for intracerebral and intranasal infection of 3 and 17-day-old mice. both viruses were recovered at the same frequency from tissues after infection. two welsh ponies were infected via the intranasal route with each of the viruses. acute infe ...200111942126
a study of the pathogenesis of equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) abortion by dna in-situ hybridization.the polymerase chain reaction and dna in-situ hybridization were used to study sections of uterine tissue collected from mares near the time of abortion due to equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection. these techniques revealed viral nucleic acids in endothelial cells of endometrial arterioles, in accordance with previously published immunohistological data. in addition, however, they revealed nucleic acids in cellular debris within endometrial glands and diffusing across the placenta at sites of m ...200111798247
vaccination of foals and pregnant mares with duvaxyn ehv1, 4 vaccine. 200211803056
viruses associated with outbreaks of equine respiratory disease in new identify viruses associated with respiratory disease in young horses in new zealand.200216032259
equine respiratory viruses in foals in new identify the respiratory viruses that are present among foals in new zealand and to establish the age at which foals first become infected with these viruses.200216032260
the c-terminal regions of the envelope glycoprotein gp2 of equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 are antigenically distinct.the unusual mucin-like high molecular mass (mr) glycoprotein 2 (gp2) has only been described in the equid alphaherpesviruses, among which there is considerable antigenic cross-reactivity. equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) gp2 is cleaved into a highly glycosylated n-terminal subunit and a 42 kda c-terminal cleavage product. in order to investigate their antigenic recognition by horses naturally infected with ehv-1 and/or equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4), the c-terminal cleavage product and high mr gp2 wer ...200211958459
identification of two nuclear import signals in the alpha-gene product icp22 of herpes simplex virus 1.the herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) infected cell protein 22 (icp22) is a multifunctional viral regulator that localizes in the nucleus of infected cells. icp22 is required for optimal virus replication in certain cell types and is subject to extensive posttranslational modification. to map the signals in icp22 which mediate its efficient nuclear localization, we investigated the nuclear import of fusion proteins comprising various fragments of icp22 fused to green fluorescent protein (gfp) or be ...200212033795
equid herpesvirus 1 is neurotropic in mice, but latency from which infectious virus can be reactivated does not occur.equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is the most common cause of virus-induced abortion in horses. after primary infection the virus becomes latent predominantly in the respiratory tract lymph nodes and the genome can also be detected in the peripheral nervous system. the role of mouse as a feasible model for the establishment of latency and reactivation of ehv-1 was investigated. intracerebral and intranasal infections of 3- and 17-day-old mice were made and virus replication was confirmed by virus isol ...200212061230
equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 infections: an update.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) and equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv4) are important ubiquitous equine viral pathogens, causing much damage to the horse industry. ehv1 strains are associated with respiratory disease, abortion, and paresis/paralysis, whereas ehv4 strains are predominantly associated with respiratory disease. in the past decades much research effort has been put into improving knowledge about these viruses. in this paper the current state of knowledge of these viruses and the most important ...200212095082
serological responses of mares and weanlings following vaccination with an inactivated whole virus equine herpesvirus 1 and equine herpesvirus 4 vaccine.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is a major cause of respiratory disease and abortion in horses worldwide. although some vaccines have been shown experimentally to reduce disease, there are few reports of the responses to vaccination in the field. this study measured antibody responses to vaccination of 159 mares (aged 4-17 years) and 101 foals (aged 3-6 months) on a large stud farm with a killed whole virus ehv-1/4 vaccine used as per the manufacturer's recommendations. using an ehv glycoprotein d ...200212119135
equid herpesvirus 1 infection of endothelial cells requires activation of putative adhesion molecules: an in vitro model.antisera to activated equine endothelial cells, which detected surface molecules of 116 kd, 97 kd, 42 kd and 38 kd, were made to investigate the role of endothelial adhesion molecules in equid herpes virus 1 infection. these putative adhesion molecules could be induced by 17-beta oestradiol, chorionic gonadotrophin, or il-2, as well as by lps and pwm. in an in vitro flow system, using equine veins or arteries, equid herpesvirus 1 in leucocytes was only transferred to infect endothelial cells if ...200212165084
the equine herpesvirus 1 ul34 gene product is involved in an early step in virus egress and can be efficiently replaced by a ul34-gfp fusion protein.the structure and function of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) ul34 homologous protein were characterized. a ul34 protein-specific antiserum reacted with an m(r)28,000 protein that could not be detected in purified extracellular virions. confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that ul34 reactivity mainly concentrated at the nuclear rim, which changed into a punctuate and filamentous pattern at late times after infection. these changes in ul34 distribution were especially prominent w ...200212350350
equine herpesvirus-1-induced encephalomyelitis in mice: a comparative study of neuroadapted virus and its parental strain.little is known about the neuropathogenicity of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) in mice. no neurological signs were observed in 6-day-old mice inoculated intracerebrally with the hh1 strain (hh1) of ehv-1. however,6-day-old mice inoculated intracerebrally with a variant derived by serial passage of hh1 in mouse brain showed severe neurological symptoms and eventually died. histological analyses were performed on 6-day-old mice inoculated with the neuroadapted hh1 (nhh1) and the parental hh1 strain ...200212354522
passage of equine herpesvirus-1 in suckling mouse brain enhances extraneural virus growth and subsequent hematogenous neuroinvasion.intracerebral inoculation of field-isolates as well as established strains of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) in suckling mice results in viral replication in neurons and glial cells and induces encephalitis. by intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation, no histological lesion was observed in the central nervous system (cns) in suckling mice with the ehv-1 hh1 strain (hh1), whereas a neuroadapted variant (nhh1) produced by serial passage of hh1 in the mouse brain caused severe encephalomyelitis after i.p. ...200212419867
equine herpesvirus type 1 devoid of gm and gp2 is severely impaired in virus egress but not direct cell-to-cell spread.experiments were conducted to analyze the effects of a simultaneous deletion of glycoprotein m (gm) and glycoprotein 2 (gp2) of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). ehv-1 strain rach was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (prach) by homologous recombination of a mini f plasmid into the unique short region of the genome, thereby deleting gene 71 encoding gp2. upon transfection of the prach dna into rabbit kidney rk13 cells, virus plaques were visible from day 1 after transfection. the muta ...200211886256
temporary disturbance of actin stress fibers in swine kidney cells during pseudorabies virus infection.rounding and loosening of cells is a consequence of infection with pseudorabies virus (prv), both in vitro and in vivo. these changes in the normal structure of the cell may be the result of cytoskeletal changes. immunofluorescence staining of actin filaments and microtubule bundles was performed to examine whether prv induces a reorganization of these cytoskeletal components in infected swine kidney (sk) cells. every 2h until 12h post-inoculation (p.i.), cells were washed in cytoskeleton stabil ...200211888692
increased susceptibility of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to equine herpes virus type 1 infection upon mitogen stimulation: a role of the cell cycle and of cell-to-cell transmission of the virus.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is an important pathogen of horses, causing abortion and nervous system disorders, even in vaccinated animals. during the cell-associated viremia, ehv-1 is carried by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc), mainly lymphocytes. in vitro, monocytes are the most important fraction of pbmc in which ehv-1 replicates, however, mitogen stimulation prior to ehv-1 infection increases the percentage of infected lymphocytes. the role of the cell cycle in viral replication an ...200211888698
ehv-1 eicp22 protein sequences that mediate its physical interaction with the immediate-early protein are not sufficient to enhance the trans-activation activity of the ie protein.the early 293 amino acid eicp22 protein (eicp22p) of equine herpesvirus 1 localizes within the nucleus and functions as an accessory regulatory protein (j. virol. 68 (1994) 4329). transient transfection assays indicated that although the eicp22p by itself only minimally trans-activates ehv-1 promoters, the eicp22p functions synergistically with the immediate-early protein (iep) to enhance expression of ehv-1 early genes (j. virol. 71 (1997) 1004). we previously showed that the eicp22 protein enh ...200211900834
cloning of the genomes of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) strains kya and racl11 as bacterial artificial chromosomes (bac).the genome of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) strain racl11, a highly virulent isolate obtained from an aborted foal, and that of the modified live vaccine strain kya, were cloned as bacterial artificial chromosomes (bac) in eseherichia coli. mini f plasmid sequences were inserted into the viral genomes by homologous recombination instead of the gene 71 (eus4) open reading frame after co-transfection of viral dna and recombinant plasmid pdelta71-pha2 into rk13 cells. after isolation of recombi ...200211911590
equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) myeloencephalopathy: a case outbreak of neurological disease occurred in a well-managed riding school. ataxia and paresis were observed in several horses, five of which became recumbent and were euthanized. post-mortem analysis revealed scattered haemorrhages along the spinal cord, that were reflected by multiple haemorrhagic foci on formalin-fixed sections, with the thoracic and lumbar segments being the most affected. pathohistologically, perivascular mononuclear cuffing and axonal swelling, especially in the white ma ...200211911591
polymorphism of open reading frame 71 of equine herpesvirus-4 (ehv-4) and reading frame (orf) 71 genes of both equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) and ehv-4 encode a unique glycoprotein, which has been described to vary in molecular mass from 200 to 450 kda. using pcr and nucleotide sequence analysis, it was shown that the orf 71 genes of ehv-1 and ehv-4 are polymorphic due to a variable number of reiterated sequences in two regions, designated regions a and b. region a was threonine-rich and was located near the n terminus. region b comprised a 38 amino acid repeat nea ...200211842247
identification and characterization of marek's disease virus serotype 1 (mdv1) icp22 gene product: mdv1 icp22 transactivates the mdv1 icp27 promoter synergistically with mdv1 icp4.a previous report [virus genes 6 (1992) 365-378] has shown that the us1 gene of marek's disease virus serotype 1 (mdv1) encodes a homologue of herpes simplex virus type 1 infected cell protein no. 22 (icp22). in the present study, we expressed and identified a product of the mdv1 us1 gene in chicken embryo fibroblasts (cefs) with the aid of a recombinant baculovirus expressing a flag epitope-tagged mdv1 us1 gene, under control of the sralpha promoter (composed of the enhancer region of the simia ...200211856580
the gene 10 (ul49.5) product of equine herpesvirus 1 is necessary and sufficient for functional processing of glycoprotein m.the functional cooperation of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein m (gm) and the gene 10 (ul49.5) product was analyzed. transient-transfection experiments using gm and ul49.5 expression plasmids as well as rk13 cell lines constitutively expressing ul49.5 (rk49.5) or gm (rkgm) demonstrated that the endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase h (endo h)-resistant mature form of gm was detectable only after coexpression of the two proteins. deletion of the ehv-1 ul49.5-homologous gene 10 in strain kya ...200211861861
sequence and genetic arrangement of the u(s) region of the monkey b virus (cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) genome and comparison with the u(s) regions of other primate herpesviruses.the sequence of the unique short (u(s)) region of monkey b virus (bv) was determined. the 13 genes identified are arranged in the same order and orientation as in herpes simplex virus (hsv). these results demonstrate that the bv u(s) region is entirely colinear with that of hsv type 1 (hsv-1), hsv-2, and simian agent 8 virus.200211773425
detection and isolation of equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 from horses in normandy: an autopsy study of tissue distribution in relation to vaccination status.equine herpesviruses type 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) are ubiquitous in the equine population. one of their main properties is their ability to establish life-long latent infections in their hosts even in those with natural or vaccine-induced immunity. however, effect of vaccination status on prevalence and tissue tropism was not established. in this study, ehv-1 and ehv-4 were detected by polymerase chain reaction and by classical virus isolation from neural, epithelial and lymphoid tissues colle ...200212449249
serum amyloid a (saa) as an aid in the management of infectious disease in the foal: comparison with total leucocyte count, neutrophil count and fibrinogen.differentiation between infectious and noninfectious disease and rapid initiation of accurate treatment are essential in managing diseases in the neonatal and young foal. identification of useful inflammatory markers for these purposes is, therefore, of great importance. the aim of this study was to compare the responses of the acute phase protein serum amyloid a (saa) with the responses of fibrinogen and total leucocyte and neutrophil counts in infectious diseases encountered in the young foal, ...200212455840
contribution of gene products encoded within the unique short segment of equine herpesvirus 1 to virulence in a murine model.the pathogenesis of three equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) recombinants was assessed in a cba mouse model. sequences encoding the majority of glycoproteins i (gi) and e (ge) were deleted from the pathogenic ehv-1 strain racl11 (l11deltagideltage), and sequences comprising the 3859 bp deletion within the strain kya u(s) segment, which includes genes 73 (gi), 74 (ge), and 75 (putative 10 kda protein 75), were re-inserted into attenuated kya (kgi/ge/75). in addition, genes ge and 75 were inserted into ...200212457983
u(s)3 protein kinase of herpes simplex virus 1 blocks caspase 3 activation induced by the products of u(s)1.5 and u(l)13 genes and modulates expression of transduced u(s)1.5 open reading frame in a cell type-specific manner.the coding domain of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) alpha22 gene encodes two proteins, the 420-amino-acid infected-cell protein 22 (icp22) and u(s)1.5, a protein colinear with the carboxyl-terminal domain of icp22. in hsv-1-infected cells, icp22 and u(s)1.5 are extensively modified by the u(l)13 and u(s)3 viral protein kinases. in this report, we show that in contrast to other viral proteins defined by their properties as alpha proteins, u(s)1.5 becomes detectable and accumulated only a ...200211752164
equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 infections: an update.summary equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) and equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv4) are important ubiquitous equine pathogens, causing much damage to the viral horse industry. ehv1 strains are associated with respiratory disease, abortion, and paresis/paralysis, whereas ehv4 strains are predominantly associated with respiratory disease. in the past decades much research effort has been put into improving knowledge about these viruses. in this paper the current state of knowledge of these viruses and the most im ...200222066759
equid herpesvirus (ehv-1) live vaccine strain c147: efficacy against respiratory diseases following ehv types 1 and 4 challenges.the temperature sensitive and host range mutant clone 147 of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) was assessed for its ability to protect conventional, susceptible adult horses against respiratory infection by ehv-1 and equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4). intranasal (in) vaccination with 5.2 log(10) tcid(50) did not cause adverse clinical reactions although a limited virus shedding and viraemia (leukocytes) was observed in 11 of 15 and 10 of 15 vaccinated horses respectively. all 15 vaccinated horses showed a ...200312488066
mutation of the protein tyrosine kinase consensus site in the herpes simplex virus 1 alpha22 gene alters icp22 posttranslational modification.we previously reported that at least eight hsv-1 and five hsv-2 proteins were tyrosine phosphorylated in infected human and mouse cells and the first phosphotyrosine-modified gene product identified was the icp22 regulatory protein (blaho, j. a., zong, c. s., and mortimer, k. a., 1997, j. virol. 71, 9828-9832). all electrophoretic forms of icp22 are tyrosine phosphorylated with the exception of the fastest migrating (unmodified) isoform. we now report the following. (i) icp22 that reacted with a ...200312504549
the development of a competitive pcr-elisa for the detection of equine herpesvirus-1.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection is of significant animal welfare and economic importance. yet, no standardised molecular techniques are available for diagnosis or confirmation of viral infection. the purpose of this study was to develop a standardised and quantitative assay system for the reliable detection of ehv-1 infection which was capable of eliminating the likelihood of false negative results. a region within the ehv-1 glycoprotein b gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction ( ...200312505639
requirements for transcriptional repression and activation by engrailed in drosophila embryos.genetic analysis shows that engrailed (en), a homeodomain-containing transcription factor, has both negative and positive targets. negative regulation is expected from a factor that has a well-defined repressor domain but activation is harder to comprehend. we used vp16en, a form of en that had its repressor domain replaced by the activation domain of vp16, to show that en activates targets using two parallel routes, by repressing a repressor and by being a bona fide activator. we identified the ...200312506003
absence of viral antigens on the surface of equine herpesvirus-1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a strategy to avoid complement-mediated lysis.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) may cause abortion in vaccination- and infection-immune horses. ehv-1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) play an important role in virus immune evasion. the mechanisms by which infected pbmcs can avoid destruction by ehv-1-specific antibody and equine complement were examined. the majority of ehv-1-infected pbmcs (68.6 %) lacked surface expression of viral antigens and these cells were not susceptible to complement-mediated lysis. in infected pbmcs w ...200312533704
interaction of the equine herpesvirus 1 eicp0 protein with the immediate-early (ie) protein, tfiib, and tbp may mediate the antagonism between the ie and eicp0 proteins.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) immediate-early (ie) and eicp0 proteins are potent trans-activators of ehv-1 promoters; however, in transient-transfection assays, the ie protein inhibits the trans-activation function of the eicp0 protein. assays with ie mutant proteins revealed that its dna-binding domain, tfiib-binding domain, and nuclear localization signal may be important for the antagonism between the ie and eicp0 proteins. in vitro interaction assays with the purified ie and eicp0 protein ...200312552007
occurrence of infectious upper respiratory tract disease and response to vaccination in horses on six sentinel premises in northern colorado.horses vaccinated against common agents of infectious upper respiratory disease (iurd) may not have detectable serum antibody and may not be protected from clinical disease.200312553466
down-regulation of mhc class i expression by equine herpesvirus-1.there is good evidence that cytotoxic t lymphocytes play an important role in the clearance of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv1) in horses. we have demonstrated that, in common with other alphaherpesviruses, ehv1 infection can lead to dramatic down-regulation of mhc class i expression at the cell surface, a common strategy for pathogen evasion of the host immune response. this down-regulation is specific for mhc class i and does not reflect a general shut-off of host-cell protein synthesis. the use of ...200312560560
infected cell protein no. 22 is subject to proteolytic cleavage by caspases activated by a mutant that induces apoptosis.earlier reports have shown that the d120 mutant of herpes simplex virus 1 lacking both copies of the gene encoding the infected cells protein no. 4 (icp4) induces apoptosis in a variety of cell lines. the programmed cell death induced by this mutant is blocked by overexpression of bcl-2 or by transduction of infected cells with the gene encoding the viral u(s)3 protein kinase. hep-2 cells infected with the d120 mutant express predominantly alpha proteins. studies on these proteins revealed the a ...200312573581
glycoprotein g isoforms from some alphaherpesviruses function as broad-spectrum chemokine binding proteins.mimicry of host chemokines and chemokine receptors to modulate chemokine activity is a strategy encoded by beta- and gammaherpesviruses, but very limited information is available on the anti-chemokine strategies encoded by alphaherpesviruses. the secretion of chemokine binding proteins (vckbps) has hitherto been considered a unique strategy encoded by poxviruses and gammaherpesviruses. we describe a family of novel vckbps in equine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5, and related alphaherp ...200312574120
intercellular trafficking and enhanced in vivo antitumour activity of a non-virally delivered p27-vp22 fusion protein.vp22, a structural protein from herpes simplex virus type i, exhibits the unique property of intercellular trafficking. this protein is exported from primary expressing cells and subsequently imported into neighbouring cells. this property is conserved when vp22 is genetically fused to a protein, making it a promising tool to enhance the delivery of a gene product. we chose to study the intercellular transport and biological effect of a fusion protein between the putative tumour suppressor gene ...200312595890
divergence of reiterated sequences in a series of genital isolates of herpes simplex virus type 1 from individual patients.both serotypes of herpes simplex virus (hsv), hsv-1 and hsv-2, are aetiological agents of genital herpes, although genital herpes caused by hsv-1 recurs less frequently. the hsv-1 genome contains a number of short, tandemly repeated sequences, and some reiterated sequences can serve as sensitive markers for the differentiation of hsv-1 strains. in the present study, variation in reiterations (assumed to be due to different copy numbers of tandemly repeated sequences) was examined in hsv-1 isolat ...200312655092
herpes simplex virus 1 activates cdc2 to recruit topoisomerase ii alpha for post-dna synthesis expression of late genes.a subset (gamma(2)) of late herpes simplex virus 1 genes depends on viral dna synthesis for its expression. for optimal expression, a small number of these genes, exemplified by u(s)11, also requires two viral proteins, the alpha protein infected cell protein (icp) 22 and the protein kinase u(l)13. earlier we showed that u(l)13 and icp22 mediate the stabilization of cdc2 and the replacement of its cellular partner, cyclin b, with the viral dna polymerase processivity factor u(l)42. here we repor ...200312665617
the equine herpesvirus 1 ul11 gene product localizes to the trans-golgi network and is involved in cell-to-cell spread.experiments were conducted to identify and characterize the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) ul11 homologous protein. at early-late times after ehv-1 infection of rk13 cells several proteins at an m(r) of 8000 to 12,000 were detected using a ul11 protein-specific antiserum. particularly, an m(r) of 11,000 protein was found abundantly in purified virions and could be assigned to the tegument fraction. as demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy, ul11 reactivity localized predominantly ...200312706087
ehv paralytic disease in the south of england. 200312708596
comparison of methods for the diagnosis of equine herpesvirus type 1 infection.the objective of the investigations was to study the occurrence of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection in aborted equine fetuses and in newborn foals and to compare the sensitivity of virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and histology in 101 cases and of fetal serology in 68 cases in the diagnosis of the infection. out of the 93 aborted equine fetuses and 8 weak foals, 15 (14.9%) (14 fetuses and 1 foal) proved to be ehv-1 infected by immunohistochemical and 13 (12.9%) by virological ...200312737042
multiple determinants contribute to the virulence of hsv ocular and cns infection and identification of serine 34 of the us1 gene as an ocular disease determinant.the virulence of any given strain of herpes simplex virus (hsv) is probably due to the effects of the constellation of genes in that strain and how they act in concert to promote disease. the goal of this work was to develop a system to identify and study the role of multiple genes in hsv disease.200312766070
in vitro characterisation of high and low virulence isolates of equine herpesvirus-1 and -4.basic in vitro characteristics of high and low virulence isolates of equine herpesviruses-1 and -4 were investigated with particular reference made to the ab4 and v592 isolates of ehv-1 as both have distinct endotheliotropism and clinical outcomes in pony challenge studies. additionally, some ehv-4 isolates that showed variations in clinical outcome were included in some experiments. the aim of the study was to identify an in vitro characteristic that would differentiate strains of known virulen ...200312801466
detection of ehv-1 and ehv-4 in placental sections of naturally occurring ehv-1- and ehv-4-related abortions in the uk: use of the placenta in diagnosis.ehv-1 and ehv-4 abortion diagnosis is based upon detailed examination of the aborted fetus. however, in some cases, only the placenta is available for examination. furthermore, the contribution of lesions in the placenta to pathogenesis and diagnosis of ehv-1 and ehv-4 abortion has been neglected.200312875318
detection of equine herpesvirus-1 in the fetal membranes of aborted equine fetuses by immunohistochemical and in-situ hybridization techniques.formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded fetal membranes from 76 cases of equine abortion were examined immunohistochemically for equine herpesvirus (ehv)-1 antigen. of the 76 cases, 11 had been proved ehv-1-positive by diagnostic methods applied to the aborted fetuses (viral isolation in tissue culture, or immunohistochemical examination, or both). of the 11 fetal membranes from the virus-positive animals, five gave positive results on immunohistochemical examination, and three on in-situ hybridiz ...200312921720
growth of recombinant equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) replaced with passage-induced mutant gene 1 and gene 71 derived from an attenuated ehv-1 in cell cultures and in the lungs of mice.the relationship of passage-induced mutant genes 1 and 71 of an attenuated equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) with virulence was analysed by constructing nine recombinant ehv-1 viruses by homologous recombination. gene 1 or/and gene 71 of a virulent ehv-1 strain, hh1, was replaced by a mutant gene 1 or/and 71 of an attenuated hh1 strain, bk343, respectively. the beta-galactosidase gene of escherichia coli was inserted within the gene 1 or 71 coding sequence of hh1 to inactivate the genes. virus replic ...200312935744
derivation and characterisation of a live equid herpes virus-1 (ehv-1) vaccine to protect against abortion and respiratory disease due to ehv-1.a german abortion isolate of ehv-1 (strain m8) was grown in equine dermal (ed) cells at a low multiplicity of infection in presence of 5-bromo-2-deoxy uridine. the resulting stock was dialysed, titrated and cloned by terminal dilution in ed cells grown in 96-well microtitration plates. of 192 clones each originating from a single focus, clone 147 (c147) was found to be restricted for growth at and above temperatures of 38.5 degrees c. it was also restricted for growth at 37 degrees c in rabbit k ...200312441229
identification of equine herpesvirus-1 antigens recognized by cytotoxic t lymphocytes.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) causes serious disease in horses throughout the world, despite the frequent use of vaccines. ctls are thought to be critical for protection from primary and reactivating latent ehv-1 infections. however, the antigen-specificity of ehv-1-specific ctls is unknown. the aim of this study was to identify ehv-1 genes that encode proteins containing ctl epitopes and to determine their mhc i (or ela-a in the horse) restriction. equine dendritic cells, transfected with a seri ...200313679596
inoculation with dna encoding the glycoprotein gp2 reduces severity of equine herpesvirus 1 infection in a mouse respiratory model.the envelope glycoprotein 2 (gp2) of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) has no known homologue in other herpesviruses with the exception of some equid alphaherpesviruses. in order to investigate the potential of gp2 as a vaccine antigen, expression vectors were constructed to encode full-length gp2, a truncated version lacking the membrane anchor, and the c-terminal region. intramuscular inoculation of mice with these dna constructs induced neutralizing antibody against ehv-1 and, following intranasal ...200314505091
the structures of bovine herpesvirus 1 virion and concatemeric dna: implications for cleavage and packaging of herpesvirus genomes.herpesvirus genomes are often characterized by the presence of direct and inverted repeats that delineate their grouping into six structural classes. class d genomes consist of a long (l) segment and a short (s) segment. the latter is flanked by large inverted repeats. dna replication produces concatemers of head-to-tail linked genomes that are cleaved into unit genomes during the process of packaging dna into capsids. packaged class d genomes are an equimolar mixture of two isomers in which s i ...200314517085
[establishment and use of infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) dna clones of animal herpesviruses].since the first description of the cloning und mutagenesis of a herpesviral genome in 1997, a number of herpesviral dna's have been cloned as bacterial artificial chromosomes (bacs). herpesvirus bac's are established by introduction of a mini f origin of replication into the viral genome, which can as such be maintained und manipulated in escherichia coli as a single copy extrachromosomal dna. herpesvirus dna's cloned as bac's are accessible to the dna repair und mutagenesis apparatus encoded by ...200314526467
outbreak of equine herpesvirus type 1 myeloencephalitis: new insights from virus identification by pcr and the application of an ehv-1-specific antibody detection elisa.five of 10 pregnant, lactating mares, each with a foal at foot, developed neurological disease. three of them became recumbent, developed complications and were euthanased; of the two that survived, one aborted an equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1)-positive fetus 68 days after the first signs were observed in the index case and the other gave birth to a healthy foal on day 283 but remained ataxic and incontinent. the diagnosis of ehv-1 myeloencephalitis was supported by postmortem findings, pcr i ...200314582730
cytokine profiles and long-term virus-specific antibodies following immunization of cba mice with equine herpesvirus 1 and viral glycoprotein d.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1)-specific antibody-secreting cells (asc) isolated from the lung and spleen of mice at 12 months after immunization with attenuated ehv-1 kya, heat-killed kya, or recombinant viral glycoprotein d (rgd) assessed by elispot showed a three- to fivefold increase in three immunoglobulin isotypes at 3 days post-challenge with pathogenic ehv-1 racl11 as compared to control mice. elispot assays demonstrated a high frequency of cells secreting proinflammatory tumor necrosis fac ...200314583146
pre-infection frequencies of equine herpesvirus-1 specific, cytotoxic t lymphocytes correlate with protection against abortion following experimental infection of pregnant general, vaccines containing inactivated equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) fail to prevent abortion in pregnant mares following infection with a virulent strain of ehv-1. we have tested the hypothesis that resistance to ehv-1-induced abortion in pregnant mares is associated with high frequencies of ehv-1 specific, major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i-restricted, cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) in the circulation. to test this theory, three groups of pregnant mares were assembled with varyi ...200314592733
direct interaction of tfiib and the ie protein of equine herpesvirus 1 is required for maximal trans-activation function.recently, we reported that the immediate-early (ie) protein of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) associates with transcription factor tfiib [j. virol. 75 (2001), 10219]. in the current study, the ie protein purified as a glutathione-s-transferase (gst) fusion protein was shown to interact directly with purified tfiib in gst-pulldown assays. a panel of tfiib mutants employed in protein-binding assays revealed that residues 125 to 174 within the first direct repeat of tfiib mediate its interaction with ...200314644612
generation and characterization of an eicp0 null mutant of equine herpesvirus 1.the eicp0 gene (gene 63) of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) encodes an early regulatory protein that is a promiscuous trans-activator of all classes of viral genes. bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) technology and rece/t cloning were employed to delete the eicp0 gene from ehv-1 strain kya. polymerase chain reaction, southern blot analysis, and dna sequencing confirmed the deletion of the eicp0 gene and its replacement with a kanamycin resistance gene in mutant kya. transfection of rabbit kidney ...200314659563
seroprevalence of equine herpesvirus 1 in mares and foals on a large hunter valley stud farm in years pre- and examine the prevalence of equine herpesvirus 1 antibody in mares and foals on a large hunter valley thoroughbred stud farm in new south wales before and after the introduction of an inactivated whole virus vaccine.200315084039
new diseases and increased risk of diseases in companion animals and horses due to transport.dogs and horses are transported within the european union for a number of reasons. the transport per se may cause physical problems, exemplified by hyperthermia in dogs and pleuropneumonia in horses, and the stress may reactivate latent infections such as canine herpesvirus-1 and equine herpesvirus-1. preventive treatments are vital to protect dogs from ticks and mosquitoes transmitting their potentially lethal infectious agents, such as leishmania donovani infantum, babesia canis, ehrlichia can ...200316429803
detection of ehv-1 and ehv-4 dna in unweaned thoroughbred foals from vaccinated mares on a large stud farm.a silent cycle of equine herpesvirus 1 infection has been described following epidemiological studies in unvaccinated mares and foals. in 1997, an inactivated whole virus ehv-1 and ehv-4 vaccine was released commercially in australia and used on many stud farms. however, it was not known what effect vaccination might have on the cycle of infection of ehv-1.200415163042
prevalence of mycoplasma agassizii and chelonian herpesvirus in captive tortoises (testudo sp.) in the united kingdom.during the months of april to august in 1999 and 2002, oral swabs were collected from 146 tortoises (testudo sp.) in private collections in the united kingdom and tested by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the presence of mycoplasma agassizii and chelonian herpesvirus (chhv). the presence of m. agassizii was confirmed by restriction digestion of the pcr product. a 307-bp fragment of the chhv ul5 homologue gene was sequenced and found to show most similarity to equine herpesvirus type 1. a pre ...200415193070
the equine herpesvirus 1 eicp27 protein enhances gene expression via an interaction with tata box-binding protein.the mechanism(s) by which the early eicp27 gene product cooperates with other equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) regulatory proteins to achieve maximal promoter activity remains unknown. transient transfection assays revealed that deletion of residues 93-140 of the 470-aa eicp27 protein substantially diminished its activation of the immediate-early (ie) promoter, whereas deletion of residues 140-470 that contain a zinc-finger motif abolished this activity. fluorescence microscopy of cells expressing t ...200415207618
meningoencephalitis in mice infected with an equine herpesvirus 1 strain kya recombinant expressing glycoprotein i and glycoprotein of the consequences of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection in the natural host is a neurological disease that can lead to paralysis. the pathology associated with ehv-1-induced neurological disease includes vasculitis of the small blood vessels within the central nervous system and subsequent damage to the surrounding neural tissue. in a previous study, an ehv-1 recombinant kya virus (kgi/ge/75) was generated in which the sequences encoding glycoprotein i (gi) and glycoprotein e (ge) were ...200415215680
acute recumbency associated with anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in a 11-year-old hanoverian-cross gelding was evaluated because of acute onset of ataxia, recumbency, and fever. at the stable, this and other horses had recently been infested with ticks. results of analysis of a sample of csf were within reference limits, but hematologic abnormalities included lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, mild anemia, and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in neutrophils that were consistent with anaplasma phagocytophilum (previously ehrlichia equi). results of serum biochemica ...200415230452
equine viral vaccines: the past, present and future.the increasing international movement of horses combined with the relaxation of veterinary regulations has resulted in an increased incidence of equine infectious diseases. vaccination, along with management measures, has become the primary method for the effective control of these diseases. traditionally modified live and inactivated vaccines have been used and these vaccines have proven to be very successful in preventing disease. however, there are a number of equine infectious diseases for w ...200415236675
efficacy of a live equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) strain c147 vaccine in foals with maternally-derived antibody: protection against ehv-1 infection.currently, there is no recommended immunoprophylaxis against febrile respiratory diseases due to equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) and -4 (ehv-4) in horses below age 5-6 months. this is because of interference by maternally-derived antibody (mda) of vaccines.200415253088
use of the meridian test for the detection of equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in horses with decreased evaluate use of the acupuncture meridian test for detection of recent or recently reactivated equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection in horses with decreased performance.200415344363
evidence that use of an inactivated equine herpesvirus vaccine induces serum cytotoxicity affecting the equine arteritis virus neutralisation test.several laboratories worldwide have recently experienced problems related to serum cytotoxicity with the equine arteritis virus (eav) neutralisation test (vn) when using office international des epizooties (oie) reference laboratory prescribed rabbit kidney (rk-13) indicator cells. cytotoxicity can be mistaken for viral cytopathic effect and has led to increasing difficulties in test interpretation, consequently causing disruption to both equine breeding and disease surveillance. results from ex ...200415364465
development of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody-based blocking elisa for detection of equine herpesvirus 1 antibodies.a single-dilution, sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody-based blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (b-elisa) was developed as an alternative to the cumbersome virus neutralization test (vnt) for detection of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) antibodies. neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (1h6 and 9c6) raised against ehv-1 (hisar-90-7 strain) and sera from 70 horses (30 known negative and 40 known positive for ehv-1 antibodies by vnt) were used for standardization of the b-elisa. using a s ...200415379438
argentine strain of equine herpesvirus 1 isolated from an aborted foetus shows low virulence in mouse respiratory and abortion models.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) was isolated in argentina from an aborted equine foetus in 1979. this virus (spv) has special restriction patterns (rp) in comparison with other argentine isolates. in addition, spv could be distinguished on the basis of its pathogenicity in baby mice inoculated intracerebrally. we studied the growth properties of the spv in cell culture and its effects in a mouse respiratory and abortion model. we observed that spv did not modify its capacity to grow in cell cul ...200415381260
equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein k is required for efficient cell-to-cell spread and virus egress.the function of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein k (gk) homologue was investigated. deletion of 88% of the ul53-homologous open reading frame in ehv-1 strain rach resulted in a severe growth defect of the gk-negative virus (hdeltagk) as reflected by a significant decrease in the production of infectious virus progeny on rk13 cells. the hdeltagk virus induced only minute plaques, was unable to form syncytia, and its penetration efficiency into rk13 cells was reduced by approxima ...200415476871
a negative regulatory element (base pairs -204 to -177) of the eicp0 promoter of equine herpesvirus 1 abolishes the eicp0 protein's trans-activation of its own promoter.the early eicp0 protein is a powerful trans-activator that activates all classes of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) promoters but, unexpectedly, trans-activates its own promoter very weakly. transient transfection assays that employed constructs harboring deletions within the eicp0 promoter indicated that eicp0 cis-acting sequences within bp -224 to -158 relative to the first atg abolished the eicp0 protein's trans-activation of its own promoter. when inserted into the promoters of other ehv-1 gene ...200415479811
evolution of equine infection control programs.the science of control of infectious diseases in hospitals was born in 1847 when semmelweis, a physician, ordered his medical students to scrub their hands in chlorinated lime water between patients and demonstrated that this simple procedure resulted ina dramatic decline in patient morbidity and mortality. in the late nineteenth century came huge breakthroughs in the understanding that microorganisms cause many disorders, and methods to eliminate and control these microorganisms were attempted. ...200415519815
equine herpesvirus 1 and 4.equine herpesvirus infections in horses remain a significant cause of abortion and neurologic disease. these viruses are also responsible for mild signs of respiratory disease. the ability to establish latent infections with periodic reactivation or transmission to other horses is an important feature of these herpesviruses. one of the most unique aspects of this report is the description of horses demonstrating neurologic signs serving as the source of infection for other horses. accurate diagn ...200415519823
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