PMID(sorted ascending)
equine herpesvirus-1-induced encephalomyelitis in mice: a comparative study of neuroadapted virus and its parental strain.little is known about the neuropathogenicity of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) in mice. no neurological signs were observed in 6-day-old mice inoculated intracerebrally with the hh1 strain (hh1) of ehv-1. however,6-day-old mice inoculated intracerebrally with a variant derived by serial passage of hh1 in mouse brain showed severe neurological symptoms and eventually died. histological analyses were performed on 6-day-old mice inoculated with the neuroadapted hh1 (nhh1) and the parental hh1 strain ...200212354522
passage of equine herpesvirus-1 in suckling mouse brain enhances extraneural virus growth and subsequent hematogenous neuroinvasion.intracerebral inoculation of field-isolates as well as established strains of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) in suckling mice results in viral replication in neurons and glial cells and induces encephalitis. by intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation, no histological lesion was observed in the central nervous system (cns) in suckling mice with the ehv-1 hh1 strain (hh1), whereas a neuroadapted variant (nhh1) produced by serial passage of hh1 in the mouse brain caused severe encephalomyelitis after i.p. ...200212419867
derivation and characterisation of a live equid herpes virus-1 (ehv-1) vaccine to protect against abortion and respiratory disease due to ehv-1.a german abortion isolate of ehv-1 (strain m8) was grown in equine dermal (ed) cells at a low multiplicity of infection in presence of 5-bromo-2-deoxy uridine. the resulting stock was dialysed, titrated and cloned by terminal dilution in ed cells grown in 96-well microtitration plates. of 192 clones each originating from a single focus, clone 147 (c147) was found to be restricted for growth at and above temperatures of 38.5 degrees c. it was also restricted for growth at 37 degrees c in rabbit k ...200312441229
detection and isolation of equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 from horses in normandy: an autopsy study of tissue distribution in relation to vaccination status.equine herpesviruses type 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) are ubiquitous in the equine population. one of their main properties is their ability to establish life-long latent infections in their hosts even in those with natural or vaccine-induced immunity. however, effect of vaccination status on prevalence and tissue tropism was not established. in this study, ehv-1 and ehv-4 were detected by polymerase chain reaction and by classical virus isolation from neural, epithelial and lymphoid tissues colle ...200212449249
serum amyloid a (saa) as an aid in the management of infectious disease in the foal: comparison with total leucocyte count, neutrophil count and fibrinogen.differentiation between infectious and noninfectious disease and rapid initiation of accurate treatment are essential in managing diseases in the neonatal and young foal. identification of useful inflammatory markers for these purposes is, therefore, of great importance. the aim of this study was to compare the responses of the acute phase protein serum amyloid a (saa) with the responses of fibrinogen and total leucocyte and neutrophil counts in infectious diseases encountered in the young foal, ...200212455840
contribution of gene products encoded within the unique short segment of equine herpesvirus 1 to virulence in a murine model.the pathogenesis of three equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) recombinants was assessed in a cba mouse model. sequences encoding the majority of glycoproteins i (gi) and e (ge) were deleted from the pathogenic ehv-1 strain racl11 (l11deltagideltage), and sequences comprising the 3859 bp deletion within the strain kya u(s) segment, which includes genes 73 (gi), 74 (ge), and 75 (putative 10 kda protein 75), were re-inserted into attenuated kya (kgi/ge/75). in addition, genes ge and 75 were inserted into ...200212457983
equid herpesvirus (ehv-1) live vaccine strain c147: efficacy against respiratory diseases following ehv types 1 and 4 challenges.the temperature sensitive and host range mutant clone 147 of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) was assessed for its ability to protect conventional, susceptible adult horses against respiratory infection by ehv-1 and equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4). intranasal (in) vaccination with 5.2 log(10) tcid(50) did not cause adverse clinical reactions although a limited virus shedding and viraemia (leukocytes) was observed in 11 of 15 and 10 of 15 vaccinated horses respectively. all 15 vaccinated horses showed a ...200312488066
mutation of the protein tyrosine kinase consensus site in the herpes simplex virus 1 alpha22 gene alters icp22 posttranslational modification.we previously reported that at least eight hsv-1 and five hsv-2 proteins were tyrosine phosphorylated in infected human and mouse cells and the first phosphotyrosine-modified gene product identified was the icp22 regulatory protein (blaho, j. a., zong, c. s., and mortimer, k. a., 1997, j. virol. 71, 9828-9832). all electrophoretic forms of icp22 are tyrosine phosphorylated with the exception of the fastest migrating (unmodified) isoform. we now report the following. (i) icp22 that reacted with a ...200312504549
the development of a competitive pcr-elisa for the detection of equine herpesvirus-1.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection is of significant animal welfare and economic importance. yet, no standardised molecular techniques are available for diagnosis or confirmation of viral infection. the purpose of this study was to develop a standardised and quantitative assay system for the reliable detection of ehv-1 infection which was capable of eliminating the likelihood of false negative results. a region within the ehv-1 glycoprotein b gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction ( ...200312505639
requirements for transcriptional repression and activation by engrailed in drosophila embryos.genetic analysis shows that engrailed (en), a homeodomain-containing transcription factor, has both negative and positive targets. negative regulation is expected from a factor that has a well-defined repressor domain but activation is harder to comprehend. we used vp16en, a form of en that had its repressor domain replaced by the activation domain of vp16, to show that en activates targets using two parallel routes, by repressing a repressor and by being a bona fide activator. we identified the ...200312506003
absence of viral antigens on the surface of equine herpesvirus-1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a strategy to avoid complement-mediated lysis.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) may cause abortion in vaccination- and infection-immune horses. ehv-1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) play an important role in virus immune evasion. the mechanisms by which infected pbmcs can avoid destruction by ehv-1-specific antibody and equine complement were examined. the majority of ehv-1-infected pbmcs (68.6 %) lacked surface expression of viral antigens and these cells were not susceptible to complement-mediated lysis. in infected pbmcs w ...200312533704
interaction of the equine herpesvirus 1 eicp0 protein with the immediate-early (ie) protein, tfiib, and tbp may mediate the antagonism between the ie and eicp0 proteins.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) immediate-early (ie) and eicp0 proteins are potent trans-activators of ehv-1 promoters; however, in transient-transfection assays, the ie protein inhibits the trans-activation function of the eicp0 protein. assays with ie mutant proteins revealed that its dna-binding domain, tfiib-binding domain, and nuclear localization signal may be important for the antagonism between the ie and eicp0 proteins. in vitro interaction assays with the purified ie and eicp0 protein ...200312552007
occurrence of infectious upper respiratory tract disease and response to vaccination in horses on six sentinel premises in northern colorado.horses vaccinated against common agents of infectious upper respiratory disease (iurd) may not have detectable serum antibody and may not be protected from clinical disease.200312553466
down-regulation of mhc class i expression by equine herpesvirus-1.there is good evidence that cytotoxic t lymphocytes play an important role in the clearance of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv1) in horses. we have demonstrated that, in common with other alphaherpesviruses, ehv1 infection can lead to dramatic down-regulation of mhc class i expression at the cell surface, a common strategy for pathogen evasion of the host immune response. this down-regulation is specific for mhc class i and does not reflect a general shut-off of host-cell protein synthesis. the use of ...200312560560
infected cell protein no. 22 is subject to proteolytic cleavage by caspases activated by a mutant that induces apoptosis.earlier reports have shown that the d120 mutant of herpes simplex virus 1 lacking both copies of the gene encoding the infected cells protein no. 4 (icp4) induces apoptosis in a variety of cell lines. the programmed cell death induced by this mutant is blocked by overexpression of bcl-2 or by transduction of infected cells with the gene encoding the viral u(s)3 protein kinase. hep-2 cells infected with the d120 mutant express predominantly alpha proteins. studies on these proteins revealed the a ...200312573581
glycoprotein g isoforms from some alphaherpesviruses function as broad-spectrum chemokine binding proteins.mimicry of host chemokines and chemokine receptors to modulate chemokine activity is a strategy encoded by beta- and gammaherpesviruses, but very limited information is available on the anti-chemokine strategies encoded by alphaherpesviruses. the secretion of chemokine binding proteins (vckbps) has hitherto been considered a unique strategy encoded by poxviruses and gammaherpesviruses. we describe a family of novel vckbps in equine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5, and related alphaherp ...200312574120
intercellular trafficking and enhanced in vivo antitumour activity of a non-virally delivered p27-vp22 fusion protein.vp22, a structural protein from herpes simplex virus type i, exhibits the unique property of intercellular trafficking. this protein is exported from primary expressing cells and subsequently imported into neighbouring cells. this property is conserved when vp22 is genetically fused to a protein, making it a promising tool to enhance the delivery of a gene product. we chose to study the intercellular transport and biological effect of a fusion protein between the putative tumour suppressor gene ...200312595890
divergence of reiterated sequences in a series of genital isolates of herpes simplex virus type 1 from individual patients.both serotypes of herpes simplex virus (hsv), hsv-1 and hsv-2, are aetiological agents of genital herpes, although genital herpes caused by hsv-1 recurs less frequently. the hsv-1 genome contains a number of short, tandemly repeated sequences, and some reiterated sequences can serve as sensitive markers for the differentiation of hsv-1 strains. in the present study, variation in reiterations (assumed to be due to different copy numbers of tandemly repeated sequences) was examined in hsv-1 isolat ...200312655092
herpes simplex virus 1 activates cdc2 to recruit topoisomerase ii alpha for post-dna synthesis expression of late genes.a subset (gamma(2)) of late herpes simplex virus 1 genes depends on viral dna synthesis for its expression. for optimal expression, a small number of these genes, exemplified by u(s)11, also requires two viral proteins, the alpha protein infected cell protein (icp) 22 and the protein kinase u(l)13. earlier we showed that u(l)13 and icp22 mediate the stabilization of cdc2 and the replacement of its cellular partner, cyclin b, with the viral dna polymerase processivity factor u(l)42. here we repor ...200312665617
the equine herpesvirus 1 ul11 gene product localizes to the trans-golgi network and is involved in cell-to-cell spread.experiments were conducted to identify and characterize the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) ul11 homologous protein. at early-late times after ehv-1 infection of rk13 cells several proteins at an m(r) of 8000 to 12,000 were detected using a ul11 protein-specific antiserum. particularly, an m(r) of 11,000 protein was found abundantly in purified virions and could be assigned to the tegument fraction. as demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy, ul11 reactivity localized predominantly ...200312706087
ehv paralytic disease in the south of england. 200312708596
comparison of methods for the diagnosis of equine herpesvirus type 1 infection.the objective of the investigations was to study the occurrence of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection in aborted equine fetuses and in newborn foals and to compare the sensitivity of virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and histology in 101 cases and of fetal serology in 68 cases in the diagnosis of the infection. out of the 93 aborted equine fetuses and 8 weak foals, 15 (14.9%) (14 fetuses and 1 foal) proved to be ehv-1 infected by immunohistochemical and 13 (12.9%) by virological ...200312737042
multiple determinants contribute to the virulence of hsv ocular and cns infection and identification of serine 34 of the us1 gene as an ocular disease determinant.the virulence of any given strain of herpes simplex virus (hsv) is probably due to the effects of the constellation of genes in that strain and how they act in concert to promote disease. the goal of this work was to develop a system to identify and study the role of multiple genes in hsv disease.200312766070
in vitro characterisation of high and low virulence isolates of equine herpesvirus-1 and -4.basic in vitro characteristics of high and low virulence isolates of equine herpesviruses-1 and -4 were investigated with particular reference made to the ab4 and v592 isolates of ehv-1 as both have distinct endotheliotropism and clinical outcomes in pony challenge studies. additionally, some ehv-4 isolates that showed variations in clinical outcome were included in some experiments. the aim of the study was to identify an in vitro characteristic that would differentiate strains of known virulen ...200312801466
detection of ehv-1 and ehv-4 in placental sections of naturally occurring ehv-1- and ehv-4-related abortions in the uk: use of the placenta in diagnosis.ehv-1 and ehv-4 abortion diagnosis is based upon detailed examination of the aborted fetus. however, in some cases, only the placenta is available for examination. furthermore, the contribution of lesions in the placenta to pathogenesis and diagnosis of ehv-1 and ehv-4 abortion has been neglected.200312875318
detection of equine herpesvirus-1 in the fetal membranes of aborted equine fetuses by immunohistochemical and in-situ hybridization techniques.formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded fetal membranes from 76 cases of equine abortion were examined immunohistochemically for equine herpesvirus (ehv)-1 antigen. of the 76 cases, 11 had been proved ehv-1-positive by diagnostic methods applied to the aborted fetuses (viral isolation in tissue culture, or immunohistochemical examination, or both). of the 11 fetal membranes from the virus-positive animals, five gave positive results on immunohistochemical examination, and three on in-situ hybridiz ...200312921720
growth of recombinant equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) replaced with passage-induced mutant gene 1 and gene 71 derived from an attenuated ehv-1 in cell cultures and in the lungs of mice.the relationship of passage-induced mutant genes 1 and 71 of an attenuated equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) with virulence was analysed by constructing nine recombinant ehv-1 viruses by homologous recombination. gene 1 or/and gene 71 of a virulent ehv-1 strain, hh1, was replaced by a mutant gene 1 or/and 71 of an attenuated hh1 strain, bk343, respectively. the beta-galactosidase gene of escherichia coli was inserted within the gene 1 or 71 coding sequence of hh1 to inactivate the genes. virus replic ...200312935744
intrauterine and intrafetal inoculations with equine abortion virus in pregnant mares. 195313010086
cultivation of equine abortion virus in fetal horse tissue in vitro. 195313016787
adaptation of the equine abortion virus to suckling syrian hamsters. 195313094935
cultivation of the equine influenza virus in suckling syrian hamsters. its similarity to the equine abortion virus. 195413127395
thermal, hematological, and serological responses of weanling horses following inoculation with equine abortion virus: its similarity to equine influenza. 195413150758
the cultivation of equine abortion virus in cat tissue in vitro. 195413207311
susceptibility in vitro of adult horse tissue to equine abortion virus; previously undescribed lesions. 195513268617
propagation of equine abortion virus in the chick embryo. 195513273388
further observations of the in vitro susceptibility of adult horse tissue to equine abortion virus. 195613277324
propagation of equine abortion virus in syrian hamsters. 195613277325
propagation of equine abortion virus in the embryonated chicken egg. 195613277328
serological differentiation of the equine abortion virus from the human and swine influenza, mumps, and newcastle disease viruses. 195613302650
agglutination of horse erythrocytes by tissue extracts from hamsters infected with equine abortion virus. 195613302651
studies on hepatitis in hamsters infected with equine abortion virus. i. sequential development of inclusions and the growth cycle. 195713444458
adaptation of equine abortion virus to hela cells. 195713453487
studies on hepatitis in hamsters infected with equine abortion virus. ii. changes in protein, nucleic acid, and weight of isolated hepatic nuclei. 195713458334
electron microscopy of equine abortion virus. 195813591329
changes in protein and nucleic acid content on hela cells infected with equine abortion virus. 195813614503
identification of equine herpesvirus-1 antigens recognized by cytotoxic t lymphocytes.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) causes serious disease in horses throughout the world, despite the frequent use of vaccines. ctls are thought to be critical for protection from primary and reactivating latent ehv-1 infections. however, the antigen-specificity of ehv-1-specific ctls is unknown. the aim of this study was to identify ehv-1 genes that encode proteins containing ctl epitopes and to determine their mhc i (or ela-a in the horse) restriction. equine dendritic cells, transfected with a seri ...200313679596
labelling of liver nuclei with tritiated thymidine in hamsters infected with equine abortion virus. 196113704423
studies on hepatitis in hamsters infected with equine abortion virus. iii. nuclear protein changes. a histochemical study. 196013704424
electron microscopy of equine abortion virus. 196113774844
composition of rna and dna of citric acid-isolated liver nuclei from hamsters infected with equine abortion virus (eav). 196013827336
correlated autoradiographic and biochemical study of dna labeling in equine abortion virus hepatitis. 196213897734
[in vitro sensitivity of different types of cells to infection with infectious equine abortion virus (dimock)]. 196214008371
an electron microscopic study of equine abortion virus infection in hamster liver. 196314013743
the nucleic acid content of equine abortion virus. 196314025123
degradation of deoxyribonucleic acid and alteration nucleic acid metabolism in suspension cultures of l-m cells infected with equine abortion virus.randall, charles c. (university of mississippi school of medicine, jackson) and barbara m. walker. degradation of deoxyribonucleic acid and alteration of nucleic acid metabolism in suspension cultures of l-m cells infected with equine abortion virus. j. bacteriol. 86:138-146. 1963.-metabolic alterations in log-phase suspension cultures infected with equine abortion virus (eav) were determined in l-m cells simultaneously labeled or prelabeled with h(3)- or c(14)-thymidine. although infection prod ...196314051805
replication of a deoxyribonucleic acid virus in thymine-deficient mammalian cells.gentry, glenn a. (university of mississippi school of medicine, jackson), lucy a. lawson, and charles c. randall. replication of a deoxyribonucleic acid virus in thymine-deficient mammalian cells. j. bacteriol. 88:1324-1328. 1964.-equine abortion virus (eav), a deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) virus, causes the degradation of host cell dna to acid-soluble components in the l-m cell. it was hypothesized that inhibitors of dna synthesis such as 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (fudr) and amethopterin, which act by ...196414234788
some physicochemical characteristics of equine abortion virus nucleic acid. 196514319712
a preliminary survey for equine abortion virus infection by complement fixation test in hokkaido, japan. 195914404961
histopathological study of aborted fetuses naturally infected with equine abortion virus with some epidemiological findings. 195914404962
quantitation and morphology of equine abortion virus in hamsters. 196014445594
isolation of equine abortion virus from natural cases of equine abortion in horse kidney cell culture. 195914446011
adaptation of equine abortion virus to earle's l cells in serum-free medium with plaque formation. 196214490220
inoculation with dna encoding the glycoprotein gp2 reduces severity of equine herpesvirus 1 infection in a mouse respiratory model.the envelope glycoprotein 2 (gp2) of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) has no known homologue in other herpesviruses with the exception of some equid alphaherpesviruses. in order to investigate the potential of gp2 as a vaccine antigen, expression vectors were constructed to encode full-length gp2, a truncated version lacking the membrane anchor, and the c-terminal region. intramuscular inoculation of mice with these dna constructs induced neutralizing antibody against ehv-1 and, following intranasal ...200314505091
the structures of bovine herpesvirus 1 virion and concatemeric dna: implications for cleavage and packaging of herpesvirus genomes.herpesvirus genomes are often characterized by the presence of direct and inverted repeats that delineate their grouping into six structural classes. class d genomes consist of a long (l) segment and a short (s) segment. the latter is flanked by large inverted repeats. dna replication produces concatemers of head-to-tail linked genomes that are cleaved into unit genomes during the process of packaging dna into capsids. packaged class d genomes are an equimolar mixture of two isomers in which s i ...200314517085
[establishment and use of infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) dna clones of animal herpesviruses].since the first description of the cloning und mutagenesis of a herpesviral genome in 1997, a number of herpesviral dna's have been cloned as bacterial artificial chromosomes (bacs). herpesvirus bac's are established by introduction of a mini f origin of replication into the viral genome, which can as such be maintained und manipulated in escherichia coli as a single copy extrachromosomal dna. herpesvirus dna's cloned as bac's are accessible to the dna repair und mutagenesis apparatus encoded by ...200314526467
outbreak of equine herpesvirus type 1 myeloencephalitis: new insights from virus identification by pcr and the application of an ehv-1-specific antibody detection elisa.five of 10 pregnant, lactating mares, each with a foal at foot, developed neurological disease. three of them became recumbent, developed complications and were euthanased; of the two that survived, one aborted an equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1)-positive fetus 68 days after the first signs were observed in the index case and the other gave birth to a healthy foal on day 283 but remained ataxic and incontinent. the diagnosis of ehv-1 myeloencephalitis was supported by postmortem findings, pcr i ...200314582730
cytokine profiles and long-term virus-specific antibodies following immunization of cba mice with equine herpesvirus 1 and viral glycoprotein d.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1)-specific antibody-secreting cells (asc) isolated from the lung and spleen of mice at 12 months after immunization with attenuated ehv-1 kya, heat-killed kya, or recombinant viral glycoprotein d (rgd) assessed by elispot showed a three- to fivefold increase in three immunoglobulin isotypes at 3 days post-challenge with pathogenic ehv-1 racl11 as compared to control mice. elispot assays demonstrated a high frequency of cells secreting proinflammatory tumor necrosis fac ...200314583146
pre-infection frequencies of equine herpesvirus-1 specific, cytotoxic t lymphocytes correlate with protection against abortion following experimental infection of pregnant general, vaccines containing inactivated equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) fail to prevent abortion in pregnant mares following infection with a virulent strain of ehv-1. we have tested the hypothesis that resistance to ehv-1-induced abortion in pregnant mares is associated with high frequencies of ehv-1 specific, major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i-restricted, cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) in the circulation. to test this theory, three groups of pregnant mares were assembled with varyi ...200314592733
direct interaction of tfiib and the ie protein of equine herpesvirus 1 is required for maximal trans-activation function.recently, we reported that the immediate-early (ie) protein of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) associates with transcription factor tfiib [j. virol. 75 (2001), 10219]. in the current study, the ie protein purified as a glutathione-s-transferase (gst) fusion protein was shown to interact directly with purified tfiib in gst-pulldown assays. a panel of tfiib mutants employed in protein-binding assays revealed that residues 125 to 174 within the first direct repeat of tfiib mediate its interaction with ...200314644612
generation and characterization of an eicp0 null mutant of equine herpesvirus 1.the eicp0 gene (gene 63) of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) encodes an early regulatory protein that is a promiscuous trans-activator of all classes of viral genes. bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) technology and rece/t cloning were employed to delete the eicp0 gene from ehv-1 strain kya. polymerase chain reaction, southern blot analysis, and dna sequencing confirmed the deletion of the eicp0 gene and its replacement with a kanamycin resistance gene in mutant kya. transfection of rabbit kidney ...200314659563
decreased expression of equine herpesvirus-1 early and late genes in the placenta of naturally aborted equine fetuses.intrauterine infection with equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) has been considered to be the consequence of transplacental transmission of the virus following maternal cell-associated viraemia. in this study the state of ehv-1 gene expression in the placenta of seven naturally aborted equine fetuses was examined. neither lesions nor viral antigens were detected in the placenta of the fetuses. the amount of infectious virus in the placentas was considerably lower than that in the fetal lungs, which sho ...200414693123
equine herpesvirus-1 abortion: atypical cases with lesions largely or wholly restricted to the placenta. 200414756377
peptide transport activity of the transporter associated with antigen processing (tap) is inhibited by an early protein of equine herpesvirus-1.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) downregulates surface expression of major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i molecules on infected cells. the objective of this study was to investigate whether ehv-1 interferes with peptide translocation by the transporter associated with antigen processing (tap) and to identify the proteins responsible. using an in vitro transport assay, we showed that ehv-1 inhibited transport of peptides by tap as early as 2 h post-infection (p.i). complete shutdown of pept ...200414769892
a protective effect of epidermal powder immunization in a mouse model of equine herpesvirus-1 evaluate the protective effect of epidermal powder immunization (epi) against equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection, we prepared a powder vaccine in which formalin-inactivated virions were embedded in water-soluble, sugar-based particles. a powderject device was used to immunize mice with the powder vaccine via their abdominal skin. we found that twice-immunized mice were protected against challenge with the wild-type virus. this protective effect was equivalent to or better than that observ ...200414972566
efficacy and duration of immunity of a combined equine influenza and equine herpesvirus vaccine against challenge with an american-like equine influenza virus (a/equi-2/kentucky/95).it has been recommended that modern equine influenza vaccines should contain an a/equi-1 strain and a/equi-2 strains of the american and european-like subtype. we describe here the efficacy of a modern updated inactivated equine influenza-herpesvirus combination vaccine against challenge with a recent american-like isolate of equine influenza (a/equine-2/kentucky/95 (h3n8). the vaccine contains inactivated influenza strains a-equine-1/prague'56, a-equine-2/newmarket-1/'93 (american lineage) and ...200414975389
the truncated form of glycoprotein gp2 of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) vaccine strain kya is not functionally equivalent to full-length gp2 encoded by ehv-1 wild-type strain racl11.most equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strains, including the naturally occurring virulent racl11 isolate, encode a large glycoprotein, gp2 (250 kda), which is expressed from gene 71. besides other alterations in the viral genome, the avirulent strain kya harbors an in-frame deletion of 1,242 nucleotides in gene 71. to examine the contributions of gp2 variation to virus growth and virulence, mutant racl11 and kya viruses expressing full-length or truncated gp2 were generated. western blot analyses de ...200414990719
intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (icam-1) and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (lfa-1) contribute to the elimination of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) from the lungs of intranasally infected balb/c mice.the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (icam-1) and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (lfa-1) on equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection in balb/c mice produced by intranasal inoculation was studied. infected mice were found to lose bodyweight (bw) during the acute phase of infection (i.e., within 1 week of inoculation) but to regain it during the convalescent phase. the intraperitoneal administration of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against icam-1 and lfa-1 one day before ehv-1 ...200415003474
seroprevalence of equine herpesvirus 1 in mares and foals on a large hunter valley stud farm in years pre- and examine the prevalence of equine herpesvirus 1 antibody in mares and foals on a large hunter valley thoroughbred stud farm in new south wales before and after the introduction of an inactivated whole virus vaccine.200315084039
detection of ehv-1 and ehv-4 dna in unweaned thoroughbred foals from vaccinated mares on a large stud farm.a silent cycle of equine herpesvirus 1 infection has been described following epidemiological studies in unvaccinated mares and foals. in 1997, an inactivated whole virus ehv-1 and ehv-4 vaccine was released commercially in australia and used on many stud farms. however, it was not known what effect vaccination might have on the cycle of infection of ehv-1.200415163042
prevalence of mycoplasma agassizii and chelonian herpesvirus in captive tortoises (testudo sp.) in the united kingdom.during the months of april to august in 1999 and 2002, oral swabs were collected from 146 tortoises (testudo sp.) in private collections in the united kingdom and tested by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the presence of mycoplasma agassizii and chelonian herpesvirus (chhv). the presence of m. agassizii was confirmed by restriction digestion of the pcr product. a 307-bp fragment of the chhv ul5 homologue gene was sequenced and found to show most similarity to equine herpesvirus type 1. a pre ...200415193070
the equine herpesvirus 1 eicp27 protein enhances gene expression via an interaction with tata box-binding protein.the mechanism(s) by which the early eicp27 gene product cooperates with other equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) regulatory proteins to achieve maximal promoter activity remains unknown. transient transfection assays revealed that deletion of residues 93-140 of the 470-aa eicp27 protein substantially diminished its activation of the immediate-early (ie) promoter, whereas deletion of residues 140-470 that contain a zinc-finger motif abolished this activity. fluorescence microscopy of cells expressing t ...200415207618
meningoencephalitis in mice infected with an equine herpesvirus 1 strain kya recombinant expressing glycoprotein i and glycoprotein of the consequences of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection in the natural host is a neurological disease that can lead to paralysis. the pathology associated with ehv-1-induced neurological disease includes vasculitis of the small blood vessels within the central nervous system and subsequent damage to the surrounding neural tissue. in a previous study, an ehv-1 recombinant kya virus (kgi/ge/75) was generated in which the sequences encoding glycoprotein i (gi) and glycoprotein e (ge) were ...200415215680
acute recumbency associated with anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in a 11-year-old hanoverian-cross gelding was evaluated because of acute onset of ataxia, recumbency, and fever. at the stable, this and other horses had recently been infested with ticks. results of analysis of a sample of csf were within reference limits, but hematologic abnormalities included lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, mild anemia, and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in neutrophils that were consistent with anaplasma phagocytophilum (previously ehrlichia equi). results of serum biochemica ...200415230452
equine viral vaccines: the past, present and future.the increasing international movement of horses combined with the relaxation of veterinary regulations has resulted in an increased incidence of equine infectious diseases. vaccination, along with management measures, has become the primary method for the effective control of these diseases. traditionally modified live and inactivated vaccines have been used and these vaccines have proven to be very successful in preventing disease. however, there are a number of equine infectious diseases for w ...200415236675
efficacy of a live equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) strain c147 vaccine in foals with maternally-derived antibody: protection against ehv-1 infection.currently, there is no recommended immunoprophylaxis against febrile respiratory diseases due to equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) and -4 (ehv-4) in horses below age 5-6 months. this is because of interference by maternally-derived antibody (mda) of vaccines.200415253088
use of the meridian test for the detection of equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in horses with decreased evaluate use of the acupuncture meridian test for detection of recent or recently reactivated equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection in horses with decreased performance.200415344363
evidence that use of an inactivated equine herpesvirus vaccine induces serum cytotoxicity affecting the equine arteritis virus neutralisation test.several laboratories worldwide have recently experienced problems related to serum cytotoxicity with the equine arteritis virus (eav) neutralisation test (vn) when using office international des epizooties (oie) reference laboratory prescribed rabbit kidney (rk-13) indicator cells. cytotoxicity can be mistaken for viral cytopathic effect and has led to increasing difficulties in test interpretation, consequently causing disruption to both equine breeding and disease surveillance. results from ex ...200415364465
development of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody-based blocking elisa for detection of equine herpesvirus 1 antibodies.a single-dilution, sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody-based blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (b-elisa) was developed as an alternative to the cumbersome virus neutralization test (vnt) for detection of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) antibodies. neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (1h6 and 9c6) raised against ehv-1 (hisar-90-7 strain) and sera from 70 horses (30 known negative and 40 known positive for ehv-1 antibodies by vnt) were used for standardization of the b-elisa. using a s ...200415379438
argentine strain of equine herpesvirus 1 isolated from an aborted foetus shows low virulence in mouse respiratory and abortion models.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) was isolated in argentina from an aborted equine foetus in 1979. this virus (spv) has special restriction patterns (rp) in comparison with other argentine isolates. in addition, spv could be distinguished on the basis of its pathogenicity in baby mice inoculated intracerebrally. we studied the growth properties of the spv in cell culture and its effects in a mouse respiratory and abortion model. we observed that spv did not modify its capacity to grow in cell cul ...200415381260
equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein k is required for efficient cell-to-cell spread and virus egress.the function of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein k (gk) homologue was investigated. deletion of 88% of the ul53-homologous open reading frame in ehv-1 strain rach resulted in a severe growth defect of the gk-negative virus (hdeltagk) as reflected by a significant decrease in the production of infectious virus progeny on rk13 cells. the hdeltagk virus induced only minute plaques, was unable to form syncytia, and its penetration efficiency into rk13 cells was reduced by approxima ...200415476871
a negative regulatory element (base pairs -204 to -177) of the eicp0 promoter of equine herpesvirus 1 abolishes the eicp0 protein's trans-activation of its own promoter.the early eicp0 protein is a powerful trans-activator that activates all classes of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) promoters but, unexpectedly, trans-activates its own promoter very weakly. transient transfection assays that employed constructs harboring deletions within the eicp0 promoter indicated that eicp0 cis-acting sequences within bp -224 to -158 relative to the first atg abolished the eicp0 protein's trans-activation of its own promoter. when inserted into the promoters of other ehv-1 gene ...200415479811
evolution of equine infection control programs.the science of control of infectious diseases in hospitals was born in 1847 when semmelweis, a physician, ordered his medical students to scrub their hands in chlorinated lime water between patients and demonstrated that this simple procedure resulted ina dramatic decline in patient morbidity and mortality. in the late nineteenth century came huge breakthroughs in the understanding that microorganisms cause many disorders, and methods to eliminate and control these microorganisms were attempted. ...200415519815
equine herpesvirus 1 and 4.equine herpesvirus infections in horses remain a significant cause of abortion and neurologic disease. these viruses are also responsible for mild signs of respiratory disease. the ability to establish latent infections with periodic reactivation or transmission to other horses is an important feature of these herpesviruses. one of the most unique aspects of this report is the description of horses demonstrating neurologic signs serving as the source of infection for other horses. accurate diagn ...200415519823
growth and virulence alterations of equine herpesvirus 1 by insertion of a green fluorescent protein gene in the intergenic region between orfs 62 and 63.nucleotide sequences of the intergenic region between orf 62 and orf 63 of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) isolates were analyzed. the sequences of this region consisted of variable and conserved domains among ehv-1 isolates. an ehv-1 mutant, ab4-gfp, was constructed by inserting a green fluorescent protein (gfp) expression cassette flanked by lox p at both ends into the intergenic region between orf 62 and orf 63. another mutant, ab4-loxp, which contains one lox p site, was constructed by excision ...200415557741
in vitro and in vivo relevance of infectious laryngotracheitis virus gj proteins that are expressed from spliced and nonspliced mrnas.the positional homologue in the infectious laryngotracheitis virus (iltv) genome of the glycoprotein gj gene of herpes simplex virus and the gp2 gene of equine herpesvirus 1 is expressed into four proteins of 85, 115, 160, and 200 kda (j. veits, b. kollner, j. p. teifke, h. granzow, t. c. mettenleiter, and w. fuchs, avian dis. 47:330-342, 2003). rna analyses revealed that these proteins are expressed from two different late (gamma2) transcripts, an unspliced 5.5-kb and a spliced 4.3-kb mrna that ...200515613298
equine herpesvirus-1 infection induces ifn-gamma production by equine t lymphocyte subsets.a commercial bovine ifn-gamma-specific monoclonal antibody was used to measure antigen-specific ifn-gamma production by equine lymphocytes. paired pbmc samples were collected from six ponies prior to and 10 days after challenge infection with equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1). each sample was stimulated in vitro with ehv-1, virus-free medium, or pma and ionomycin, and labelled with monoclonal antibodies specific for various equine lymphocyte subset markers. following fixation, intracellular ifn-gamma ...200515621307
association between respiratory disease and bacterial and viral infections in british racehorses.respiratory disease is important in horses, particularly in young thoroughbred racehorses, and inflammation that is detected in the trachea and bronchi (termed inflammatory airway disease [iad]) is more significant in this population in terms of impact and frequency than other presentations of respiratory disease. iad, which is characterized by neutrophilic inflammation, mild clinical signs, and accumulation of mucus in the trachea, may be multifactorial, possibly involving infections and enviro ...200515634959
identification of another b-cell epitope in the type-specific region of equine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein g.recently, a novel 12-mer b-cell epitope, mknnpiysegsl, in the type-specific region of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein g (gg) was identified and used as an antigen for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (maeda et al., j. clin. microbiol. 42:1095-1098, 2004). although our prototype strain, th20p, possesses two repeat sequences containing the b-cell epitope, the ehv-4 ns80567 strain has two repeat sequences that are not identical. one repeat sequence stretch contained the b-cell epitope, w ...200515642995
isolation and partial characterization of equine herpesvirus type 1 in czechia.equine herpesvirus type 1 was determined as the etiological cause of an abortion storm in czechia in 2003 after the virus strain was isolated from aborted fetus and identified by serological means and by pcr technique. cloning and sequencing of the glycoprotein d confirmed the identity of the isolates and showed molecular relationships to known ehv-1 strains. comparison of glycoprotein d sequences with corresponding sequence of ehv-1 reference strains (kentucky-a and ab1) revealed high nucleotid ...200415702554
the eicp27 protein of equine herpesvirus 1 is recruited to viral promoters by its interaction with the immediate-early protein.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) eicp27 protein cooperates with either the immediate-early (ie) or the eicp0 protein to synergistically trans-activate viral promoters. gst-pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the eicp27 protein's cooperation with the ie or the eicp0 protein involves its physical interaction with these viral proteins. in the case of the ie-eicp27 protein interaction, ie residues 424 to 826 and eicp27 residues 41 to 206 harbor the interactive domains. electroph ...200515708594
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