detection of equine herpesvirus types 2 and 5 (ehv-2 and ehv-5) in przewalski's wild blood samples of seven captive equid species from four german zoos ehv-1 specific antibodies were detected in 76% and ehv-4 specific antibodies in 73% of the 55 animals, whereas 93% were tested positive for ehv-2 and ehv-5, respectively. in only one blood sample from a przewalski's wild horse ehv-4 dna was amplified by pcr. from seven przewalski's wild horses ehv-2, and from another one ehv-5 was isolated by cocultivation. the identity of the virus isolates was verified by pcr and restriction ...199910365167
equine herpesvirus 1 gene 12 can substitute for vmw65 in the growth of herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1, allowing the generation of optimized cell lines for the propagation of hsv vectors with multiple immediate-early gene defects.herpes simplex virus (hsv) has often been suggested for development as a vector, particularly for the nervous system. considerable evidence has shown that for use of hsv as a vector, immediate-early (ie) gene expression must be minimized or abolished, otherwise such vectors are likely to be highly cytotoxic. mutations of vmw65 which abolish ie promoter transactivating activity may also be included to reduce ie gene expression generally. however, when vmw65 mutations are combined with an ie gene ...199910438830
comparison of the pathogenesis of acute equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection in the horse and the mouse model: a review.the mouse models of the respiratory and abortion forms of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection have been used to investigate the vaccine potential of various ehv-1 immunogens, the effect of antiviral agents on ehv-1 infection and the pathogenicity of ehv-1 strain variants and deletion or insertional mutants. this review examines the similarities and differences in the pathogenesis of primary ehv-1 infection in the natural host, the horse, and in the mouse by comparing tissue tropism, clinical ...199910501157
epidemiological studies of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) in thoroughbred foals: a review of studies conducted in the hunter valley of new south wales between 1995 and 1997.sero-epidemiological studies conducted between 1995 and 1997 on two large thoroughbred stud farms in the hunter valley of nsw showed clear evidence of ehv-1 infection in foals as young as 30 days of age. similarly, serological evidence suggested that these foals were infected with ehv-1 from their dams or from other lactating mares in the group, with subsequent foal to foal spread of infection prior to weaning. these studies also provided evidence of ehv-1 infection of foals at and subsequent to ...199910501158
epidemiology of ehv-1 and ehv-4 in the mare and foal populations on a hunter valley stud farm: are mares the source of ehv-1 for unweaned foals.the prevalence of ehv-1 and ehv-4 antibody-positive horses was determined using a type specific elisa on serum samples collected from 229 mares and their foals resident on a large thoroughbred stud farm in the hunter valley of new south wales in february 1995. more than 99% of all mares and foals tested were ehv-4 antibody positive, while the prevalence of ehv-1 antibody positive mares and foals were 26.2 and 11.4%, respectively. examination of the elisa absorbance data for the individual mares ...199910501159
potential of dna-mediated vaccination for equine herpesvirus 1.the potential of dna-mediated immunisation to protect against equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) disease was assessed in a murine model of ehv-1 respiratory infection. intramuscular injection with dna encoding the ehv-1 envelope glycoprotein d (gd) in a mammalian expression vector induced a specific antibody response detectable by two weeks and maintained through 23 weeks post injection. immune responses were proportional to the dose of dna and a second injection markedly enhanced the antibody respons ...199910501160
characteristics of glycoprotein b of equine herpesvirus 1 expressed by a recombinant baculovirus.a recombinant baculovirus (bac-egb) containing the complete open reading frame of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein b (ehv-1 gb) expressed recombinant products of 107-133 kda, 58-75 kda and 53-57 kda, corresponding to ehv-1 gb precursor, large and small subunits respectively. high molecular mass products (>200 kda) in the bac-egb infected insect cells were consistent with oligomerisation of the recombinant ehv-1 gb products, and analysis with tunicamycin and endoglycosidases indicated that the b ...199910501161
clinical, haematological and biochemical findings in foals with neonatal equine herpesvirus-1 infection compared with septic and premature foals.a retrospective multicentre study comparing historical, clinical, haematological, acid-base and biochemical findings of foals with equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection, septicaemia or prematurity was performed to determine if early diagnosis of ehv-1 foals was possible. fifty-three foals were studied and were assigned to one of 2 groups: herpes positive (n = 14) or herpes negative (n = 39). the latter group included 20 septic, 11 premature, and 8 premature and septic foals. the presence of her ...199910505959
[mutations in the us2 and glycoprotein b genes of the equine herpesvirus 1 vaccine strain rach have no effects on its attenuation].the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) modified live vaccine strain rach is apathogenic for both laboratory animals and the natural host. the apathogenicity of rach was caused by serial passages of the virus in heterologous cells. when compared to the virulent parental strain racl11 several changes in the rach genome occurred. previous results have shown that the loss of the ir6 gene correlated with the loss of virulence. additional important mutations were observed within the us2 gene which is direct ...199910507185
determination of equid herpesvirus 1-specific, cd8+, cytotoxic t lymphocyte precursor frequencies in ponies.the frequency of antigen-specific, genetically restricted cytotoxic t lymphocyte precursors (ctlp) was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) of ponies before and after infection with equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv1). split-well limiting dilution analysis (lda) was developed to measure ctlp frequency using ehv1-infected 51cr-labelled lymphoblasts as targets. extensive characterisation showed that recombinant human interleukin-2, autologous antigen presenting cells and equine serum conta ...199910507286
equine herpes virus type 1 (ehv-1) infection induces alterations in the cytoskeleton of vero cells but not apoptosis.effects of infection with two different strains of equine herpes virus type 1 (ehv-1; piber 178/83, kentucky d) on the cytoskeleton of vero cells were investigated immunohistochemically, and evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. twenty four hours post ehv-1 infection the assembly of the microtubulus system of vero cells was heavily disturbed. the golgi region was dispersed into vesicles spread throughout the cytoplasm as demonstrated by wga lectin binding. other cytoskeletal elements ...199910542029
the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein g homologue of equine herpesvirus 3 (ehv3) indicates ehv3 is a distinct equid alphaherpesvirus.ehv3 causes equine coital exanthema and has been classified as an alphaherpesvirus on the basis of its biological properties; however due to the absence of any sequence information the phylogenetic relationship has not previously been examined. the complete nucleotide sequence of the ehv3 glycoprotein g (gg) gene was determined and showed that this virus is most closely related to the alphaherpesviruses equine herpesviruses type 1 (ehv 1) and type 4 (ehv4). ehv3 gg contains conserved and variabl ...199910550674
truncation of the c-terminal acidic transcriptional activation domain of herpes simplex virus vp16 renders expression of the immediate-early genes almost entirely dependent on icp0.the herpes simplex virus (hsv) proteins vp16 and icp0 play key roles in stimulating the onset of the viral lytic cycle. we sought to explore the regulatory links between these proteins by studying the phenotypes of viral mutants in which the activation functions of both were simultaneously inactivated. this analysis unexpectedly revealed that truncation of the c-terminal transcriptional activation domain of vp16 (allele v422) in an icp0-deficient background almost completely eliminated immediate ...199910559282
induction and prevention of apoptosis in human hep-2 cells by herpes simplex virus type 1.cultured human epithelial cells infected with an icp27 deletion strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) show characteristic features of apoptotic cells including cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, and dna fragmentation. these cells do not show such apoptotic features when infected with a wild-type virus unless the infections are performed in the presence of a protein synthesis inhibitor. thus, both types of virus induce apoptosis, but the icp27-null virus is unable to prevent this proce ...199910559354
characterization of the transactivation domain of the equine herpesvirus type 1 immediate-early protein.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) possesses a sole diploid immediate early gene (ie) that encodes a major regulatory protein of 1487 amino acids capable of modulating gene expression from both early and late promoters and also of trans-repressing its own promoter. using a series of gal-4-ie fusion constructs, we previously demonstrated that the minimal transactivation domain (tad) of the ie protein maps within amino acids 3-89. additional studies revealed that that the carboxyl terminus of the i ...199910581386
the disappearance of cyclins a and b and the increase in activity of the g(2)/m-phase cellular kinase cdc2 in herpes simplex virus 1-infected cells require expression of the alpha22/u(s)1.5 and u(l)13 viral uninfected cells the g(2)/m transition is regulated by cyclin kinase complex containing cdc2 and, initially, cyclin a, followed by cyclin b. cdc2 is downregulated through phosphorylation by wee-1 and myt-1 and upregulated by cdc-25c phosphatase. we have examined the accumulation and activities of these proteins in cells infected with wild type and mutants of herpes simplex virus 1. the results were as follows. (i) cyclin a and b levels were reduced beginning 4 h after infection and were undet ...200010590085
[rhinopneumonia or mycotoxin intoxication? neurologic phenomena in horses from a riding school].in the course of several days most of the 40 riding-school horses turned out in paddocks developed ataxia of variable severity. five of these horses showed severe ataxia and tremors, became paralyzed and were euthanized. eleven privately-owned horses which were stabled on the same premises showed no clinical signs. the most likely diagnosis seemed to be the 'neurological form of ehv1', although the signs were not entirely typical. a few weeks later a second outbreak occurred among the riding-sch ...199910596400
use of apathogenic vaccinia virus mva expressing ehv-1 gc as basis of a combined recombinant mva/dna vaccination scheme.the nonreplicating chicken adapted vaccinia virus strain mva was used in a combined vaccine scheme. using the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) encoded complement-receptor glycoprotein c as antigen, only poor antibody response was induced by exclusive vaccination with dna plasmids. the administration of recombinant mva followed by plasmid immunization elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses in hamster comparable to ehv-1 full virus vaccines. our results indicate that recombinant cons ...200010618528
a prime-boost immunization strategy with dna and recombinant baculovirus-expressed protein enhances protective immunogenicity of glycoprotein d of equine herpesvirus 1 in naïve and infection-primed mice.the immunogenicity and protective efficacy afforded by intramuscular inoculation of plasmid dna encoding equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein d (gd) followed by ehv-1 gd expressed by a recombinant baculovirus was assessed in a murine model of ehv-1 respiratory infection. compared with mice inoculated with dna or protein only, mice inoculated with the combination of gd dna and protein had enhanced elisa and neutralizing antibody titres to ehv-1 and had accelerated clearance of virus from lun ...200010618534
characterization of the trans-activation properties of equine herpesvirus 1 eicp0 protein.the eicp0 protein of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is an early, viral regulatory protein that independently trans-activates ehv-1 immediate-early (ie), early, gamma1 late, and gamma2 late promoters. to assess whether this powerful trans-activator functions in conjunction with three other ehv-1 regulatory proteins to activate expression of the various classes of viral promoters, transient cotransfection assays were performed in which effector plasmids expressing the eicp22, eicp27, and ie proteins ...200010627530
the eicp22 protein of equine herpesvirus 1 physically interacts with the immediate-early protein and with itself to form dimers and higher-order complexes.the eicp22 protein (eicp22p) of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is an early protein that functions synergistically with other ehv-1 regulatory proteins to transactivate the expression of early and late viral genes. we have previously identified eicp22p as an accessory regulatory protein that has the ability to enhance the transactivating properties and the sequence-specific dna-binding activity of the ehv-1 immediate-early protein (iep). in the present study, we identify eicp22p as a self-associati ...200010627553
the ends on herpesvirus dna replicative concatemers contain pac2 cis cleavage/packaging elements and their formation is controlled by terminal cis sequences.herpesviruses have large double-stranded linear dna genomes that are formed by site-specific cleavage from complex concatemeric intermediates. in this process, only one of the two genomic ends are formed on the concatemer. although the mechanism underlying this asymmetry is not known, one explanation is that single genomes are cleaved off of concatemer ends in a preferred direction. this implies that cis elements control the direction of packaging. two highly conserved cis elements named pac1 an ...200010627574
equid herpesvirus-induced immunosuppression is associated with lymphoid cells and not soluble circulating factors.a paresis isolate of equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv1, ab4/8) and a plaque-purified virus derived from it (ehv1, ab4/13), induced long-term suppression of both mitogenic and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferations in adult outbred ponies. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) taken from a pony after ehv1 infection suppressed the in vitro function of normal cells but serum did not. this showed that the observed immune suppression was associated with circulating pbmc and/or their products rather t ...199910630790
replication of equine herpesvirus type 1 in freshly isolated equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and changes in susceptibility following mitogen the present study, the outcome of an inoculation of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) with equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was studied in vitro. cytoplasmic and plasma membrane expression of viral antigens, intra- and extracellular virus titres, and plaque formation in co-culture were determined. ehv-1 replicated in monocytes, although in a highly restricted way. viral antigens were found at maximum levels (8.7% of the monocytes) at 12 h post-infection. the infection was prod ...200010640538
development and validation of a monoclonal antibody blocking elisa for the detection of antibodies against both equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv1) and equine herpesvirus type 4 (ehv4).a monoclonal antibody blocking elisa was developed for the detection of antibodies directed against either ehv1 or ehv4. for this purpose, we selected a monoclonal antibody directed against a cross-reactive, conservative and immunodominant epitope of both ehv1 and ehv4. high antibody titres were found in rabbit antisera and spf-foal antisera infected with either ehv1 or ehv4. after experimental challenge of conventional horses with ehv1 or ehv4 significant increases in cf and elisa titres were f ...200010665532
expression of two related viral early genes in epstein-barr virus-associated tumors.the transcription of two early "leftwardly" expressed genes carrying repetitive sequences, ir2 and ir4, has been studied for epstein-barr virus-associated tumors, and for established b-cell lines, using sequence-specific probes generated for this purpose. whereas the ir4 transcript was identified in every tumor and cell line assessed (except b95-8, with a deletion that removes the gene), expression of the ir2 gene was restricted to b lymphocytes. though the promoters for both transcripts lie wit ...200010684296
non-essential loci in the bamhi-i and -f fragments of the hvt fc126 genome.the sequence of bamhi-i fragment of the herpesvirus of turkeys (hvt) fc126 strain dna was analyzed for the presence of potential open reading frames (orfs). four complete (orfs 2 to 5) and 2 partial orfs (orfs 1 and 6) were detected. orfs 2 and 3 were homologous to the hsv-1 ul55 and the ehv-1 gene 3, respectively. the orf 6 was already partially sequenced by smith et al. (virology 207, 205-216, 1995), and was homologous to a marek's disease virus (mdv) orf located in a similar position (orf 21; ...199910696442
quantitation of virus-specific classes of antibodies following immunization of mice with attenuated equine herpesvirus 1 and viral glycoprotein d.the antibody responses of cba/j mice infected intranasally (i.n.) with either the attenuated kya strain or the pathogenic racl11 strain of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) or immunized with recombinant glycoprotein d (rgd) were investigated using the elispot assay to measure ehv-1-specific antibody-secreting cells (asc) in the regional lymphoid tissue of the respiratory tract. igg, iga, and igm asc specific for ehv-1 were detected in the mediastinal lymph nodes (mln) and lungs 2 weeks after i.n. inf ...200010704356
shivering in a thoroughbred 11-year-old mare presented with neuromuscular deficits and what resembled shivering in the left hind limb. on necropsy, there was no evidence of denervation atrophy of the left hind gastrocnemius muscle. the spinal cord had a small, right-sided lesion at c3-c4 and c4-c5. tests for equine herpesvirus-1 and sarcocystis spp. were negative.200010723600
[relevance of infection with equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) in a german thoroughbred stud: vaccination, abortion and diagnosis].the aim of the present study was to clarify whether an ehv-1 induced abortion can be prognosticated by an increase of antibody titres, virus shedding and/or viraemia and whether the current abortion diagnostic is suitable. in this context the immune response post immunization and a possible reactivation were of great interest. for this purpose blood samples of 32 mares between the ages of 5-21 years were regularly investigated during a period of two years before and after vaccination and pregnan ...200010726362
equine immunity to viruses.the identification of some of the adaptive immune responses to infection with equine viruses has been the first step toward rational immunoprophylactic design. sufficient knowledge of infection-induced immunity and informed estimates of the requirements for long-term immunity for eiv have now been obtained. thus, the future for inactivated eiv vaccines is promising now that new adjuvants have been applied to induce cellular immunity and safe methods have been designed to stimulate virus-neutrali ...200010752138
ataxia and paresis with equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in a herd of riding school outbreak of neurologic disease associated with serologic evidence of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection occurred in a herd of 46 riding school horses. ataxia and paresis were observed in 14 geldings and 5 barren mares. eight affected horses had distal limb edema, 1 horse had a head tilt, and 3 others had urinary incontinence. other clinical signs included fever, depression, and inappetance in 30 horses. seven horses with neurologic signs were treated with acyclovir. serum neutralizin ...200010772493
efficacy of an inactivated vaccine for equine herpesvirus type 1 in a novel hamster model.a vaccine designated f.ehv1(s(-))bhk, which was prepared by formaldehyde treatment of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv1)-infected baby hamster kidney cells, stimulated neutralising antibodies in hamsters and rabbits and protected new-born hamsters against a lethal challenge with ehv1 by vaccination of their pregnant mothers. the preparative method was then modified to eliminate virus particles and intraparticulate dna, producing a vaccine designated bg.f.ehv1(s(-))bhk. this modification stimulated ...200010773735
an equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) abortion storm at a riding outbreak of ehv1 abortions occurred at a riding school in the netherlands in 1991. seven of twelve pregnant mares aborted, and another foal died at 8 days of age. six abortions occurred within 12 days in march after an initial abortion on 8 february. four mares delivered live foals. virological examination of four aborted foals revealed an ehv1 infection. serological results for paired sera from 17 horses suggested, that the initial abortion on 8 february was the index case, and probably caus ...200010789515
differentiation and genomic and antigenic variation among fetal, respiratory, and neurological isolates from ehv1 and ehv4 infections in the netherlands.ten monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced against equine herpes virus type 1 (ehv1). two appeared type-specific, while the other eight were directed against epitopes common to both ehv1 and ehv4. two mabs directed against the glycoprotein gp2 recognized linear epitopes, as demonstrated by western blotting. with pools of type-specific mabs, 282 field isolates were typed in an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (ipma). from a total of 254 fetal or neonatal isolates, 244 (96%) were typed as ehv1 ...200010789516
virulence of the v592 isolate of equid herpesvirus-1 in ponies.the v592 strain of equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), which was originally isolated from a fetus during an abortion epizootic, has proved to be of low virulence in infection studies. five welsh mountain pony mares and one foal were challenged intranasally or by aerosol with this isolate, and monitored clinically and virologically. all six animals shed virus in nasopharyngeal mucus, and viraemia was recorded from day 7 post-infection (pi). pathological investigations revealed mild rhinitis and bronchio ...200010805982
incidence of equine herpesvirus 1 infection in thoroughbred weanlings on two stud farms. 200010840577
pseudorabies virus glycoprotein m inhibits membrane fusion.a transient transfection-fusion assay was established to investigate membrane fusion mediated by pseudorabies virus (prv) glycoproteins. plasmids expressing prv glycoproteins under control of the immediate-early 1 promoter-enhancer of human cytomegalovirus were transfected into rabbit kidney cells, and the extent of cell fusion was quantitated 27 to 42 h after transfection. cotransfection of plasmids encoding prv glycoproteins b (gb), gd, gh, and gl resulted in formation of polykaryocytes, as ha ...200010888614
equid herpesvirus 1: platelets and alveolar macrophages are potential sources of activated tgf-b1 in the horse.cell mediated responses to equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) are of short duration in vivo and require considerable expansion to be detected in vitro. raised serum levels of active transforming growth factor b (tgf-b1) have been shown to depress proliferative t cell responses in experimental infections with ehv-1 in ponies. the present work indicates that latent transforming growth factor b (tgf-b1) is present in circulating platelets, lymph node, bronchial epithelium and alveolar macrophages. activat ...200010889300
a rapid and sensitive pcr-based diagnostic assay to detect bovine herpesvirus 1 in routine diagnostic submissions.we describe a rapid, sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay for the detection of bhv1 dna in a range of routine diagnostic submissions without the need for prior virus isolation. the assay, which is based on the selected amplification of a portion of the viral tk gene, detected both bhv1.1 and bhv1.2 subtypes in a panel of 15 characterised field isolates, and its sensitivity was estimated to be <0.125 tcid(50). bhv2, alcephaline herpesvirus, bhv4, equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1 ...200010889405
the catalytic subunit of herpes simplex virus type 1 dna polymerase contains a nuclear localization signal in the ul42-binding region.the herpes simplex virus type 1 dna polymerase consists of a catalytic subunit (pol or ul30) and a processivity factor (ul42). the pol/ul42 interaction, which occurs through the extreme c-terminus of pol, is essential for hsv-1 replication and thus represents a valid target for drug inhibition. we recently showed (a. loregian et al. (1999) proc. natl. acad. sci. usa 96, 5221-5226) that an oligopeptide corresponding to the 27 c-terminal amino acids of pol, when delivered into herpes simplex virus ...200010891416
development of a differential multiplex pcr assay for equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 as a diagnostic this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) procedure was developed for differentiation of strains and field isolates of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and type 4 (ehv-4). specific oli-gonucleotide primers were combined to amplify the thymidine kinase (tk) gene region of ehv-1 and ehv-4, which would yield fragments of different lengths for each virus in the same amplification reaction. the specificity of the largest pcr amplicon for ehv-4 was confirmed by restriction digestion ...200010900826
utilisation of bacteriophage display libraries to identify peptide sequences recognised by equine herpesvirus type 1 specific equine sera.three filamentous phage random peptide display libraries were used in biopanning experiments with purified igg from the serum of a gnotobiotic foal infected with equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) to enrich for epitopes binding to anti-ehv-1 antibodies. the sequences of the amino acids displayed were aligned with protein sequences of ehv-1, thereby identifying a number of potential antibody binding regions. presumptive epitopes were identified within the proteins encoded by genes 7 (dna helicase/prima ...200010921846
application of a type-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for equine herpesvirus types 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and -4) to horse populations inoculated with inactivated ehv-1 vaccine.a type-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using equine herpesvirus types 1 (ehv-1) and 4 (ehv-4) glycoprotein g was applied for sero-epizootiology of ehv infections in japan. recently, an inactivated ehv-1 vaccine has been administered to racehorses for prevention of upper respiratory disease. to examine the effect of the vaccination on the result of the elisa, 6 horses were experimentally inoculated three times intramuscularly or intranasally with inactivated ehv-1 vaccine. sera ...200010945284
equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein d dna inoculation in horses with pre-existing ehv-1/ehv-4 antibody.we have shown previously that equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein d (gd) dna elicited protective immune responses against ehv-1 challenge in murine respiratory and abortion models of ehv-1 disease. in this study, 20 horses, all with pre-existing antibody to ehv-4 and two with pre-existing antibody to ehv-1, were inoculated intramuscularly with three doses each of 50, 200 or 500microg ehv-1 gd dna or with 500microg vector dna. in 8 of 15 horses, inoculation with ehv-1 gd dna led to elevated ...200010946142
immunization of balb/c mice with dna encoding equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein d affords partial protection in a model of ehv-1-induced abortion.dna-mediated immunization was assessed in a murine model of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) abortion. whilst there are differences between the model and natural infection in the horse, literature suggests that ehv-1 infection of pregnant mice can be used to assess the potential ability of vaccine candidates to protect against abortion. female balb/c mice were inoculated twice, 4 weeks apart, with an expression vector encoding ehv-1 glycoprotein d (gd dna). they were mated 15 days after the second i ...200010973696
severe murine lung immunopathology elicited by the pathogenic equine herpesvirus 1 strain racl11 correlates with early production of macrophage inflammatory proteins 1alpha, 1beta, and 2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha.the cba mouse model was used to investigate the immunopathology induced in the lung by the pathogenic equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strain racl11 in comparison to infection with the attenuated vaccine candidate strain kya. intranasal infection with kya resulted in almost no inflammatory infiltration in the lung. in contrast, infection with the pathogenic racl11 strain induced a severe alveolar and interstitial inflammation, consisting primarily of lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. infect ...200011024132
differences in determinants required for complex formation and transactivation in related vp16 proteins.vp16-h is an essential structural protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and is also a potent activator of virus immediate-early (ie) gene expression. current models of functional determinants within vp16-h indicate that it consists of two domains, an n-terminal domain involved in recruiting vp16-h to a multicomponent dna binding complex with two host proteins, oct-1 and host cell factor (hcf), and an acidic c-terminal domain exclusively involved in transactivation. vp16-e, from equine h ...200011024140
demonstration of equine herpesvirus-1 gene expression in the placental trophoblasts of naturally aborted equine fetuses.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection was demonstrated in the lung tissue of seven aborted fetuses by immunohistochemical labelling and polymerase chain reaction. the placentas of the fetuses were also examined by non-isotopic in-situ hybridization for the ehv-1 glycoprotein b (gb) gene. positive hybridization signals were observed in the cytoplasm of trophoblasts, especially in microcotyledons, of all seven placentas, and in villous epithelium of the allantochorion of six placentas. despite th ...200011032664
prevalence of equine herpesvirus type 1 latency detected by polymerase chain this study, an improved polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used for detection of dna of latent ehv-1 strains from several sources. three pairs of oligonucleotide primers spanning fragments of 333 bp, 226 bp and 268 bp of the thymidine kinase (tk) gene, and one primer pair spanning 225 bp of the glycoprotein c (gc) gene were used in specific amplifications. primers for ehv-4 pcr were also designed. restriction digests with taqi confirmed the identity of tk pcr fragments from ehv-1. the sensit ...200011043940
fatal nonneurological ehv-1 infection in a yearling filly.a case of fatal nonneurological equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection in a yearling filly is described. gross lesions included extensive pulmonary edema, prominent laryngeal lymphoid follicles, and congestion and edema of the dorsal third ventricle choroid plexus. histologically, there was vasculitis, hemorrhage, and edema in the lungs and dorsal third ventricle choroid plexus as well as mild intestinal crypt necrosis with occasional intranuclear inclusion bodies. the perivascular and vascular ...200011105961
solid matrix-antibody-antigen complexes incorporating equine herpesvirus 1 glycoproteins c and d elicit anti-viral immune responses in balb/c (h-2k(d)) and c3h (h-2k(k)) mice.glycoproteins c and d (gc and gd) derived from equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1)-infected cells were incorporated into individual solid matrix-antibody-antigen (smaa) complexes and administered to balb/c (h-2k(d)) and c3h (h-2k(k)) mice. antibodies against each of the glycoproteins were produced that neutralised virus infectivity and mediated the lysis of ehv-1-infected target cells in the presence of complement. immunoglobulin (ig)g2b was the predominant antibody isotype produced in balb/c mice agai ...200011115713
equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein m: effect of deletions of transmembrane domains.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) recombinants that carry either a deletion of glycoprotein m (gm) or express mutant forms of gm were constructed. the recombinants were derived from strain kentucky a (kya), which also lacks genes encoding ge and gi. plaques on rk13 cells induced by the gm-negative kya were reduced in size by 80%, but plaque sizes were restored to wild-type levels on gm-expressing cells. electron microscopic studies revealed a massive defect in virus release after the deletion of gm i ...200011118370
the equine herpesvirus 1 immediate-early protein interacts with eap, a nucleolar-ribosomal protein.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) immediate-early (ie) phosphoprotein is essential for the activation of transcription from viral early and late promoters and regulates transcription from its own promoter. the ie protein of 1487 amino acids contains a serine-rich tract (srt) between residues 181 and 220. deletion of the srt decreased transactivation activity of the ie protein. previous results from investigation of the icp4 protein, the ie homolog of herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1), revealed that ...200111145900
the equine herpesvirus 1 ul45 homolog encodes a glycosylated type ii transmembrane protein and is involved in virus egress.experiments to analyze the product of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) ul45 homolog were conducted. using an antiserum generated against the carboxylterminal 114 amino acids of the ehv-1 ul45 protein, proteins of m(r) 32,000, 40,000, and 43,000 were detected specifically in ehv-1-infected cells. neither form of the protein was located in purified virions of ehv-1 wild-type strain racl22 or the modified live vaccine strain rach, but ul45 was demonstrated to be expressed as a late (gamma-2) p ...200111145911
rapid acquisition of entire dna polymerase gene of a novel herpesvirus from green turtle fibropapilloma by a genomic walking technique.a 4837-bp sequence of a newfound green turtle herpesvirus (gthv), implicated in the etiology of green turtle fibropapilloma, was obtained from tumor tissues of a green turtle with fibropapilloma using a genomic walking method based on restriction enzyme digestion, self-ligation and inverse polymerase chain reaction (ipcr). the 4837-bp sequence was 56.23% g/c rich and contained three nonoverlapping open reading frames (orf). the largest orf (3507-bp) encoded the dna polymerase gene (pol gene), wh ...200111164500
characterisation of ie and ul5 gene products of equine herpesvirus 1 using dna inoculation of mice.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strain hvs25a regulatory genes ie and ul5, encoding homologues of herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) icp4 and icp27 respectively, were cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector and the dna injected intramuscularly into mice. antibodies produced in this way detected the ie or ul5 gene products as diffuse material in nuclei of rk13 cells transfected with the individual genes but as discrete punctate or large aggregates in rk13 cells infected with ehv-1. western blotti ...200011205113
ehv-1 glycoprotein d (ehv-1 gd) is required for virus entry and cell-cell fusion, and an ehv-1 gd deletion mutant induces a protective immune response in mice.insertional mutagenesis was used to construct an equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) mutant in which the open reading frame for glycoprotein d was replaced by a lacz cassette. this gd deletion mutant (delta gd ehv-1) was unable to infect normally permissive rk cells in culture, but could be propagated in an ehv-1 gd-expressing cell line (rk/gd). phenotypically complemented delta gd ehv-1 was able to infect rk cells, but did not spread to form syncytial plaques as seen with wild type ehv-1 or with delta ...200011205124
neurological signs in a horse due to metastases of an intestinal adenocarcinoma.a 22-year-old dutch warmblood mare was referred to utrecht university with progressive left hind limb paresis and hyporeflexia. the preliminary clinical diagnosis was the neurological form of equine herpes virus (ehv-1) infection. within 1 day of admission, the mare became recumbent and deteriorated rapidly. postmortem examination revealed an adenocarcinoma of the caecum, with metastases in all regional lymph nodes and extending from the lumbar nodes into the vertebral canal, causing spinal cord ...200111206003
egress of alphaherpesviruses: comparative ultrastructural study.egress of four important alphaherpesviruses, equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (iltv), and pseudorabies virus (prv), was investigated by electron microscopy of infected cell lines of different origins. in all virus-cell systems analyzed, similar observations were made concerning the different stages of virion morphogenesis. after intranuclear assembly, nucleocapsids bud at the inner leaflet of the nuclear membrane, resulting in ...200111264357
equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in a 14-year-old quarter horse stallion.a 14-year-old, quarter horse stallion was presented in lateral recumbency, unable to rise. equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy was diagnosed, based on presentation, clinical signs, and the ruling out of other possibilities. after initial rapid improvements, ataxia remained, as did chronic cystitis secondary to bladder paralysis. he was euthanized after 2 months.200111265193
infection of endothelial cells with equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) occurs where there is activation of putative adhesion molecules: a mechanism for transfer of virus.evidence is presented to show that activation of endothelial and leucoyte adhesion molecules is a key step in transferring virus from infected leucocytes; and determines the restricted tissue tropism. a range of tissues from 2 experimentally infected mares in late pregnancy at 4 and 8 days after infection with ehv-1 were compared with those from normal pregnant and nonpregnant mares. rabbit antisera to equine activated endothelial cell molecules were used to identify which tissues expressed thes ...200111266062
neurological disease associated with ehv-1-infection in a riding school: clinical and virological outbreak of neurological disease caused by ehv-1 infection is described with emphasis on diagnosis and prognosis for recumbent horses. in april 1995, an outbreak of the neurological form of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) occurred in a well-managed riding school with 41 horses: 34 horses showed a temperature spike and 20 some degree of neurological signs, of which 10 were nursed intensively in the indoor arena of the riding school for 3 to 20 days, 8 having to be maintained in slings for 2- ...200111266070
multiple immediate-early gene-deficient herpes simplex virus vectors allowing efficient gene delivery to neurons in culture and widespread gene delivery to the central nervous system in vivo.herpes simplex virus (hsv) has several potential advantages as a vector for delivering genes to the nervous system. the virus naturally infects and remains latent in neurons and has evolved the ability of highly efficient retrograde transport from the site of infection at the periphery to the site of latency in the spinal ganglia. hsv is a large virus, potentially allowing the insertion of multiple or very large transgenes. furthermore, hsv does not integrate into the host chromosome, removing a ...200111287583
herpes simplex inhibits the capacity of lymphoblastoid b cell lines to stimulate cd4+ t cells.hsv establish a lifelong persistent infection in their host even among immunocompetent persons. the viruses use a variety of immune evasion strategies, presumably to assist persistent replication in the human host. we have observed that infection of human b lymphoblastoid cells (b-lcl) by hsv resulted in a strong inhibition of their ability to induce cd4(+) t cell clone proliferation and cytokine secretion. this inhibitory effect occurs in a variety of both hsv- and hiv-specific clones from thre ...200111342647
deletion of gene 52 encoding glycoprotein m of equine herpesvirus type 1 strain rach results in increased immunogenicity.the immunogenicity of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) strain rach was compared to a rach virus in which gene 52 encoding glycoprotein m (gm) was interrupted by insertion of lacz (hdeltagm-ins) and a rach with 75% of gene 52 was deleted and replaced by lacz (hdeltagm-hs). hdeltagm-ins failed to produce full-length gm, but the carboxy-terminal portion was still expressed. no gm expression was detected in hdeltagm-hs-infected cells. mice were immunised once with 1x10(3) to 1x10(5) plaque-forming ...200111390105
molecular characterizations of the equine herpesvirus 1 etif promoter region and translation initiation site.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) homolog of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) tegument phosphoprotein, alphatif (vmw65; vp16), was identified previously as the product of open reading frame 12 (orf12), was shown to trans-activate immediate-early (ie) gene promoters, and was described as a 60-kda virion component designated etif. however, the etif promoter region and transcription initiation site were not identified. the poly(a) signal of the gene 11 (ul49 homolog) lies just upstream of the ...200111448176
clinical and virological evaluation of the efficacy of an inactivated ehv1 and ehv4 whole virus vaccine (duvaxyn ehv1,4). vaccination/challenge experiments in foals and pregnant mares.pregnant mares and young foals were vaccinated with duvaxyn ehv1,4, an inactivated and adjuvanted vaccine containing both the ehv-1 and 4 antigens. sn and cf antibody titres were induced two weeks after first vaccination. antibody levels were boosted after second vaccination, however they never reached the levels induced after virus challenge. young foals were challenged with virulent ehv-1 and ehv-4 field viruses. pregnant mares were challenged with the highly abortigenic ehv-1 strain ab4. vacc ...200111457558
mitogen stimulation favours replication of equine herpesvirus-1 in equine blood mononuclear cells by inducing cell proliferation and formation of close intercellular the present study, equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1)-infected cells were identified in ionomycin/phorbol dibutyrate (iono/pdb)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) and the mechanism by which stimulation increases the percentage of infected cells was examined. in the population of viral antigen-positive pbmc, 38.4+/-4.5% were cd5(+) t-lymphocytes (18.1+/-3.2% cd4(+) 13.6+/-1.8% cd8(+)), 18.1+/-5.4% were b-lymphocytes, 8.5+/-3.9% were monocytes and 35% remained unidentified. the role ...200111458002
pulmonary vasculotropic ehv-1 infection in equids. 200111467487
a polymerase chain reaction for detection of equine herpesvirus-1 in routine diagnostic submissions of tissues from aborted foetuses.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is the causative agent of abortion, perinatal foal mortality, neurological and acute respiratory diseases in horses. conventional laboratory diagnosis involving viral isolation from aborted foetuses is laborious and lengthy and requires processing of samples within 24 h of collection, which is problematic for samples that come from long distances. the aim of this study was to develop a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay useful in argentina to detect dna sequences ...200111471844
equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein d expressed in pichia pastoris is hyperglycosylated and elicits a protective immune response in the mouse model of ehv-1 disease.equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein d (ehv-1 gd) has been shown in mouse models and in the natural host to have potential as a subunit vaccine, using various expression systems that included escherichia coli, baculovirus and plasmid dna. with the aim of producing secreted recombinant protein, we have cloned and expressed ehv-1 gd, lacking its native signal sequence and c-terminal transmembrane region, into the methylotrophic yeast pichia pastoris. the truncated glycoprotein d (gd) gene was placed ...200111551653
mapping the sequences that mediate interaction of the equine herpesvirus 1 immediate-early protein and human tfiib.the sole immediate-early (ie) gene of equine herpesvirus 1 encodes a 1,487-amino-acid (aa) regulatory phosphoprotein that independently activates expression of early viral genes. coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that the ie protein physically interacts with the general transcription factor tfiib. using a variety of protein-binding assays that employed a panel of ie truncation and deletion mutants expressed as in vitro-synthesized or glutathione s-transferase fusion proteins, we mapped a ...200111581390
identification of equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 by polymerase chain develop and validate specific, sensitive and rapid (< 8 hour) diagnostic tests using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the diagnosis of abortion and respiratory disease caused by equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1; equine abortion virus) and ehv4 (equine rhinopneumonitis virus).200111599819
u(s)3 protein kinase of herpes simplex virus 1 blocks caspase 3 activation induced by the products of u(s)1.5 and u(l)13 genes and modulates expression of transduced u(s)1.5 open reading frame in a cell type-specific manner.the coding domain of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) alpha22 gene encodes two proteins, the 420-amino-acid infected-cell protein 22 (icp22) and u(s)1.5, a protein colinear with the carboxyl-terminal domain of icp22. in hsv-1-infected cells, icp22 and u(s)1.5 are extensively modified by the u(l)13 and u(s)3 viral protein kinases. in this report, we show that in contrast to other viral proteins defined by their properties as alpha proteins, u(s)1.5 becomes detectable and accumulated only a ...200211752164
duration of immunity induced by an adjuvanted and inactivated equine influenza, tetanus and equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 combination adjuvanted vaccine containing inactivated equine influenza, herpesvirus antigens, and tetanus toxoid was administered to young seronegative foals of 8 months of age by deep intramuscular injection in the neck (group a). the first two vaccinations were given 4 weeks apart. the third was administered 6 months later. another group of foals (group b) was vaccinated according to the same scheme at the same time with monovalent equine herpes virus (ehv) vaccine (ehv1.4) vaccine. antibody responses ...200111765243
neutralizing and complement-fixing monoclonal antibodies as an aid to the diagnosis of equine herpesvirus-1 complement-fixing (c-mab) and three complement-dependent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (n-mabs) were raised against hisar-90-7 equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) strain. the target antigen of the c-mab (2a5) and two of the n-mabs (1h6, 9c4) was identified as a 140 kda polypeptide in western blotting. the target antigen of n-mab (9c6) could not be identified. purified polypeptides of five ehv-1 strains isolated from different regions and at different times gave intense bands at 140 kda when re ...200111767013
the mucosal humoral immune response of the horse to infective challenge and vaccination with equine herpesvirus-1 antigens.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) remains a frequent cause of upper respiratory tract infection and abortion in horses worldwide. however, little is known about the local antibody response elicited in the upper airways of horses following exposure to ehv-1. this study analysed the mucosal humoral immune response of weanling foals following experimental infection with virulent ehv-1, or vaccination with either of 2 commercial vaccines. twenty weanlings were assigned to 5 groups and were inoculated wit ...200111770985
sequence and genetic arrangement of the u(s) region of the monkey b virus (cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) genome and comparison with the u(s) regions of other primate herpesviruses.the sequence of the unique short (u(s)) region of monkey b virus (bv) was determined. the 13 genes identified are arranged in the same order and orientation as in herpes simplex virus (hsv). these results demonstrate that the bv u(s) region is entirely colinear with that of hsv type 1 (hsv-1), hsv-2, and simian agent 8 virus.200211773425
a study of the pathogenesis of equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) abortion by dna in-situ hybridization.the polymerase chain reaction and dna in-situ hybridization were used to study sections of uterine tissue collected from mares near the time of abortion due to equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection. these techniques revealed viral nucleic acids in endothelial cells of endometrial arterioles, in accordance with previously published immunohistological data. in addition, however, they revealed nucleic acids in cellular debris within endometrial glands and diffusing across the placenta at sites of m ...200111798247
vaccination of foals and pregnant mares with duvaxyn ehv1, 4 vaccine. 200211803056
synthesis and processing of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein d.previous studies (c. c. flowers and d. j. o'callaghan, 1992, virology 190, 307-315) employed peptide-specific antibodies to identify the product of the glycoprotein d (gd) gene of equine herpesvirus 1 strain kentucky a (kya). gd polypeptides of 55 and 58 kda were detected in ehv-1-infected l-m cells, and the 58-kda protein was observed in the membrane fraction of ehv-1 virions. in this report, the kinetics of synthesis and processing of gd polypeptides are described. one-hour pulse-labeling of e ...199511831735
polymorphism of open reading frame 71 of equine herpesvirus-4 (ehv-4) and reading frame (orf) 71 genes of both equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) and ehv-4 encode a unique glycoprotein, which has been described to vary in molecular mass from 200 to 450 kda. using pcr and nucleotide sequence analysis, it was shown that the orf 71 genes of ehv-1 and ehv-4 are polymorphic due to a variable number of reiterated sequences in two regions, designated regions a and b. region a was threonine-rich and was located near the n terminus. region b comprised a 38 amino acid repeat nea ...200211842247
identification and characterization of marek's disease virus serotype 1 (mdv1) icp22 gene product: mdv1 icp22 transactivates the mdv1 icp27 promoter synergistically with mdv1 icp4.a previous report [virus genes 6 (1992) 365-378] has shown that the us1 gene of marek's disease virus serotype 1 (mdv1) encodes a homologue of herpes simplex virus type 1 infected cell protein no. 22 (icp22). in the present study, we expressed and identified a product of the mdv1 us1 gene in chicken embryo fibroblasts (cefs) with the aid of a recombinant baculovirus expressing a flag epitope-tagged mdv1 us1 gene, under control of the sralpha promoter (composed of the enhancer region of the simia ...200211856580
the gene 10 (ul49.5) product of equine herpesvirus 1 is necessary and sufficient for functional processing of glycoprotein m.the functional cooperation of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein m (gm) and the gene 10 (ul49.5) product was analyzed. transient-transfection experiments using gm and ul49.5 expression plasmids as well as rk13 cell lines constitutively expressing ul49.5 (rk49.5) or gm (rkgm) demonstrated that the endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase h (endo h)-resistant mature form of gm was detectable only after coexpression of the two proteins. deletion of the ehv-1 ul49.5-homologous gene 10 in strain kya ...200211861861
herpes simplex virus gene products required for viral inhibition of expression of g1-phase functions.hsv infection blocks g1 events in the cell cycle and arrests host cell growth in the g1 phase. to further define the mechanism of the effect and determine the viral gene product(s) responsible, we examined various mutant viruses for their effects on cell cycle regulatory proteins (prb, cyclin d1, and cdk4) and on cell cycle progression into s phase. unlike the wild-type virus, the icp27 mutant virus was defective for blocking the phosphorylation of prb proteins, and the normal prb pattern was re ...200111883196
equine herpesvirus type 1 devoid of gm and gp2 is severely impaired in virus egress but not direct cell-to-cell spread.experiments were conducted to analyze the effects of a simultaneous deletion of glycoprotein m (gm) and glycoprotein 2 (gp2) of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). ehv-1 strain rach was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (prach) by homologous recombination of a mini f plasmid into the unique short region of the genome, thereby deleting gene 71 encoding gp2. upon transfection of the prach dna into rabbit kidney rk13 cells, virus plaques were visible from day 1 after transfection. the muta ...200211886256
temporary disturbance of actin stress fibers in swine kidney cells during pseudorabies virus infection.rounding and loosening of cells is a consequence of infection with pseudorabies virus (prv), both in vitro and in vivo. these changes in the normal structure of the cell may be the result of cytoskeletal changes. immunofluorescence staining of actin filaments and microtubule bundles was performed to examine whether prv induces a reorganization of these cytoskeletal components in infected swine kidney (sk) cells. every 2h until 12h post-inoculation (p.i.), cells were washed in cytoskeleton stabil ...200211888692
increased susceptibility of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to equine herpes virus type 1 infection upon mitogen stimulation: a role of the cell cycle and of cell-to-cell transmission of the virus.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is an important pathogen of horses, causing abortion and nervous system disorders, even in vaccinated animals. during the cell-associated viremia, ehv-1 is carried by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc), mainly lymphocytes. in vitro, monocytes are the most important fraction of pbmc in which ehv-1 replicates, however, mitogen stimulation prior to ehv-1 infection increases the percentage of infected lymphocytes. the role of the cell cycle in viral replication an ...200211888698
ehv-1 eicp22 protein sequences that mediate its physical interaction with the immediate-early protein are not sufficient to enhance the trans-activation activity of the ie protein.the early 293 amino acid eicp22 protein (eicp22p) of equine herpesvirus 1 localizes within the nucleus and functions as an accessory regulatory protein (j. virol. 68 (1994) 4329). transient transfection assays indicated that although the eicp22p by itself only minimally trans-activates ehv-1 promoters, the eicp22p functions synergistically with the immediate-early protein (iep) to enhance expression of ehv-1 early genes (j. virol. 71 (1997) 1004). we previously showed that the eicp22 protein enh ...200211900834
cloning of the genomes of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) strains kya and racl11 as bacterial artificial chromosomes (bac).the genome of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) strain racl11, a highly virulent isolate obtained from an aborted foal, and that of the modified live vaccine strain kya, were cloned as bacterial artificial chromosomes (bac) in eseherichia coli. mini f plasmid sequences were inserted into the viral genomes by homologous recombination instead of the gene 71 (eus4) open reading frame after co-transfection of viral dna and recombinant plasmid pdelta71-pha2 into rk13 cells. after isolation of recombi ...200211911590
equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) myeloencephalopathy: a case outbreak of neurological disease occurred in a well-managed riding school. ataxia and paresis were observed in several horses, five of which became recumbent and were euthanized. post-mortem analysis revealed scattered haemorrhages along the spinal cord, that were reflected by multiple haemorrhagic foci on formalin-fixed sections, with the thoracic and lumbar segments being the most affected. pathohistologically, perivascular mononuclear cuffing and axonal swelling, especially in the white ma ...200211911591
ehv-1 gene63 is not essential for in vivo replication in horses and mice, nor does it affect reactivation in the horse: short communication.the aim of this study was to investigate the role of immediate early gene (gene63) in the pathogenesis of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) acute and latent infections in equine and murine models. ehv-1 gene63 mutant virus (g63mut) along with ehv-1 (ab4) was used for intracerebral and intranasal infection of 3 and 17-day-old mice. both viruses were recovered at the same frequency from tissues after infection. two welsh ponies were infected via the intranasal route with each of the viruses. acute infe ...200111942126
the c-terminal regions of the envelope glycoprotein gp2 of equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 are antigenically distinct.the unusual mucin-like high molecular mass (mr) glycoprotein 2 (gp2) has only been described in the equid alphaherpesviruses, among which there is considerable antigenic cross-reactivity. equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) gp2 is cleaved into a highly glycosylated n-terminal subunit and a 42 kda c-terminal cleavage product. in order to investigate their antigenic recognition by horses naturally infected with ehv-1 and/or equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4), the c-terminal cleavage product and high mr gp2 wer ...200211958459
identification of two nuclear import signals in the alpha-gene product icp22 of herpes simplex virus 1.the herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) infected cell protein 22 (icp22) is a multifunctional viral regulator that localizes in the nucleus of infected cells. icp22 is required for optimal virus replication in certain cell types and is subject to extensive posttranslational modification. to map the signals in icp22 which mediate its efficient nuclear localization, we investigated the nuclear import of fusion proteins comprising various fragments of icp22 fused to green fluorescent protein (gfp) or be ...200212033795
equid herpesvirus 1 is neurotropic in mice, but latency from which infectious virus can be reactivated does not occur.equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is the most common cause of virus-induced abortion in horses. after primary infection the virus becomes latent predominantly in the respiratory tract lymph nodes and the genome can also be detected in the peripheral nervous system. the role of mouse as a feasible model for the establishment of latency and reactivation of ehv-1 was investigated. intracerebral and intranasal infections of 3- and 17-day-old mice were made and virus replication was confirmed by virus isol ...200212061230
equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 infections: an update.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) and equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv4) are important ubiquitous equine viral pathogens, causing much damage to the horse industry. ehv1 strains are associated with respiratory disease, abortion, and paresis/paralysis, whereas ehv4 strains are predominantly associated with respiratory disease. in the past decades much research effort has been put into improving knowledge about these viruses. in this paper the current state of knowledge of these viruses and the most important ...200212095082
serological responses of mares and weanlings following vaccination with an inactivated whole virus equine herpesvirus 1 and equine herpesvirus 4 vaccine.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is a major cause of respiratory disease and abortion in horses worldwide. although some vaccines have been shown experimentally to reduce disease, there are few reports of the responses to vaccination in the field. this study measured antibody responses to vaccination of 159 mares (aged 4-17 years) and 101 foals (aged 3-6 months) on a large stud farm with a killed whole virus ehv-1/4 vaccine used as per the manufacturer's recommendations. using an ehv glycoprotein d ...200212119135
equid herpesvirus 1 infection of endothelial cells requires activation of putative adhesion molecules: an in vitro model.antisera to activated equine endothelial cells, which detected surface molecules of 116 kd, 97 kd, 42 kd and 38 kd, were made to investigate the role of endothelial adhesion molecules in equid herpes virus 1 infection. these putative adhesion molecules could be induced by 17-beta oestradiol, chorionic gonadotrophin, or il-2, as well as by lps and pwm. in an in vitro flow system, using equine veins or arteries, equid herpesvirus 1 in leucocytes was only transferred to infect endothelial cells if ...200212165084
the equine herpesvirus 1 ul34 gene product is involved in an early step in virus egress and can be efficiently replaced by a ul34-gfp fusion protein.the structure and function of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) ul34 homologous protein were characterized. a ul34 protein-specific antiserum reacted with an m(r)28,000 protein that could not be detected in purified extracellular virions. confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that ul34 reactivity mainly concentrated at the nuclear rim, which changed into a punctuate and filamentous pattern at late times after infection. these changes in ul34 distribution were especially prominent w ...200212350350
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