diagnosis of equine herpesvirus 1 abortion using polymerase chain reaction. 19968941422
the equine herpesvirus 1 ir6 protein influences virus growth at elevated temperature and is a major determinant of virulence.the diploid ir6 gene (orf 67) of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is absent in the modified live ehv-1 vaccine strain rach and is present in a mutated form in the avirulent ehv-1 strains racm24 and racm36, such that the ir6 protein fails to form the typical rod-like structures observed for wild-type ehv-1 racl11. to assess the role of the ir6 protein in ehv-1 replication and virulence, two recombinant rach viruses, hir6-1 and hir6-2, that harbor a single copy of the wild-type ir6 gene were engi ...19968955044
characterization of regulatory functions of the hsv-1 immediate-early protein icp22.previous work has shown that the 68-kda immediate-early protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), also known as icp22, is involved in the control of viral gene expression, although the precise mechanism remains to be elucidated. in order to study the function(s) of this protein, we constructed expression vectors containing the coding sequence of the icp22 gene placed under the control of the sv40 or hcmv promoter. after cell transfection, icp22 synthesis was studied by immunoblotting, usin ...19968955059
expression and function of the equine herpesvirus 1 virion-associated host shutoff homolog.the ability of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2, respectively) to repress host cell protein synthesis early in infection has been studied extensively and found to involve the activities of the ul41 gene product, the virion-associated host shutoff (vhs) protein. to date, ul41 homologs have been identified in the genomes of three other alphaherpesviruses: equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), varicella-zoster virus, and pseudorabies virus, but very little is known about the putative pro ...19968970998
the icp22 protein of equine herpesvirus 1 cooperates with the ie protein to regulate viral gene expression.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) immediate-early (ie) phosphoprotein is essential for the activation of transcription from viral early and late promoters and regulates transcription from its own promoter. the ehv-1 eicp22 protein, a homolog of icp22 of herpes simplex virus, increased the in vitro dna binding activity of the ie protein for sequences in the ie, early, and late promoters. the eicp22 protein affected the rate as well as the extent of the ie protein binding to promoter dna sequences. ...19978995619
association of herpes simplex virus regulatory protein icp22 with transcriptional complexes containing eap, icp4, rna polymerase ii, and viral dna requires posttranslational modification by the u(l)13 proteinkinase.the expression of herpes simplex virus 1 gamma (late) genes requires functional alpha proteins (gamma1 genes) and the onset of viral dna synthesis (gamma2 genes). we report that late in infection after the onset of viral dna synthesis, cell nuclei exhibit defined structures which contain two viral regulatory proteins (infected cell proteins 4 and 22) required for gamma gene expression, rna polymerase ii, a host nucleolar protein (eap or l22) known to be associated with ribosomes and to bind smal ...19978995634
replication of equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) in the testes and epididymides of ponies and venereal shedding of infectious virus.six welsh mountain pony colts were infected intranasally with the ab4 isolate of ehv-1. clinical and virological monitoring demonstrated mild upper respiratory tract disease, with nasal shedding of virus and establishment of a cell-associated viraemia. detailed pathological examination of the urogenital tract was performed post mortem on days 4-9 post-infection (pi). ehv-1 was isolated from the epididymis on day 8 and the testis on day 9 pi, with viral replication in endothelial cells of these o ...19969004080
molecular virology of ruminant herpesviruses.molecular virology has served to establish bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) as the prototype member of ruminant herpesviruses. based on the genomic sequence of the virus, we aim to identify and characterize virus-specified components, to explain their concerted action, and to predict how the chain of events during the lytic and latent phases of the viral life cycle may be interrupted. the nucleotide sequence of the bhv-1 genome (136 kb) has just been completed by international cooperation (july 1995 ...19969010995
gene contents in a 31-kb segment at the left genome end of bovine herpesvirus-1.we report the nucleotide sequence of a 31-kb segment at the left genome end of bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1) and show that it comprises 19 different open reading frames (orfs), including seven which have been described previously (circ, dutpase, ul49.5, alpha tif, vp8, glycoprotein c, and ribonucleotide reductase small subunit). the new sequence resulted in a correction at the c-terminus of glycoprotein c. all 19 orfs exhibited strong amino acid sequence homology to the gene products of other alp ...19969010999
direct detection of equine herpesvirus dna in tissues of aborted equine fetuses.restriction endonuclease analysis of equine herpesviruses 1 (ehv-1) and 4 has been investigated using cultured cells infected with these viruses. the dna cleavage patterns of these viruses were observed in the intracellular dna after digestion with eco ri and electrophoresis. this procedure was applied to the diagnosis of equine herpesvirus infection in aborted equine fetuses. the characteristic eco ri restriction pattern of ehv-1 dna was directly detectable in the emulsion of lungs collected fr ...19969011160
gazelle herpesvirus 1: a new neurotropic herpesvirus immunologically related to equine herpesvirus 1.a herpesvirus was isolated from thomson's gazelle (gazella thomsoni) kept at a zoological garden in japan during an outbreak of epizootic acute encephalitis. the virus, gazelle herpesvirus 1 (ghv-1), was serologically related to equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1). however, dna fingerprints of ghv-1 were different from those of ehv-1 and other equine herpesviruses. southern hybridization with probes of cloned bamhi fragments derived from ul and us segments of ehv-1 revealed differences in the dna restr ...19979015181
analysis of the contributions of the equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein gb homolog to virus entry and direct cell-to-cell spread.experiments to analyze the functions of the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein gb were performed. cell lines which stably expressed either the full-length ehv-1 gb or only the extracellular portion of gb (amino acids 1 to 844) were constructed and were termed tcgbf and tcgb delta, respectively. using the cell line tcgbf, a gb-negative viral mutant, l11delta gb, was generated by replacing a 2.1-kb bglii-nrui fragment in the ehv-1 strain racl11 gb with the escherichia coli lacz gene. ehv-1 ...19979018127
herpes simplex virus immediate-early proteins icp0 and icp4 activate the endogenous human alpha-globin gene in nonerythroid cells.globin genes are normally expressed only in erythroid cell lineages. however, we found that the endogenous alpha-globin gene is activated following infection of human fibroblasts and hela cells with herpes simplex virus (hsv), leading to accumulation of correctly initiated transcripts driven by the alpha-globin promoter. the alpha1- and alpha2-globin genes were both induced, but expression of beta- or zeta-globin genes could not be detected. experiments using hsv mutants showed that null mutatio ...19979032307
repression of host rna polymerase ii transcription by herpes simplex virus type 1.lytic infection of mammalian cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) results in rapid repression of host gene expression and selective activation of the viral genome. this transformation in gene expression is thought to involve repression of host transcription and diversion of the host rna polymerase (rnap ii) transcription machinery to the viral genome. however, the extent of virus-induced host transcription repression and the mechanisms responsible for these major shifts in transcriptio ...19979032335
equine herpesvirus type 2: prevalence and seroepidemiology in foals.whole blood and serum were collected from foals to determine the prevalence of equine herpesvirus type 2 (ehv 2) infection in foals, age at which infection can first be identified and serological responses to infection. equine herpesvirus type 2 was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from 68 of 69 foals, 1-8-months-old, sampled once. virus isolation was performed twice at intervals of 2-7 months on pbmcs from 33 foals and ehv2 was isolated on both occasions in all but one fo ...19969049491
lack of virulence of the murine fibroblast adapted strain, kentucky a (kya), of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) in young horses.the virulence of the cell culture adapted kya strain of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), which lacks at least six genes by deletions in its genome, was assessed by intranasal inoculation of six young horses that were serologically negative for ehv-1. no horses showed clinical signs, and a neutralizing antibody response against ehv-1 was detected in two horses which had antibodies against ehv-4 prior to the inoculation. a challenge experiment using a highly virulent strain of ehv-1 conducted 4 ...19969054131
application of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for diagnosis of equine herpes virus-1 (ehv-1).fifty aborted foetus samples were diagnosed for the presence of equine herpes virus-1 (ehv-1) by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique. specific primer pair for amplification of a particular segment of ehv-1 dna in gc region having 3 hae iii restriction endonuclease sites was used. a 409 base pair segment obtained as pcr amplification product in 9 samples was digested with hae iii to confirm the presence of ehv-1 as the infectious agent in aborted tissues. it was observed that pcr technique ...19969055627
infectious agents in acute respiratory disease in horses in ontario.a study of acute respiratory disease in horses in ontario was undertaken to determine the identity of current causative infectious agents. a nasopharyngeal swab was designed and utilized to maximize isolation of viruses, mycoplasma, and pathogenic bacteria. serum samples were collected for parallel determination of antibody titers to equine influenza virus type a subtype 1 (h7n7) and subtype 2 (h3n8), equine rhinovirus types 1 and 2, equine herpesvirus type 1, mycoplasma equirhinius, and mycopla ...19979087920
detection of latency-associated transcripts of equid herpesvirus 1 in equine leukocytes but not in trigeminal ganglia.results from southern hybridization and pcr amplification experiments using a randomly synthesized reverse transcription-pcr product showed that peripheral blood leukocytes from horses showing no clinical signs of disease expressed a putative latency-associated transcript antisense to and overlapping the 3' end of the equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) immediate-early gene (gene 64). a pcr product derived from this transcript has > or =96% identity with the published ehv-1 sequence. in situ hybridizati ...19979094614
detection of herpes simplex dna in semen and menstrual blood of individuals attending an infertility determine a possible link between herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv) and infertility.19979094812
equine herpesvirus 1 myeloencephalopathy.myeloencephalopathy is an uncommon manifestation of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), but it can cause devastating losses during outbreaks on individual farms. clinical signs of neurologic disease reflect a diffuse multifocal hemorrhagic myeloencephalopathy secondary to vasculitis and thrombosis. sudden onset and early stabilization of signs, including ataxia, paresis, and urinary incontinence; involvement of multiple horses on the premises; and recent history of fever, abortion, or viral respirator ...19979106343
demonstration of equine herpesvirus-1 neuronal latency in murine olfactory bulbs using a novel combined in situ pcr and protein synthesis method.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) latency in murine olfactory bulbs was demonstrated by a novel combined in situ pcr and in vitro protein synthesis method (in situ ps-pcr). the escherichia coli lacz gene replacing a deletion in ehv-1 gene 71 (eus4) was thus amplified and transcribed/translated in situ followed by enzymatic detection using x-gal (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside). beta-galactosidase was found to be concentrated over mitral/tufted neurons indicating those to be the si ...19979123871
concatemeric intermediates of equine herpesvirus type 1 dna replication contain frequent inversions of adjacent long segments of the viral common with other alpha-herpesviruses, the genome of equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) comprises covalently linked long and short unique sequences of dna, each flanked by inverted repeats. equimolar amounts of two genomic isomers, generated by free inversion of the short segment, relative to the long segment, are packaged into ehv-1 virions. in contrast with herpes simplex virus (hsv), inversion of genomic long segments has not been described. in the current work, the structures of high molec ...19979126253
control of equine infectious anemia virus is not dependent on adcc mediating antibodies.horses infected with equine infectious anemia virus (eiav) have recurrent episodes of viremia which are eventually controlled, but the immune mechanisms have not been identified. antibodies were detected to the surface of eiav-infected cells within 1 month postinfection and remained for at least 3.5 years postinfection. these antibodies recognized cell surface-exposed envelope (env) glycoproteins, but could not mediate antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (adcc) using eiav-wsu5-infected equi ...19979143283
structural and antigenic identification of the orf12 protein (alpha tif) of equine herpesvirus 1.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) homolog of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) tegument phosphoprotein, alpha tif (vmw65; vp16), was identified previously as the product of open reading frame 12 (orf12) and shown to transactivate immediate early (ie) gene promoters. however, a specific virion protein corresponding to the orf12 product has not been identified definitively. in the present study the orf12 protein, designated etif, was identified as a 60-kda virion component on the basis of pro ...19979143293
an equine herpesvirus-1 gene 71 deletant is attenuated and elicits a protective immune response in mice.the pathogenesis of pulmonary infection and the immune response following intranasal inoculation of mice with two equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) deletion mutants have been assessed. the mutants, ed71 and ed75, have deletions in genes 71 (eus4) and 75 (10k), respectively. deletions were replaced by the escherichia coli lacz gene driven by the simian virus 40 (sv40) early promoter. it has previously been shown that the protein products of genes 71 and 75 are dispensable in vitro but that remova ...19979143298
immunohistochemical demonstration of equine herpesvirus-1 antigen in neurons and astrocytes of horses with acute paralysis.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection in a few widely scattered neurons and astrocytes plus endothelial cells in brain and spinal cord of two horses with naturally occurring paralytic disease was demonstrated by use of an immunoperoxidase technique. these horses were euthanatized less than 48 hours after the onset of clinical signs. no staining for ehv-1 was demonstrated in brain or spinal cord of three horses that had a longer duration of clinical disease or in two uninfected horses.19979150548
sequence analysis of the bovine herpesvirus type 1 genes homologous to the dna polymerase (ul30), the major dna-binding protein (ul29) and icp18.5 assembly protein (ul28) genes of herpes simplex virus.the nucleotide sequence of a 10.5 kb region (map position 0.332 to 0.410) of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1) was determined. this region contained three open reading frames (orfs) homologous to herpes simplex virus dna polymerase catalytic subunit (dnapol, ul30), major dna-binding protein (mdbp, ul29) and icp18.5 assembly protein (icp18.5, ul28). the bhv-1 dnapol. mdbp and icp18.5 orfs were 1246, 1203 and 826 amino acids long with a calculated molecular mass of 134.2 kda, 124.4 kda and 86.9 kd ...19979155875
transforming growth factor-beta induced by live or ultraviolet-inactivated equid herpes virus type-1 mediates immunosuppression in the horse.up to 21 days after exposure to live or ultraviolet-inactivated equid herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) autologous serum from ponies caused an immunosuppressive effect if incorporated into t-cell proliferation assays to ehv-1. the suppressive factor in the sera of ponies also inhibited t-cell response to phytohaemagglutinin. increased levels of circulating activated transforming growth factor-beta 1 (tgf-beta 1) were detected, and the suppressive activity of the serum could be reversed by antibody to t ...19979176113
cardio-histopathological observations on aborted equine fetuses infected with equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1).twenty-five aborted equine fetuses infected with equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) were examined cardio-histopathologically. the main changes in the heart consisted of interstitial myocarditis and intramyocardial vascular lesions accompanied by degeneration and necrosis of the cardiac myocytes. vascular pathology of intramyocardial small arteries and arterioles was characterized by endothelial cell necrosis and fibrinoid changes in the media. eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies characteristic o ...19979179750
synthesis and processing of the equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein a previous report, the function of the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein m (gm) homolog was investigated. it was shown that ehv-1 gm is involved in both virus entry and direct cell-to-cell spread of infection (n. osterrieder et al., j. virol. 70, 4110-4115, 1996). in this study, experiments were conducted to analyze the synthesis, posttranslational processing, and the putative ion channel function of ehv-1 gm. it was demonstrated that ehv-1 gm is synthesized as an mr 44,000 polypeptid ...19979185606
the icp0 protein of equine herpesvirus 1 is an early protein that independently transactivates expression of all classes of viral assess the role of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) icp0 protein (eicp0) in gene regulation, a variety of molecular studies on the eicp0 gene and gene products of both the attenuated cell culture-adapted kentucky a (kya) strain and the ab4p strain were conducted. these investigations revealed that (i) the icp0 open reading frame (orf) of the kya virus strain is 1,257 bp in size and would encode a protein of 419 amino acids, and in comparison to the icp0 gene (orf63) of the ab4p strain of ...19979188552
equine dendritic cell infection with equid herpesvirus type 1 reduces their ability to support mitogenic t cell proliferation. 19979191327
restriction endonuclease analysis of equine herpesvirus-1 isolates recovered in ontario, 1986-1992, from aborted, stillborn, and neonatal foals.ninety-two equine herpesvirus type 1 isolates were recovered from aborted, stillborn, or neonatal foals from ontario, canada, from 1986 to 1992. from this total, 32 strains were randomly chosen for further study. four or 5 isolates from each winter were selected, each from a different premises, and characterized by restriction enzyme analysis using bamhi, kpni, bglii, hindiii, and ecori. additional isolates from 2 premises and from a zebra foal were also assessed. for the strains isolated in 198 ...19979211232
herpesviral abortion in domestic animals.abortion or neonatal disease may follow infection with several alpha, beta and gamma-herpesviruses. the alpha-herpesvirus, equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), causes single or epizootic abortions or neonatal deaths in equids, and the closely related virus ehv-4 causes sporadic equine abortions. in cattle, the alpha-herpesviruses, bovine herpesvirus-1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus) and bovine herpesvirus-5 (bovine encephalitis virus), and a gamma-herpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus-4, have all be ...19979232116
cell-mediated cytolysis of equine herpesvirus-infected cells by leukocytes from young vaccinated horses.the objective of this study was to determine whether the administration of modified-live equine herpesvirus (ehv-1) to young horses with residual maternal antibodies stimulated ehv-specific cytolytic responses, and whether these responses were crossreactive between ehv-1 and ehv-4. eighteen clinically normal belgian cross-foals were used in the study and were commingled in two adjacent pens. skin biopsies were harvested from 16 foals within 24 h of birth and fibroblast cultures were established, ...19979261959
the ul13 protein kinase and the infected cell type are determinants of posttranslational modification of icp0.the herpes simplex virus infected-cell protein 0 (icp0) acts as a promiscuous transactivator of genes introduced into eukaryotic cells by transfection or infection. the protein is highly posttranslationally modified by phosphorylation and nucleotidylylation. we have examined the electrophoretic mobility and phosphorylation of icp0 in vero and rabbit skin cells infected with wild-type virus or viruses from which the ul13 gene (deltaul13) encoding a protein kinase or the alpha22/us1.5 genes (delta ...19979281521
high level expression of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoproteins d and h and their role in protection against virus challenge in the c3h (h-2kk) murine model.n and c-terminal truncated forms of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv 1) glycoproteins gd and gh were expressed in baculovirus resulting in the production of secreted recombinant proteins. a carboxy-terminal histidine tag was included on each of the genes for protein isolation by nickel affinity chromatography. recombinant gd was recognized by three gd specific monoclonal antibodies, 20c4, 5h6 and f3132. f3132 is a conformationally dependent monoclonal antibody with virus neutralizing activity. expressi ...19979282781
use of transabdominal ultrasound-guided amniocentesis for detection of equid herpesvirus 1-induced fetal infection in evaluate transabdominal ultrasound-guided amniocentesis for detection of equid herpes-virus 1 (ehv-1)-induced fetal infection in utero.19979285004
the pathogenesis of ed71, a defined deletion mutant of equine herpesvirus-1, in a murine intranasal infection model for equine abortion.a series of mutants of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) which contain deletions in non-essential genes was previously characterized in a murine intranasal infection model. one mutant, ed71 which was shown to be attenuated in the model, was further characterized by inoculation into pregnant mice. despite the attenuation previously reported, intranasal inoculation of pregnant mice resulted in premature parturition and the birth of dead or dying foetuses. furthermore, mice inoculated before pregnancy w ...19979292003
the nucleotidylylation of herpes simplex virus 1 regulatory protein alpha22 by human casein kinase ii.the products of the alpha genes of herpes simplex virus 1, the infected cells proteins (icp) 0, 4, 22, and 27 perform regulatory functions, are nucleotidylylated, and share the signaling or recognition sequence (rr(a/t)(p/s)r) that correctly predicted the nucleotidylylation of viral proteins encoded by ul21, ul31, ul49, and ul47 genes expressed later in infection. extracts from uninfected hela cells or casein kinase ii purified from sea star nucleotidylylated the icp22 moiety of a glutathione s- ...19979312161
the pseudorabies virus ul28 protein enters the nucleus after coexpression with the herpes simplex virus ul15 protein.herpesvirus dna is packaged into capsids in the nuclei of infected cells in a process requiring at least six viral proteins. of the proteins required for encapsidation of viral dna, ul15 and ul28 are the most conserved among herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv), varicella-zoster virus, and equine herpesvirus 1. the subcellular distribution of the pseudorabies virus (prv) ul28 protein was examined by in situ immunofluorescence. ul28 was present in the nuclei of infected cells; however, ul28 was limi ...19979371568
tyrosine phosphorylation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 regulatory protein icp22 and a cellular protein which shares antigenic determinants with least eight herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and five hsv-2 proteins were tyrosine phosphorylated in infected cells. the first viral tyrosine phosphoprotein identified was the hsv-1 regulatory protein icp22. also, two novel phosphotyrosine proteins were bound by anti-icp22 antibodies. h(r22) is a cellular protein, while the f(r10) protein is observed only in hsv-1-infected cells.19979371655
antibodies against equine herpesviruses in free-ranging mountain zebras from namibia.twenty-one blood samples of free-ranging mountain zebras (equus zebra) from namibia were tested for equine herpesvirus (ehv-1, -2, -3, -4) specific antibodies by immunofluorescence assay (ifa) and neutralization test (nt). additionally, type-specific nested polymerase chain reactions (nested pcr) were employed for detection of ehv-1, -2 and -4 dna. equine herpesvirus-1 antibodies were detected by ifa in all zebras, while only seven serum samples contained ehv-4 ifa antibodies. sera with high ifa ...19979391966
sequencing of a 5.5-kb dna fragment and identification of a gene coding for a subunit of the helicase/primase complex of avian laryngotracheitis virus (iltv).the nucleotide sequence of a 5,520-bp ecori restriction fragment of avian infectious laryngotracheitis (iltv) dna was reported and submitted to genebank with an accession number of af001078. computer prediction revealed one large potential open reading frame (orf) with sequence similar to one subunit of the dna helicase-primase complex of alpha-herpesviruses. the dna helicase/primase complex of hsv-1 consists of three sub-units with molecular weights of 12,000, 97,000 and 70,000, encoded by gene ...19979421876
equine herpesvirus 1 mutants devoid of glycoprotein b or m are apathogenic for mice but induce protection against challenge infection.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) mutants devoid of the open reading frames (orfs) of either glycoprotein (g) b or m were constructed and tested for their immunogenic potential in a murine model of ehv-1 infection. the mutant viruses were engineered using the virulent ehv-1 strain racl11 or the modified live vaccine strain rach by inserting the escherichia coli lacz gene into the viral orfs. racl11-infected mice showed signs typical of an ehv-1 infection, whereas mice infected with the ehv-1 gb- or g ...19979426444
pathogenesis and clinical signs of equine herpesvirus-1 in experimentally infected ponies in vivo.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) causes respiratory disease, neonatal death, abortion and neurologic disease. the main purpose of this study was to identify viral antigen in respiratory tract samples by immunoperoxidase staining. six pony foals were selected on the basis of demonstrating seronegativity to ehv-1 by virus neutralization and housed in isolation. they were infected experimentally by administering ehv-1 nebulized ultrasonically through a face mask. successful infection was clinically app ...19989442940
the bovine herpesvirus type 1 ul3.5 open reading frame encodes a virion structural protein.the bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1) open reading frame (orf) ul3.5 is similar to orfs found in pseudorabies virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, equine herpesvirus type 1, and varicella zoster virus, but clearly absent from herpes simplex virus. the published sequence for this orf predicts a 126-amino-acid (13.2 kda) protein product with an isoelectric point of 12.3. we confirmed the ul3.5 sequence, expressed the orf as a glutathione-s-transferase fusion protein, and made rabbit antibodi ...19989448691
the use of baypamun n in crowding associated infectious respiratory disease: efficacy of baypamun n (freeze dried product) in 4-10 month old horses.the efficacy of an immunomodulator, baypamun n, was tested in 4-10-month-old horses which were exposed to stress by weaning, transport and commingling with yearlings from different breeders (crowding). verum (n = 26) and placebo animals (n = 27) received three intramuscular injections of the investigational preparations (days 0, 2, 9) starting at the day of commingling in one stable. the incidence of acute respiratory disease was high during the first 4 weeks after commingling. approximately 50% ...19979451942
sequences of the ribonucleotide reductase-encoding genes of felid herpesvirus 1 and molecular phylogenetic analysis.the felid herpesvirus 1 (fhv-1) genes encoding the two ribonucleotide reductase (rr) subunits (rr1, large subunit and rr2, small subunit) were cloned and their nucleotide (nt) sequence determined. the rr1 open reading frame (orf) is 2358 nts long and is predicted to encode a protein of 786 amino acids (aa). in common with herpesviruses in the varicellovirus genus of the alphaherpesvirus subfamily, fhv-1 rr1 lacks the n-terminal serine threonine protein kinase region present in herpes simplex vir ...19979482586
eukaryotic elongation factor 1delta is hyperphosphorylated by the protein kinase encoded by the u(l)13 gene of herpes simplex virus 1.the translation elongation factor 1delta (ef-1delta) consists of two forms, a hypophosphorylated form (apparent mr, 38,000) and a hyperphosphorylated form (apparent mr, 40,000). earlier y. kawaguchi, r. bruni, and b. roizman (j. virol. 71:1019-1024, 1997) reported that whereas mock-infected cells accumulate the hypophosphorylated form, the hyperphosphorylated form of ef-1delta accumulates in cells infected with herpes simplex virus 1. we now report that the accumulation of the hyperphosphorylate ...19989499021
an equine herpesvirus type 1 recombinant with a deletion in the ge and gi genes is avirulent in young horses.the cell culture-adapted kya strain of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) has been found to be attenuated in young horses (matsumura et al., 1996, vet. microbiol. 48, 353-365). the kya strain lacks at least six genes in its genome, including those encoding glycoproteins ge and gi. to elucidate whether ehv-1 glycoproteins ge and gi play a role in viral virulence, we have constructed an ehv-1 recombinant that has the genes encoding both ge and gi deleted from its genome and its revertant. growth pr ...19989501037
neonatal equine herpesvirus type 1 infection on a thoroughbred breeding farm.of 17 foals born on a thoroughbred breeding farm between march and april 1995, infection with equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was associated with neonatal morbidity in 5 foals, 3 of which died or were euthanized. morbidity and mortality were associated with pulmonary inflammation, and ehv-1 was identified in the lungs of the 3 foals that died. all neonatal ehv-1 infections occurred in foals of mares housed in the same pasture and barn. no other clinical manifestations of ehv-1 infection (e.g., ...19989503358
nucleotide sequence of canine herpesvirus homologues of herpes simplex virus type 1 us2, us3, glycoproteins i and e, us8.5 and us9 genes.the partial nucleotide sequence of two bamhi fragments that span the unique short region (us), terminal repeat region (tr) and internal repeat region (ir) of canine herpesvirus (chv) has been determined. data obtained revealed several open reading frames (orf's) identified as the us2, us3, gi, ge and us9 homologues of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv1). the chv homologues also show significant identity in amino acid sequence with those encoded by feline herpesvirus type 1 (fhv1), bovine herpesvi ...19979524817
nucleotide sequences of glycoprotein i and e genes of equine herpesvirus type 4.the nucleotide sequences of the glycoprotein i (gi) and e (ge) genes of equine herpesvirus type 4 (ehv-4) strain th20 were determined. the predicted region encoding the ehv-4 gi gene is 1,263 nucleotides, corresponding to a polypeptide of 420 amino acids in length. the predicted region encoding the ehv-4 ge gene is 1,647 nucleotides, corresponding to a polypeptide of 548 amino acids in length. the ehv-4 gi and ge genes show 74% and 85% identity at the amino acid level with those of equine herpes ...19989524947
cellular transcription factors enhance herpes simplex virus type 1 oris-dependent dna replication.the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) origin of dna replication, oris, contains three binding sites for the viral origin binding protein (obp) flanked by transcriptional regulatory elements of the immediate-early genes encoding icp4 and icp22/47. to assess the role of flanking sequences in oris function, plasmids containing oris and either wild-type or mutant flanking sequences were tested in transient dna replication assays. although the icp4 and icp22/47 regulatory regions were shown to enha ...19989557644
study of the protective immunity of co-expressed glycoprotein h and l of equine herpesvirus-1 in a murine intranasal infection model.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) glycoproteins h, and l (gh and gl) expressed individually or co-expressed by recombinant baculoviruses were used to immunise balb/c mice prior to intranasal challenge in a murine model of respiratory infection. only the co-expressed material (ehv-1 gh/gl) induced neutralising antibody (low levels). the same immunogen also produced the strongest cellular responses. immunisation with gh/gl and, to a lesser extent, with gh alone was associated with a reduction of virus ...19989595623
the dna sequence of equine herpesvirus-4.the complete dna sequence of equine herpesvirus-4 (ehv-4) strain ns80567 was determined. the genome is 145597 bp in size and consists of a long unique region (ul, 112398 bp) flanked by a short inverted repeat (trl/irl, 27 bp) linked to a short unique region (us, 12789 bp) flanked by a substantial inverted repeat (trs/irs, 10178 bp). ehv-4 is predicted to contain 76 different genes; three of these are present twice in trs/irs, giving a total of 79 genes. the closely related virus equine herpesvir ...19989603335
equine herpesvirus-4 glycoprotein g is secreted as a disulphide-linked homodimer and is present as two homodimeric species in the virion.glycoprotein g (gg) homologues have been found in most alphaherpesviruses although little is known about their structure or function. in this study, three species of equine herpesvirus-4 (ehv-4) gg were identified: a full-length 68 kda virion-associated species (ggvl), a 12 kda virion-associated species (ggvs) and a 60 kda secreted species (ggs), detected in the medium of infected cells. ggs and ggvs appear to be proteolytic cleavage products of ggvl and correspond to the n- and c-terminal regio ...19989603336
genomic organization of the canine herpesvirus us region.canine herpesvirus (chv) is an alpha-herpesvirus of limited pathogenicity in healthy adult dogs and infectivity of the virus appears to be largely limited to cells of canine origin. chv's low virulence and species specificity make it an attractive candidate for a recombinant vaccine vector to protect dogs against a variety of pathogens. as part of the analysis of the chv genome, the authors determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the chv us region as well as portions of the flanking inver ...19989620207
characterization of the cytolytic t-lymphocyte response to a candidate vaccine strain of equine herpesvirus 1 in cba mice.the cytolytic t-lymphocyte (ctl) response to respiratory infection with equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) in cba (h-2(k)) mice was investigated. intranasal (i.n.) inoculation of mice with the attenuated ehv-1 strain kya resulted in the generation of a primary virus-specific ctl response in the draining mediastinal lymph nodes 5 days following infection. ehv-1-specific ctl could be restimulated from the spleen up to 26 weeks after the resolution of infection, indicating that a long-lived memory ctl po ...19989620990
in situ study on the pathogenesis and immune reaction of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infections in mice.the mouse model was used to study the pathogenesis of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) after primary and secondary intranasal infections. within a few hours after infection, ehv-1 was found in nasal and olfactorial epithelium and sub-epithelial cells of the respiratory mucosa, but antigen-specific immune cells were never detected. next to the lung, ehv-1 was transmitted early and directly to the brain, both via the olfactory route and the trigeminal nerve, but traces of degenerative or inflamma ...19989640242
immune responses and protective efficacy of recombinant baculovirus-expressed glycoproteins of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) gb, gc and gd alone or in combinations in balb/c mice.baculovirus-expressed glycoproteins of ehv-1 gb, gc and gd alone or in combination evoked antibody responses and protected vaccinated mice against a challenge with ehv-1. gb, gd, gb + gc, gb + gd and gc + gd elicited very high levels of elisa antibodies while gc and gc + gd elicited high levels of virus neutralising antibodies. western blotting demonstrated that the antibodies produced were not only specific for the baculovirus-expressed glycoproteins gb, gc and gd, but also highly specific for ...19989646476
adaptation of equine herpesvirus 1 to unnatural host led to mutation of the gc resulting in increased susceptibility of the virus to heparin.heparin extensively inhibited infection of mdbk cells by equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strains adapted to bovine cells or hamsters, while the reagent merely reduced infectivity of strains passaged only in equine cells. the gc of two strains adapted to non-equine cells seemed to have higher affinity for heparin, although the reagent bound to both the gc and gb of all strains tested. amino acid substitutions of the gc of the ehv-1 strains adapted to non-equine cells converged on the hydrophilic reg ...19979672642
the equid herpesvirus-1 gene 63 is expressed as a leaky late (gamma 1) transcript and is nonessential for replication in vitro.the regulation of equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) gene 63 was investigated using molecular expression studies and its role in viral growth was identified by constructing a gene 63 mutant virus. metabolic inhibitors were used to show that ehv-1 gene 63 is expressed as a leaky-late (gamma 1) transcript. transient transfections and subsequent chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) reporter assays showed that gene 63 was transactivated by ehv-1 gene 64 (immediate early) protein. an ehv-1 gene 63 mutant ...19989696126
phosphorylation of structural components promotes dissociation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 tegument.the role of phosphorylation in the dissociation of structural components of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) tegument was investigated, using an in vitro assay. addition of physiological concentrations of atp and magnesium to wild-type virions in the presence of detergent promoted the release of vp13/14 and vp22. vp1/2 and the ul13 protein kinase were not significantly solubilized. however, using a virus with an inactivated ul13 protein, we found that the release of vp22 was severely impa ...19989696804
diversity of genomic electropherotypes of naturally occurring equine herpesvirus 1 isolates in argentina.the genomes of 10 equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strains isolated in argentina from 1979 to 1991, and a japanese hh1 reference strain were compared by restriction endonuclease analysis. two restriction enzymes, bamhi and bglii, were used and analysis of the electropherotypes did not show significant differences among isolates obtained from horses with different clinical signs. this suggests that the ehv-1 isolates studied, which circulated in argentina for more than 10 years, belong to a single ge ...19989698821
monitoring and detection of acute viral respiratory tract disease in develop a system to monitor and detect acute infections of the upper respiratory tract (i.e., nares, nasopharynx, and pharynx) in horses and to assess the association among specific viral infections, risk factors, and clinical signs of disease.19989702229
cosolvents facilitate dna synthesis in the herpes simplex virus 1 unique short (us) inverted repeat.dna synthesis under standard conditions is not successful within a portion of the us1 gene of hsv-1 which is juxtaposed to an 86% g + c-containing tract in the us inverted repeat sequence. we report that the independent addition of specific amounts of at least three different types of cosolvents is capable of facilitating dna synthesis within this g + c-rich region. in addition, this strategy was used to successfully place a specific site-directed mutation in the us1 gene. consideration of these ...19989705174
complementation of a replication-defective mutant of equine herpesvirus type 1 by a cell line expressing the immediate-early protein.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) possesses a sole, diploid immediate-early (ie) gene that encodes a major regulatory protein of 1487 amino acids capable of modulating expression of both early and late ehv-1 promoters and capable of trans-repressing its own promoter. in this study, a rabbit kidney cell line (ie13.1) that constitutively expresses the ehv-1 ie protein was generated by cotransfection of rabbit kidney (rk-13) cells with the viral ie gene and a neomycin resistance marker. the ie prot ...19989705258
herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in horses: 11 cases (1982-1996).to determine results of csf analysis in horses with equid herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm) and to determine whether results of csf analysis were associated with outcome.19989731262
health evaluation of free-ranging guanaco (lama guanicoe).twenty free-ranging guanaco (lama guanicoe) in chubut province, argentina, were immobilized for health evaluations. all but two animals appeared to be in good condition. hematology, serum chemistry, and vitamin and mineral levels were measured, and feces were evaluated for parasites. serology tests included bluetongue, brucellosis, bovine respiratory syncitial virus, bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease, equine herpesvirus 1, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, johne's disease (mycobacterium par ...19989732026
neuropathological study of gazelle herpesvirus 1 (equine herpesvirus 9) infection in thomson's gazelles (gazella thomsoni).gazelle herpesvirus (ghv-1), correctly designated as equine herpesvirus 9, is a new type of equine herpesvirus immunologically related to equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1). as a sequel to a virological study, the neuropathology of encephalitis caused by ghv-1 in thomson's gazelles (gazella thomsoni) was examined. seven gazelles died with or without neurological symptoms between early september and mid-october in 1993. no gross abnormalities were observed at necropsy, but all animals had non-suppurati ...19989749360
herpes simplex virus 1 regulatory protein icp22 interacts with a new cell cycle-regulated factor and accumulates in a cell cycle-dependent fashion in infected cells.the herpes simplex virus 1 infected cell protein 22 (icp22), the product of the alpha22 gene, is a nucleotidylylated and phosphorylated nuclear protein with properties of a transcriptional factor required for the expression of a subset of viral genes. here, we report the following. (i) icp22 interacts with a previously unknown cellular factor designated p78 in the yeast two-hybrid system. the p78 cdna encodes a polypeptide with a distribution of leucines reminiscent of a leucine zipper. (ii) in ...19989765390
protective immunity against equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) infection in mice induced by recombinant ehv-1 gd.the ability of recombinant preparations of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein d (gd) to elicit specific antibody and t lymphocyte responses in the balb/c mouse model of respiratory infection was investigated. recombinant gd (rgd) expressed as a glutathione-s-transferase (gst) fusion protein in escherichia coli elicited both high titer neutralizing antibody (nab) and cd4 t cell proliferative responses following subcutaneous or intranasal immunization, but elicited only a weak antibody ...19989784062
protective effects of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein b in a murine model of ehv-1-induced an attempt to determine if pregnant mice could be protected from abortion subsequent to challenge with equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) in the mouse model of ehv-1 disease, female balb/c mice were inoculated with baculovirus-expressed ehv-1 glycoprotein b (bac-gb), wild-type baculovirus (bac-wt), rabbit kidney (rk-13) or baby hamster kidney (bhk-21) cells. using an elisa, antibodies against ehv-1 were detected in the serum of mice following two injections of bac-gb and were enhanced by a third in ...19989791876
the equine herpesvirus 1 ir6 protein that colocalizes with nuclear lamins is involved in nucleocapsid egress and migrates from cell to cell independently of virus infection.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) ir6 protein forms typical rod-like structures in infected cells, influences virus growth at elevated temperatures, and determines the virulence of ehv-1 rac strains (osterrieder et al., virology 226:243-251, 1996). experiments to further elucidate the functions and properties of the ir6 protein were conducted. it was shown that the ir6 protein of wild-type racl11 virus colocalizes with nuclear lamins very late in infection as demonstrated by confocal laser scan m ...19989811716
diagnosis and sero-epizootiology of equine herpesvirus type 1 and type 4 infections in japan using a type-specific elisa.recently, a type-specific elisa using equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and type 4 (ehv-4) glycoprotein gs (ggs) was developed by crabb and studdert [1993]. to investigate the dissemination of ehv-1 and -4 among horses in japan, we applied their elisa as suitable for discriminating between ehv-1 and -4 infections serologically. type-specificity of the elisa was confirmed by using paired sera of infected horses with either ehv-1 or -4. application of the elisa to sera collected before and after t ...19989819768
epidemiology of equine herpesvirus abortion: searching for clues to the future. 19989830567
seroprevalence of equine herpesvirus 1 in thoroughbred foals before and after investigate the seroprevalence of equine herpesvirus 1 in foals around weaning and after weaning on two large thoroughbred farms using a type-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine exposure to infection.19989830568
systemic infection by equid herpesvirus-1 in a grevy's zebra stallion (equus grevyi) with particular reference to genital pathology.a severe multi-systemic form of equid herpesvirus-1 infection is described in an adult zebra stallion. there was multifocal necrotizing rhinitis, marked hydrothorax and pulmonary oedema, with viral antigen expression in degenerating epithelial cells, local endothelial cells and intravascular leucocytes of the nasal mucosa and lung. specific localization of ehv-1 infection was seen in the testes and epididymides, including infection of leydig cells and germinal epithelium, which would have facili ...19989839210
an equine herpesvirus 1 mutant with a lacz insertion between open reading frames 62 and 63 is replication competent and causes disease in the murine respiratory equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) mutant was constructed by inserting a lacz expression cassette into the intergenic region upstream of gene 62 (glycoprotein l; gl) and downstream of gene 63 (a homologue of the herpes simplex virus transcriptional activator icp0). the recombinant lacz62/63-ehv-1 had similar growth kinetics in cell culture to those of the parental wild type (wt) virus, with indistinguishable cytopathic effects and plaque morphology. reverse transcriptase pcr confirmed that the lacz ...19989856103
primary and challenge infection of mice with equine herpesvirus 1, strain hsv25a.clinical signs, haematology, lymphocyte subset analysis, viral clearance, lung histopathology and humoral and cell-mediated (cmi) immune responses were monitored throughout the acute and convalescent phases of infection in groups of balb/c mice infected intranasally with equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), strain hsv25a. primary infection caused a leucocytosis due to a neutrophilia during days 1 and 2 post-infection (pi) and a b lymphocytosis at day 1 pi. serum elisa antibodies were detected by 7 days ...19989870583
in vitro reactivation of latent equid herpesvirus-1 from cd5+/cd8+ leukocytes indirectly by il-2 or chorionic and equine chorionic gonadotrophin (ecg) initiated reactivation of equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) from venous lymphocytes at a frequency of 1/10(-5). indirect immunofluorescence showed that > 80% of virus-positive leukocytes were cd5+/cd8+ with the remaining 20% being cd5+/cd8-/cd4-. cocultivation demonstrated that the reactivated virus was infectious. in addition, virus was reactivated in vitro from leukocytes of > 70% of horses by the mitogens phytohaemagglutinin (pha) and pokeweed mitogen ( ...19989880014
dendritic cells presenting equine herpesvirus-1 antigens induce protective anti-viral immunity.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) causes rhinopneumonitis, abortion and cns disorders in horses. using intranasal inoculation, the mouse model of this disease mimics the major pathogenic and clinical features of the equine disease. the aim of this study was to investigate whether murine dendritic cells (dc) can be infected with ehv-1 and whether they can be used as cellular vaccines for the induction of prophylactic anti-ehv-1 immunity. it was found that the dc lines fsdc, d2sc1, 18 (all h-2d) and 80 ...19989880015
equine herpesvirus type 1 infects dendritic cells in vitro: stimulation of t lymphocyte proliferation and cytotoxicity by infected dendritic cells.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) causes respiratory disease, abortion and myeloencephalopathy in horses. as with other herpesviruses, cell-mediated immunity is considered important for both recovery and protection. although virus-specific t-cell proliferation and cytotoxicity can be detected following in vivo infection, little is known about the role of antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells (dcs) in these processes. peripheral blood dcs were shown to express the viral glycoprotein gb ...19999950351
capsid structure of simian cytomegalovirus from cryoelectron microscopy: evidence for tegument attachment sites.we have used cryoelectron microscopy and image reconstruction to study b-capsids recovered from both the nuclear and the cytoplasmic fractions of cells infected with simian cytomegalovirus (scmv). scmv, a representative betaherpesvirus, could thus be compared with the previously described b-capsids of the alphaherpesviruses, herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), and of channel catfish virus, an evolutionarily remote herpesvirus. nuclear b-capsid architecture is ge ...19999971801
dna-mediated immunization with glycoprotein d of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) in a murine model of ehv-1 respiratory infection.dna-mediated immunization was assessed in a murine model of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) respiratory infection. a single intramuscular injection with plasmid dna encoding ehv-1 glycoprotein d (ehv-1 gd), including its predicted c-terminal membrane anchor sequence, induced a specific antibody response detectable by 2 weeks and maintained through 23 weeks post injection. a second injection at 4 weeks markedly enhanced the antibody response and all ehv-1 gd-injected mice developed neutralizing anti ...19999987159
deletion of multiple immediate-early genes from herpes simplex virus reduces cytotoxicity and permits long-term gene expression in neurons.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) has many attractive features that suggest its utility for gene transfer to neurons. however, viral cytotoxicity and transient transgene expression limit practical applications even in the absence of viral replication. mutant viruses deleted for the immediate early (ie) gene, icp4, an essential transcriptional transactivator, are toxic to many cell types in culture in which only the remaining ie genes are expressed. in order to test directly the toxicity of oth ...199810023438
the equine herpesvirus 1 us2 homolog encodes a nonessential membrane-associated virion component.experiments were conducted to analyze the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) gene 68 product which is encoded by the ehv-1 us2 homolog. an antiserum directed against the amino-terminal 206 amino acids of the ehv-1 us2 protein specifically detected a protein with an mr of 34,000 in cells infected with ehv-1 strain racl11. ehv-1 strain ab4 encodes a 44,000-mr us2 protein, whereas vaccine strain rach, a high-passage derivative of racl11, encodes a 31,000-mr us2 polypeptide. irrespective of its size, the ...199910074198
the defective interfering particles of equine herpesvirus 1 encode an icp22/icp27 hybrid protein that alters viral gene regulation.the genomes of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) defective interfering (di) particles that mediate persistent infection were shown to encode a unique hybrid open reading frame composed of sequences that encode the 196 n-terminal amino acids of icp22 linked in-frame to the c-terminal 68 amino acids of icp27. previous studies demonstrated that this hybrid gene, designated as icp22/icp27. was expressed abundantly at both the mrna and the protein levels in di particle-enriched infections, but not in stan ...199910082387
construction and characterization of an equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein c negative equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strain racl 11 mutant was constructed that carries the escherichia coli lacz gene instead of the open reading frame encoding glycoprotein c (gc). the engineered virus mutant (l11(delta)gc) lacked codons 46-440 of the 1404 bp gene. on rabbit kidney cell line rk13 and equine dermal cell line edmin337, the l11(delta)gc virus grew to titers which were reduced by approximately 5- to 10-fold compared with wild-type racl11 virus or a repaired virus (r-l11(delta)gc). howe ...199910082388
infection with equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strain hvs25a in pregnant mice.the abortigenic effects of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strain hvs25a, given intranasally, were assessed in pregnant balb/c, c57bl/6j and quakenbush mice at day 16 of pregnancy. all ehv-1-infected balb/c mice showed clinical signs typical of ehv-1-induced disease, together with evidence of abortion. however, although there were fetal and neonatal deaths in some c57bl/6j and quakenbush litters, the respiratory and systemic effects of ehv-1 infection in the dams were inconsistent. balb/c dams were ...199910098013
the gamma2 late glycoprotein k promoter of equine herpesvirus 1 is differentially regulated by the ie and eicp0 proteins.the equine herpesvirus 1 immediate-early (ie) phosphoprotein is essential for the activation of transcription from viral early and late promoters and trans-represses its own promoter. transient-transfection assays showed that the ie protein trans-represses the gamma2 late gk promoter. gel shift and dnase i footprinting assays demonstrated that the ie protein binds to the gk promoter sequences from -42 to -26 and from -13 to +12 that overlap the transcription initiation site (+1). these results i ...199910191181
immunogenicity of herpes simplex virus type 1 mutants containing deletions in one or more alpha-genes: icp4, icp27, icp22, and icp0.replication defective mutants of hsv have been proposed both as vaccine candidates and as vehicles for gene therapy because of their inability to produce infectious progeny. the immunogenicity of these hsv replication mutants, at both qualitative and quantitative levels, will directly determine their effectiveness for either of these applications. we have previously reported (brehm et al., j. virol., 71, 3534, 1997) that a replication defective mutant of hsv-1, which expresses a substantial leve ...199910191191
a novel cellular protein, p60, interacting with both herpes simplex virus 1 regulatory proteins icp22 and icp0 is modified in a cell-type-specific manner and is recruited to the nucleus after infection.herpes simplex virus 1 encodes two multifunctional regulatory proteins, infected-cell proteins 22 and 0 (icp22 and icp0). icp0 is a promiscuous transactivator, whereas icp22 is required in vivo and for efficient replication and expression of a subset of late (gamma2) genes in rodent or rabbit cell lines and in primary human cell strains (restrictive cells) but not in hep-2 or vero (permissive) cells. we report the identification in the yeast two-hybrid system of a cellular protein designated p60 ...199910196275
functional anatomy of herpes simplex virus 1 overlapping genes encoding infected-cell protein 22 and us1.5 protein.earlier studies have shown that (i) the coding domain of the alpha22 gene encodes two proteins, the 420-amino-acid infected-cell protein 22 (icp22) and a protein, us1.5, which is initiated from methionine 147 of icp22 and which is colinear with the remaining portion of that protein; (ii) posttranslational processing of icp22 mediated largely by the viral protein kinase ul13 yields several isoforms differing in electrophoretic mobility; and (iii) mutants lacking the carboxyl-terminal half of the ...199910196329
gene arrangement and rna transcription of the bamhi fragments k and m2 within the non-oncogenic marek's disease virus serotype 2 unique long genome region.we determined the nucleotide sequence of a 6593 bp fragment of the marek's disease virus serotype 2 (mdv2) unique long region located in the right part of genomic bamhi-m2 and the adjacent part of bamhi-k fragments. within this region five complete open reading frames (orfs) were identified whose deduced amino acid sequences exhibited homology to the ul53 (glycoprotein k), ul54 (immediate early regulatory protein icp27), and ul55 gene products of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1). homologue to ...199910225279
colocalization of the herpes simplex virus 1 ul4 protein with infected cell protein 22 in small, dense nuclear structures formed prior to onset of dna synthesis.herpes simplex virus 1 infected cell protein 22 (icp22) localizes in small, dense nuclear bodies of primate cells early in infection and in the more diffuse replicative complexes after the onset of dna synthesis. ul4, a gamma2 protein, localizes in cytoplasm and in the small nuclear structures containing icp22 but not in replicative complexes. in rabbit skin cells, both icp22 and ul4 localize in the dense nuclear bodies late in infection. the results suggest that the small nuclear structures per ...199910233976
icp22 and the ul13 protein kinase are both required for herpes simplex virus-induced modification of the large subunit of rna polymerase ii.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) infection alters the phosphorylation of the large subunit of rna polymerase ii (rnap ii), resulting in the depletion of the hypophosphorylated and hyperphosphorylated forms of this polypeptide (known as iia and iio, respectively) and induction of a novel, alternatively phosphorylated form (designated iii). we previously showed that the hsv-1 immediate-early protein icp22 is involved in this phenomenon, since induction of iii and depletion of iia are deficient ...199910364308
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