the trigeminal ganglion is a location for equine herpesvirus 1 latency and reactivation in the horse.four specific pathogen-free ponies were infected intranasally with equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and two were similarly infected with an ehv-1 thymidine kinase deletion mutant. the primary infections were characterized by a transient fever accompanied by virus shedding into nasal mucus and viraemia. no virus was detected in clinical specimens after 15 days post-infection. two months later a reactivation stimulus was administered to all six ponies and only the four that had been previously inocula ...19948046404
expression of equine herpesvirus type 1 glycoprotein gp14 in escherichia coli and in insect cells: a comparative study on protein processing and humoral immune responses.the extracellular portion (amino acids 1 to 844) of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein gp14, the homologue of gb of herpes simplex virus, was expressed in escherichia coli and in insect cells using a recombinant baculovirus. immunoblot analysis revealed that the recombinant e. coli expressed a fusion protein of m(r) 135k which was composed of the truncated gp14 and the maltose-binding protein (mbp) provided by the vector and a 90k protein lacking the mbp moiety. both proteins wer ...19948046406
rapid, single-step differentiation of equid herpesviruses 1 and 4 from clinical material using the polymerase chain reaction and virus-specific primers.sets of primers were designed which enabled specific amplification of homologous regions of the glycoprotein c and gene 76 genetic loci of equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4). the resultant virus-specific polymerase chain reaction (pcr) products arising from each loci could be discriminated easily on the basis of size on an agarose gel, allowing rapid differentiation of the two equine herpesviruses. specificity of the amplifications were confirmed by southern hybridization and restric ...19948051234
identification and initial characterization of the ir6 protein of equine herpesvirus 1.the ir6 gene of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is a novel gene that maps within each inverted repeat (ir), encodes a potential protein of 272 amino acids, and is expressed as a 1.2-kb rna whose synthesis begins at very early times (1.5 h) after infection and continues throughout the infection cycle (c. a. breeden, r. r. yalamanchili, c.f. colle, and d.j. o'callaghan, virology 191:649-660,1992). to identify the ir6 protein and ascertain its properties, we generated an ir6-specific polyclonal antise ...19948057419
large and small subunits of the aujeszky's disease virus ribonucleotide reductase: nucleotide sequence and putative structure.we determined the entire dna sequence of two adjacent open reading frames of aujeszky's disease virus encoding ribonucleotide reductase genes with the intergenic sequence of 9 bp. from the sequence analysis we deduce that orfs encode large and small subunits, with sizes of 835 and 303 amino acids, respectively. amino acid sequence comparison of adv rr2 with that of equine herpesvirus type 1, bovine herpesvirus type 1, hsv-1 and varicella zoster virus revealed that 48% of amino acids represent cl ...19948086454
nucleotide sequence and characterization of the feline herpesvirus type 1 immediate early gene.we report the nucleotide sequence of feline herpesvirus type 1 (fhv-1) immediate early (ie) gene encoding a homologue to the icp4 protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 and its flanking sequences. when we examined the regulatory function of the fhv-1 ie gene product by using the transient transfection assay with an effector plasmid expressing the fhv-1 ie gene in combination with chimeric various promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter constructs, the product was able to transactivat ...19948091674
cross-hybridization of equid herpesvirus-2 (ehv-2) and herpes simplex virus-1 (hsv-1) genes to equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1).in contrast to previous findings, the ab4 isolate of equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) was shown to share homology with the g9 isolate of equid herpesvirus-2 (ehv-2). using southern blotting and stringent hybridization conditions, a significant proportion of this cross-hybridization was identified by the immediate-early gene-3 (ie-3) probe from herpes simplex virus-1 (hsv-1). the hsv-1 ul48 gene probe (encoding the ie gene transactivating protein vmw65, which is also known as alpha-tif or vp16) was us ...19938103247
a nested pcr for the detection and differentiation of ehv-1 and ehv-4.the nested pcr method was applied for the detection and direct differentiation of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and type 4 (ehv-4). primer pairs were chosen from the glycoprotein b (gb) coding region of each serotype. the outer and inner ehv-1 primer pairs were type-specific, whereas the outer ehv-4 primer pair amplified ehv-1 and ehv-4 dna and was therefore suitable for the detection of both virus types in a single sample. however, the nested ehv-4 primer pair was type-specific. the advanta ...19938106604
molecular evolution of herpesviruses: genomic and protein sequence comparisons.phylogenetic reconstruction of herpesvirus evolution is generally founded on amino acid sequence comparisons of specific proteins. these are relevant to the evolution of the specific gene (or set of genes), but the resulting phylogeny may vary depending on the particular sequence chosen for analysis (or comparison). in the first part of this report, we compare 13 herpesvirus genomes by using a new multidimensional methodology based on distance measures and partial orderings of dinucleotide relat ...19948107249
the equine herpesvirus type 1 glycoprotein homologous to herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein m is a major constituent of the virus particle.glycoprotein 45 is a major envelope glycoprotein of equine herpesvirus type 1. the gene encoding this protein is located between map units 0.615 and 0.636 on the virus genome and evidence has suggested that it is encoded by gene 52, one of four genes within this region. using pcr we have amplified gene 52 and subsequently cloned it into a mammalian expression vector under the control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate early gene promoter. the gene was expressed in cos-7 cells and its product ...19948113768
the complete dna sequence and the genetic organization of the short unique region (us) of the bovine herpesvirus type 1 (st strain).the dna sequence of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1) st strain (bhv-1.2 subtype) entire unique short (us) region and part of adjacent flanking sequences of the inverted repeats was determined. the bhv-1 st us region is 9745 bp in size and has a 70.5% g + c content. eight potential open reading frames (orfs) longer than 100 amino acids and designated orf1 to orf8 were identified on this sequence. seven of these had counterparts in the us of herpes simplex type 1 (hsv-1), pseudorabies virus (prv) ...19948122370
the open reading frames 1, 2, 71, and 75 are nonessential for the replication of equine herpesvirus type 1 in vitro.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) strain ab4 has five genes, 1, 2, 67, 71, and 75, which have no homologues in any of the herpesviruses sequenced to date; i.e., they are unique to ehv-1. the functions of these unique genes are not known. to study their role in the virus life cycle, we have constructed four independent mutants in which the majority of the coding sequences of genes 1, 2, 71, and 75 has been deleted and replaced by the escherichia coli lacz gene. mutant ed1 has a deletion of 508 bp ...19948122373
identification of a dimerization domain in the c-terminal segment of the ie110 transactivator protein from herpes simplex virus.the 775-amino-acid ie110 (or icp0) phosphoprotein of herpes simplex virus (hsv) functions as an accessory transcription factor during the lytic cycle and plays a critical role in reactivation from latent infection. by immunofluorescence analysis, ie110 localizes in a novel pattern consisting of several dozen spherical punctate granules in the nuclei of dna-transfected cells. we constructed a hybrid version of ie110 that contained an epitope-tagged domain from the n terminus of the hsv ie175 prot ...19948151788
cloning and expression of an equine herpesvirus 1 origin-binding protein.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is an important pathogen of horses and is closely related to several important human pathogens, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) and varicella-zoster virus. the ehv-1 genome contains open reading frames similar in sequence to the hsv-1 replication genes. pcr was used to clone ehv-1 gene 53, which is similar in sequence to the hsv-1 ul9 gene. the gene 53 product has regions of striking similarity to the hsv-1 ul9 and vzv gene 51 products. in vitro ...19948189505
helicase-primase complex of herpes simplex virus type 1: a mutation in the ul52 subunit abolishes primase activity.the ul52 gene product of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) comprises one subunit of a 3-protein helicase-primase complex that is essential for replication of viral dna. the functions of the individual subunits of the complex are not known with certainty, although it is clear that the ul8 subunit is not required for either helicase or primase activity. examination of the predicted amino acid sequence of the ul5 gene reveals the existence of conserved helicase motifs; it seems likely, therefore, ...19948189507
sequences of the ribonucleotide reductase-encoding genes of equine herpesvirus 4.the equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) genes encoding the two subunits of the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (rr) were cloned and their nucleotide (nt) sequences determined. the large subunit (rr1) is predicted to comprise 789 amino acids (aa), which compares with lengths of 790, 775 and 1137 aa for the rr1 proteins encoded by equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) gene 21, varicella zoster virus (vzv) gene 19 and herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) ul39, respectively. in common with vzv rr1, the ehv-4 rr1 pro ...19948206376
unusual phosphorylation sequence in the gpiv (gi) component of the varicella-zoster virus gpi-gpiv glycoprotein complex (vzv ge-gi complex).varicella-zoster virus (vzv) glycoprotein gpiv, to be renamed vzv gi, forms a heterodimer with glycoprotein gpi (ge) which functions as an fc receptor in virus-infected cells. like vzv gpi (ge), this viral glycoprotein is phosphorylated in cell culture during biosynthesis. in this report, we investigated the nature and specificity of the phosphorylation event involving vzv gpiv (gi). phosphoamino acid analysis indicated that gpiv (gi) was modified mainly on serine residues. to identify the preci ...19948207795
identification and characterization of the icp22 protein of equine herpesvirus 1.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) homolog of herpes simplex virus type 1 icp22 is differently expressed from the fourth open reading frame of the inverted repeat (ir4) as a 1.4-kb early mrna and a 1.7-kb late mrna which are 3' coterminal (v. r. holden, r. r. yalamanchili, r. n. harty, and d. j. o'callaghan, j. virol. 66:664-673, 1992). to extend the characterization of ir4 at the protein level, the synthesis and intracellular localization of the ir4 protein were investigated. antiserum raised aga ...19948207808
immunological characterization of the feline herpesvirus-1 glycoprotein b and analysis of its deduced amino acid sequence.feline herpesvirus 1 (fhv-1) is an important viral pathogen of cats. like other alphaherpesviruses, fhv-1 contains a hsv-1 glycoprotein b (gb) homolog. in this study, monospecific antisera to hsv-1 gb reacted with three fhv-1 proteins (100, 64, and 58 kda) present in virion lysates by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analyses. reduced stringency hybridization experiments using a hsv-1 gb probe localized the fhv-1 gb gene to a 9.6-kb sa/l fragment in the unique long region of the genome. northe ...19938212548
identification of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus gene encoding an immunogenic protein with a predicted m(r) of 32 kilodaltons.the nucleotide sequence of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus (iltv) gene which maps immediately upstream from the glycoprotein 60 (gp60) gene was determined. the gene, designated p32, encodes a predicted polypeptide of 298 amino acids with an estimated m(r) of 32,000 daltons. the predicted protein sequence has four potential n-glycosylation sites and a signal sequence at the n-terminal region. amino acid residues in the nh2-terminal region of the p32 protein exhibit similarity to glycoprotei ...19938212855
a dot immunobinding assay in comparison with the gel diffusion test for the detection of equine herpesvirus-1 antigen from field samples.the authors describe a rapid and simple dot immunobinding assay (dia) for detection and identification of equine herpesvirus-1 antigen in field samples from cases of abortion, stillbirth, perinatal foal mortality and paralysis. the assay employs a nitrocellulose membrane to which antigen is adsorbed as a dot. antigen is identified as a coloured dot using a procedure based on the principle of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). in all, 61 samples were tested by dia and the test was compare ...19938219342
detection and identification of equine herpesvirus-1 and -4 by polymerase chain reaction.a rapid method for detection and identification of equine herpesvirus-1 and -4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) was developed using polymerase chain reaction (pcr). primers for pcr were designed from aligned nucleotide sequences of glycoprotein b genes of ehv-1 and ehv-4 to amplify specific regions for ehv-1 or ehv-4 or a common region of both viruses. by using type specific primer mixture, amplified fragments were identified as ehv-1 or ehv-4 in a one-step reaction. we have applied this technique on specimens ...19938236780
effect of a booster vaccination against influenza and equine herpes virus on cardio-respiratory adjustments to strenuous exercise and training in thoroughbred horses.this study was conducted in order to assess whether exercise- and training-induced cardio-respiratory adjustments are modified during the 10-day period which follows a booster vaccination with an oily adjuvanted inactivated vaccine against influenza and equine herpesvirus-1 (equiffa). nine healthy vaccinated thoroughbred horses were used. six were revaccinated and three were kept as control. all the horses completed a standardised exercise test (set) that was repeated 4 times, i.e. 10 (set1) and ...19938237183
dna sequence of a gene cluster in the equine herpesvirus-4 genome which contains a newly identified herpesvirus gene encoding a membrane protein.complete dna sequences for the equine herpesvirus-4 (ehv-4) genes analogous to equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) genes 8, 9, 10, and 11, varicella zoster virus (vzv) genes 7, 8, 9 a, and 9, and herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) genes ul51, ul50, ul49a, and ul49 are presented. the ehv-4 gene corresponding to ehv-1 gene 10/vzv gene 9a/hsv-1 ul49a is of particular interest in that it is a newly identified herpesvirus gene whose product demonstrates features characteristic of membrane-inserted proteins ...19938240007
interactions between equine herpesvirus type 1 and equine herpesvirus type 4: t cell responses in a murine infection model.interactions involving the immune responses to equine herpesvirus types 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) were studied in a murine infection model. when mice were inoculated intranasally with ehv-1, virus replication occurred in the respiratory tract and clinical signs were produced. in contrast, mice that were similarly inoculated with ehv-4 produced no evidence of virus replication and showed no clinical signs. when mice that had been inoculated with live ehv-4 were challenged 1 month later with ehv-1 ...19938245851
[recent information about the etiopathogenesis of paretic-paralytic forms of herpesvirus infection in horses].from spring 1990 to summer 1991 we investigated 21 horses with clinical symptoms of ehv-infection by means of serological and virological methods including dna-hybridization to identify the causative agents. the results indicated that, as already reported by us, ehv4 may also cause the paralytic form of the infection. the possibility of double infection with ehv4 and ehv1 cannot be excluded. in 3 out of 21 affected horses we could investigate brain tissue and/or spinal fluid by dotblot hybridiza ...19938248905
transcriptional control of the equine herpesvirus 1 immediate early gene.transient expression assays measuring induction of an equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) immediate early (ie) promoter construct, pie beta gal, were used to examine trans-induction of the ie gene (ir1) promoter by superinfection with intact ehv-1 (kentucky a strain), uv-inactivated ehv-1, or ehv-1 stocks highly enriched for defective interfering particles (dips), and by cotransfection with plasmids containing ehv-1 dna fragments. our results confirm reports by others in that the ie promoter can be ind ...19938249301
association of microbiologic flora with clinical, endoscopic, and pulmonary cytologic findings in foals with distal respiratory tract infection.undifferentiated distal respiratory tract disease (nasal discharge, cough, pneumonia) in foals (1 to 8 months old) is a burdensome economic problem on breeding farms; yet, the infective agents associated with these episodes have not been well described. possible causes of these episodes of illness were investigated by culturing specimens of proximal and distal airways of clinically diseased foals (n = 101), prior to any treatment, for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and viruses (rhinoviruses, equ ...19938250386
equid herpesviruses 1 and 4 encode functional homologs of the herpes simplex virus type 1 virion transactivator protein, vp16.the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) tegument protein vp16 is a potent transcriptional inducer of immediate-early gene expression, comprising an n-terminal domain involved in binding dna linked to an acidic transactivating c-terminal domain. the gene encoding the counterpart of this protein in equid herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) was sequenced. comparisons with vp16 and the homologous proteins of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and varicella-zoster virus (vzv) showed that a region in the n-terminal domai ...19948259676
a novel arrangement of zinc-binding residues and secondary structure in the c3hc4 motif of an alpha herpes virus protein family.a highly conserved, cysteine-rich region plays a crucial role in the function of a family of regulatory proteins encoded by alpha herpes viruses. the so-called c3hc4 motif spans approximately 60 residues and has been predicted to bind zinc. this motif occurs in a number of other viral and cellular proteins, many of which appear to be involved in some aspect of the regulation of gene expression. we have cloned and expressed in bacteria a portion of immediate-early protein vmw110 of herpes simplex ...19938263911
herpesvirus icp18.5 and dna-binding protein genes are conserved in equine herpesvirus-1.the genome of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) contained three open reading frames (orfs) in a 3.9 kbp bamhi-smai fragment at 0.38-0.41 map units in the long unique region. the most 5' orf encoded the carboxy terminus of a protein with 45-55 percent amino acid homology to the dna-binding proteins (icp8-dbp) of four other alpha-herpesviruses. the middle orf translated to a polypeptide of 775 residues with 43-55% homology to the icp18.5 proteins. the most 3' orf encoded the ehv-1 glycoprotein b (gb) g ...19938279122
inter- and intra-strain genomic variation in equine herpesvirus type 1 isolates.restriction enzyme digests of dna from 22 unselected isolates of ehv-1 were analysed by hybridization with cloned dna fragments covering the genome. in addition to a small amount of inter-strain variation, heterogeneity within strains was observed, caused by loss of specific restriction endonuclease sites in the dna of a proportion of the virus particles of any one stock. fifteen strains demonstrated the same intra-strain variation involving loss of the bamhi l-m site which was shown to lie with ...19948279952
comparison of the restriction patterns of equine herpesvirus (ehv-1) strains isolated for eight years in france.the equine herpes viruses strains (ehv) isolated from organs of aborted foetuses or from nasal swabs have been analysed by comparison of their restriction endonucleases patterns using two enzymes, bam hi and pst i. the majority of the clinical samples came from the west part of france ("normandie") after abortions or respiratory disorders. all the viruses isolated were ehv-1 strains whose patterns show considerable homogeneity although some differences can be described. the genomic dnas of the s ...19938284964
effects of phosphonylmethoxyalkyl derivatives studied with a murine model for abortion induced by equine herpesvirus 1.(s)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine (hpmpa) and (s)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine (hpmpc) were tested in a mouse model for equine herpesvirus 1-induced abortion. hpmpa, given twice daily, reduced virus replication, but the compound was embryotoxic. a single dose of hpmpc, however, reduced the incidence of abortion and transfer of virus to the fetuses while producing no obvious toxic effects.19938285638
[vaccination against rhinopneumonia]. 19948291048
the effect of ehv-1 infection upon circulating leucocyte populations in the natural equine has been suggested that ehv-1 infection may perturb immune responsiveness in the natural equine host. the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is not clear, but disturbances of circulating leucocyte populations could contribute. in order to objectively assess the nature of the haematological changes provoked by ehv-1 infection, two groups of conventionally-maintained welsh mountain ponies were challenge-infected intra-nasally with the ab4 isolate of ehv-1. these groups were controlled by simi ...19938296444
ehv-1 infection in twin equine fetuses. 19938303812
the horserace betting levy board's code of practice for equine viral arteritis for the 1994 breeding season.the horserace betting levy board formulates codes of practice for the control of contagious equine metritis and other equine bacterial venereal diseases, and equine viral arteritis and equid herpesvirus 1. this year's codes have just been published and the code of practice for eva, reproduced below, has been substantially amended following the recent outbreak in the uk. the code is intended for use by veterinary surgeons and breeders of thoroughbred and non-thoroughbred horses. the hblb states t ...19938310626
analysis of the nucleotide sequence of five genes at the left end of the unique short region of the equine herpesvirus 4 ri fragment g of equine herpesvirus 4 strain 405/76 (ehv 4.405/76) is located at the left end of the unique short region close to or extending into the internal repeat region of the prototypic arrangement of the genome. the nucleotide sequence of two subclones designated hs and g 19, contiguous within eco ri fragment g, was determined for each strand by obtaining a nested set of deletion clones of these double-stranded dna plasmids. analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the two s ...19938380320
the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) ul3 gene, an icp27 homolog, is necessary for full activation of gene expression directed by an ehv-1 late promoter.we have previously reported that the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) xbai g restriction fragment (nucleotides 1436 to 7943 relative to the left terminus of the ehv-1 genome [kentucky a strain]) is required in combination with the ehv-1 immediate-early (ie) gene to achieve significant activation of two representative ehv-1 late promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) recombinants in transient expression assays. in this report, we demonstrate that the xbai g-encoded ul3 gene (an icp27 homolo ...19938380457
an immunohistological study of the uterus of mares following experimental infection by equid herpesvirus 1.twelve welsh mountain pony mares in late gestation were infected intranasally with ehv-1 (ab4 isolate) at dose rates from 10(3) to 10(7.3) tcid50. this resulted in 3 cases of paresis, at days 9, 10 and 12 after inoculation, and 5 abortions, at days 6, 9, 18, 19 and 20. euthanasia was performed between days 6 and 21, with collection of uterine specimens for histopathology, virus isolation and immunoperoxidase staining from the pregnant horn, non-pregnant horn and body. ehv-1 replication in endome ...19938380768
cell-mediated antiviral response to equine herpesvirus type 1 demonstrated in a murine infection model by means of adoptive transfer of immune against equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection in a mouse model has been studied by means of delayed-type hypersensitivity (dth) and adoptive transfer of immune spleen cells. mice were found to develop a positive dth response to ehv-1 antigen which was sustained for several months after primary inoculation. the response was found to cross-react with ehv-4-derived antigen. immune cells (from mice primed with live or heat-inactivated ehv-1) conferred an enhanced dth response on rec ...19938381468
detection of antibodies against equine herpesvirus types 1 and 4 by using recombinant protein derived from an immunodominant region of glycoprotein b.the n-terminal fragment comprising residues +1 to +50 (gb1-50) of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein b was expressed as a glutathione s-transferase fusion protein in escherichia coli. recombinant gb1-50 (rgb1-50) was recognized in immunoblots by sera from rabbits immunized with ehv-1 and by convalescent-phase sera from horses with natural ehv-1 infections. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for monitoring antibody levels against ehv-1 was developed by using rgb1-50, and its ...19938381809
immediate-early transcription over covalently joined genome ends of bovine herpesvirus 1: the circ gene.herpesvirus genomes are linear molecules in virions. prior to replication in host cells, they form circular templates by unknown mechanisms. examining lytic infection with bovine herpesvirus 1, we observed immediate-early transcription over joined genome ends, which suggested that circles are present at the initial stage of infection. among the transcripts was a spliced immediate-early rna (1.5 kb) sharing exon 1 with previously described major immediate-early transcripts from the right genome e ...19938382298
transcriptional and translational analyses of the ul2 gene of equine herpesvirus 1: a homolog of ul55 of herpes simplex virus type 1 that is maintained in the genome of defective interfering particles.defective interfering particles (dips) of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1; kentucky a strain) mediate persistent infection. dna sequences at the l terminus, which contain the ul2 gene (homolog of ul55 of herpes simplex virus type 1 and open reading frame 3 of varicella-zoster virus) of standard ehv-1, have been shown to be highly conserved in all clones of the ehv-1 dip genome. the ul2 mrna was characterized by s1 nuclease analyses, which mapped the 5' and 3' termini of the 0.9-kb early ul2 mrna to ...19938383240
replication of equid herpesvirus-1 in the vaginal tunics of colts following local inoculation.equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1; ab4 isolate) was inoculated unilaterally into the cavum vaginale of four pony colts under general anaesthesia. the animals were monitored daily for evidence of scrotal or testicular swelling and euthanased electively on days 3, 4, 6 and 12 after infection. detailed pathological examination of the male genital tract was carried out. in animals examined at days 3 and 4 after infection, replication of ehv-1 was detected bilaterally in mesothelial and endothelial cells of ...19938384729
immunoprecipitation of viral polypeptides of equid herpesvirus 1 and 4 by serum from experimentally infected ponies.sera from two sibling groups of ponies experimentally infected with equid herpesvirus 1 or 4 (ehv-1 or 4) were used to investigate which viral polypeptides (vps) of ehv-1 and ehv-4 were recognised. recognition was detected as early as 8 d.p.i. and thereafter. the polypeptides of ehv-1 (labelled with 35s-methionine) immunoprecipitated (iip) by sera from both groups had mr of 148, 138, 123, 117, 110, 77-79, 70, 55, 49-50, 47, 40 and 35-37 kda respectively. of these vp148k (vp9 nucleocapsid) gave t ...19938384737
the pseudorabies virus host-shutoff homolog gene: nucleotide sequence and comparison with alphaherpesvirus protein counterparts.the virion host shutoff function (vhs) of many herpesviruses is required for inhibition of cellular gene expression in infected cells. this function corresponds to the ul41 open reading frame of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and homolog sequences have been found in other alphaherpesvirus, like hsv-2, varicella-zoster virus (vzv) and equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). in this work, we have cloned and sequenced a pseudorabies virus (prv) gene which is homologous to the vhs genes of the other ...19938384744
dna sequence and genetic organization of the unique short (us) region of the simian varicella virus genome.simian varicella virus (svv) infection of nonhuman primates is a model for the study of human varicella zoster virus (vzv) infections. the dna sequence of the entire svv unique short (us) region and adjacent flanking sequences of the inverted repeats were determined. the us region is 4904 bp in size and has a 60.9% a + t base composition. four potential open reading frames (orfs), designated svus 1, svus 2, svus 3, and svus 4, were identified and found to be remarkably similar in size, genetic c ...19938384754
dna sequence and transcriptional analyses of the region of the equine herpesvirus type 1 kentucky a strain genome encoding glycoprotein c.dna sequence and transcriptional analyses were performed on the region of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) genome (kya strain) (map units 0.129 to 0.152) encoding open reading frames (orfs) 15 and 16. orf16 encodes a homolog of glycoprotein c of hsv-1 (herpes simplex virus type 1), while orf15 corresponds in position to hsv-1 ul45 but exhibits no significant homology at the amino acid level. sequence analyses revealed that the ehv-1 gc orf of 468 amino acids and orf15 of 227 amino acids map ...19938384760
equid herpesvirus 1 infection in mice.when the hh1 strain of equid herpesvirus 1 was intranasally inoculated to mice, the virus propagated in mouse lungs and the animals showed clinical signs such as ruffled fur, hunched posture, depression and body weight loss. mice recovered from these signs by day 12 and cleared the virus from their lungs and produced antibody by 7th day after infection. these convalescent mice did not allow growth of the rechallenged virus. athymic nude mice, however, failed to clear the virus from their lungs. ...19938384894
use of an immunoperoxidase technique to detect equine herpesvirus-1 antigen in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded equine fetal indirect immunoperoxidase (ip) procedure using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex detection technique was developed to detect viral equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) antigen in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from aborted equine fetuses. the procedure was applied to liver, lung, and other tissues from 20 cases of confirmed or suspected ehv-1-induced abortions. specific staining was observed in tissue sections from ehv-1-infected fetuses. positive ip staining was present in tissues of 7 ...19938385497
the genomic diversity among equine herpesvirus-1 strains isolated in japan.the dnas from nine japanese field isolates of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) were analyzed by digestion with the restriction endonuclease bam hi and southern hybridization. comparing restriction profiles among the ehv-1 strains, there was no considerable difference between isolates before and after vaccine application, but some minor variations in the mobility of bam hi fragments were observed. to identify these variable fragments, all genomic dna sequences of the japanese prototype of ehv-1 have ...19938385910
sequence analysis of thymidine kinase-defective mutants of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1).we have amplified, cloned and sequenced the gene encoding the thymidine kinase (tk) of a wild-type strain (ab4) of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) and two mutants with defective tk activity isolated for resistance to penciclovir (pcv). one of the mutants, pr1, has suffered a 879-bp deletion which reduces the size of tk to 180 bp. the other mutant, pr3, has an adenine to cytosine mutation resulting in a lys38-->thr change. this mutation modifies the amino acid sequence of a domain involved in bindin ...19938387060
pathogenicity of a thymidine kinase-deficient mutant of equine herpesvirus 1 in mice and specific pathogen-free foals.both intranasal (i.n.) and intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation of mice with wild-type equine herpesvirus type 1 (wt ehv-1) caused clinical signs and mortality. virus could be recovered from target organs (turbinates, lungs and blood) for several days. by contrast, the thymidine kinase (tk)-deficient deletion mutant pr1 produced markedly less clinical disease following both i.n. and i.c. inoculation, and, in particular, no mortality occurred. pr1 did, however, establish productive infections followi ...19938388018
the identification of equid herpesvirus 1 in paraffin-embedded tissues from aborted fetuses by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry.paraffin-embedded organ samples from 28 aborted fetuses and three foals, partly archival and partly sampled in 1991, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and immunohistochemistry for the presence of dna and antigens, respectively, specific for equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1). virologic examination had been performed on 23 of the aborted fetuses. dna fragments specific for ehv-1 were identified by pcr, and ehv-1 antigens were identified in situ by immunohistochemistry, with an agreement ...19938389598
equine herpesvirus type 1 neurological disease and enterocolitis in mature standardbred horses. 19938389601
characterization of the myristylated polypeptide encoded by the ul1 gene that is conserved in the genome of defective interfering particles of equine herpesvirus 1.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1, kentucky a strain) preparations enriched for defective interfering particles (dips) can readily establish persistent infection. the ul1 gene, which is conserved in the genome of dips that mediate persistent infection, maps between nucleotides 1418 and 2192 (258 amino acids) from the l (long) terminus. ul1 has no homology with any known gene encoded by herpes simplex virus type 1 but has limited homology to open reading frame 2 of varicella-zoster virus and the "circ" ...19938389920
development of a dna probe for identification of bovine herpesvirus 4.a sensitive and specific dna probe for detection and identification of bovine herpesvirus 4 (bhv-4) was developed. cloned fragments from a library of hindiii fragments of the bhv-4 (dn-599) genome were labeled with 32p or digoxigenin and were tested for sensitivity and specificity in detecting viral dna by dot-blot hybridization. two probes were identified that detected 10 pg of purified viral dna, and detected viral dna in 0.001 micrograms of total dna extracted from bhv-4-infected cells. both ...19938391228
responses of ponies to equid herpesvirus-1 iscom vaccination and challenge with virus of the homologous experimental (iscom) vaccine previously shown to protect hamsters from lethal challenge with equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), was tested in horses. vaccination with ehv-1 iscoms induced serum antibodies to the major virus glycoproteins gp10, 13, 14, 17, 18 and 21/22a, whereas antibody responses to gp2 were weak or absent. high levels of virus neutralising antibody of long duration were induced, but did not prevent challenge infection with virus of the homologous strain. however, in the vaccinated ...19938393207
processing of the herpes simplex virus regulatory protein alpha 22 mediated by the ul13 protein kinase determines the accumulation of a subset of alpha and gamma mrnas and proteins in infected cells.we reported previously that the posttranslational processing associated with phosphorylation of the herpes simplex virus 1 infected-cell protein 22 (icp22), a regulatory protein, is encoded by ul13, a gene encoding a structural protein of the virion. we now report the following. (i) in cells infected with a mutant lacking ul13 (delta ul13), restricted infected cells accumulate reduced levels of the regulatory protein icp0 and several late viral proteins. identical reductions have been observed i ...19938393574
modulation of the serological response of specific pathogen-free (ehv-free) foals to ehv-1 by previous infection with ehv-4 or a tk-deletion mutant of ehv-1.ehv-1 was inoculated into specific pathogen-free (spf) foals in order to study uncomplicated primary responses. infection resulted in a strong serological response recognizing ehv-1-specific antigens; this contrasts with a previous publication where a weak response was recorded in spf animals. antibodies to ehv-1 were readily detected by four techniques (virus neutralization, complement fixation, western blots and immune precipitation), yet there was comparatively little cross-reaction to ehv-4 ...19938394686
identification and nucleotide sequence of a gene in feline herpesvirus type 1 homologous to the herpes simplex virus gene encoding the glycoprotein h.a gene encoding the glycoprotein h (gh) homologue of feline herpesvirus type 1 was identified and sequenced. it was located immediately downstream of the thymidine kinase gene within an ecori 6.6 kbp fragment. in addition, a partial ul21 homologous gene was located downstream of the gh homologous gene. the primary translation product of the gh homologous gene is predicted to consist of 821 amino acids with a molecular weight of 92.5 kda. it possesses several characteristics typical of transmembr ...19938394688
the equine herpesviruses.two viruses, ehv-1 and ehv-4, are now known to be responsible for disease conditions formerly considered caused by "equine rhinopneumonitis virus." although these viruses share several laboratory and clinical features, they differ in epidemiology and pathogenic potential. ehv-4 is primarily associated with clinical respiratory disease, whereas ehv-1 is more frequently isolated from aborted fetuses, sickly foals, and neurologic cases. both viruses frequently establish latent infections, but the r ...19938395324
the dna sequence of the equine herpesvirus 4 gene encoding glycoprotein gp17/18, the homologue of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein gd.the nucleotide sequence of the gene to the left of the gi gene of equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) was determined. the gene encodes a peptide of 402 amino acids with an unprocessed m(r) of 45,323. the predicted polypeptide has several features of a glycoprotein including a hydrophobic signal sequence, a membrane spanning domain and four potential n-linked glycosylation sites within the proposed external domain. the predicted amino acid sequence of ehv-4 gd shows 83% identity with that of equine herp ...19938397286
[equine rhinopneumonitis: molecular epidemiology and diagnosis by molecular probes prepared from organs].the authors briefly review the clinical forms of equine rhinopneumonitis and indicate changes in the nomenclature of equine herpesviral infections. the value of restriction profiles for epidemiological studies is described, taking as an example the strains of virus isolated in france. a technique is given for preparing molecular probes, as well as the application of these probes in direct diagnosis from biological specimens.19938400389
expression of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein d by using a recombinant baculovirus.glycoprotein d (gd) of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) was expressed at the surface of insect cells infected by a recombinant baculovirus. ehv-1 gd was detected as multiple forms (56, 52, and 48 kda) from 18 to 96 h postinfection. laboratory animals inoculated with the recombinant ehv-1 gd developed neutralizing antibody responses against both ehv-1 and ehv-4.19938411384
the promoter and transcriptional unit of a novel herpes simplex virus 1 alpha gene are contained in, and encode a protein in frame with, the open reading frame of the alpha 22 gene.the herpes simplex virus type 1 genome encodes a set of genes (alpha genes) expressed in the absence of de novo viral protein synthesis. earlier studies have shown that the product of the alpha 22 gene, a member of this set, is nucleotidylylated by casein kinase ii and phosphorylated by viral protein kinases encoded by ul13 and us3. mutants lacking the carboxyl-terminal domain starting with amino acid 200 exhibit reduced capacity to replicate in primary human cell strains or in cells of rodent d ...19968523523
expression of an equine herpesvirus 1 icp22/icp27 hybrid protein encoded by defective interfering particles associated with persistent infection.defective interfering (di) particles of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) are capable of mediating persistent infection (s. a. dauenhauer, r. a. robinson, and d. j. o'callaghan, j. gen. virol. 60:1-14, 1982; r. a. robinson, r. b. vance, and d. j. o'callaghan, j. virol. 36:204-219, 1980). sequence analysis of cloned di particle dna revealed that portions of two regulatory genes, icp22 (ir4) and icp27 (ul3), are linked in frame to form a unique hybrid open reading frame (orf). this hybrid orf, des ...19968523542
ehv-1-induced abortion in mice and its relationship to stage of gestation.the most important consequence of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection is abortion. the object of the present study was to characteristic further a murine ehv-1 abortion model and to make comparisons with the natural host with particular reference to the stage of gestation during which the infection occurs. balb/c mice at different stages of pregnancy were infected intranasally with ehv-1 (strain ab4); they suffered respiratory distress, weight loss, and other constitutional signs of infection ...19958525103
expression of small regions of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein c in escherichia coli.a series of truncated equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) glycoprotein c (gc) molecules was examined for use as serodiagnostic antigens for ehv1 and ehv4. small regions of ehv1 glycoprotein c, an immunodominant ehv1 glycoprotein, were expressed in escherichia coli as glutathione s-transferase (gst) fusion proteins using the bacterial expression vector pgex-2t. sera obtained from horses, including sera from specific-pathogen-free (spf) foals, following exposure to either ehv1, ehv4 or both viruses were u ...19958545955
characteristics of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoproteins expressed in insect cells.a series of recombinant baculoviruses containing genes for glycoproteins c, d, h and l of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) have been constructed, and the ehv-1 products characterised by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. the ehv-1 glycoproteins expressed in insect cells were similar but not identical in apparent sizes to those expressed in ehv-1 infected mammalian cells. each of the ehv-1 products was recognised by convalescent equine sera, indicating that they were all targets for an equine im ...19958545956
high molecular weight polypeptide bands specific for equine herpesvirus 4.serum neutralisation (sn) and immunoblotting were used in attempts to distinguish between natural infections with the closely related viruses equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and equine herpes-virus 4 (ehv-4). horse sera (n = 323) collected in 1990 from studs with no experience of ehv-1 abortions as well as 197 sera collected in 1992 from studs with a history of ehv-1 abortions were tested by sn. the two groups differed in the proportion with measurable ehv-1 antibody, the 1992 group being significa ...19958545957
characterization of phocid herpesvirus-1 and -2 as putative alpha- and gammaherpesviruses of north american and european study the relationships between herpesvirus recently isolated from different pinniped species, antigenic and genetic analyses were performed. first, herpesviruses isolated from north american harbour seals (phoca vitulina), a californian sea lion (zalophus californianus) and a european grey seal (halichoerus grypus) were examined in an enzyme immunoassay (eia) with a panel of monoclonal antibodies which had previously been shown to allow typing of herpesviruses from european harbour seals int ...19968558126
gene organization in the ul region and inverted repeats of the canine herpesvirus genome.restriction mapping and the determination of scattered nucleotide sequences have permitted a description of the global structure and evolutionary affinities of the canine herpesvirus (chv) genome. the global structure closely resembles that of the totally sequenced genomes of varicella-zoster virus and equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) in having a 37 bp inverted repeat flanking a long unique region (ul) of approximately 100,000 bp, and a 10,100-10,700 bp inverted repeat flanking a short unique region ...19968558127
n-terminal sequence analysis of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoproteins d and b and evidence for internal cleavage of the gene 71 product.signal cleavage sites of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoproteins d and b (gd and gb) and an endoproteolytic cleavage site of ehv-1 gb were determined by n-terminal amino acid sequencing and compared with known cleavage sites of homologues in other herpesvirus. signal cleavage of ehv-1 gd occurred between arg35 and ala36 in a region of basic amino acids resembling the endoproteolytic cleavage sites of viral glycoproteins, nine amino acids downstream of the predicted site, while ehv-1 gb was cl ...19968558130
the prevalence of latent equid herpesviruses in the tissues of 40 abattoir horses.equid herpesviruses 1 or 4 (ehv-1 or -4) were isolated by cocultivation from 60% of 40 horses examined at slaughter. the lymph nodes draining the respiratory tract were the most common source of virus. ehv-1 or ehv-4 was never isolated from the trigeminal ganglia (slg). the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) detected virus in 87.5% of bronchial lymph nodes and a similar level in the trigeminal ganglia that were examined. by both assays approximately one third of the positive animals harboured both ...19948575377
role of t-cells, virus neutralising antibodies and complement-mediated antibody lysis in the immune response against equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) infection of c3h (h-2k) and balb/c (h-2d) mice.the suitability of c3h (h-2k) and balb/c (h-2d) mice for use as small animal models to study immunity to ehv-1 was assessed. an in vitro t cell response mediated by both cd4+ and cd8+ t cells was detected both during the acute phase of infection and after challenge with a second dose of ehv-1 at two months in lymphocyte populations taken from the spleens of both types of mouse. the responses were apparent until at least 61 days after the primary inoculation. after challenge, t cells from mice pr ...19958588092
growth and protective potentials of attenuated strains of equid herpesvirus 1 in the lungs of mice.attenuated equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strains with different passage histories in bovine kidney cells (bkc), i.e. bk77, bk161, bk271 and bk343, were examined for their growth in mouse lungs after intranasal inoculation. bk77 and bk161 were recovered from lungs with almost the same titres, and were found to be about 100 times lower than that of the parent hh1 strain. the growth abilities of high-passaged bk271 and bk343 were markedly reduced. although partial growth of bk343 in the lungs of athy ...19958594851
the role of the gene 71 product in the life cycle of equine herpesvirus 1.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) gene 71 encodes a heavily o-glycosylated 192 kda protein with no identified herpesvirus homologue. isolation of a deletion mutant in gene 71 (ed71) demonstrated that its protein product is not essential in vitro. to investigate the role of the gene 71 protein in the virus life cycle, ed71 has been characterized in vitro in terms of cellular adsorption, penetration, egress and transmission compared to wild-type and revertant virus. ed71 virions adsorbed to cells ...19968601787
analyses of restriction fragment patterns (rfps) and pathogenicity in baby mice of equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) strains circulating in danish horses.twenty-five strains of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and one strain of equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) isolated from material from various clinical cases in denmark, together with reference ehv-1 and ehv-4 strains, were compared by restriction fragment pattern (rfp) analysis and inoculation of baby mice. the rfp analyses revealed that all ehv-1 strains belonged to genome type ip. four fetal isolates exhibited genomic characteristics that have been suggested as specific markers of the attenuated stra ...19958604552
the equine herpesvirus 1 ir6 protein is nonessential for virus growth in vitro and modified by serial virus passage in cell culture.the ir6 protein of different plaque isolates from three passages of the equine herpesvirus 1 strain rac was investigated. southern blot and dna sequence analyses revealed that plaque isolates from the 12th passage (racl11 and racl22) retained both copies of the ir6 gene, whereas two different genotypes were observed by the 185th passage: racm24 still harbored both copies of the ir6 gene, whereas racm36 deleted one of the two copies. in the 256th passage (rach), both copies of the ir6 gene were a ...19968610435
evidence for involvement of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein b in cell-cell fusion.monoclonal antibodies specific for equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoproteins (gb, gd, gp2 and a cleaved translation product of gene 71) were tested for ability to inhibit cell-cell fusion as measured by syncytium formation in ehv-1 infected cell cultures. syncytium formation was inhibited by a complement-dependent neutralising antibody (7b10) which recognised the large subunit of ehv-1 gb. this indicated that ehv-1 gb, in common with gb homologues of herpes simplex virus and other herpesviruses ...19968629945
identification and characterization of the pseudorabies virus ul3.5 protein, which is involved in virus egress.alphaherpesvirus genomes exhibit a generally collinear gene arrangement, and most of their genes are conserved among the different members of the subfamily. among the exceptions is the ul3.5 gene of pseudorabies virus (prv) for which positional homologs have been detected in the genomes of varicella-zoster virus, equine herpesvirus 1, and bovine herpesvirus 1 but not in the genomes of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. to identify and characterize the predicted 224 amino acid ul3.5 protein of p ...19968648685
properties of the protein encoded by the ul32 open reading frame of herpes simplex virus 1.the functions previously assigned to the essential herpes simplex virus 1 ul32 protein were in cleavage and/or packaging of viral dna and in maturation and/or translocation of viral glycoproteins to the plasma membrane. the amino acid sequence predicts n-linked glycosylation sites and sequences conserved in aspartyl proteases and in zinc-binding proteins. we report the following. (i) the 596-amino-acid ul32 protein accumulated predominantly in the cytoplasm of infected cells but was not metaboli ...19968648731
the equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein gp21/22a, the herpes simplex virus type 1 gm homolog, is involved in virus penetration and cell-to-cell spread of virions.experiments to analyze the function of the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein gm homolog were conducted. to this end, an rk13 cell line (tcgm) that stably expressed ehv-1 gm was constructed. proteins with apparent m(r)s of 46,000 to 48,000 and 50,000 to 55,000 were detected in tcgm cells with specific anti-gm antibodies, and the gm protein pattern was indistinguishable from that in cells infected with ehv-1 strain racl11. a viral mutant (l11deltagm) bearing an escherichia coli lacz gene i ...19968648751
sequence and expression of a bovine herpesvirus-1 gene homologous to the glycoprotein k-encoding gene of herpes simplex the bovine herpes virus-1 (bhv-1) genome, a gene equivalent to the glycoprotein k (gk)-encoding gene of other herpesviruses was identified and sequenced. the primary translation product is predicted to comprise 338 amino acids (aa) and to exhibit a molecular mass of 37.5 kda. it possesses characteristics typical for membrane glycoproteins including a potential cleavable signal sequence, three transmembrane domains and two potential n-linked glycosylation sites. comparison to the gk proteins o ...19968654942
localization of the us protein kinase of equine herpesvirus type 1 is affected by the cytoplasmic structures formed by the noval ir6 protein.previous work revealed that the us (unique short) segment of equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1), like that of other alphaherpesviruses, encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase (pk). experiments were carried out to identify the pk encoded by the ehv-1 eus2 gene (orf 69) and to ascertain its time course of synthesis and cellular localization. western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses of ehv-1-infected cell extracts using a pk-specific polyclonal antibody generated against a bacterially expres ...19968661393
prolonged gene expression and cell survival after infection by a herpes simplex virus mutant defective in the immediate-early genes encoding icp4, icp27, and icp22.very early in infection, herpes simplex virus (hsv) expresses four immediate-early (ie) regulatory proteins, icp4, icp0, icp22, and icp27. the systematic inactivation of sets of the ie proteins in cis, and the subsequent phenotypic analysis of the resulting mutants, should provide insights into how these proteins function in the hsv life cycle and also into the specific macromolecular events that are altered or perturbed in cells infected with virus strains blocked very early in infection. this ...19968709264
molecular studies of the acute infection, latency and reactivation of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) in the mouse model.the murine intranasal (i.n.) infection model was used to study the molecular distribution of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) during acute infection, latency and following a reactivation stimulus. after inoculation, infectious virus was detected in lungs, nasal turbinates, brains and olfactory bulbs during the acute phase. a nested pcr (npcr) readily detected virus in these tissues and, in addition, virus was detected in spleens and (in the second round of npcr) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells ...19968725119
the expression of the proteins of equine herpesvirus 1 which share homology with herpes simplex virus 1 glycoproteins h and l.several expression systems were used in studies aimed at characterizing the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein h and l homologues of hsv-1 (ehv-1 gh and gl) and the products were compared to the authentic proteins synthesized in virus infected cells. using an in vitro transcription/translation system two gh species were detected (an unprocessed 89 kda and a processed 116 kda product). three low molecular weight proteins were found in the case of gl (21.8 kda, 22.9 kda and 26.9 kda) and th ...19968725124
a comparison of equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) vascular lesions in the early versus late pregnant equine uterus.four welsh mountain pony mares at 3 months of gestation and one mare at 5 months were inoculated intranasally with equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1: ab4 isolate) at doses of 10(5) to 10(6.6) tcid50. all five mares became infected, but no cases of paresis or abortion occurred. on days 8, 9, 11, 12 (3-month-pregnant mares) and 13 (5-month-pregnant mare) after infection, a detailed examination of the pregnant uterus was made. small numbers of vascular lesions with ehv-1 antigen expression in endothelial ...19968762581
residence and recruitment of leucocytes to the equine lung after ehv-1 infection.this study characterised bronchoalveolar leucocytes collected by lavage from five susceptible and two immune ponies before and after nebulised aerosol infection with equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1). leucocyte counts and lymphocyte phenotypic analyses were performed using either differential staining or an indirect immunofluorescence assay with monoclonal antibodies specific for equine (eq) cd4, cd5, cd8 and b lymphocytes. after ehv-1 infection, significant changes developed: a transient neutrophilia ...19968807773
in vitro cytotoxic activity of equine lymphocytes on equine herpesvirus-1 infected allogenic fibroblasts.the objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a technique to analyze the in vitro cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes from adult horses against equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infected allogenic equine dermal fibroblasts (edf); (2) evaluate the ability of a 72-h in vitro incubation with interleukin-2 (il-2) to enhance the lymphocytic cytolytic activity against ehv-1 infected edf; (3) compare the cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes isolated from pregnant mares and non-pregnant mares against ehv-1 in ...19968809999
the detection of latency-associated transcripts of equine herpesvirus 1 in ganglionic neurons.neural tissues from specific pathogen-free ponies that had been experimentally infected with equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) were analysed by in situ hybridization. digoxigenin-labelled ehv-1 bamhi fragments spanning almost the entire ehv-1 genome were hybridized to rna in tissue sections from latently infected trigeminal ganglia. the bamhi e fragment detected ehv-1 rna antisense to gene 63 (hsv-1 homologue icp0) in a small number of neurons. sixteen other bamhi fragments gave negative results in 2 ...19958847517
equine herpesvirus-1 strain kya, a candidate vaccine strain, reduces viral titers in mice challenged with a pathogenic strain, racl.the equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) strain kentucky a (kya) has a long history of repeated passage either in vivo in the syrian hamster or in vitro in mouse l-m fibroblast tissue culture. this repeated passage in cells other than those of the natural host has caused genomic alterations of the kya chromosome resulting in deletion of several genes or portions of open reading frames (orfs). this report presents in vivo data from a mouse model of ehv-1 infection demonstrating the attenuated nature ...19968864201
the production of a truncated form of baculovirus expressed ehv-1 glycoprotein c and its role in protection of c3h (h-2kk) mice against virus challenge.a truncated form of the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein c (gc) gene was expressed in baculovirus. the gc signal sequence was substituted with the honeybee melittin signal sequence and the transmembrane region was replaced with a histidine tag. the recombinant virus produced high levels of gc in both the cells and supernatants of infected cells. the protein was present by 24 h and maximal secretion occurred at 96 h post-infection. the recombinant protein was antigenically authentic as s ...19968879139
the highly o-glycosylated glycoprotein gp2 of equine herpesvirus 1 is encoded by gene 71.there have been conflicting reports regarding the gene assignment of the high-molecular-mass envelope glycoprotein gp2 (gp300) of equine herpesvirus 1. here, we provide an unequivocal demonstration that gp2 is encoded by gene 71. gp2 that was purified with a defining monoclonal antibody was cleaved internally to yield a 42-kda protein encoded by gene 71. amino acid composition data and n-terminal sequence analysis of a tryptic peptide identified gp2 as the product of equine herpesvirus 1 gene 71 ...19968892952
expression and characterization of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein d in mammalian cell lines.equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein d (ehv-1 gd) expressed constitutively in mammalian cell lines had similar electrophoretic mobility to gd produced in ehv-1 infected cells but lacked a possibly complexed higher molecular weight form seen in the latter. recombinant gd was n-terminally cleaved at the same site as gd in ehv-1 infected cells and expression was associated with enhanced levels of cell-cell fusion, indicating a role for ehv-1 gd in cell-to-cell transmission of virus.19968893800
alterations in the equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) strain rach during attenuation.the equine herpesvirus type-1 modified live-vaccine strain rach (256th passage on porcine embryonic kidney cells) was investigated by restriction-enzyme analysis and compared to representative plaque isolates of the 12th passage (racl11, racl22) and 185th passage (racm24, racm36). the restriction patterns of all rac plaque isolates differed compared with reference strain ab4. the left ul terminus was shortened by 0.1 kbp and a missing bamhi site led to the fusion of the f and t fragments. in som ...19968919964
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