TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
isolation of equine herpesvirus-1 mutants in the presence of (s)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine: demonstration of resistance in vitro and in vivo.the compound (s)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine (hpmpa) had been previously shown to be highly effective in treatment of ehv-1 in a murine model for the equine disease. this paper describes the isolation of a series of mutants resistant to the drug. resistance was demonstrated in cell culture and one mutant was tested in a murine model. the resistant mutant was pathogenic for mice; infectious virus was recovered from respiratory tissues and blood at levels similar to the parental ...19911663728
the raising of equine colostrum-deprived foals; maintenance and assessment of specific pathogen (ehv-1/4) free status.over a period of two years, a total of 22 full term foals from welsh mountain pony mares were raised in conditions that were free from infection by equid herpesvirus (ehv-1/4). parturition dates were predicted by monitoring colostrum electrolytes, and the mares allowed to foal naturally under supervision or following induction with intravenous oxytocin. immediately following birth, foals were separated from their dams and transferred to a specially built, positive pressure isolation unit. they w ...19911646103
the epidemiology of equid herpesvirus abortion: a tantalizing mystery. 19911646104
sequence analysis of the 4.7-kb bamhi-ecori fragment of the equine herpesvirus type-1 short unique localize gene that may encode immunogens potentially important for recombinant vaccine design, we have analysed a region of the equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) genome where a glycoprotein-encoding gene had previously been mapped. the 4707-bp bamhi-ecori fragment from the short unique region of the ehv-1 genome was sequenced. this sequence contains three entire open reading frames (orfs), and portions of two more. orf1 codes for 161 amino acids (aa), and represents the c terminus of a possib ...19911647359
transcriptional analysis of the ul1 gene of equine herpesvirus 1: a gene conserved in the genome of defective interfering particles.defective interfering particles (dips) of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) are biologically active, in that they mediate the coestablishment of oncogenic transformation and persistent infection in permissive, primary hamster embryo fibroblasts. the dip genome is composed of ehv-1 sequences originating from the l-terminus (mapping units (m.u.) 0.00-0.023), the junction of the unique long (ul) region and the internal inverted repeat (ir) (m.u. 0.78-0.79 and 0.99-1.00), and the central portion of ...19911649513
sequence analysis of a glycoprotein d gene homolog within the unique short segment of the ehv-1 genome.dna sequence analysis of one-third of the unique short (us) segment of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) genome revealed an open reading frame (orf) whose translated sequence exhibits significant homology to glycoprotein d of herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 and to pseudorabies virus (prv) glycoprotein 50, the gd equivalent. the orf of the ehv-1 gd homolog lies within the psz-4 bamhi/kpni fragment (map units 0.865 to 0.872 and 0.869 to 0.884) and is capable of encoding a polypeptide ...19911845821
equine herpesvirus: new approaches to an old problem. 19911849814
experimental equine herpesvirus-1 infection in llamas (lama glama).three llamas (lama glama) were experimentally infected intranasally with an isolate of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) from the brain of an alpaca that had experienced severe neurologic signs. two of the 3 llamas developed severe neurologic disorders following inoculation; 1 died, and 1 was euthanized in a moribund state. the third llama showed only mild neurologic signs. the euthanized llama had preexisting antibodies to ehv-1, and the remaining 2 llamas were seronegative (virus neutralization tit ...19911654133
a murine model for studying ehv-1-induced abortion.balb/c mice were infected with two abortigenic strains of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) by intranasal inoculation. the inoculation of one strain produced subclinical disease while the other produced a disease characterised by weight loss, constitutional signs, and death in the most severely affected animals. when pregnant mice were infected by the same method of inoculation, one strain of virus produced premature parturition; both strains produced fetal abnormalities. in some cases, virus could b ...19911654586
clinical signs and humoral immune response in horses following equine herpesvirus type-1 infection and their susceptibility to equine herpesvirus type-4 challenge.a group of three horses was experimentally infected with equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and showed clinical signs characterised by a biphasic febrile response, leucopenia and cell associated viraemia accompanied by virus shedding from the nasopharynx. a second exposure to the virus 18 days later resulted in the isolation of virus from the nasopharynx of one horse. this and a further group of three ehv-1 seropositive horses were subsequently infected with equine herpesvirus type 4 (ehv-4) 147 ...19911664967
studies of bone marrow and leucocyte counts in peripheral blood in fetal and newborn foals.clinical and pathological records of 124 foals were studied. the foals were assigned to six groups; normal, premature, dysmature, bacterially infected, neonatal maladjustment syndrome and equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infected. also, 6 pony fetuses were sampled via catheters in the umbilical vein and artery between 280 and 310 days gestation. bone marrow aspiration was performed on a further 14 foals. premature foals had significantly lower neutrophil counts than normal foals up to 5 h. foals ...19911665520
identification and comparative sequence analysis of a gene in equine herpesvirus 1 with homology to the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d gene.a homologue of the herpes simplex virus (hsv) glycoprotein d gene has been identified in the genome of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1, equine abortion virus). an open reading frame in the middle of the short unique (us) region is capable of encoding a polypeptide of 402 amino acids that has 26% and 20% of its residues matching pseudorabies virus (prv) gp50 and hsv-1 gd, respectively. despite this low level of similarity, the positional identity of six cysteine residues and certain motifs, and the l ...19911665613
amplification and differentiation of the dna of an abortigenic (type 1) and a respiratory (type 4) strain of equine herpesvirus by the polymerase chain reaction.unpurified dna derived from cultures of equine fetal kidney cells infected with either equine herpesvirus type 1 or equine herpesvirus type 4 was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using one pair of oligonucleotide primers. restriction endonuclease digestion of the amplified segments with pvuii, followed by electrophoresis, revealed restriction fragment length polymorphisms which enabled the two virus types to be differentiated.19911679247
studies on glycoprotein 13 (gp13) of equid herpesvirus 1 using affinity-purified gp13, glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies and synthetic peptides in a hamster model.hamsters were immunized with either an affinity-purified preparation of equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein 13 (gp13) or synthetic peptides representing three sequences within the homologous glycoprotein of ehv-4, resulting in the production of anti-peptide (in the case of peptide-immunized animals) or antivirus antibodies. the sera from gp13-immunized hamsters contained antibodies which showed virus-neutralizing activity and complement-mediated antibody lysis of ehv-1-infected target cells ...19911707948
translational control of equine herpesvirus type 1 gene expression.translational control mechanisms modulate gene expression in a variety of cellular and viral systems. using hypertonic conditions to block protein synthesis in vivo, we observed that the synthesis of several major equine herpesvirus type 1 proteins was selectively inhibited. although sensitivity to hypertonic conditions was graded across a continuum, messages coding for proteins of 203, 130.5, and 31.5 kda were significantly more resistant to higher salt concentrations in vivo than those coding ...19911845836
characterization of the major glycoproteins of equine herpesviruses 4 and 1 and asinine herpesvirus 3 using monoclonal antibodies.a panel of 14 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) was used to characterize the high abundance glycoproteins of equine herpesviruses 4 (ehv-4) and 1 (ehv-1), and asinine herpesvirus 3 (ahv-3). the specificities of the mabs, which had been determined previously for strains of ehv-4 and -1 from the u.s.a., in general were confirmed by elisa for australian strains of these viruses. of the 14 mabs seven were ehv-4 and -1 type-common and cross-reacted with ahv-3. of the five mabs that were ehv-1 type-specifi ...19911716650
antigenic and protein sequence homology between vp13/14, a herpes simplex virus type 1 tegument protein, and gp10, a glycoprotein of equine herpesvirus 1 and 4.monospecific polyclonal antisera raised against vp13/14, a major tegument protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 cross-reacted with structural equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 proteins of mr 120,000 and 123,000, respectively; these proteins are identical in molecular weight to the corresponding glycoprotein 10 (gp10) of each virus. using a combination of immune precipitation and western immunoblotting techniques, we confirmed that anti-vp13/14 and a monoclonal antibody to gp10 reacted with the same pr ...19911850013
an early gene maps within and is 3' coterminal with the immediate-early gene of equine herpesvirus 1.the immediate-early (ie) gene (ir1 gene) of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) encodes a single, spliced 6.0-kb mrna during cytolytic infection. however, under early (in the presence of phosphonoacetic acid) and late (8 h postinfection; no metabolic inhibitors) conditions, in addition to the 6.0-kb ie mrna, a 4.4-kb early (e) mrna is transcribed from the ie gene region beginning at approximately 4 h postinfection. to map and characterize the 4.4-kb e mrna and the protein product of this early gene (ir ...19911645793
[year-round antibody profile of groups of horses of a herd kept in isolation after differently terminating use of an experimental viral combination vaccine].the commercial vaccine "resequin f konz." devised against viral respiratory infections of horses contains the abortigenic equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1). therefore we had used it in our protection project of the austrian lipizzaners+ primarily to prevent abortions. taking into account the recent perception that for young horses the respiratory-pathogenic ehv-4 type is essential behringwerke marburg added this particular virus to their market product to produce a multicomponent experimental vaccine ...19911646100
an outbreak of equid herpesvirus abortion in new south wales.thirty-three of the 44 mares on a thoroughbred stud in new south wales aborted or lost foals within one day of birth. gross pathological and histological changes were in keeping with equid herpesvirus i (ehv-1) abortion. in the six foals that underwent virological examination, ehv was isolated and typed as ehv-1 by restriction endonuclease analysis. ehv-1 abortion had not occurred previously on this stud and the source of the infection was not identified.19911646102
effect of tunicamycin and monensin on fusion and hemadsorptive activities of equid herpesvirus 1. 19911650594
the role of endothelial cell infection in the endometrium, placenta and foetus of equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) of three mares in the last trimester of pregnancy became paraplegic 7 days after experimental infection with ehv-1 and was killed 10 days after infection (d.p.i.). the other two mares aborted foetuses at 12 and 14 d.p.i. in the first mare, virus was detected by immunofluorescence (iif) and immunoperoxidase (ip) staining in endothelial cells of the endometrium, placenta and umbilical vein, but not in any other foetal tissues. in the experimentally aborted foetuses, and in two other independen ...19911651960
properties and evolutionary relationships of the marek's disease virus homologues of protein kinase, glycoprotein d and glycoprotein i of herpes simplex virus.the deduced amino acid sequences of the open reading frames (orfs) mapping in the short unique segment (us) of marek's disease virus (mdv) reported in the accompanying paper have been analysed using computer programs to determine their relationships to herpesvirus proteins. analysis of the catalytic domains of protein kinases showed that the mdv kinase (mdv pk) was closely related to the alphaherpesvirus protein kinase mapping in us. the results also showed that the mdv pk was more closely relat ...19911849976
the activity of (s)-1-[(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonyl methoxy) propyl] cytosine (hpmpc) against equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) in cell cultures, mice and horses.the activity of the nucleotide analogue, (s)-1-[(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonyl methoxy) propyl] cytosine (hpmpc), against equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) was tested in cell culture, mice and foals. the ed50 for plaque reduction was found to be 0.07 and 0.03 microgram/ml in rk-13 and eel cells respectively. in mice, a single administration of hpmpc (20 mg/kg, s.c.) was very effective at reducing clinical signs and virus replication if given on the day before intranasal inoculation with ehv-1. treatment on ...19921332605
the acyclic nucleoside analogue penciclovir is a potent inhibitor of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) in tissue culture and in a murine model.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was sensitive to the nucleoside analogue penciclovir (pcv) when tested in tissue culture; the ed50 was 1.6 micrograms/ml. drug-resistant mutants were selected which were found to be tk-defective and approx. 45-fold less sensitive to pcv compared with the parental strain. pcv was compared with the phosphonyl derivative, hpmpa in mice infected with ehv-1. both drugs were shown to be effective in vivo, limiting wild-type virus replication in respiratory tissues, an ...19921329646
equid herpesvirus abortion--another piece in the pathogenesis puzzle. 19921323456
abortion of virologically negative foetuses following experimental challenge of pregnant pony mares with equid herpesvirus 1.from 1988 to 1991, 51 pregnant pony mares were challenged intranasally or by aerosol with an isolate of ehv-1 (ab4) originally recovered from a quadriplegic mare. this resulted in 32 abortions, occurring from 9 to 29 days after infection. in 14 of the early abortions (days 9-14), ehv-1 was not demonstrated in the foetal tissues by virus isolation or immunostaining despite no other non-viral cause for the abortion being evident. application of the polymerase chain reaction to foetal tissues from ...19921323457
identification and control of the cis-acting elements of the immediate early gene of equid herpesvirus type 1.consensus cis-acting dna sequences upstream of the immediate early (ie) gene of equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1, strain ab4) were identified. one copy of the conserved motif taatgarattc, which is the binding site for the host cellular factor oct-1 and herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) virion protein, vmw65, complex, was identified at positions -630 to -620. using transient transfections and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assays the ie promoter of ehv-1 was shown to be trans-activated by vmw ...19921545217
[virologico-serologic studies in horses with respiratory tract diseases].of 1081 acute and chronically respiratory diseased as well as clinically normal horses 824 sera and 257 paired serum samples collected 1986 and 1987 were tested for antibodies against several different respiratory viruses such as influenza virus a/equi 1 and 2 (influenza 1 a. 2), equine herpesvirus type 1/4 (ehv 1/4), mammalian reovirus type 1-3 (reovirus 1-3), equine rhinovirus type 1 (erv 1), equine adenovirus type 1 (eadv 1), and equine arteritis virus (eav). the investigations resulted in an ...19921558530
equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein d: mapping of the transcript and a neutralization epitope.studies with molecular and immunological techniques identified and mapped the transcript encoding glycoprotein d (gd) of equine herpesvirus 1 kya, as well as two continuous gd antigenic determinants. three mrna species of 5.5, 3.8, and 1.7 kb overlap the gd open reading frame and are transcribed from the dna strand encoding gd. northern (rna) blot hybridization with both dna clones and riboprobes, as well as s1 nuclease analyses, showed the 3.8-kb mrna to encode gd and to be synthesized as a lat ...19921383565
identification of equine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein g: a type-specific, secreted glycoprotein.equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv4) glycoproteins of m(r) 63k and 250k were identified in the supernatant of infected cell cultures. the 63k glycoprotein was type-specific; that is, it reacted with monospecific sera from horses that had been immunized or infected with ehv4, but not with monospecific sera from horses immunized or infected with ehv1, a closely related alphaherpesvirus. it was postulated that the secreted protein may be the homologue of similarly secreted glycoproteins of herpes simplex vi ...19921529525
glycoprotein 60 of equine herpesvirus type 1 is a homologue of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d and plays a major role in penetration of cells.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific for equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein 60 (gp60) and gp 17/18 (f3132 and 5h6 respectively) were found to react with the same protein, which was identified as a homologue of herpes simplex virus type 1 gd. mab f3132 strongly neutralized virus infectivity and inhibited the penetration of the virus into the cell. the effects on penetration were shared with three other mabs against this protein (p68, f3116 and f3129), but no effect on virus penetrati ...19921321875
cloning and restriction endonuclease mapping of the genome of an equine herpesvirus 4 (equine rhinopneumonitis virus), strain 405/76.purified virion dna of an australian isolate of equine herpesvirus 4(ehv 4.405/76) was digested with restriction enzymes and the dna fragments were cloned into puc19. the resulting recombinant plasmid library, representing 92% of the virus genome, was used in hybridization analyses to construct restriction maps for bamhi, ecori, and sali for the ehv4 genome. the results show that the genome of ehv 4.405/76 was approximately 145 kb and comprised a unique long (ul) region of 112 kb and a unique sh ...19921318713
epizootiological aspects of type 1 and type 4 equine herpesvirus infections among horse populations.the dissemination of equine herpesvirus types 1 (ehv-1) and 4 (ehv-4) among various horse populations in japan was investigated through the isolation and typing of virus strains from horses with respiratory diseases. type specific monoclonal antibody pools were used for the typing of isolates. the 42 strains of ehv-1 and 64 strains of ehv-4 were isolated from 4593 nasal swabs and/or blood plasma samples collected from 3326 horses during a period from 1979 to 1990. all the strains of ehv-1 were i ...19921318750
the molecular epidemiology of equine herpesvirus 1 (equine abortion virus) in australasia 1975 to 1989.the restriction endonuclease dna fingerprints of 57 isolates of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1; equine abortion virus) from abortion, perinatal foal mortalities and encephalitis from 15 epidemics that occurred in australasia between 1975 and 1989 were examined using the enzymes bam hi, ecori and bgl ii. there was a remarkable degree of uniformity in the restriction patterns; mobility differences were observed in only 14 of 52 (27%) of the fragments. twelve of these 14 fragments were located within t ...19921320856
natural killer cells in normal horses and specific-pathogen-free foals infected with equine herpesvirus.peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from an adult horse and from foals demonstrated natural killer (nk)-type cytotoxicity against a range of xenogeneic and allogeneic cell targets. the human tumour cell line, chang liver was consistently the most susceptible. chang liver, rabbit kidney (rk-13), equine sarcoid (es) and embryonic equine kidney (eek) cells were more susceptible when presented to horse pbmc than monolayer cultures. embryonic equine lung (eel) and murine yac-1 cells conversely, ...19921321530
pathological findings in horses dying during an outbreak of the paralytic form of equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) 1988 an outbreak of the paralytic form of equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection occurred on a stud farm and several animals died. this provided an opportunity to perform detailed pathological investigations to gain insights into the pathogenesis of this spontaneous disease. two paretic mares, three foals, an aborted foetus and its non-paretic dam were examined. the endotheliotropism of the virus was clearly demonstrated by the use of an indirect immunoperoxidase (ip) stain. at autopsy, e ...19921313358
the ir3 gene of equine herpesvirus type 1: a unique gene regulated by sequences within the intron of the immediate-early gene.the complete nucleotide sequence of the inverted repeat component (ir; 12,776 bp each) of the genome of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) has been determined. transcription analyses have revealed that the ehv-1 ir sequence encodes at least 6 genes. in this report, we present the dna sequence and transcriptional characterization of a gene (ir3) that maps entirely within the ir sequences. the ir3 open reading frame (orf) is located between nucleotides (nt) 6123-6411 of the ir sequence and possesse ...19921335300
immunokinetics of equine herpesvirus 1 in donkey mares: suppression of secondary cell-mediated study the immunokinetics of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1), donkey mares were immunised with a laboratory strain of ehv1, or with recommended doses of pneumabort-k vaccine (ehv1 army 183 strain, formalin-inactivated, with an oil adjuvant) and a booster was given after three months. humoral immune responses were studied by employing a virus neutralisation (vn) test. a leucocyte migration inhibition test (lmit) was employed for the assay of cellular immune responses. the vn antibody titre reached ...19921335311
detection of equine herpesvirus and differentiation of equine herpesvirus type 1 from type 4 by the polymerase chain reaction.although both equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and equine herpesvirus type 4 (ehv-4) can be associated with respiratory disease, epizootics caused by ehv-1 are much more serious because the virus can cause abortions and paralysis. it is, therefore, important to identify the type of ehv involved in an outbreak by a test that is quick, sensitive, and reliable. we have adapted the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to detect and distinguish between ehv-1 and ehv-4 in the same reaction. primers for pc ...19921335829
equine herpesviruses: are new techniques the solution to a practical problem? 19921313359
icp22 homolog of equine herpesvirus 1: expression from early and late promoters.the complete nucleotide sequence of the short region, made up of a unique segment (us; 6.5 kb) bracketed by a pair of inverted repeat sequences (ir; 12.8 kb each), of the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) genome has been determined recently in our laboratory. analysis of the ir segment revealed a major open reading frame (orf) designated ir4. the ir4 orf exhibits significant homology to the immediate-early gene us1 (icp22) of herpes simplex virus type 1 and to the icp22 homologs of varicella-zoster v ...19921370553
diagnosis of equid herpesviruses -1 and -4 by polymerase chain reaction.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) is a sensitive technique used to detect dna of viral pathogens. we have applied the technique to the detection of equid herpesviruses-1 and -4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) dna within nasopharyngeal swab samples from horses. ninety-eight samples from suspected field cases and in-contact horses were analysed. the assays were conducted blind and later decoded and compared with virus isolation data. our results indicate that pcr is a sensitive and rapid technique for the dia ...19921313360
[causes of prenatal foal loss in switzerland].in switzerland during the foaling season 1988 and 1989 the cause of abortion in 60 foals was investigated. special attention was paid to infections with equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv 1). diagnosis were based on post-mortem, histopathological, bacteriological and immunofluorescence investigation. the results confirm data from other countries, that ehv 1 is the most prevalent viral (20%) cause of abortion, followed by various bacterial agents (12%). other causes were umbilical torsion, twin pregnancy ...19921455212
pathogenesis of equine herpesvirus-1 in specific pathogen-free foals: primary and secondary infections and reactivation.six specific pathogen-free foals shown to be free of equine herpesvirus-1 and 4 (ehv-1 and -4) and lacking in maternally-derived antibodies were used to investigate the pathogenesis of ehv-1 in horses. following primary intranasal inoculation with ehv-1 all foals showed signs of a mild, self-limiting upper respiratory tract infection. a leucopenia was observed, comprising both a lymphopenia and neutropenia. virus was isolated from nasal mucus and buffy coat cells over several days during the cli ...19921314051
reinfection and reactivation of equine herpesvirus-1 in the mouse.balb/c mice were inoculated with equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) by the intranasal (i.n.) route. mice developed respiratory signs; virus replication occurred in the respiratory tract and viraemia was detected; some mice died. recovered mice were given a second inoculation with the same strain 5 months later. following the second infection no mice died, however, virus replication was again observed in the respiratory tract and viraemia was detected once more. administration of an antiviral agent dur ...19921314054
vaccination of mares against equine herpesvirus-1. 19921314446
characterization of the glycoprotein d gene products of equine herpesvirus 1 using a prokaryotic cell expression vector.the gene encoding equine herpesvirus 1 (equine abortion virus; ehv-1) glycoprotein d was engineered into the prokaryotic vector pex, and expressed as a beta-galactosidase fusion product, which was recognized by pooled equine sera and anti-ehv-1 rabbit sera. antibodies raised against the ehv-1 gd fusion product identified strong bands in infected cells at 66 and 68 k and at 138 k in purified virus, thus characterizing the several forms of this major envelope glycoprotein which is an important can ...19921316667
rapid detection of equine herpesvirus type-1 antigens in nasal swab specimens using an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for the detection of equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) antigens in nasal swab specimens. the test was designed as a solid phase, amplified sandwich assay in which an ehv-1 specific monoclonal antibody was used to capture virus antigen and polyclonal antisera used to detect antigen bound to the test plates. eight monoclonal antibodies were tested for their ability to capture virus antigen and one was selected for routine u ...19921331153
chorioretinopathy associated with neuropathology following infection with equine herpesvirus-1. 19921332242
identification and transcriptional mapping of genes encoded at the ir/us junction of equine herpesvirus type 1.two open reading frames (orfs) encoded at the inverted repeat unique short (us) junction of the short (s) region of the equine herpesvirus type 1 genome were identified by dna sequencing of a 2876 base pair (bp) genomic segment, and transcripts encoding these orfs were characterized by northern blot, s1 nuclease, and primer extension analyses. these studies also established the size of each inverted repeat to be 12,768 nucleotides (nts). the ir6 orf (816 bp), mapping at nts 12,317-11,502 of the ...19921333117
open reading frames encoding a protein kinase, homolog of glycoprotein gx of pseudorabies virus, and a novel glycoprotein map within the unique short segment of equine herpesvirus type 1.dna sequence analysis of the unique short (us) segment of the genome of equine herpesvirus type 1 kentucky a strain (ehv-1) by our laboratory and strains kentucky d and ab1 by other workers identifies a total of nine open reading frames (orf). in this report, we present the dna sequence of three of these newly identified orfs, designated eus 2, eus 3, and eus 4. the eus 2 orf is 1146 nucleotides (nt) in length and encodes a potential protein of 382 amino acids. cis-regulatory sequences upstream ...19921316673
the pathogenicity of ab4p, the sequenced strain of equine herpesvirus-1, in specific pathogen-free foals.the sequencing of the genome of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is reported in elizabeth a. r. telford, moira s. watson, kathryn mcbride, and andrew j. davison, 1992, virology, 189, 304-316. the sequence was derived using a plaque-purified clone of ehv-1 strain ab4 (designated ab4p). to ensure that ab4p shares the pathogenic characteristics of parental ab4 (hereafter ab4), both were inoculated intranasally into foals, specifically free from ehv-1 and ehv-4. clinical signs, including rectal temperat ...19921318607
serological evidence of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) activity in polo horses in nigeria.serological evidence of equine herpes virus type 1 (ehv-1) activity in polo horses in nigeria is reported for the first time. eighty-two percent of horses tested with known antigen had precipitating antibodies to ehv-1 while 43% of sera tested against antigen prepared from nasal discharges were positive suggesting that the virus was being excreted in the nasal discharges and probably acting as a source of infection for incontact animals as occurs in on-going acute infections. the result of this ...19921334303
glycoprotein 300 is encoded by gene 28 of equine herpesvirus type 1: a new family of herpesvirus membrane proteins?a portion of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) gene 28, which is homologous to herpes simplex virus type 1 gene ul32, was expressed using a prokaryotic system to yield a fusion protein which reacted on western blots with p19, a monoclonal antibody (mab) that reacts with ehv-1 glycoprotein 300 (gp300), confirming that this gene encodes gp300. hydrophobicity analysis showed that gp300 is a glycoprotein with multiple hydrophobic domains that might interact with, or span, the membrane several times. ...19921331295
serological responses of specific pathogen-free foals to equine herpesvirus-1: primary and secondary infection, and reactivation.serum antibody (virus neutralisation, complement fixation, igm and igg) responses to equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection were measured in six foals which were initially free from ehv-1 and ehv-4 infection and maternally-derived antibodies. following primary infection, high titres of virus neutralisation and complement fixation antibodies were detectable against ehv-1, however, corresponding antibody levels against ehv-4 were low or inapparent, although the two viruses share a number of cross- ...19921333670
latent equid herpesviruses 1 and 4: detection and distinction using the polymerase chain reaction and co-cultivation from lymphoid tissues.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and co-cultivation were used to identify the lymphoreticular system as the site of latency of equid herpesvirus i (ehv-1). primers for pcr were designed from aligned nucleotide sequences of the glycoprotein gb genes to amplify the same region of both the ehv-1 and ehv-4 genomes. subsequent restriction digests using specific enzymes distinguished the amplified fragments of the ehv-1 genome from those of the ehv-4 genome. ten weeks following an experimental infe ...19921347078
identification and characterization of an equine herpesvirus 1 late gene encoding a potential zinc this report, we present the dna sequence and transcriptional characterization of a gene (ir5) that maps within each of the inverted repeat (ir) segments of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) genome. the ir5 open reading frame (orf) is located within both ir sequences (nucleotides 9932-10,642 of the ir). dna sequence analyses of the ir5 gene region revealed an orf of 236 amino acids (24,793 da) that showed significant homology to orf64 of varicella-zoster virus and orf3 of ehv-4 both of whi ...19921316680
identification of the equine herpesvirus type 1 glycoprotein 17/18 as a homologue of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d.the dna sequence of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) gd gene homologue has been determined for the strain ab1 and compared with previously published sequences. a portion of the gene has been located to a region of the genome which also encodes homologues of the herpes simplex virus type 1 genes for ge and gi and is known to encode an epitope of the virion protein gp17/18. analysis of the ehv-1 strain kentucky a (kya) by dna hybridization showed the presence of a gd gene homologue and establ ...19921316942
the dna sequence of equine herpesvirus-1.the complete dna sequence was determined of a pathogenic british isolate of equine herpesvirus-1, a respiratory virus which can cause abortion and neurological disease. the genome is 150,223 bp in size, has a base composition of 56.7% g + c, and contains 80 open reading frames likely to encode protein. since four open reading frames are duplicated in the major inverted repeat, two are probably expressed as a spliced mrna, and one may contain an internal transcriptional promoter, the genome is co ...19921318606
[the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the detection of dna of equine herpesviruses 1 and 4].formalin-fixed and paraplast-embedded tissue samples of 42 aborted equine fetuses were examined by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of equine herpesvirus dna. the used set of primers was located in the glycoprotein 13 open reading frame and allowed the amplification of both ehv 1 und ehv 4. by cleaving pattern analysis after hinf i digestion ehv 1 could be distinguished from ehv 4. in 9 of the cases investigated ehv 1-dna was detected. this finding is in absolute context with the resul ...19921313672
a novel herpes simplex virus gene (ul49a) encodes a putative membrane protein with counterparts in other herpesviruses.comparative analysis of dna sequences located between the coding regions of genes ul49 and ul50 of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and -2) has revealed a small open reading frame (orf) of 91 and 87 codons respectively with the characteristics of a genuine protein-coding region. the predicted protein products are clearly related and exhibit features of membrane-inserted proteins, with potential n-proximal signal peptides and c-proximal membrane anchor regions. counterparts are present i ...19921322965
identification and transcriptional analyses of the ul3 and ul4 genes of equine herpesvirus 1, homologs of the icp27 and glycoprotein k genes of herpes simplex virus.the dna sequence of 3,240 nucleotides of the xbai g fragment located in the unique long (ul) region of the equine herpesvirus 1 genome revealed two major open reading frames (orfs) designated ul3 and ul4. the ul3 orf of 470 amino acids (aa) maps at nucleotides (nt) 4450 to 3038 from the long terminus, and its predicted 51.4-kda protein product exhibits significant homology to the icp27 alpha regulatory protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1; 32% identity) and to the orf4 protein of varice ...19921323700
vaccination of mares against equine herpesvirus-1. 19921324543
the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) homolog of herpes simplex virus type 1 us9 and the nature of a major deletion within the unique short segment of the ehv-1 kya strain genome.the dna sequence of the short (s) genomic component of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1)kya strain has been determined recently in our laboratory. analysis of a 1353-bp bamhi/pvuii clone mapping at the unique short/terminal inverted repeat (us/tr) junction revealed 507 bp of us and 846 bp of tr sequences as well as an open reading frame (orf) that is contained entirely within the us. this orf encodes a potential polypeptide of 219 amino acids that shows significant homology to the us9 protei ...19921326805
identification and expression of the ul1 gene product of equine herpesvirus 1.sequences encoding the ul1 gene of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) are conserved in the genome of ehv-1 defective interfering particles (dips) that mediate oncogenic transformation and persistent infection. the ul1 protein was identified by in vitro transcription/translation and hybrid-arrest translation analyses which employed a ul1/pgem-3z construct designated pgeml1. sds-page analyses of in vitro translation products synthesized from ul1-specific rna revealed that the ul1 orf encodes a 30 k ...19921329372
immune responses of specific pathogen free foals to ehv-1 infection.four foals were raised under specific pathogen free (spf) conditions. at 3 to 4 months of age, spf foals and 1 other non-spf foal were intranasally inoculated with equine herpes virus type 1 (ehv-1). clinical signs included depression, fever, inappetence and intermittent coughing. clinical recovery was complete by seven days but high titres of virus were detected in nasal mucus for at least 10 days after inoculation. clinical illness was less severe in the non-spf foal. interferon was detected i ...19921280876
rapid identification and differentiation of the vaccine strain rac h from ehv 1 field isolates using a non-radioactive dna probe.a method for rapid differentiation between the ehv 1 live vaccine strain rac h and field isolates is described. total dna was isolated from virus-infected small scale cell cultures. dna fragments digested with restriction endonuclease bamhi were separated, transferred and immobilized on filter membranes. a digoxigenin-labeled probe derived from ehv 1 was used for hybridization. this probe hybridized specifically to sequences of the inverted terminal repeat region which in case of rac h include a ...19921311132
characterization of the regulatory functions of the equine herpesvirus 1 immediate-early gene product.use of the translation-inhibiting drug cycloheximide has indicated that the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) immediate-early (ie) gene, the sole ehv-1 ie gene, encodes a major viral regulatory protein since ie mrna translation is a prerequisite for all further viral gene expression (w.l. gray, r. p. baumann, a. t. robertson, g. b. caughman, d. j. o'callaghan, and j. staczek, virology 158:79-87, 1987). an ehv-1 ie gene expression vector (psvie) in combination with chimeric ehv-1 promoter-chlorampheni ...19921309921
characterization of enveloped tegument structures (l particles) produced by alphaherpesviruses: integrity of the tegument does not depend on the presence of capsid or envelope.recent studies have shown that infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) strain 17 generates in addition to virions a novel type of non-infectious particle. these particles, termed l particles, lack capsids and viral dna, and consist predominantly of tegument and envelope proteins. we show that l particle production is not restricted to one strain of hsv-1, and that pseudorabies virus and equine herpesvirus type 1 also release particles which are similar in composition to and morphologi ...19921311356
an immunoperoxidase method applied to the diagnosis of equine herpesvirus abortion, using conventional and rapid microwave indirect immunoperoxidase (imp) technique was applied to cryostat and paraffin sections of liver from ten aborted equine foetuses. equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) had been isolated from seven of them and ehv-4 from one: the remaining two were virologically negative and were not used as controls. in the eight virus-infected cases the immunostaining revealed foci of cells exhibiting a distinct brown cytoplasmic and inclusion body pigmentation. no specific signal was present in the non-infected ...19921313357
a type-specific conformational epitope on the nucleocapsid of equid herpesvirus-1 and its use in diagnosis.a type-specific monoclonal antibody was produced by immunizing mice with purified equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1). the ehv-1 specific mab reacted with all the ehv-1 strains tested so far by indirect elisa, immunofluorescence, and immunoperoxidase tests. no reactions were detected with the ehv-4, ehv-2, or ehv-3 strains tested. the indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests showed that the nuclei of infected cells were predominantly stained by this mab. triton treatment of the virus and i ...19937688948
epitopes of glycoprotein g of equine herpesviruses 4 and 1 located near the c termini elicit type-specific antibody responses in the natural host.specific serological diagnosis of equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv4; equine rhinopneumonitis virus) and ehv1 (equine abortion virus) hitherto has not been possible because of extensive antigenic cross-reactivity between these two closely related but distinct viruses. recently, we identified ehv4 glycoprotein g (gg) and characterized it as a type-specific, secreted glycoprotein (b. s. crabb, h. s. nagesha, and m. j. studdert, virology 190:143-154, 1992). this paper shows that ehv1 gg also possesses type ...19937690425
characterization of an antigenic site on glycoprotein 13 (gc) of equid herpesvirus type-1.six monoclonal antibodies directed against ehv-1 glycoprotein 13 were characterized. five antibodies neutralized ehv-1 and were directed against a single antigenic site which comprised type-specific and type cross-reactive epitopes. inhibition of monoclonal antibody binding to this site by post-infection equine sera suggests that it is a target of host antibody during natural infection with either ehv-1 or ehv-4.19937682404
prevalence of antibodies against some equine viruses in zebra (zebra burchelli) in the kruger national park, 1991-1992.the presence of antibodies against equine encephalosis virus (eev) and equid herpesvirus 1 and 4 in zebra in the kruger national park (knp) was demonstrated. the ability of zebra to maintain immunity against eev is illustrated by the appearance of neutralizing antibodies in most zebra foals within months of losing their maternal immunity. this occurs in every month of the year, even in winter. the high proportion of serologically positive foals in winter is ascribed to the presence of large numb ...19937970572
immunological characterization of the feline herpesvirus-1 glycoprotein b and analysis of its deduced amino acid sequence.feline herpesvirus 1 (fhv-1) is an important viral pathogen of cats. like other alphaherpesviruses, fhv-1 contains a hsv-1 glycoprotein b (gb) homolog. in this study, monospecific antisera to hsv-1 gb reacted with three fhv-1 proteins (100, 64, and 58 kda) present in virion lysates by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analyses. reduced stringency hybridization experiments using a hsv-1 gb probe localized the fhv-1 gb gene to a 9.6-kb sa/l fragment in the unique long region of the genome. northe ...19938212548
identification of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus gene encoding an immunogenic protein with a predicted m(r) of 32 kilodaltons.the nucleotide sequence of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus (iltv) gene which maps immediately upstream from the glycoprotein 60 (gp60) gene was determined. the gene, designated p32, encodes a predicted polypeptide of 298 amino acids with an estimated m(r) of 32,000 daltons. the predicted protein sequence has four potential n-glycosylation sites and a signal sequence at the n-terminal region. amino acid residues in the nh2-terminal region of the p32 protein exhibit similarity to glycoprotei ...19938212855
dna sequence of a gene cluster in the equine herpesvirus-4 genome which contains a newly identified herpesvirus gene encoding a membrane protein.complete dna sequences for the equine herpesvirus-4 (ehv-4) genes analogous to equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) genes 8, 9, 10, and 11, varicella zoster virus (vzv) genes 7, 8, 9 a, and 9, and herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) genes ul51, ul50, ul49a, and ul49 are presented. the ehv-4 gene corresponding to ehv-1 gene 10/vzv gene 9a/hsv-1 ul49a is of particular interest in that it is a newly identified herpesvirus gene whose product demonstrates features characteristic of membrane-inserted proteins ...19938240007
a novel arrangement of zinc-binding residues and secondary structure in the c3hc4 motif of an alpha herpes virus protein family.a highly conserved, cysteine-rich region plays a crucial role in the function of a family of regulatory proteins encoded by alpha herpes viruses. the so-called c3hc4 motif spans approximately 60 residues and has been predicted to bind zinc. this motif occurs in a number of other viral and cellular proteins, many of which appear to be involved in some aspect of the regulation of gene expression. we have cloned and expressed in bacteria a portion of immediate-early protein vmw110 of herpes simplex ...19938263911
herpesvirus icp18.5 and dna-binding protein genes are conserved in equine herpesvirus-1.the genome of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) contained three open reading frames (orfs) in a 3.9 kbp bamhi-smai fragment at 0.38-0.41 map units in the long unique region. the most 5' orf encoded the carboxy terminus of a protein with 45-55 percent amino acid homology to the dna-binding proteins (icp8-dbp) of four other alpha-herpesviruses. the middle orf translated to a polypeptide of 775 residues with 43-55% homology to the icp18.5 proteins. the most 3' orf encoded the ehv-1 glycoprotein b (gb) g ...19938279122
association of microbiologic flora with clinical, endoscopic, and pulmonary cytologic findings in foals with distal respiratory tract infection.undifferentiated distal respiratory tract disease (nasal discharge, cough, pneumonia) in foals (1 to 8 months old) is a burdensome economic problem on breeding farms; yet, the infective agents associated with these episodes have not been well described. possible causes of these episodes of illness were investigated by culturing specimens of proximal and distal airways of clinically diseased foals (n = 101), prior to any treatment, for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and viruses (rhinoviruses, equ ...19938250386
effects of phosphonylmethoxyalkyl derivatives studied with a murine model for abortion induced by equine herpesvirus 1.(s)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine (hpmpa) and (s)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine (hpmpc) were tested in a mouse model for equine herpesvirus 1-induced abortion. hpmpa, given twice daily, reduced virus replication, but the compound was embryotoxic. a single dose of hpmpc, however, reduced the incidence of abortion and transfer of virus to the fetuses while producing no obvious toxic effects.19938285638
the horserace betting levy board's code of practice for equine viral arteritis for the 1994 breeding season.the horserace betting levy board formulates codes of practice for the control of contagious equine metritis and other equine bacterial venereal diseases, and equine viral arteritis and equid herpesvirus 1. this year's codes have just been published and the code of practice for eva, reproduced below, has been substantially amended following the recent outbreak in the uk. the code is intended for use by veterinary surgeons and breeders of thoroughbred and non-thoroughbred horses. the hblb states t ...19938310626
analysis of the nucleotide sequence of five genes at the left end of the unique short region of the equine herpesvirus 4 ri fragment g of equine herpesvirus 4 strain 405/76 (ehv 4.405/76) is located at the left end of the unique short region close to or extending into the internal repeat region of the prototypic arrangement of the genome. the nucleotide sequence of two subclones designated hs and g 19, contiguous within eco ri fragment g, was determined for each strand by obtaining a nested set of deletion clones of these double-stranded dna plasmids. analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the two s ...19938380320
the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) ul3 gene, an icp27 homolog, is necessary for full activation of gene expression directed by an ehv-1 late promoter.we have previously reported that the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) xbai g restriction fragment (nucleotides 1436 to 7943 relative to the left terminus of the ehv-1 genome [kentucky a strain]) is required in combination with the ehv-1 immediate-early (ie) gene to achieve significant activation of two representative ehv-1 late promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) recombinants in transient expression assays. in this report, we demonstrate that the xbai g-encoded ul3 gene (an icp27 homolo ...19938380457
detection of antibodies against equine herpesvirus types 1 and 4 by using recombinant protein derived from an immunodominant region of glycoprotein b.the n-terminal fragment comprising residues +1 to +50 (gb1-50) of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein b was expressed as a glutathione s-transferase fusion protein in escherichia coli. recombinant gb1-50 (rgb1-50) was recognized in immunoblots by sera from rabbits immunized with ehv-1 and by convalescent-phase sera from horses with natural ehv-1 infections. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for monitoring antibody levels against ehv-1 was developed by using rgb1-50, and its ...19938381809
immediate-early transcription over covalently joined genome ends of bovine herpesvirus 1: the circ gene.herpesvirus genomes are linear molecules in virions. prior to replication in host cells, they form circular templates by unknown mechanisms. examining lytic infection with bovine herpesvirus 1, we observed immediate-early transcription over joined genome ends, which suggested that circles are present at the initial stage of infection. among the transcripts was a spliced immediate-early rna (1.5 kb) sharing exon 1 with previously described major immediate-early transcripts from the right genome e ...19938382298
transcriptional and translational analyses of the ul2 gene of equine herpesvirus 1: a homolog of ul55 of herpes simplex virus type 1 that is maintained in the genome of defective interfering particles.defective interfering particles (dips) of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1; kentucky a strain) mediate persistent infection. dna sequences at the l terminus, which contain the ul2 gene (homolog of ul55 of herpes simplex virus type 1 and open reading frame 3 of varicella-zoster virus) of standard ehv-1, have been shown to be highly conserved in all clones of the ehv-1 dip genome. the ul2 mrna was characterized by s1 nuclease analyses, which mapped the 5' and 3' termini of the 0.9-kb early ul2 mrna to ...19938383240
the pseudorabies virus host-shutoff homolog gene: nucleotide sequence and comparison with alphaherpesvirus protein counterparts.the virion host shutoff function (vhs) of many herpesviruses is required for inhibition of cellular gene expression in infected cells. this function corresponds to the ul41 open reading frame of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and homolog sequences have been found in other alphaherpesvirus, like hsv-2, varicella-zoster virus (vzv) and equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). in this work, we have cloned and sequenced a pseudorabies virus (prv) gene which is homologous to the vhs genes of the other ...19938384744
dna sequence and genetic organization of the unique short (us) region of the simian varicella virus genome.simian varicella virus (svv) infection of nonhuman primates is a model for the study of human varicella zoster virus (vzv) infections. the dna sequence of the entire svv unique short (us) region and adjacent flanking sequences of the inverted repeats were determined. the us region is 4904 bp in size and has a 60.9% a + t base composition. four potential open reading frames (orfs), designated svus 1, svus 2, svus 3, and svus 4, were identified and found to be remarkably similar in size, genetic c ...19938384754
dna sequence and transcriptional analyses of the region of the equine herpesvirus type 1 kentucky a strain genome encoding glycoprotein c.dna sequence and transcriptional analyses were performed on the region of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) genome (kya strain) (map units 0.129 to 0.152) encoding open reading frames (orfs) 15 and 16. orf16 encodes a homolog of glycoprotein c of hsv-1 (herpes simplex virus type 1), while orf15 corresponds in position to hsv-1 ul45 but exhibits no significant homology at the amino acid level. sequence analyses revealed that the ehv-1 gc orf of 468 amino acids and orf15 of 227 amino acids map ...19938384760
a nested pcr for the detection and differentiation of ehv-1 and ehv-4.the nested pcr method was applied for the detection and direct differentiation of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and type 4 (ehv-4). primer pairs were chosen from the glycoprotein b (gb) coding region of each serotype. the outer and inner ehv-1 primer pairs were type-specific, whereas the outer ehv-4 primer pair amplified ehv-1 and ehv-4 dna and was therefore suitable for the detection of both virus types in a single sample. however, the nested ehv-4 primer pair was type-specific. the advanta ...19938106604
pathogenicity of a thymidine kinase-deficient mutant of equine herpesvirus 1 in mice and specific pathogen-free foals.both intranasal (i.n.) and intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation of mice with wild-type equine herpesvirus type 1 (wt ehv-1) caused clinical signs and mortality. virus could be recovered from target organs (turbinates, lungs and blood) for several days. by contrast, the thymidine kinase (tk)-deficient deletion mutant pr1 produced markedly less clinical disease following both i.n. and i.c. inoculation, and, in particular, no mortality occurred. pr1 did, however, establish productive infections followi ...19938388018
the identification of equid herpesvirus 1 in paraffin-embedded tissues from aborted fetuses by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry.paraffin-embedded organ samples from 28 aborted fetuses and three foals, partly archival and partly sampled in 1991, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and immunohistochemistry for the presence of dna and antigens, respectively, specific for equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1). virologic examination had been performed on 23 of the aborted fetuses. dna fragments specific for ehv-1 were identified by pcr, and ehv-1 antigens were identified in situ by immunohistochemistry, with an agreement ...19938389598
equine herpesvirus type 1 neurological disease and enterocolitis in mature standardbred horses. 19938389601
characterization of the myristylated polypeptide encoded by the ul1 gene that is conserved in the genome of defective interfering particles of equine herpesvirus 1.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1, kentucky a strain) preparations enriched for defective interfering particles (dips) can readily establish persistent infection. the ul1 gene, which is conserved in the genome of dips that mediate persistent infection, maps between nucleotides 1418 and 2192 (258 amino acids) from the l (long) terminus. ul1 has no homology with any known gene encoded by herpes simplex virus type 1 but has limited homology to open reading frame 2 of varicella-zoster virus and the "circ" ...19938389920
development of a dna probe for identification of bovine herpesvirus 4.a sensitive and specific dna probe for detection and identification of bovine herpesvirus 4 (bhv-4) was developed. cloned fragments from a library of hindiii fragments of the bhv-4 (dn-599) genome were labeled with 32p or digoxigenin and were tested for sensitivity and specificity in detecting viral dna by dot-blot hybridization. two probes were identified that detected 10 pg of purified viral dna, and detected viral dna in 0.001 micrograms of total dna extracted from bhv-4-infected cells. both ...19938391228
responses of ponies to equid herpesvirus-1 iscom vaccination and challenge with virus of the homologous experimental (iscom) vaccine previously shown to protect hamsters from lethal challenge with equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), was tested in horses. vaccination with ehv-1 iscoms induced serum antibodies to the major virus glycoproteins gp10, 13, 14, 17, 18 and 21/22a, whereas antibody responses to gp2 were weak or absent. high levels of virus neutralising antibody of long duration were induced, but did not prevent challenge infection with virus of the homologous strain. however, in the vaccinated ...19938393207
modulation of the serological response of specific pathogen-free (ehv-free) foals to ehv-1 by previous infection with ehv-4 or a tk-deletion mutant of ehv-1.ehv-1 was inoculated into specific pathogen-free (spf) foals in order to study uncomplicated primary responses. infection resulted in a strong serological response recognizing ehv-1-specific antigens; this contrasts with a previous publication where a weak response was recorded in spf animals. antibodies to ehv-1 were readily detected by four techniques (virus neutralization, complement fixation, western blots and immune precipitation), yet there was comparatively little cross-reaction to ehv-4 ...19938394686
identification and nucleotide sequence of a gene in feline herpesvirus type 1 homologous to the herpes simplex virus gene encoding the glycoprotein h.a gene encoding the glycoprotein h (gh) homologue of feline herpesvirus type 1 was identified and sequenced. it was located immediately downstream of the thymidine kinase gene within an ecori 6.6 kbp fragment. in addition, a partial ul21 homologous gene was located downstream of the gh homologous gene. the primary translation product of the gh homologous gene is predicted to consist of 821 amino acids with a molecular weight of 92.5 kda. it possesses several characteristics typical of transmembr ...19938394688
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