PMID(sorted ascending)
infectious center assay of intracellular virus and infective virus titer for equine mononuclear cells infected in vivo and in vitro with equine herpesviruses.a novel, simple method of infectious center assay was developed to detect and quantitate the intracellular existence of equine herpesvirus 1 and equine herpesvirus 2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected in vivo and in vitro with the viruses by cocultivation of these cells with a permissive equine cell culture. the infectious center titers were correlated with the infectious virus titers. in vivo equine herpesvirus 1-infected mononuclear cells obtained from ponies experimentally infecte ...19836299486
application of a chemically inactivated, adjuvanted vaccine to control abortigenic infection of mares by equine herpesvirus i.a chemically inactivated, adjuvanted vaccine prepared from a virulent strain of equine herpesvirus i (ehv-i) was used to immunize pregnant thoroughbred broodmares during a five-year field test designed to determine its safety and efficacy. each mare in the vaccinated groups received 3 intramuscular injections of vaccine beginning immediately prior to and during the last half of pregnancy. vaccine was injected at approximately 60-day intervals. the accumulated incidence of ehv-i abortions among v ...19826299858
alterations in the equine herpesvirus 1 genome after in vitro and in vivo virus passage.the effect of in vitro and in vivo serial virus passage on the genetic stability of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) was investigated by restriction endonuclease analysis of the viral dna. dnas of ehv-1 isolates at different passage levels in cultured cells or in syrian hamsters were compared by electrophoresis of the dna cleavage fragments produced by restriction endonuclease digestion. no changes were observed in the restriction profile of the dnas of ehv-1 strains after 100 sequential passages in ...19836299965
genetic relatedness of the genomes of equine herpesvirus types 1, 2, and 3.genomic dnas of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), ehv-2 (equine cytomegalovirus), and ehv-3 were examined by reassociation kinetic and thermal denaturation analyses to determine the extent and degree of homology among the three viral dnas. results of reassociation analyses indicated a limited homology among the three ehv genomes. homologous dna sequences equivalent to 1.8 to 3.7 megadaltons between ehv-1 and equine cytomegalovirus, 7.6 to 8.2 megadaltons between ehv-1 and ehv-3, and 1.3 to 1.9 ...19836300438
immunogenicity of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv1) and equine rhinovirus type 1 (erhv1) following inactivation by betapropiolactone (bpl) and ultraviolet (uv) light.some kinetic data on the inactivation of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv1) and equine rhinovirus type 1 (erhv1) by betapropiolactone (bpl) and ultraviolet (uv) irradiation are reported. 0.25% bpl at 37 degrees c for 1 h reduced the titre of ehv1 by greater than 10(3 . 4) and of erhv1 by greater than 10(4 . 1) tcid50/ml. uv irradiation (334 microw/cm2) produced similar reductions in titre after 2 min. these data were used as a basis for inactivating ehv1 and erhv1 by the combined action of bpl and ...19826301141
acute infections in young foals. 19836302008
vaccines for ehv1 abortion. 19836302971
vaccines for equine herpesvirus type 1. 19836304985
[vaccination against the paralytic form of ehv1?]. 19836306862
sensitivity of equine herpesviruses 1 and 3 in vitro to a new nucleoside analogue, 9-[[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethoxy] methyl] guanine.the following members of the herpetoviridae family were tested to determine their sensitivities to the new antiviral drug, biolf-62: equine herpesvirus types 1 and 3, human herpesvirus types 1 and 2, swine herpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus type 4, feline herpesvirus, canine herpesvirus, and herpes simiae virus. equine herpesviruses 1 and 3, human herpesviruses 1 and 2, and herpes simiae virus were all sensitive to biolf-62 at concentrations of less than 0.55 micrograms/ml. equine herpesvirus types ...19836307092
in vivo harboring of equine herpesvirus-1 in leukocyte populations and subpopulations and their quantitation from experimentally infected ponies. 19836309042
equine immunology 4: vaccines and antisera.this paper attempts to relate the practicalities of vaccine development to the ideals which should be aimed for in a new vaccine. the type of immune response induced is dependent upon the nature of the antigen in the vaccine and the site and timing of its presentation to the immune system. in this respect the influence of age, maternal immunity and antigenic competition are discussed. the possible side effects associated with vaccination are defined and vaccines which are currently available for ...19836309511
outbreak of equine herpesvirus abortion in the hunter valley, new south wales. 19836309512
location and orientation of homologous sequences in the genomes of five herpesviruses.molecular hybridization experiments were carried out to investigate homologous regions in the genomes of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2), equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), pseudorabies virus (prv) and varicella-zoster virus (vzv). virion dna probes from ehv-1, prv and vzv hybridized to similar regions of the hsv genome, and the use of cloned dna probes allowed heterologous genomes to be oriented with respect to homologous regions. the hsv-1 and hsv-2 genomes are colinear, the ehv ...19836310033
the pathogenicity in mice of respiratory, abortion and paresis isolates of equine herpesvirus-1.eleven isolates of equine herpesvirus-1 (subtype 1) all infected the brain following intracerebral inoculation of 2 d.o. mice. most isolates were from cases of paresis, abortion or respiratory disease in the u.k., but established strains were also included. they divided into two subgroups. the 5 less pathogenic isolates were characterized by being restricted predominantly to the olfactory lobes. the 6 pathogenic isolates included the three known to cause equine paresis and were detected in neuro ...19836310851
detection of equine herpesvirus-1 antigen and the specific antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) were developed to detect equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) antigens and specific antibodies. detection of ehv-1 antigens was done by a 4-layer elisa. in inoculated cell cultures, ehv-1 cell antigen was detected after postinoculation (pi) hour 4, reached approximately twice the value of ehv-1 viral antigen (extra-cellular virus) in pi hour 18, and peaked in pi hour 24, whereas ehv-1 viral antigen appeared after pi hour 12, increased steadily, and peaked highe ...19836314855
relative activities of acyclovir and bw759 against aujeszky's disease and equine rhinopneumonitis viruses.compound bw759 (9-[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxymethyl]guanine) was shown to be about 230 times more active than acyclovir (9-[2-hydroxyethoxymethyl]guanine) (acv) against equid herpesvirus type 1 infection in syrian hamsters and was more effective against aujeszky's disease in mice. the therapeutic superiority of bw759 over acv was greater than expected from quantitative inhibitory results in tissue culture with these viruses. when administered to hamsters at dose rates sufficient to preven ...19836314886
restriction endonuclease dna fingerprinting of respiratory, foetal and perinatal foal isolates of equine herpesvirus type 1.dna was prepared from 43 equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv 1) isolates, 11 of which were from horses with respiratory disease, 22 from aborted equine foetuses, and 10 from foals that died perinatally. the restriction endonuclease dna fingerprints of 10 of the 11 respiratory isolates, known with certainty to have been recovered from horses with respiratory disease, were entirely different from all but 3 of the 32 foetal or perinatal foal isolates. the exceptional respiratory isolate, ehv 1 army 183, ...19836314938
equine herpesvirus abortion in australia 1977 to 1982.until 1977 no case of abortion caused by equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) had been recorded in australia although the virus, called equine rhinopneumonitis virus, had been known to have been present at least since 1962. outbreaks of ehv1 abortion occurred in new south wales in 1977 and in 1981. sporadic cases of ehv1 abortion had been confirmed in some parts of australia each year since 1975. it was concluded that an abortigenic subtype of ehv1 had been introduced to australia in 1977 and that the pr ...19836315394
a common code of practice for the control of contagious equine metritis and other equine reproductive diseases for the 1984 covering season in france, ireland and the united kingdom. 19836318420
structure and genetic complexity of the genomes of herpesvirus defective-interfering particles associated with oncogenic transformation and persistent infection.the complexity and structural organization of defective-interfering (di) particle dna of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) have been elucidated by using restriction enzyme and southern blot hybridization analyses. di particles were generated by serial high-multiplicity passage of ehv-1 in l-m cells, and total viral dna was extracted from virus purified from supernatants of these serial passages. ehv-1 di particle dna was quantitatively separated from standard (std) dna by several cycles of cscl ...19846321784
[the neurological form of evh1 in horses]. 19846322380
coestablishment of persistent infection and oncogenic transformation of hamster embryo cells by equine cytomegalovirus.semipermissive, primary hamster embryo (he) cells were morphologically transformed in vitro by infection with uv-irradiated equine cytomegalovirus (equine herpesvirus type 2; ecmv). cell lines (designated ec-1-3) were established independently from foci and were shown to exhibit growth and biological properties typically associated with transformed cells: altered morphology, loss of contact inhibition, increased saturation density, decreased generation time, immortality in culture, normal growth ...19846322417
structure of the genome of equine herpesvirus type 3.restriction endonuclease mapping studies were performed to determine the molecular structure of the genome of equine herpesvirus type 3 (ehv-3). purified ehv-3 dna, either unlabeled or 32p-labeled, was analyzed using the restriction enzymes bamhi, bcli, bglii, ecori, and hindiii. the findings that four 0.5 m (molar) fragments were present, that two of these were terminal fragments, and that all 0.5 m fragments contained homologous dna sequences as judged by dna hybridization analyses indicated t ...19846322418
equine cytomegalovirus: structural proteins of virions and nucleocapsids.enveloped virions and nucleocapsids of equine cytomegalovirus (ecmv; equine herpesvirus type 2) have been purified from the supernatants and the nuclear extracts of infected rabbit kidney (rk) cells, respectively, and their structural protein compositions have been analyzed. sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that ecmv nucleocapsids were composed of nine proteins (average molecular weights = 148k, 52k, 49.5k, 46k, 43.5k, 38.5k, 27k, 20k, and 18k), which t ...19846324468
trials of an inactivated equid herpesvirus 1 vaccine: challenge with a subtype 1 virus.vaccinated yearlings , two-year-old and in-foal pony mares with appropriate controls were exposed to aerosols of a subtype 1 virus one to two months after two or three vaccinations; all became infected. no obvious differences in the febrile responses, clinical signs and subsequent abortions were found between vaccinated and control mares. all vaccinated yearlings and two-year-old ponies developed a febrile respiratory disease but this was less severe than that suffered by the controls and the am ...19846328728
trials of an inactivated equid herpesvirus 1 vaccine: challenge with a subtype 2 virus.serological responses following two and three doses of an inactivated equid herpesvirus 1 ( ehv -1) vaccine containing a subtype 1 strain were examined in yearling ponies. complement fixing antibody responses were significantly higher against the subtype 1 vaccine strain than against a subtype 2 virus. complement fixing antibody responses declined rapidly after the second dose of vaccine and had returned to almost pre-vaccination levels eight weeks after the second dose of vaccine. complement fi ...19846328729
ulcerative duodenitis in foals aged 18 days to 3 1/2 months had either single or multiple full-circumference segments or long antimesenteric bands of necrotizing duodenitis, sharply delineated from adjacent viable duodenum. perforation of the necrotic wall had occurred in all foals, leading to acute fibrinous peritonitis. on the mucosal surface severe diffuse, acute inflammation and ulceration involved the anterior half of the duodenum. two further foals, aged 28 and 30 days, had lesions that are believed to be a ...19836649336
observations on vascular accidents in the central nervous system of neonatal foals.a technique for the subarachnoid perfusion-fixation of the central nervous system was developed to help identify various significant vascular accidents (svas) in the central nervous system (cns) of 24 neonatal foals submitted for necropsy. svas, comprising subarachnoid, parenchymal and nerve root haemorrhages, and oedema and necrosis, occurred in 17 foals, more frequently in the spinal cord than the brain. they occurred as frequently in premature foals as in those born at full term, in foals bor ...19826962896
humoral and cell-mediated immune response of foals vaccinated with attenuated equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). 19807223181
role of the virion host shutoff (vhs) of herpes simplex virus type 1 in latency and pathogenesis.the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) ul41 gene product, virion host shutoff (vhs), has homologs among five alphaherpesviruses (hsv-1, hsv-2, pseudorabies virus, varicella-zoster virus, and equine herpesvirus 1), suggesting a role for this protein in neurotropism. a mutant virus, termed ul41nhb, which carries a nonsense linker in the ul41 open reading frame at amino acid position 238 was generated. ul41nhb and a marker-rescued virus, ul41nhb-r, were characterized in vitro and tested for their ...19957474089
the varicella-zoster virus (vzv) open reading frame 47 (orf47) protein kinase is dispensable for viral replication and is not required for phosphorylation of orf63 protein, the vzv homolog of herpes simplex virus investigate the role of varicella-zoster virus (vzv) open reading frame 47 (orf47) protein kinase during infection, a vzv mutant was generated in which two contiguous stop codons were introduced into orf47, thus eliminating expression of the orf47 kinase. orf47 kinase was not essential for the growth of vzv in cultured cells, and the growth rate of the vzv mutant lacking orf47 protein was indistinguishable from that of parental vzv. nuclear extracts from cells infected with parental vzv conta ...19957474171
equine herpesvirus 1 gene 12, the functional homologue of herpes simplex virus vp16, transactivates via octamer sequences in the equine herpesvirus ie gene promoter.the hsv-1 transactivator of immediate-early (ie) gene expression, vp16, has several functional homologues among the alphaherpesviruses which have not yet been extensively studied in relation to their modes of action. to date, nothing is known of the exact sites or mechanism of interaction of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) homologue, the gene 12 protein, with the ehv-1 ie promoter. we show that the gene 12 protein utilises the promoter proximal region of the ie gene to induce activation an ...19957483272
identification and transcriptional analysis of a 3'-coterminal gene cluster containing ul1, ul2, ul3, and ul3.5 open reading frames of bovine herpesvirus-1.we have identified and sequenced 3113 nucleotides located at the right end of the hindiii l fragment of the bovine herpesvirus-1 genome from map units 0.712 to 0.734. analysis of the sequence identified four open reading frames (orfs) which are designated ul1, ul2, ul3, and ul3.5 based on their homology with proteins of herpes simplex virus-1 (hsv-1), pseudorabies virus (prv), equine herpesvirus-1, and varicella-zoster virus. the ul1 orf of 158 amino acids exhibits limited homology with ul1 (gly ...19957483276
characterization of dna binding properties of the immediate-early gene product of equine herpesvirus type 1.the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) immediate-early (ie) gene encodes a phosphoprotein that is essential for the activation of transcription from viral early and late promoters and that regulates the transcription from its own promoter. employment of ehv-1 ie promoter dna probes and glutathione s-transferase fusion proteins harboring truncated portions of the ie gene product in gel shift assays, super shift assays with anti-ie monoclonal antibodies, and dnase i footprinting analyses revealed: ...19957483278
gp13 (ehv-gc): a complement receptor induced by equine herpesviruses.equine herpesviruses type 1 (ehv-1) and type 4 (ehv-4) induce a complement receptor protein on the surface of infected cells capable of binding to the third component of complement (c3). the protein mediating the binding to the c3 component of complement was identified as glycoprotein 13 (gp13, ehv-gc), as expression of the cloned viral gene under the control of a cmv promoter induced c3 binding activity at the transfected cell surface. comparable to glycoprotein c (gc) from herpes simplex virus ...19957483825
the nucleotide sequence of asinine herpesvirus 3 glycoprotein g indicates that the donkey virus is closely related to equine herpesvirus 1.the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein g (gg) homologue of asinine herpesvirus 3 (ahv3), a respiratory alphaherpesvirus of donkeys, was determined. the ahv3 gg gene consists of 1233 base pairs (bp) and codes for a predicted protein of 411 amino acids. this is identical in size to the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) gg gene and 6 amino acids longer than the equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv4) gg gene. the predicted amino acid sequence of ahv3 gg has characteristics of a class 1 membrane protein. the ami ...19957487497
use of lambda gt11 to identify antigenic components of equine herpesvirus 4.a library of the equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) genome was constructed in the lambda gt11 expression vector. recombinant bacteriophage expressing ehv-4 antigens as beta-galactosidase fusion proteins were detected with rabbit antiserum raised against ehv-4 virions and convalescent horse serum. ehv-4 dna sequences contained in the immunopositive recombinants were used as hybridization probes for mapping the genes encoding the antigens on the viral genome. the dna sequence of the probes was determine ...19947521096
cellular and antibody responses to equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 following vaccination of horses with modified-live and inactivated viruses.the ability of monovalent and bivalent equine herpesvirus (ehv) vaccines to stimulate cellular and antibody responses to ehv-1 and ehv-4 was compared in healthy horses. comparison of data from lymphocyte blastogenesis tests in which live viruses were used as antigens and that were conducted prior to vaccination and after 2 vaccinations revealed that horses given modified-live ehv-1 had significant increases in proliferative responses to ehv-1 (p = 0.03) and ehv-4 (p = 0.04). responses to ehv-1 a ...19957538990
a mouse model for testing the pathogenicity of equine herpes virus-1 strains.a mouse model was developed for testing the pathogenicity of equine herpes virus-1 (ehv-1) strains. the model was validated with ehv-1 strains that are known to be of a low or high pathogenicity in horses. from all parameters tested, the safety index, which was calculated from the body weights of the mice after infection, proved to be the best predictive parameter. when this parameter was used, good and reliable correlations were found with the pathogenicity of the ehv-1 strains in horses. this ...19957559856
the equine herpesvirus 1 gene 63 ring finger protein partially complements vmw110, its herpes simplex virus type 1 counterpart.all alpha herpesviruses of known dna sequence have been found to encode a protein with similarities to immediate early protein vmw110 (icp0) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1). the conserved portion of this family of proteins is a characteristic zinc binding module, known as a ring finger or c3hc4 domain. examples of ring finger domains occur in many other proteins of diverse evolutionary origin and function. recently, the solution structure of the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) ring finger pr ...19957561779
application of an equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) type-specific elisa to the management of an outbreak of ehv1 abortion.sera from 33 australian thoroughbred mares were tested during an outbreak of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) abortion with an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (elisa) for the presence of ehv1-specific antibodies. the elisa used a recombinant ehv1 antigen derived from glycoprotein g (gg) and distinguished antibodies to ehv1 from those of the antigenically related and widespread herpesvirus ehv4. sera were obtained from most of the mares on three occasions, three, 13 and 67 days after the first abort ...19957571249
guidelines for vaccination of horses. the american association of equine practitioners' vaccination guidelines subcommittee of the avma council on biologic and therapeutic agents. 19957591939
transcriptional analyses of the unique short segment of ehv-1 strain kentucky a.the unique short (us) segment of the genome of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) strain kya is comprised of six open reading frames (orfs) that encode: a) a homolog of the us2 protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1); b) a serine threonine protein kinase that is a homolog of the hsv-1 us3 protein; c) a homolog of pseudorabies virus glycoprotein gx and hsv-2 gg; d) a novel glycoprotein, eus4, not encoded by other herpesviruses sequenced to date; e) a homolog of hsv-1 gd; and f) a homolog of ...19957597804
sequence characteristics of a gene in infectious laryngotracheitis virus homologous to glycoprotein d of herpes simplex infectious laryngotracheitis virus (iltv, gallid herpesvirus 1) gene homologous to glycoprotein d of herpes simplex virus (hsv) was identified and characterized by its nucleotide and derived amino acid sequence. the iltv gd gene is located in the unique short region (u(s)) and contains an open reading frame capable of specifying a polypeptide of 380 amino acids, including n- and c- terminal hydrophobic domains consistent with signal and anchor regions respectively, and no potential sites for ...19957612933
characterization of the regulatory function of the icp22 protein of equine herpesvirus type 1.the ir4 gene (inverted repeat gene 4) of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-), the homolog of the herpes simplex virus type 1 icp22 gene, is differentially expressed as a 1.4-kb early transcript and a 1.7-kb late transcript that encode a series of proteins that migrate between 42 to 47 kda, localize to the nucleus of ehv-1-infected cells, and become packaged within ehv-1 virions (v. r. holden, g. b. caughman, y. zhao, r. n. harty, and d. j. o'callaghan, j. virol. 68, 4329-4340, 1994). to assess the ...19957618267
herpes simplex virus immediate-early protein icp22 is required for viral modification of host rna polymerase ii and establishment of the normal viral transcription program.infection of cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) results in a rapid alteration of phosphorylation on the large subunit of cellular rna polymerase ii (rnap ii), most likely on its c-terminal domain (s. a. rice, m. c. long, v. lam, c. a. spencer, j. virol. 68:988-1001, 1994). this phosphorylation modification generates a novel form of the large subunit which we have designed iii. in this study, we examine roles that hsv-1 gene products play in this process. an hsv-1 mutant defective in ...19957637000
pseudorabies virus and equine herpesvirus 1 share a nonessential gene which is absent in other herpesviruses and located adjacent to a highly conserved gene cluster.we have determined the nucleotide sequence and transcriptional pattern of a group of open reading frames in the pseudorabies virus (prv) genome located near the left end of the unique long region within bamhi 5' fragment at map positions 0.01 to 0.06. the 7,412-bp bamhi 5' fragment was found to contain five complete open reading frames and part of a sixth whose deduced amino acid sequences showed homology to the ul50 (partial), ul51, ul52, ul53, and ul54 gene products of herpes simplex virus typ ...19957637001
equine herpesvirus 2 in pulmonary macrophages of a search of viral agents in pulmonary macrophages of horses with chronic pulmonary disease, equine herpesvirus 2 was found to be unique. in 8 of 9 horses with chronic pulmonary disease, antigens of equine herpesvirus 2 were detected by indirect immunofluorescence staining of scattered foamy macrophages immediately after harvesting by bronchoalveolar lavage and fractionation on metrizamide gradients. in a healthy horse, antigens were not found. after 1 week of cultivation of bronchoalveolar la ...19957653883
cellular and antibody responses to equine herpesviruses 1 and 4. 19957657564
zinc mining for protein domains. 19947664042
characterization of an antigenic site on glycoprotein 13 (gc) of equid herpesvirus type-1.six monoclonal antibodies directed against ehv-1 glycoprotein 13 were characterized. five antibodies neutralized ehv-1 and were directed against a single antigenic site which comprised type-specific and type cross-reactive epitopes. inhibition of monoclonal antibody binding to this site by post-infection equine sera suggests that it is a target of host antibody during natural infection with either ehv-1 or ehv-4.19937682404
a type-specific conformational epitope on the nucleocapsid of equid herpesvirus-1 and its use in diagnosis.a type-specific monoclonal antibody was produced by immunizing mice with purified equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1). the ehv-1 specific mab reacted with all the ehv-1 strains tested so far by indirect elisa, immunofluorescence, and immunoperoxidase tests. no reactions were detected with the ehv-4, ehv-2, or ehv-3 strains tested. the indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests showed that the nuclei of infected cells were predominantly stained by this mab. triton treatment of the virus and i ...19937688948
epitopes of glycoprotein g of equine herpesviruses 4 and 1 located near the c termini elicit type-specific antibody responses in the natural host.specific serological diagnosis of equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv4; equine rhinopneumonitis virus) and ehv1 (equine abortion virus) hitherto has not been possible because of extensive antigenic cross-reactivity between these two closely related but distinct viruses. recently, we identified ehv4 glycoprotein g (gg) and characterized it as a type-specific, secreted glycoprotein (b. s. crabb, h. s. nagesha, and m. j. studdert, virology 190:143-154, 1992). this paper shows that ehv1 gg also possesses type ...19937690425
regulatory function of the equine herpesvirus 1 icp27 gene product.the ul3 protein of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) kya strain is a homolog of the icp27 alpha regulatory protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and the orf 4 protein of varicella-zoster virus. to characterize the regulatory function of the ul3 gene product, a ul3 gene expression vector (psvul3) and a vector expressing a truncated version of the ul3 gene (psvul3p) were generated. these effector plasmids, in combination with an ehv-1 immediate-early (ie) gene expression vector (psvie) and chi ...19957707500
detection and intracellular localization of equine herpesvirus 1 ir1 and ir2 gene products by using monoclonal antibodies.during lytic infection, two transcripts arise from the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) immediate-early (ie) gene (ir1): a single, spliced 6.0-kb ie mrna and a 3'-coterminal 4.4-kb early mrna (ir2). previous studies demonstrated that transiently expressed ir1 and ir2 gene products are potent transcriptional regulators: ir1 proteins are capable of trans activating representative ehv-1 early and late promoters, while both ir1 proteins and the ir2 product, which lacks ir1 amino acid residues 1 to 322, ...19957707529
a type-specific serological test to distinguish antibodies to equine herpesviruses 4 and 1.we describe a type-specific elisa, which distinguishes antibody to equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv4; equine rhinopneumonitis) and ehv1 (equine abortion virus) thereby identifying horses that have been infected with either or both of these antigenically related viruses. the antigens used are parts of the ehv4 and ehv1 glycoprotein g (gg) homologues expressed in e. coli as fusion proteins [crabb and studdert, 1993: j virol 67: 6332-6338). the expressed proteins comprise corresponding regions of the gg m ...19957710353
a touchdown pcr for the differentiation of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) field strains from the modified live vaccine strain rach.more than 50 reference strains and field isolates of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) were examined by a touchdown pcr. primers for specific amplification of ehv-1 dna were chosen from the terminal and internal repeat regions of the ehv-1 genome where the high-passaged live vaccine strain rach displays symmetric 850 bp deletions. the positive strand and one negative strand primer were designed to encompass the deletions present in rach, and the second negative strand primer was designed to hybr ...19947714035
response of ponies to adjuvanted ehv-1 whole virus vaccine and challenge with virus of the homologous strain.five yearling ponies were vaccinated with inactivated equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) in freund's complete adjuvant as a double emulsion and revaccinated 6 weeks later with ehv-1 in freund's incomplete adjuvant. these ponies and three age-matched controls were challenged intra-nasally after a further 6 weeks with homologous live virus and monitored clinically, biologically and serologically. after challenge, clinical signs were mild in both groups. no cell-associated viraemias were detected in ...19957735868
nuclear localization and transcriptional activation activities of truncated versions of the immediate-early gene product of equine herpesvirus 1.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) immediate-early (ie) gene product encodes a nuclear regulatory protein capable of negatively autoregulating its own promoter, transactivating representative ehv-1 early promoters, and acting in a concerted fashion with accessory ehv-1 regulatory factors to transactivate ehv-1 late promoters. to identify ie amino acid sequences involved in nuclear localization and to examine the contribution of c-terminal portions of the ie polypeptide to transactivation, vectors ...19957745735
protection against ehv-1 challenge infection in the murine model after vaccination with various formulations of recombinant glycoprotein gp14 (gb).four formulations of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein gp 14 (gb), were tested for their ability to protect mice against intranasal (inas) ehv-1 challenge infection. the preparations tested included (i) a truncated gp14 produced in escherichia coli or (ii) a truncated gp14 expressed in insect cells by a recombinant baculovirus, (iii) truncated gp14 coexpressed with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) gag virus-like particles (vlp) in insect cells, and (iv) a gp14-dna vac ...19957747423
transcriptional analysis of the short segment of the feline herpesvirus type 1 genome and insertional mutagenesis of a unique reading frame.transcription mapping was performed in the short region of the feline herpesvirus type 1 (fhv-1) genome as a first approach to the functional analysis of open reading frames encoding the homologs of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) gd, gl, ge, us9, and probably also us8.5. all reading frames appeared to be transcribed. transcripts were grouped into two nested rna sets; namely, the coterminal transcripts of gd and gl and the coterminal transcripts of ge, us8.5, and us9. this situation was ...19957747442
the dna sequence of human herpesvirus-6: structure, coding content, and genome evolution.the complete dna sequence was determined for strain u1102 of human herpesvirus-6, a cd4+ t-lymphotropic virus with disease associations in immunodeficient settings and a possible complicating factor in aids. the genome is 159,321 bp in size, has a base composition of 43% g + c, and contains 119 open reading frames. the overall structure is 143 kb bounded by 8 kb of direct repeats, drl (left) and drr (right), containing 0.35 kb of terminal and junctional arrays of human telomere-like simple repea ...19957747482
expression of membrane-bound and secreted forms of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein d by recombinant baculovirus.analyses of the synthesis and processing of recombinant full-length glycoprotein d of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1; gd392) or recombinant truncated gd (gd352) expressed in baculovirus-infected sf9 cells revealed the following: (1) gd polypeptides encoded by both recombinant baculoviruses react with gd-specific antibodies including peptide-specific antiserum that neutralizes ehv-1 in a plaque reduction assay, (2) both the full-length recombinant gd392 and the truncated gd352 are expressed pre ...19957754672
[neurological form of rhinopneumonitis in horses]. 19957761973
development of pcr assays to detect genetic variation amongst equine herpesvirus-1 isolates as an aid to epidemiological investigation.a search for variable restriction sites has been carried out for equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) in an attempt to develop markers which can be used to group epidemiologically related viruses into groups, and to learn more about the dynamics of ehv-1 disease. crude viral dna extracts of ehv-1, prepared by hirt extraction, were digested with alui, haeiii, or rsai, and southern blotted following electrophoresis. dna fingerprints, produced by probing the southern blots with the ehv-1 ecor1-i fragment, ...19957769032
replication of equid herpesvirus 4 in endothelial cells and synovia of a field case of viral pneumonia and synovitis in a foal.equid herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) infection was diagnosed as the cause of interstitial pneumonia in a 6-week-old conventionally reared welsh pony foal, by cocultivation and immunolabelling with specific monoclonal antibodies, ehv-4 specific amplification of viral dna, and immunohistological examination of infected tissues. the case was novel in that replication of the ehv-4 isolate in endothelial cells and in the synovial epithelium was a feature. restriction digests of this isolate were compared with ...19957769144
serological relationship between a donkey alphaherpesvirus (isolate m7/91) and equid herpesvirus type 1 and 4.rabbit hyperimmune serum prepared against a donkey alphaherpesvirus isolate (m7/91), and against ehv-1 and ehv-4 was used to characterise the antigenic relationship between these 3 viruses. serum from immunised rabbits was always more specific for homologous virus and showed different cross reactivity for heterologous virus. it was concluded that the immunologic relationship between the m7/91 isolate and ehv-1, was closer than that between this isolate and ehv-4. a serological survey of donkeys ...19947776336
equine herpesvirus 1 hvs25a isolated from an aborted foetus produces disease in balb/c mice. 19957779039
equine herpesviruses 4 (equine rhinopneumonitis virus) and 1 (equine abortion virus). 19957793324
icp27 immediate early gene, glycoprotein k (gk) and dna helicase homologues of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (gallid herpesvirus 1) sa-2 strain.a 4.8 kilobase segment located at the left-terminal in the unique long (ul) region of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (iltv) sa-2 strain contained three open reading frames (orfs). the first of 421 amino acids (aa) was located at map units 0.065 to 0.07, and its predicted 48 kilodaltons (kda) protein product has significant homology to the immediate early regulatory protein icp27 (ul54) of herpes simplex virus type-1 (hsv-1), to varicella-zoster virus (vzv) orf4 and to equine herpesvirus 1 (e ...19957794109
immunization with glycoprotein c of equine herpesvirus-1 is associated with accelerated virus clearance in a murine model.the glycoprotein c (gc) gene of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) was expressed in insect cells by a recombinant baculovirus as several products with apparent molecular weights of 66 kda-80 kda. the baculovirus ehv-1 gc products were recognised by monoclonal antibody and by ehv-1 convalescent equine sera, indicating conservation of antigenic determinants and confirming this glycoprotein as a target for the equine immune system. mice immunized with recombinant ehv-1 gc showed accelerated clearance of ...19957794119
equine herpesvirus-1: a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus. 19947801451
amplification of strains of bovine herpesvirus 1 by use of polymerase chain reaction with primers in the thymidine kinase region.a primer pair was designed from the published nucleotide sequence of the coding region of the bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) thymidine kinase (tk) gene for use in detection of the virus by use of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification of 12 bhv-1 strains (3 atcc and 9 local isolates). a tk deletion mutant bhv-1, and 2 bhv-4 strains from atcc were used as negative controls. one strain each of feline herpes-virus, equine herpesvirus, and bovine adenovirus, and 2 noninoculated bovine cultured ...19947802385
an improved cosmid vector for the cloning of equine herpesvirus dna.we have modified the commercial cosmid vector, triple helix vector (thv), such that i-sce-i restriction endonuclease sites flank the cloning site. i-sce-i is a rare-cutting endonuclease which recognizes an 18-bp sequence. it does not restrict the genome of either of the equine herpesvirus 1 or 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) strains we have cosmid cloned. thus, cosmid-cloned ehv fragments can be excised intact from the vector by i-sce-i digestion, facilitating production of large overlapping ehv fragments f ...19947821817
[field trial with a subunit rhinopneumovaccine]. 19957846673
equine herpesviruses 1 and 4: amplification and differentiation by polymerase chain reaction. 19947847200
disseminated equine herpesvirus-1 infection in a two-year-old filly. 19947858033
characterization and localization of the equine herpesvirus 1 major dna binding previous studies of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) gene regulation, we observed an abundant early infected cell polypeptide (icp), designated icp130, which appeared in reduced amounts in cells infected with defective interfering particle-rich ehv-1 stocks compared to standard ehv-1-infected cells. to characterize this icp further, a monoclonal antibody (mab) was developed to ehv-1 icp130 and used to (1) affinity purify icp130, (2) examine icp130's ability to bind dna, and (3) define the synthes ...19957886942
another fence jumped in the ehv-1 stakes. 19947889915
distribution of equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) in the respiratory tract of ponies: implications for vaccination strategies.twelve adult ponies and 2 conventional foals were exposed to 10(6.6) tcid50 of equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), strain ab4 and samples of respiratory tract tissues were recovered. infectious virus in tissue homogenates was detected using susceptible cell monolayers and expression of viral antigens was monitored using indirect immunoperoxidase histochemistry of paraffin sections. the results illustrated the rapid dissemination of ehv-1 throughout the respiratory tract, with early replication in the l ...19947889920
distribution of equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) in respiratory tract associated lymphoid tissue: implications for cellular immunity.twelve adult ponies and 2 conventional foals were exposed intranasally to ehv-1, strain ab4 (tcid50 10(-6.6) and samples of respiratory tract associated lymphoid tissues were recovered between 12 h and 13 days after infection. infectious virus was detected in tissue homogenates using susceptible cell monolayers and expression of viral antigens was monitored using indirect immunoperoxidase histochemistry on paraffin sections. the results showed both infectious ehv-1 and viral antigens in respirat ...19947889921
abortion due to equine herpesvirus in southern brazil.we report an outbreak of abortion due to equine herpesvirus (ehv) in 5 mares between 9 and 11 months of gestation, from a herd of 22 thoroughbred mares. equine herpesvirus was isolated from extracts of the liver, spleen and thymus but not from the lungs of a 9-month fetus grown in rabbit kidney (rk13) cells. the virus was identified by electron microscopy, where virus particles could be seen in the nucleus of infected cells, and by the fluorescent antibody technique with polyclonal antibodies ag ...19947894345
identification and characterization of the protein product of gene 67 in equine herpesvirus type 1 strain ab4.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) strain ab4 gene 67 has no counterpart in any herpesvirus sequenced to date. to identify and characterize the product of ehv-1 gene 67, we have expressed the putative amino acids 11 to 260 encoded by gene 67 as a beta-galactosidase fusion protein in escherichia coli. the expressed fusion protein has been used to generate an antiserum raised against the gene 67 product. immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation experiments have revealed that the anti-67 serum specifi ...19957897346
clinical, serological and virological characteristics of an outbreak of paresis and neonatal foal disease due to equine herpesvirus-1 on a stud outbreak of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) occurred on a large stud farm with 133 mares, 54 foals and four stallions, and at least 85 mares, 22 foals and three stallions were infected. clinical disease was observed in 16 mares, two stallions and 13 foals and the predominant clinical signs were scrotal oedema, ataxia and loss of libido in the stallions, ataxia and recumbency in the mares and uveitis and nasal discharge in the foals, although pneumonia and colic with intussusception were also rec ...19957900264
comparison of the genomes of attenuated equine herpesvirus-1 strains with their parent virulent elucidate the virulence factors of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), we compared the genomic architecture of the hh1 strain, a japanese isolate of ehv-1, with that of its four descendant strains obtained by serial passage in bovine kidney (bk) cells, i.e. bk77, bk161, bk271, and bk343. in preliminary studies high-passaged bk271 and bk343 lost virulence in colts, and in the present study digestion with restriction endonuclease bamhl showed that the dnas of bk271 and bk343 differed markedly from th ...19947909970
inhibition of feline immunodeficiency virus gene expression and replication by alphaherpesvirus icp4 homologues.we investigated the effects of pseudorabies virus (prv), herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), and equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) icp4 homologues on feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) long terminal repeat (ltr)-directed gene expression. this was done by using the transient expression chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) assay in crandell feline kidney (crfk) and felis catus whole fetus 4 cells transfected with a chimeric fiv ltr-cat reporter construct in combination with effector plasmids ...19947931167
expression and characterisation of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein h using a recombinant baculovirus.a recombinant baculovirus capable of expressing the glycoprotein h (gh) gene of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) was constructed. ehv-1 gh gene products in recombinant baculovirus infected insect cells were identified as 105 kda and 110 kda species compared with a 115 kda product detected in ehv-1 infected mammalian cells. the extent of n-glycosylation of ehv-1 gh in both insect and mammalian cells was indicated by a shift in apparent molecular weights after pngase f treatment to 90 kda and 95 kda f ...19947944958
update on llama medicine. of the limited literature on camelid eyes suggests they are anatomically similar to those of domestic livestock species, except they lack meibomian glands and have iridial folds (rather than corpora nigra). the microbial flora of the healthy camelid conjunctival sac also appears to be similar to those of domestic livestock and pets, except that no mycoplasma have been isolated from camelids. ocular diseases for which camelids are presented to veterinarians are numerous and varied. the mos ...19947953968
mapping, cloning and sequencing of a glycoprotein-encoding gene from bovine herpesvirus type 1 homologous to the ge gene from order to map and identify the glycoprotein-encoding gene from bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), homologous to the ge glycoprotein from herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), a region of the unique short sequence from the bhv-1 genome has been sequenced. the sequenced region contains an orf coding for a polypeptide of 575 amino acids (aa). the aa sequence presents substantial similarity to that of the glycoprotein ge from hsv-1 and to homologous proteins of related viruses such as pseudorabies ...19947958994
the gene downstream of the gc homologue in feline herpes virus type 1 is involved in the expression of virulence.feline herpesvirus type 1 (fhv-1) mutants were constructed, carrying a beta-galactosidase marker gene integrated into the region downstream of the gene encoding the homologue of glycoprotein c (gc) of herpes simplex virus type 1. in cell culture, no differences in replication were observed between mutants and the parent fhv-1 strain. however, in experimentally infected cats, mutants caused fewer clinical signs after oronasal administration although they replicated to the same extent as the paren ...19947964620
identification and characterization of the protein product of gene 71 in equine herpesvirus 1.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strain ab4 gene 71 is predicted to encode a primary product with a m(r) of 80.1k. we have previously constructed a deletion/lacz insertion mutant, ed71, and demonstrated that gene 71 is dispensable for growth of virus in cell culture. we have now constructed a gene 71 revertant, re71. to identify and characterize the product of gene 71, we produced a specific antiserum, anti-71, against a beta-galactosidase fusion protein containing the carboxy terminus of the gene 7 ...19947964621
prevalence of antibodies against some equine viruses in zebra (zebra burchelli) in the kruger national park, 1991-1992.the presence of antibodies against equine encephalosis virus (eev) and equid herpesvirus 1 and 4 in zebra in the kruger national park (knp) was demonstrated. the ability of zebra to maintain immunity against eev is illustrated by the appearance of neutralizing antibodies in most zebra foals within months of losing their maternal immunity. this occurs in every month of the year, even in winter. the high proportion of serologically positive foals in winter is ascribed to the presence of large numb ...19937970572
major histocompatibility complex class i-restricted cytotoxic t-lymphocyte responses in horses infected with equine herpesvirus experimental system that permits sensitive and reproducible detection of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1)-specific cytotoxic t-lymphocyte (ctl) activity in the horse was developed. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) collected from immune horses were restimulated in vitro by culture with live ehv-1. cytotoxic activity against virus-infected, pokeweed mitogen-stimulated lymphoblast targets was assessed in a 4-h 51cr release assay. the optimal conditions for in vitro stimulation of equine mem ...19957983765
the dna sequence coding for the 5' untranslated region of herpes simplex virus type 1 icp22 mrna mediates a high level of gene expression.the sequence coding for the 5' untranslated region (utr) of icp22 mrna of herpes simplex virus type 1 has been tested for its ability to regulate gene expression. this sequence was placed in frame with the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) coding sequence and under the control of the simian virus 40 early promoter-enhancer. under these conditions, the sequence coding for the 5'utr led to an increase of about 13-fold in cat activity, measured during transient expression. the use of mutants ...19948021598
characterization of immune responses to baculovirus-expressed equine herpesvirus type 1 glycoproteins d and h in a murine model.a murine intranasal infection model for equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was used to evaluate immune responses following immunization with insect cells infected by baculoviruses that express ehv-1 glycoproteins. baculovirus recombinant glycoprotein d (gd) and gh both induced serum antibodies to ehv-1 when measured by elisa. the gd recombinant also produced a neutralizing antibody response. protective immunity, determined by accelerated clearance of virus from the target organs in the respirator ...19948021602
a gd homologous gene of feline herpesvirus type 1 encodes a hemagglutinin (gp60).a gene-encoding glycoprotein d (gd) homologue of feline herpesvirus type 1 (fhv-1) was identified and sequenced. it was located within an ecori 4.3-kbp fragment in the middle of the unique short region. the primary translation product of the gd homologous gene is predicted to consist of 374 amino acids with a molecular weight (mw) of 43.2 kda. comparative analysis among gd counterparts of other herpesviruses revealed that six cysteine residues which correlate with disulfide bond structure were c ...19948030205
the equine herpesvirus type 1 immediate-early gene product contains an acidic transcriptional activation domain.the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) immediate-early (ie) gene product, an icp4 homolog, is the major regulatory protein encoded by ehv-1 during cytolytic infection. the ie gene product has been demonstrated to induce reporter gene expression directed by both homologous and heterologous viral promoters, including the ehv-1 thymidine kinase (tk) promoter, the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) tk and icp4 promoters, and the simian virus 40 early promoter. in this report, the transcriptional act ...19948030239
the extreme carboxyl terminus of the equine herpesvirus 1 homolog of herpes simplex virus vp16 is essential for immediate-early gene activation.gene 12 of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), the homolog of herpes simplex virus (hsv) vp16 (alpha tif, vmw65), was cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector by pcr and used in transactivation studies of both the ehv-1 and hsv-1 ie1 promoters. results demonstrated that the product of gene 12 is a potent transactivator of immediate-early gene expression of both viruses, which requires sequences in the upstream hsv-1 promoter for activity. mutational analysis of the gene 12 open reading frame indicat ...19948035487
in-situ hybridization for demonstration of equine herpesvirus type 1 dna in paraffin wax-embedded tissues and its use in horses with disseminated necrotizing myeloencephalitis.the detection of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) in infected cell cultures, and in tissues taken at necropsy, by the in-situ hybridization technique is described. a 4.9 kb bam hi fragment of ehv-1 vaccine strain rach was used as a probe after labelling with [alpha-32p] thymidine 5'-triphosphate ([32p]ttp) or digoxigenin-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate (dutp). both probes specifically detected ehv-1 dna in either cytospin or paraffin wax-embedded preparations of infected cells. the digoxigenin-lab ...19948040387
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