[enzootic viral abortion on a stud farm in east switzerland].an outbreak of abortion due to the equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) in the eastern part of switzerland is reviewed. seven of eleven pregnant mares aborted within twenty-three days in january 1989. four weeks later another foal died a few minutes after parturition. three mares delivered live foals in february, march and april without any complications. the examination of the eight dead foals revealed an ehv-1 infection. the clinical signs and the pathology are discussed. severe complications during t ...19902171142
the nucleotide sequence of the equine herpesvirus 4 gc gene homologue.the genomic position of an equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) gene homologue of the herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) gc gene was determined by southern analysis and dna sequencing. the gene lies within a 2-kbp bg/ii-ecori fragment mapping between 0.15 and 0.17 within the long unique component of the ehv-4 genome and is transcribed from right to left. putative promoter elements were identified upstream of the 1455-bp open reading frame which encodes a 485-amino-acid protein of unglycosylated molecular we ...19902171212
characterization of the high mr glycoprotein (gp300) of equine herpesvirus type 1 as a novel glycoprotein with extensive o-linked carbohydrate.the high mr glycoprotein (gp300) of equine herpesvirus type 1 was found to have an mr, estimated by sds-page, of over 400,000 and was confirmed as being a surface glycoprotein by 125i-labelling. in contrast to [3h]glucosamine, gp300 showed very low levels of [3h]glucosamine, gp300 showed very low levels of [3h]mannose incorporation. the mr of gp300 showed no detectable change upon treatment of purified virus with n-glycanase, and showed only a small change in virus-infected cells treated with tu ...19902172454
organization and function of the oris sequence in the genome of ehv-1 di particles.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) cultures enriched for defective interfering particles (dip) mediate oncogenic transformation and persistent infection in permissive hamster embryo fibroblasts. we have recently demonstrated that an origin of replication (ori) is located within the central portion (map units 0.828 and 0.948) of the inverted repeat sequence (irs) of the short region of the standard ehv-1 genome. in the generation of the genome of ehv-1 di particles, sequences from this internal po ...19902173265
protection against lethal equine herpes virus type 1 (subtype 1) infection in hamsters by immune stimulating complexes (iscoms) containing the major viral experimental iscom vaccine has been prepared from gradient purified equine herpes virus type 1 (ehv-1). radiolabelling studies demonstrated that this vaccine contained all the major viral glycoproteins in relative amounts similar to those found in non-detergent disrupted viral preparations. this ehv-1 iscom vaccine generated fully protective responses in hamsters challenged with an otherwise lethal dose of the hamster-adapted ehv-1 strain rach.19902174599
equine herpesvirus type 1 unique short fragment encodes glycoproteins with homology to herpes simplex virus type 1 gd, gi and ge.the nucleotide sequence of a 6.4 kbp portion of the 10.6 kbp bamhi fragment d contained in the unique short region of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) genome has been determined. analysis of this sequence revealed five open reading frames (orfs), four complete and one incomplete, which were encoded by the same sense strand. comparison of the ehv-1 dna sequence with that encoding glycoproteins of other alphaherpesviruses has revealed no significant homologies. comparison at the amino acid le ...19902177089
antiviral activity of 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl) guanine against equine herpesvirus type 1 hh-1 strain and pseudorabies virus ys-81 strain. 19902177802
the immunodominant glycoprotein complex of equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and the counterpart of ehv-4. 19902177803
infarction of the pons and medulla oblongata caused by arteriolar thrombosis in a horse.infarction of the pons and rostral medulla secondary to arteriolar thrombosis was documented histologically in a 17-year-old mixed-arabian female horse. clinically, the animal experienced a sudden onset of a head tilt and subsequent non-controllable seizures. there was no historical, clinical or histological evidence to suggest the presence of infection of equine herpesvirus-1 or the feeding of corn contaminated by fusarium moniliforme.19902364707
innate immunity during equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection.intrinsic phagocytosis and killing of c. albicans by equine monocytes and polymorphonuclear leucocytes (pmn) was examined during equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) (subtypes 1 or 2) and adenovirus infections. monocyte function increased during ehv-1 subtype 2 and adenovirus infection. conversely, there was an impairment of monocyte ingestion during ehv-1 subtype 1 infection which was ascribed to virus replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. pmn phagocytosis was not decreased in any of the in ...19862431815
rapid diagnosis and characterization of equid herpesvirus 1 using monoclonal antibodies.twelve monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced against the attenuated rach subtype 1 strain of equid herpesvirus 1. nine were subtype specific by immunofluorescence or immunoperoxidase, while the other three were against epitopes common to both subtypes. use of these mabs allowed isolates to be rapidly and easily subtyped. immunoblotting indicated that the subtype common mabs were against viral proteins of mw 140 k and 90 k (vp 9 and 14), while the subtype-specific mabs were against the glyco ...19872438808
characterization of an equine herpesvirus type 1 gene encoding a glycoprotein (gp13) with homology to herpes simplex virus glycoprotein c.the molecular structure of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) gene encoding glycoprotein 13 (gp13) was analyzed. the gene is contained within a 1.8-kilobase acci-ecori restriction fragment mapping at map coordinates 0.136 to 0.148 in the ul region of the ehv-1 genome and is transcribed from right to left. determination of the nucleotide sequence of the dna fragment revealed a complete transcriptional unit composed of typical regulatory promoter elements upstream to a long open reading frame ( ...19882455821
a hamster model of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection; passive protection by monoclonal antibodies to ehv-1 glycoproteins 13, 14 and 17/18.following intraperitoneal or intranasal inoculation of the syrian hamster with equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), strain kentucky d, virus replicated in the liver and lungs reaching a peak at 4 days post-infection (p.i.). by day 6 p.i. virus titres in these organs had reduced and the spleen contained virus-specific cytotoxic cells. this cytotoxicity was mediated by t cells since treatment of effector cells with a monoclonal antibody to hamster t lymphocytes inhibited the effect. an antiviral hum ...19892471805
equine interferons following exposure to equid herpesvirus-1 or -4.when 23 ponies were infected with equid herpesvirus-1 or -4 (ehv-1 or ehv-4), nasal shedding of interferon (ifn) correlated closely with the duration of viral excretion. equine interferon (eqifn) was detected in the serum only from animals infected with the ehv-1 virus, and here high levels correlated with clinical symptoms of locomotor disorder and indicated a poor prognosis. low levels of ifn were detected in explanted mononuclear cells from ponies infected with either virus.19892474039
functional mapping and dna sequence of an equine herpesvirus 1 origin of replication.the genome of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) defective interfering (di) particle dna originates from discrete regions within the standard (std) ehv-1 genome: the left terminus (0.0 to 0.04 map units) and the inverted repeats (0.78 to 0.79 and 0.83 to 0.87 map units of the internal inverted repeat; 0.91 to 0.95 and 0.99 to 1.00 map units of the terminal inverted repeat). since di dna must contain cis-acting dna sequences, such as replication origins, which cannot be supplied in trans by the std ehv ...19892536833
monoclonal antibodies with neutralizing activity to equine herpesvirus monoclonal antibodies with neutralizing activity to equine herpesvirus-1 were produced. these recognized either an 81 kd or an 88 kd viral glycoprotein. some of the antibodies were shown to protect hamsters in a passive immunization experiment.19892538111
latency of equine herpesvirus 4. 19892538953
a neutrophil-derived antiviral protein: induction requirements and biological properties.polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (pmn) have been implicated as playing a role in antiviral defense. in addition to having phagocytic and cytotoxic activities, pmn may produce an antiviral substance with interferon (ifn)-like activity. the product, for which the name polyferon (pf) has been coined, is produced upon direct encounter of pmn with bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1)-infected bovine cells or membranes thereof. exposure to purified virus only does not induce pf. the intimate intera ...19892539494
serum amyloid a protein (saa) in horses: objective measurement of the acute phase response.a sensitive and precise immunoassay for equine serum amyloid a protein (saa) was established and used to determine, for the first time, the circulating concentration of this protein in health and disease. as in other species, equine saa was present only at trace levels in healthy animals but behaved as an extremely sensitive and rapidly responding acute phase reactant following most forms of tissue injury, infection and inflammation, objectively reflecting the extent and activity of disease. mea ...19892539996
[training of the immune system of foals against erp virus infections by frequent vaccination with presently available commercial vaccines].during 3 foaling seasons around 150 lipizzaner foals were vaccinated against erp with commercial vaccines and groups thereof were serotested in cf and sn for their humoral immune response. in addition, 6 horses of cheaper common breeds were vaccinated on the university premises, were continuously serologically screened and subjected to virulent nasal test infection. the live-virus vaccine prevaccinol interfered so profoundly and up to the 20th week of life with maternal antibodies that its furth ...19892540944
hemin and cyclic amp stimulate message-dependent translation in lysates from friend erythroleukemia cells.a message-dependent, cell-free translation system was prepared from both uninduced and n,n'-hexamethylene-bis-acetamide-induced friend erythroleukemia cells following modification of standard protocols. active extracts were prepared by lysing friend erythroleukemia cells in hypotonic buffer containing 50 microm hemin and 10 mm cyclic adenosine monophosphate (camp), and assaying translation in vitro in the absence of exogenous nucleoside triphosphates. both hemin and camp were required for full a ...19892541008
equine rhinopneumonitis. 19892543118
ehv-1: a recurrent problem. 19892543119
equine herpesvirus outbreaks. 19892543120
identification and nucleotide sequence of a gene in equine herpesvirus 1 analogous to the herpes simplex virus gene encoding the major envelope glycoprotein gb.a gene in equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1; equine abortion virus) equivalent to the gb glycoprotein gene of herpes simplex virus (hsv) has been identified by dna hybridization and nucleotide sequencing. a 4.3 kbp ehv-1 psti-clai sequence (0.40 to 0.43 map units) contained an open reading frame flanked by appropriate control elements and was capable of encoding a polypeptide of 980 amino acids. this had 50 to 60% identity over a 617 amino acid conserved region with the gb gene products of hsv and thr ...19892543744
the characterization of neutralizing and non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against equid herpesvirus type monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced which recognized equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). three mabs neutralized the subtype 1 virus (strain army 183) in the presence of complement, but did not neutralize the subtype 2 virus (strain md). all three mabs immunoprecipitated an mr 83k glycoprotein from a detergent-solubilized virion envelope preparation of the subtype 1 virus. the target antigens of the four non-neutralizing mabs (6f11, 2a4, 1f10 and 8d9) were identified by immunoblotting ...19892543748
identification of the gb homologues of equine herpesvirus types 1 and 4 as disulphide-linked heterodimers and their characterization using monoclonal antibodies.equine herpesvirus types 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) labelled with [14c]glucosamine were purified from infected cell culture medium and profiles of their structural proteins were obtained that enabled identification of the major glycoproteins. nine glycosylated polypeptides were identified for each virus. preparations of the purified viruses each contained a glycoprotein which was linked by disulphide bonds, as determined by diagonal gel electrophoresis under reducing/non-reducing conditions. high ...19892543773
equine herpesvirus. 19892546317
haematological changes in two thoroughbred horses in training with confirmed equine herpesvirus 1 outbreak of respiratory disease among thoroughbred horses in training in hong kong was caused by equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) subtype 1 (abortion strain). two of the horses affected by ehv-1 were serially blood sampled over a period of several weeks and their haematological values measured. there was an increase in monocyte count in the first few days which steadily decreased in one horse, but the other had a second monocyte peak after a period of exercise, thus demonstrating the importance o ...19892547264
equine herpesvirus. 19892547266
molecular confirmation of an abortigenic strain of equine herpesvirus 1 (subtype 1) in a pregnant mare study.four pregnant mares were inoculated intranasally and/or intravenously with equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), subtype 1 during the third trimester of gestation. one mare aborted on postinfection day 15, one mare delivered a sick, weak full term foal, and two mares delivered healthy, full term foals. ehv-1, subtype 1 was isolated from several tissues of the aborted fetus and from the thymus of the sick foal. dna restriction endonuclease patterns of the recovered ehv-1 viruses were identical to those o ...19892548809
viral transcripts in cells infected with defective interfering particles of equine herpesvirus type 1.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) preparations enriched in defective interfering particles (dips) have previously been demonstrated to mediate the coestablishment of persistent infection and oncogenic transformation in primary hamster embryo fibroblasts. in this study, it was demonstrated that infection of a rabbit kidney (rk) cell line with ehv-1 dip-enriched preparations also results in the establishment of persistent infection. viral transcription was characterized in rk cells infected with d ...19892549705
dna sequence and comparative analyses of the equine herpesvirus type 1 immediate early gene.the immediate early (ie) proteins of herpesviruses are important regulatory factors which control the expression of genes at the transcriptional level. we report the dna sequence of the immediate early gene of the alphaherpesvirus equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). this sequence is shown to be extremely rich in guanine and cytosine, resulting in a highly biased codon usage. the ie gene region possesses 38 open reading frames (orfs) greater than 300 bp in length, 11 of which have coding regions o ...19892549711
expression in recombinant vaccinia virus of the equine herpesvirus 1 gene encoding glycoprotein gp13 and protection of immunized animals.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) gene encoding glycoprotein 13 (gp13) was cloned into the hemagglutinin (ha) locus of vaccinia virus (copenhagen strain). expression of the gp13 gene was driven by the early/late vaccinia virus h6 promoter. metabolically radiolabeled polypeptides of approximately 47 and 44 kilodaltons and 90 kilodaltons (glycosylated form) were precipitated with both polyclonal and gp13-specific monoclonal antibodies. presentation of gp13 on the cytoplasmic membrane of cells infec ...19892550665
mapping the termini and intron of the spliced immediate-early transcript of equine herpesvirus 1.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) has been shown to synthesize a 6.0-kilobase (kb) species of immediate-early (ie) mrna in productively infected cells. this ie gene region maps within the outer portion (map units 0.79 to 0.83 and 0.96 to 1.00) of the two inverted repeat segments of the short genomic region, and elucidation of its dna sequence has revealed multiple potential open reading frames (orfs), including a major orf of 4,461 nucleotides (f. j. grundy, r. p. baumann, and d. j. o'callaghan, viro ...19892555546
synthesis and processing of equine herpesvirus type 1 glycoprotein 14.glycoprotein 14 (gp14) of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), the homolog of herpes simplex virus (hsv) glycoprotein b (gb), was investigated employing a panel of monoclonal antibodies to ascertain the regulatory class, rate of synthesis, and type of glycosylation of this polypeptide. application of immunoprecipitation, western blot, and sds-page analysis in conjunction with the use of metabolic inhibitors (cycloheximide, antinomycin d, phosphonoacetic acid, tunicamycin, and monensin), and time-c ...19892556845
equine herpes virus 1 (ehv-1) in liver, spleen, and lung as demonstrated by immunohistology and electron microscopy.ten aborted foals, diagnosed as infected with equine herpes virus 1 (ehv-1) on histopathological criteria, were examined for the presence of ehv-1 using immunohistology as the investigative instrument. the primary reagent was an antiserum specific for viral envelope glycoproteins. immunohistology localised ehv-1 to areas of liver necrosis and to the cytoplasm of infected kupffer cells and hepatocytes. cytoplasmic immunolabelling was also prominent in reticular cells of the red pulp of the spleen ...19892556904
a brief review of studies of bovine and equine herpesviruses. 19892559690
towards a vaccine against equine herpesvirus 1. 19892559691
effect of viral infection of fc receptors and immunologically nonspecific receptors of blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes: an in vitro model.i describe the effect on phagocytic activity of the migration of bovine blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmnl) through collagen and a monolayer of pk-15 cells in vitro infected with rotaviruses (strain osu, rfc-17, sa-11), a picornavirus (strain svdv), bovine herpesvirus (bhv-1) and equine herpesvirus (ehv-1). the pmnl were examined before and after their migration as follows: (1) for ea rosette formation with sensitized sheep erythrocytes, (2) for phagocytic activity mediated through fc rece ...19892569805
nucleocapsid mass and capsomer protein stoichiometry in equine herpesvirus 1: scanning transmission electron microscopic study.the brookhaven scanning transmission electron microscope was employed to measure the masses of two nucleocapsid species (of light and intermediate densities) of equine herpesvirus 1. these were found to be 196.7 +/- 9.2 and 229.0 +/- 9.5 megadaltons (mda), respectively. biochemical assays showed that neither nucleocapsid contained any significant amount of dna (less than 0.2% [wt/wt]). taking into account data on protein composition, we conclude that the difference between their masses is essent ...19892760983
changes in restriction enzyme pattern of the equine herpes virus type 1 (ehv-1) strain rac h dna during attenuation. 19872823507
serological and virological investigations of an equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) abortion storm on a stud farm in extensive outbreak of ehv-1 abortions occurred on a stud farm in england in 1985. of the 67 pregnant mares present on the stud farm, 31 were challenged with ehv-1, resulting in the loss of 22 fetuses or foals. laboratory investigations revealed that the spread of the virus closely followed movement of apparently healthy mares (during the incubation period of the infection). during the outbreak mares were challenged 1-4 months before the expected foaling date. there was no relationship between ...19872824770
plasma concentrations of progestagens, oestrone sulphate and prolactin in pregnant mares subjected to natural challenge with equid herpesvirus-1.multiparous pregnant mares, on two studfarms, were studied following natural challenge with equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1). they were divided into three groups according to serum complement fixation titres: group a (n = 11) were not challenged and delivered normal foals; group b (n = 13) were challenged but delivered normal foals; group c (n = 23) were challenged and delivered infected foals which were stillborn or lived for less than 31 h. in groups a and b mean (+/- s.d.) gestational age at deliv ...19872824771
characterization and mapping of equine herpesvirus type 1 immediate early, early, and late transcripts.northern blot analysis was used to characterize and map equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) immediate early (ie), early, and late transcripts. genomic ehv-1 dna and cloned ehv-1 restriction endonuclease fragments, representing the entire genome, were 32p-labeled and hybridized to immobilized total cell rna isolated from ehv-1 infected rabbit kidney cells incubated in the presence or absence of metabolic inhibitors. a single 6.0 kilobase (kb) ie transcript mapped to viral inverted repeat sequences. ...19872825444
differential metabolism of (e)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (ivdu) by equine herpesvirus type 1- and herpes simplex virus-infected cells.thymidine kinase (tk) enzymes encoded by herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (hsv-1, hsv-2), and equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) catalyze the phosphorylation of thymidine (dthd) and (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (bvdu). the replication of hsv-1 is sensitive to bvdu, but the replication of hsv-2 and ehv-1 is not. to investigate the differential sensitivity of the viruses to halogenated vinyldeoxyuridine drugs, the phosphorylation of 125i-labeled (e)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (ivdu ...19872825591
genetic restriction of cytolysis during equid herpesvirus 1 subtype 2 infection.six welsh mountain pony foals were experimentally infected with a subtype 2 isolate of equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and subsequently examined for t cell mediated cytotoxicity against both subtypes. cytotoxicity was not observed at 3 or 7 days after primary exposure but virus-specific, and genetically restricted, cytotoxicity of ehv-1-labelled autologous skin fibroblasts could be demonstrated 7 and 21 days after the animals were given a second exposure to live virus. killing of subtype 2 antigen-l ...19872827921
characterization of two equine herpesvirus (ehv) isolates associated with neurological disorders in horses. 19872829471
foetal and neonatal foal losses on equine herpesvirus type 1(ehv-1) infected farms before and after ehv-1 vaccination was introduced.on 6 farms with a history of ehv-1 abortions the overall prevalence of losses due to abortion, stillbirth and neonatal foal mortality during 5 foaling seasons preceding the introduction of vaccination against ehv-1 were compared with corresponding data for 8 subsequent seasons in which all horses were immunized with a modified live ehv-1 vaccine. although both sporadic and epizootic ehv-1 abortions occurred in immunized mares, the numbers of foetal and neonatal foal losses decreased significantl ...19862830601
demonstration of equine herpes virus 1 (ehv-1) in histological sections and tissue cultures by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (pap) technique. 19872830744
neuropathogenicity for suckling mice of equine herpesvirus 1 from the lipizzan outbreak 1983 and of selected other ehv 1 strains. 19872830747
[new observations in the diagnosis of ehv (equine herpes virus) abortions].over the last years the percentage of foals lost by ehv at term or close to term seems to be higher than in former years. furthermore, the pathological findings seem to shift from liver to lung. so far there has been no explanation for this phenomenon.19872831640
the characterization of equine herpes virus-1-infected cell polypeptides recognized by equine lymphocytes.ponies, without evidence of previous exposure to equine herpes virus-1 (ehv-1), were experimentally infected with ehv-1 subtype 2 and investigated for lymphocyte transformation to virus-infected cell polypeptides, as shown by separation with gel electrophoresis. animals made significant responses to western blot fractions that corresponded to molecular weights of approximately 30,000, 40,000-45,000, 60,000-65,000, 80,000-95,000 and 100,000-140,000 mw. these molecular weight ranges correlated wit ...19882832309
characterization of equine herpesvirus type 1 immediate early proteins.ehv-1 immediate early (ie) gene expression in lytic infection results in the production of four high mol wt immediate early polypeptides (ieps), designated ie1, ie2, ie2, and ie4; however, ie transcription is limited to the synthesis of a single 6-kb mrna. together, these findings raised questions as to whether the four ieps were related products of the same gene. in the present study the ieps were characterized with respect to their structural similarities, antigenic relatedness, and postsynthe ...19882833023
a suspected case of equine herpesvirus 1 encephalomyelitis. 19872833882
an epizootic of blindness and encephalitis associated with a herpesvirus indistinguishable from equine herpesvirus i in a herd of alpacas and llamas.blindness characterized by dilated unresponsive pupils and funduscopic evidence of varying degrees of vitritis, retinal vasculitis, retinitis, chorioretinitis, and optic neuritis developed in 21 alpacas and 1 llama within a 30-day period. the animals were part of a group of approximately 100 animals imported from chile one year earlier. the animals had spent 6 months in quarantine and then, for the 6 months preceding the epizootic, were housed at an exotic animal import-export farm, where the di ...19882835346
[preventative vaccination against ehv (equine herpesvirus) abortion].from 1981 until 1987 we investigated the more detailed circumstances regarding a prophylactic vaccination in altogether 37 stud farms with a history of virus abortion. in 23 cases, in which prevaccinol and/or resequin were used, it was found that the following of vaccination schedule and necessary immunization programmes respectively, had considerable imperfections. in seven cases prophylactic vaccinations were not carried out or corresponding questionnaires were not answered. the fact that in t ...19882835828
agents of equine viral encephalomyelitis: correlation of serum and cerebrospinal fluid antibodies.a survey was conducted by testing 115 paired equine serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples by hemagglutination-inhibition for antibodies to powassan and snowshoe hare viruses, and by virus neutralization for antibodies to equine herpesvirus type 1. twenty-five samples were from horses with spontaneous neurological disease and the remainder from horses euthanized because of various nonneurological disorders. all sera and cerebrospinal fluids were negative for antibodies to powassan virus. fifty-on ...19882836046
induction of receptors for complement and immunoglobulins by herpesviruses of various species.cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) express a viral glycoprotein on the cell surface, which can function as a receptor for a cleavage product of complement factor 3 (c3b), and it has been suggested that this has biological relevance in the infected host (smiley et al., 1985, j. virol. 19, 217). as herpesviruses of different species share common determinants on their glycoproteins, a possible conservation of biological function was investigated for bovine herpesviruses type 1 ...19882837018
characterization of the genome of equine herpesvirus 1 subtype 2.the genome structure of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) subtype 2 was shown by electron microscopic studies and restriction endonuclease site mapping to comprise two covalently linked segments (l, 109 kbp; s, 35 kbp). the s segment contains a unique sequence (us) flanked by a substantial inverted repeat (trs/irs). thus, the genome structure of ehv-1 subtype 2 is similar to that published previously for ehv-1 subtype 1, but the two subtypes differ in the occurrences of ecori and bamhi restriction si ...19882839595
the immunological relationship between canine herpesvirus and four other herpesviruses.canine herpesvirus (chv) was compared with four other herpesviruses by several serological techniques. cross-neutralization was demonstrated between chv and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and pseudorabies virus. non-neutralizing cross-reactions were found with these viruses and also with equine abortion virus and bovine mammillitis virus. the data suggest that chv is immunologically more closely related to herpes simplex virus than to the other viruses used in this study.19882839597
adcc and complement-dependent lysis as immune mechanisms against ehv-1 infection in the horse.immunity to equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was evaluated using sera collected from yearling horses involved in a trial of a commercial vaccine. measurement of the ability of these sera to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent lysis revealed that these mechanisms, although potentially important in recovery from ehv-1 infection, do not play a role in protection following vaccination.19882841731
human cytomegalovirus icp22, the product of the hwlf1 reading frame, is an early nuclear protein that is released from cells.we employed a murine monoclonal antibody (ch41) and a lambda gt11 library of human cytomegalovirus (cmv) dna fragments to map the gene for a viral protein, denoted infected cell protein (icp) 22, to the hwlf1 open reading frame in the s component of the cmv genome (0.92 to 0.93 map units). by using antibody ch41 in immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting analyses, icp22 was readily detected as a beta (delayed early) gene product during viral growth. the cellular localization o ...19882844970
analysis of the in vitro translation products of the equine herpesvirus type 1 immediate early mrna.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) gene expression is coordinately regulated in an alpha, beta, gamma fashion. viral alpha gene products include a 6.0-kb immediate early (ie) mrna species (w. l. gray et al., 1987, virology 158, 79-87) and at least four closely related ie polypeptides (ieps) (g.b. caughman et al., 1985, virology 145, 49-61). in this report, we describe results obtained from a series of in vitro translation experiments which were performed in an effort to characterize the ieps and ...19882845657
propagation and quantitation of animal herpesviruses in eight cell culture systems.a comparative study was carried out to determine the relative sensitivities of eight different cell culture systems to six different herpesviruses of animals. the cells used were: ofl (ovine fetal lung), ml (mink lung), fk (ferret kidney), ptk-2 (potoroo kidney), tek (turkey embryo kidney), ed (equine dermal), bt (bovine turbinate), and pk15 (porcine kidney). the viruses tested were: prv (pseudorabies) of swine, cphv (caprine herpesvirus), ibrv (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus), dn-599 s ...19882846231
application of cloned fragments of equine herpesvirus type-1 dna for detection of virus-specific dna in equine tissues.tissue specimens obtained from equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), subtype 1-infected aborted foetuses were analysed for the presence of virus dna by means of southern blot and dot blot hybridisations. the specificity of the methods was confirmed although the sensitivity was inferior to classical techniques such as virus isolation. however, the possibility of detecting the state of the virus dna and the ability to distinguish between subtypes were important features, and the dot blot method was shown ...19882846269
[infection with equine herpesvirus and its manifestation in the central nervous system of the horse].infections with ehv1 can lead to manifestation at the cns of horses followed by encephalomyelitis and "equine stroke". horse experiments could confirm the clinical picture and gave links to the potential pathogenesis of the disease. we also have been in the position to isolate and characterize an ehv4 virus out of the brain of a horse with cns disorders. the two viruses carry different biological properties which obviously dominate the pathogenesis. these properties as well as experimental and f ...19882847358
a radial immunodiffusion enzyme assay for detection of antibody to equine rhinopneumonitis virus (ehv-1) in horse serum.a radial immunodiffusion enzyme assay (ridea) was developed for detection and quantitation of antibodies to equine herpes virus-1 (ehv-1) in horse sera. the detection and quantitation of ehv-1 antibody levels were based on the diameter of the radial diffusion zone of specific antibody in each serum sample reacting with ehv-1 antigen. the circular zone was made visible using peroxidase-conjugated rabbit anti-horse immunoglobulin g and a substrate containing hydrogen peroxide. the results of the r ...19882847396
isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against an attenuated vaccine strain of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1).the production and differentiation of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the rac-h strain of ehv-1 used as an attenuated live vaccine to prevent rhinopneumonitis and abortion is described. seven different antigenic sites were detected by the 15 mabs produced. ehv-1 specific mabs as well as ehv-1 and -4 common mabs could be established, allowing easy typing of ehv isolates. one mab recognized the vaccine strain only. this reaction was used to investigate a possible involvement of the vaccine st ...19882847404
molecular biological characterization of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) isolates from ruminant hosts.isolates of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) originating from affected antelope and cattle were compared with reference ehv-1 and ehv-4 isolates and were characterized. based on cross-neutralization, dna restriction profiles and blot-hybridization data these isolates could be characterized as ehv-1. one isolate (from an antelope) with a different restriction profile showed significant dna homology with ehv-1, partial homology with ehv-4, and little or no homology with ehv-2 and hsv-1 dnas. blot ...19882849252
evolution of the herpes thymidine kinase: identification and comparison of the equine herpesvirus 1 thymidine kinase gene reveals similarity to a cell-encoded thymidylate kinase.we have identified the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) thymidine kinase gene (tk) by dna-mediated transformation and by dna sequencing. alignment of the amino acid sequence of the ehv-1 tk with the tks from 3 other herpesviruses revealed regions of homology, some of which correspond to the previously identified substrate binding sites, while others have as yet, no assigned function. in particular, the strict conservation of an aspartate within the proposed nucleoside binding site suggests a role in ...19882849761
latency of equine herpesvirus 4 (equine rhinopneumonitis virus) 19882849833
abortion and perinatal foal mortality associated with equine herpesvirus type 1 in a herd of grevy's zebra. 19862851577
[morphological characteristics of lytic plaques produced by the sp1 strain of the equine herpes virus type 1].lytic plaques produced by three different strains of ehv 1 were morphologically compared. the local isolated sp1 strain was compared with the tissue culture adapted kentucky b (ky bcc) strain, and the through hamster passages modified kentucky b (ky ba) strain, both reference strains. ky bcc produced small, irregular in size and shape, lytic plaques of around 1 mm. in the case of ky ba, the plaques were uniform in size and shape, with a diameter of 2 to 3 mm. sp1 strain originated lytic plaques ...19882852823
further biological, serological and biochemical characterization of north american, european and southeast asian strains of bovine herpesvirus 1 compared with other alphaherpesvirinae members.hemagglutination activity, structural protein profiles and neutralization assays were used in a comparative study of bovine herpesvirus 1 strains from the u.s.a., canada, great britain, denmark and malaysia with equine, feline and human herpesviruses in order to further characterize the bovine herpesvirus 1 hemagglutinin. bovine herpesvirus 1 strains of different geographical origins all showed hemagglutinating activity for mouse erythrocytes; furthermore, feline herpesvirus 1 was also shown to ...19882852870
isolation and comparative restriction endonuclease dna fingerprinting of equine herpesvirus-1 from cattle.deoxyribonucleic acid fingerprinting analyses with 4 restriction endonucleases (ecori, bamhi, bglii, and hindiii) and serotest results have definitively indicated that 5 herpesviruses isolated from 1974 to 1986 from aborted bovine fetuses and from bovine tissues and nasal secretions were abortigenic subtypes of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). the herpesviruses, designated bh1247, 3m20-3, g118, h1753, and 9bsv4, were neutralized by ehv-1-specific antiserum and could be propagated in cultures o ...19882854705
molecular epizootiology, pathogenesis, and prophylaxis of equine herpesvirus-1 infections. 19862856183
antigenic and biochemical analysis of gb of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 and of cross-reacting glycoproteins induced by bovine mammillitis virus and equine herpesvirus type antiserum was produced to the oligomeric form of glycoprotein b (gb) induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) strain 17. this antiserum gave a single common precipitin line in agar gel immunodiffusion with hsv-1, hsv-2, bovine mammillitis virus (bmv) and equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). it also neutralized hsv-1, hsv-2 and bmv but not ehv-1. absorption of the antiserum with excess hsv-2 or bmv antigen resulted in an hsv-1-specific neutralizing antiserum. in immunoprecipitation, two pr ...19852981966
a new field strain of equine abortion virus (equine herpesvirus-1) among kentucky horses.from restriction endonuclease characterization of the dna of 317 isolates of equine abortion virus (equine herpesvirus-1; ehv-1) from 176 epizootically unrelated outbreaks of equine virus abortion occurring over 24 years in kentucky, an epizootic pattern and variation of the virus have emerged. two electropherotypes of ehv-1 (1p and 1b) accounted for greater than 90% of the nonvaccine-related abortion isolates examined. from 1960 to 1981, ehv-1 1p was the predominant isolate circulating in the c ...19852982294
the effect of 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine on herpes virus growth.the effect of 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (dcfl) on the growth of certain viruses of the herpes type was investigated. it is shown that the compound has considerable anti-viral activity against hsv-i, hsv-ii, pseudorabies virus and equine abortion virus. it has an effect comparable to that of arac and is more efficient than br5dc, but less so than acyclovir. experiments with thymidine kinase-negative strains of hsv-i indicated that dcfl was phosphorylated by the viral kinase, and its km appears t ...19852982405
inclusions in equine cytologic specimens.inclusions and cellular changes were seen in cytologic specimens from 1 healthy horse, 6 horses hospitalized because of respiratory problems, and 1 horse hospitalized because of colic and hepatitis. two bronchial aspirates contained detached ciliated cytoplasmic tufts and cytoplasmic inclusions characteristic of the specific degenerative process called ciliocytophthoria. these changes and inclusions resembled those seen in bronchial aspirates from human beings with parainfluenza virus infection. ...19852982775
[ehv1, to vaccinate or not?]. 19852984805
endoscopic and virological observations on respiratory disease in a group of young thoroughbred horses in training.a group of racehorses in training was examined on several occasions with a fibreoptic endoscope and monitored for viral infection. only equine herpes virus-2 (ehv-2) infection was detected. pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia (plh) was present in all horses and decreased in severity with age. there was no association between plh severity and antibody titres to ehv-1, or with the isolation of ehv-2. finishing position in races was not affected by plh severity. exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage ( ...19852985380
rapid subtyping of equine herpesvirus 1 with monoclonal antibodies.two antigenically similar subtypes of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) cause disease in horses. a procedure for rapid differentiation of the two ehv-1 subtypes with monoclonal antibodies was developed. subtype-specific pools of monoclonal antibodies were constructed, characterized, and used in enzyme immunofiltration and indirect immunofluorescence assays to subtype 50 epizootiologically unrelated field isolates of ehv-1. both assays allowed accurate subtype identification of each ehv-1 isolate with ...19852987299
equine herpesvirus type 1 infected cell polypeptides: evidence for immediate early/early/late regulation of viral gene expression.ehv-1 polypeptide synthesis was examined in productively infected rabbit kidney and hamster embryo cells. sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) analyses of extracts from [35s]methionine- and 3h-amino acid-labeled-infected and mock-infected cultures revealed the presence of 30 infected cell-specific polypeptides (icps) which ranged in apparent molecular weights from 16.5k to 213k. twenty-two of these icps comigrated with virion structural proteins. four icps (203k, ...19852990102
identification of cross-reacting glycoproteins of four herpesviruses by western blotting.monospecific rabbit antisera against purified herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) gb, gc or gd antigens or polyvalent rabbit antiserum against equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1)-infected cells was used in western blotting to identify antigenically related proteins in cells infected with hsv-1, hsv-2, bovine mammillitis virus or ehv-1. monomeric and oligomeric polypeptides related to hsv-1 gb were found in cells infected with each of the four herpesviruses. the gc antiserum was specific for hsv-1 ...19852993488
a comparison of the acid-soluble polypeptides of five herpesviruses.the polypeptides soluble in 0.25 m-hcl were extracted from the nuclei of bhk cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and separated by sds-page. seventeen polypeptides were detectable in each extract of which 10 type 1 and nine type 2 polypeptides were reproducibly effectively extracted. in cells infected with bovine mammillitis virus, pseudorabies virus or equine herpesvirus type 1, at least 12, 13 and eight polypeptides respectively were acid-soluble. in addition to histones, ...19852995559
equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv 1) latency: more questions than answers. 19852996877
experimental reactivation of equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv 1) following the administration of corticosteroids.eight ponies were experimentally infected with equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv 1) (subtype 1). all animals showed clinical and serological evidence of infection and virus was isolated from nasal swabs and leucocytes. these ponies were kept in isolation for a further three months during which time complement fixing antibody decreased at least four-fold. following immunosuppression with dexamethasone and prednisolone subtype 1 virus was recovered from six of the eight animals within 14 days. five of thes ...19852996879
neurologic diseases.the responses of apparently healthy newborn foals to neurologic testing differ significantly from those of adult horses. these responses and the diagnostic techniques pertinent to neurologic problems are reviewed as a basis for evaluation of the compromised neonatal foal. the more frequently encountered neurologic diseases are discussed in a problem-oriented format. these clinical problems include behavioral abnormalities, convulsions, changes in consciousness, blindness, ataxia without loss of ...19853000543
equine herpesvirus type 1 abortion in an onager and suspected herpesvirus myelitis in a zebra. 19853001004
isolation of equine herpesvirus 1 from the brain of a horse affected with paresis. 19853002312
selected animal herpesviruses: new concepts and technologies. 19853004157
genetic relatedness and colinearity of genomes of equine herpesvirus types 1 and 3.the arrangement and location of homologous dna sequences within the genomes of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and ehv-3 were investigated by using southern blot hybridization analyses conducted under stringent conditions. recombinant plasmid libraries comprising 95 and 84% of the ehv-1 and ehv-3 genomes, respectively, were labeled with 32p-deoxynucleotides by nick translation and were used as probes in filter hybridization studies. the dna homology between the ehv-1 and ehv-3 genomes was disp ...19863005628
genomic and antigenic comparison of an equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv 1) isolate from the 1983 lippizan abortion storm with ehv 1 reference ehv 1 isolate from the lippizan stud at piber, which caused the abortion and paresis outbreak in 1983, was investigated using 3 known subtype 1 and 2 subtype 2 strains for comparison. broad-scale restriction enzyme analysis as well as cross-neutralization with hyperimmune sera produced in rabbits were performed, and sds-page of infected cell proteins was conducted on a limited scale. the piber isolate was clearly classified as a subtype 1 strain of ehv 1, and showed closest resemblance in its ...19863012290
specific inhibition of herpesvirus ribonucleotide reductase by synthetic peptides.ribonucleotide reductase is an essential enzyme for dna synthesis in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; it catalyses the reductive conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. several herpesviruses including herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), hsv-2, pseudorabies virus (prv), equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and epstein-barr virus (ebv) have been found to induce novel ribonucleotide reductase activities. there is evidence that the hsv-1 ribonucleotide reductase activity is virus-e ...19863012359
endothelial cell infection and thrombosis in paralysis caused by equid herpesvirus-1: equine stroke.eight mares were infected with equid herpesvirus-1 subtype 1 isolated from a case of equine paresis. in two mares killed at 4 d.p.i. immunofluorescence showed endothelial cell infection together with thrombosis in the rete arteriosus of the nasal mucosa and also in the spinal cord of one of these mares. circulating platelet counts in the other six mares fell as early as 2 d.p.i. and remained depressed for seven days. circulating immune complexes started to appear at 2 d.p.i., reached maximum lev ...19863015074
equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) induced abortions and paralysis in a lipizzaner stud: a contribution to the classification of equine herpesviruses.out of 30 cases of abortion and perinatal deaths in a lipizzaner stud in austria 10 mares died after having shown central nervous system disturbances, ataxias and paralysis. the etiological agent of this "abortion storm" was equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). the restriction enzyme pattern of the dna from 5 isolates recovered from fetuses has been analyzed and compared with the known reference strains of ehv-1, -2, -4 and an austrian vaccine strain. the dna restriction profiles of the lipizzaner ...19863015084
[application of the passive hemagglutination test to the study of equine rhinopneumonitis. i. serologic studies in rabbits inoculated with equine herpesvirus type 1]. 19853016853
molecular pathogenesis of equine coital exanthema: temperature-sensitive function(s) in cells infected with equine herpesviruses.preliminary experiments have revealed that several laboratory and wild-type strains of the equine herpesvirus (ehv) triad were temperature-sensitive for growth when assayed at 39 degrees c. the efficiencies of plating (eop) observed were 10(-2) for both ehv 1 and 2, and 1 x 10(-6) for ehv 3. the eops were determined by plaque assays which compared titrations at 34 degrees c and 39 degrees c on equine fetal dermal fibroblast cells. growth yield experiments, assayed at 34 degrees c, reflected thos ...19863016974
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