characterization of three species of nucleocapsids of equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1). 19751167720
immune responses of specific pathogen free foals to ehv-1 infection.four foals were raised under specific pathogen free (spf) conditions. at 3 to 4 months of age, spf foals and 1 other non-spf foal were intranasally inoculated with equine herpes virus type 1 (ehv-1). clinical signs included depression, fever, inappetence and intermittent coughing. clinical recovery was complete by seven days but high titres of virus were detected in nasal mucus for at least 10 days after inoculation. clinical illness was less severe in the non-spf foal. interferon was detected i ...19921280876
characterization of the regulatory functions of the equine herpesvirus 1 immediate-early gene product.use of the translation-inhibiting drug cycloheximide has indicated that the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) immediate-early (ie) gene, the sole ehv-1 ie gene, encodes a major viral regulatory protein since ie mrna translation is a prerequisite for all further viral gene expression (w.l. gray, r. p. baumann, a. t. robertson, g. b. caughman, d. j. o'callaghan, and j. staczek, virology 158:79-87, 1987). an ehv-1 ie gene expression vector (psvie) in combination with chimeric ehv-1 promoter-chlorampheni ...19921309921
rapid identification and differentiation of the vaccine strain rac h from ehv 1 field isolates using a non-radioactive dna probe.a method for rapid differentiation between the ehv 1 live vaccine strain rac h and field isolates is described. total dna was isolated from virus-infected small scale cell cultures. dna fragments digested with restriction endonuclease bamhi were separated, transferred and immobilized on filter membranes. a digoxigenin-labeled probe derived from ehv 1 was used for hybridization. this probe hybridized specifically to sequences of the inverted terminal repeat region which in case of rac h include a ...19921311132
characterization of enveloped tegument structures (l particles) produced by alphaherpesviruses: integrity of the tegument does not depend on the presence of capsid or envelope.recent studies have shown that infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) strain 17 generates in addition to virions a novel type of non-infectious particle. these particles, termed l particles, lack capsids and viral dna, and consist predominantly of tegument and envelope proteins. we show that l particle production is not restricted to one strain of hsv-1, and that pseudorabies virus and equine herpesvirus type 1 also release particles which are similar in composition to and morphologi ...19921311356
an immunoperoxidase method applied to the diagnosis of equine herpesvirus abortion, using conventional and rapid microwave indirect immunoperoxidase (imp) technique was applied to cryostat and paraffin sections of liver from ten aborted equine foetuses. equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) had been isolated from seven of them and ehv-4 from one: the remaining two were virologically negative and were not used as controls. in the eight virus-infected cases the immunostaining revealed foci of cells exhibiting a distinct brown cytoplasmic and inclusion body pigmentation. no specific signal was present in the non-infected ...19921313357
pathological findings in horses dying during an outbreak of the paralytic form of equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) 1988 an outbreak of the paralytic form of equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection occurred on a stud farm and several animals died. this provided an opportunity to perform detailed pathological investigations to gain insights into the pathogenesis of this spontaneous disease. two paretic mares, three foals, an aborted foetus and its non-paretic dam were examined. the endotheliotropism of the virus was clearly demonstrated by the use of an indirect immunoperoxidase (ip) stain. at autopsy, e ...19921313358
equine herpesviruses: are new techniques the solution to a practical problem? 19921313359
diagnosis of equid herpesviruses -1 and -4 by polymerase chain reaction.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) is a sensitive technique used to detect dna of viral pathogens. we have applied the technique to the detection of equid herpesviruses-1 and -4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) dna within nasopharyngeal swab samples from horses. ninety-eight samples from suspected field cases and in-contact horses were analysed. the assays were conducted blind and later decoded and compared with virus isolation data. our results indicate that pcr is a sensitive and rapid technique for the dia ...19921313360
[the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the detection of dna of equine herpesviruses 1 and 4].formalin-fixed and paraplast-embedded tissue samples of 42 aborted equine fetuses were examined by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of equine herpesvirus dna. the used set of primers was located in the glycoprotein 13 open reading frame and allowed the amplification of both ehv 1 und ehv 4. by cleaving pattern analysis after hinf i digestion ehv 1 could be distinguished from ehv 4. in 9 of the cases investigated ehv 1-dna was detected. this finding is in absolute context with the resul ...19921313672
pathogenesis of equine herpesvirus-1 in specific pathogen-free foals: primary and secondary infections and reactivation.six specific pathogen-free foals shown to be free of equine herpesvirus-1 and 4 (ehv-1 and -4) and lacking in maternally-derived antibodies were used to investigate the pathogenesis of ehv-1 in horses. following primary intranasal inoculation with ehv-1 all foals showed signs of a mild, self-limiting upper respiratory tract infection. a leucopenia was observed, comprising both a lymphopenia and neutropenia. virus was isolated from nasal mucus and buffy coat cells over several days during the cli ...19921314051
reinfection and reactivation of equine herpesvirus-1 in the mouse.balb/c mice were inoculated with equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) by the intranasal (i.n.) route. mice developed respiratory signs; virus replication occurred in the respiratory tract and viraemia was detected; some mice died. recovered mice were given a second inoculation with the same strain 5 months later. following the second infection no mice died, however, virus replication was again observed in the respiratory tract and viraemia was detected once more. administration of an antiviral agent dur ...19921314054
vaccination of mares against equine herpesvirus-1. 19921314446
characterization of the glycoprotein d gene products of equine herpesvirus 1 using a prokaryotic cell expression vector.the gene encoding equine herpesvirus 1 (equine abortion virus; ehv-1) glycoprotein d was engineered into the prokaryotic vector pex, and expressed as a beta-galactosidase fusion product, which was recognized by pooled equine sera and anti-ehv-1 rabbit sera. antibodies raised against the ehv-1 gd fusion product identified strong bands in infected cells at 66 and 68 k and at 138 k in purified virus, thus characterizing the several forms of this major envelope glycoprotein which is an important can ...19921316667
open reading frames encoding a protein kinase, homolog of glycoprotein gx of pseudorabies virus, and a novel glycoprotein map within the unique short segment of equine herpesvirus type 1.dna sequence analysis of the unique short (us) segment of the genome of equine herpesvirus type 1 kentucky a strain (ehv-1) by our laboratory and strains kentucky d and ab1 by other workers identifies a total of nine open reading frames (orf). in this report, we present the dna sequence of three of these newly identified orfs, designated eus 2, eus 3, and eus 4. the eus 2 orf is 1146 nucleotides (nt) in length and encodes a potential protein of 382 amino acids. cis-regulatory sequences upstream ...19921316673
identification and characterization of an equine herpesvirus 1 late gene encoding a potential zinc this report, we present the dna sequence and transcriptional characterization of a gene (ir5) that maps within each of the inverted repeat (ir) segments of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) genome. the ir5 open reading frame (orf) is located within both ir sequences (nucleotides 9932-10,642 of the ir). dna sequence analyses of the ir5 gene region revealed an orf of 236 amino acids (24,793 da) that showed significant homology to orf64 of varicella-zoster virus and orf3 of ehv-4 both of whi ...19921316680
identification of the equine herpesvirus type 1 glycoprotein 17/18 as a homologue of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d.the dna sequence of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) gd gene homologue has been determined for the strain ab1 and compared with previously published sequences. a portion of the gene has been located to a region of the genome which also encodes homologues of the herpes simplex virus type 1 genes for ge and gi and is known to encode an epitope of the virion protein gp17/18. analysis of the ehv-1 strain kentucky a (kya) by dna hybridization showed the presence of a gd gene homologue and establ ...19921316942
the dna sequence of equine herpesvirus-1.the complete dna sequence was determined of a pathogenic british isolate of equine herpesvirus-1, a respiratory virus which can cause abortion and neurological disease. the genome is 150,223 bp in size, has a base composition of 56.7% g + c, and contains 80 open reading frames likely to encode protein. since four open reading frames are duplicated in the major inverted repeat, two are probably expressed as a spliced mrna, and one may contain an internal transcriptional promoter, the genome is co ...19921318606
the pathogenicity of ab4p, the sequenced strain of equine herpesvirus-1, in specific pathogen-free foals.the sequencing of the genome of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is reported in elizabeth a. r. telford, moira s. watson, kathryn mcbride, and andrew j. davison, 1992, virology, 189, 304-316. the sequence was derived using a plaque-purified clone of ehv-1 strain ab4 (designated ab4p). to ensure that ab4p shares the pathogenic characteristics of parental ab4 (hereafter ab4), both were inoculated intranasally into foals, specifically free from ehv-1 and ehv-4. clinical signs, including rectal temperat ...19921318607
cloning and restriction endonuclease mapping of the genome of an equine herpesvirus 4 (equine rhinopneumonitis virus), strain 405/76.purified virion dna of an australian isolate of equine herpesvirus 4(ehv 4.405/76) was digested with restriction enzymes and the dna fragments were cloned into puc19. the resulting recombinant plasmid library, representing 92% of the virus genome, was used in hybridization analyses to construct restriction maps for bamhi, ecori, and sali for the ehv4 genome. the results show that the genome of ehv 4.405/76 was approximately 145 kb and comprised a unique long (ul) region of 112 kb and a unique sh ...19921318713
epizootiological aspects of type 1 and type 4 equine herpesvirus infections among horse populations.the dissemination of equine herpesvirus types 1 (ehv-1) and 4 (ehv-4) among various horse populations in japan was investigated through the isolation and typing of virus strains from horses with respiratory diseases. type specific monoclonal antibody pools were used for the typing of isolates. the 42 strains of ehv-1 and 64 strains of ehv-4 were isolated from 4593 nasal swabs and/or blood plasma samples collected from 3326 horses during a period from 1979 to 1990. all the strains of ehv-1 were i ...19921318750
the molecular epidemiology of equine herpesvirus 1 (equine abortion virus) in australasia 1975 to 1989.the restriction endonuclease dna fingerprints of 57 isolates of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1; equine abortion virus) from abortion, perinatal foal mortalities and encephalitis from 15 epidemics that occurred in australasia between 1975 and 1989 were examined using the enzymes bam hi, ecori and bgl ii. there was a remarkable degree of uniformity in the restriction patterns; mobility differences were observed in only 14 of 52 (27%) of the fragments. twelve of these 14 fragments were located within t ...19921320856
natural killer cells in normal horses and specific-pathogen-free foals infected with equine herpesvirus.peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from an adult horse and from foals demonstrated natural killer (nk)-type cytotoxicity against a range of xenogeneic and allogeneic cell targets. the human tumour cell line, chang liver was consistently the most susceptible. chang liver, rabbit kidney (rk-13), equine sarcoid (es) and embryonic equine kidney (eek) cells were more susceptible when presented to horse pbmc than monolayer cultures. embryonic equine lung (eel) and murine yac-1 cells conversely, ...19921321530
glycoprotein 60 of equine herpesvirus type 1 is a homologue of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d and plays a major role in penetration of cells.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific for equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein 60 (gp60) and gp 17/18 (f3132 and 5h6 respectively) were found to react with the same protein, which was identified as a homologue of herpes simplex virus type 1 gd. mab f3132 strongly neutralized virus infectivity and inhibited the penetration of the virus into the cell. the effects on penetration were shared with three other mabs against this protein (p68, f3116 and f3129), but no effect on virus penetrati ...19921321875
a novel herpes simplex virus gene (ul49a) encodes a putative membrane protein with counterparts in other herpesviruses.comparative analysis of dna sequences located between the coding regions of genes ul49 and ul50 of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and -2) has revealed a small open reading frame (orf) of 91 and 87 codons respectively with the characteristics of a genuine protein-coding region. the predicted protein products are clearly related and exhibit features of membrane-inserted proteins, with potential n-proximal signal peptides and c-proximal membrane anchor regions. counterparts are present i ...19921322965
equid herpesvirus abortion--another piece in the pathogenesis puzzle. 19921323456
abortion of virologically negative foetuses following experimental challenge of pregnant pony mares with equid herpesvirus 1.from 1988 to 1991, 51 pregnant pony mares were challenged intranasally or by aerosol with an isolate of ehv-1 (ab4) originally recovered from a quadriplegic mare. this resulted in 32 abortions, occurring from 9 to 29 days after infection. in 14 of the early abortions (days 9-14), ehv-1 was not demonstrated in the foetal tissues by virus isolation or immunostaining despite no other non-viral cause for the abortion being evident. application of the polymerase chain reaction to foetal tissues from ...19921323457
identification and transcriptional analyses of the ul3 and ul4 genes of equine herpesvirus 1, homologs of the icp27 and glycoprotein k genes of herpes simplex virus.the dna sequence of 3,240 nucleotides of the xbai g fragment located in the unique long (ul) region of the equine herpesvirus 1 genome revealed two major open reading frames (orfs) designated ul3 and ul4. the ul3 orf of 470 amino acids (aa) maps at nucleotides (nt) 4450 to 3038 from the long terminus, and its predicted 51.4-kda protein product exhibits significant homology to the icp27 alpha regulatory protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1; 32% identity) and to the orf4 protein of varice ...19921323700
vaccination of mares against equine herpesvirus-1. 19921324543
the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) homolog of herpes simplex virus type 1 us9 and the nature of a major deletion within the unique short segment of the ehv-1 kya strain genome.the dna sequence of the short (s) genomic component of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1)kya strain has been determined recently in our laboratory. analysis of a 1353-bp bamhi/pvuii clone mapping at the unique short/terminal inverted repeat (us/tr) junction revealed 507 bp of us and 846 bp of tr sequences as well as an open reading frame (orf) that is contained entirely within the us. this orf encodes a potential polypeptide of 219 amino acids that shows significant homology to the us9 protei ...19921326805
identification and expression of the ul1 gene product of equine herpesvirus 1.sequences encoding the ul1 gene of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) are conserved in the genome of ehv-1 defective interfering particles (dips) that mediate oncogenic transformation and persistent infection. the ul1 protein was identified by in vitro transcription/translation and hybrid-arrest translation analyses which employed a ul1/pgem-3z construct designated pgeml1. sds-page analyses of in vitro translation products synthesized from ul1-specific rna revealed that the ul1 orf encodes a 30 k ...19921329372
the acyclic nucleoside analogue penciclovir is a potent inhibitor of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) in tissue culture and in a murine model.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was sensitive to the nucleoside analogue penciclovir (pcv) when tested in tissue culture; the ed50 was 1.6 micrograms/ml. drug-resistant mutants were selected which were found to be tk-defective and approx. 45-fold less sensitive to pcv compared with the parental strain. pcv was compared with the phosphonyl derivative, hpmpa in mice infected with ehv-1. both drugs were shown to be effective in vivo, limiting wild-type virus replication in respiratory tissues, an ...19921329646
rapid detection of equine herpesvirus type-1 antigens in nasal swab specimens using an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for the detection of equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) antigens in nasal swab specimens. the test was designed as a solid phase, amplified sandwich assay in which an ehv-1 specific monoclonal antibody was used to capture virus antigen and polyclonal antisera used to detect antigen bound to the test plates. eight monoclonal antibodies were tested for their ability to capture virus antigen and one was selected for routine u ...19921331153
glycoprotein 300 is encoded by gene 28 of equine herpesvirus type 1: a new family of herpesvirus membrane proteins?a portion of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) gene 28, which is homologous to herpes simplex virus type 1 gene ul32, was expressed using a prokaryotic system to yield a fusion protein which reacted on western blots with p19, a monoclonal antibody (mab) that reacts with ehv-1 glycoprotein 300 (gp300), confirming that this gene encodes gp300. hydrophobicity analysis showed that gp300 is a glycoprotein with multiple hydrophobic domains that might interact with, or span, the membrane several times. ...19921331295
chorioretinopathy associated with neuropathology following infection with equine herpesvirus-1. 19921332242
the activity of (s)-1-[(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonyl methoxy) propyl] cytosine (hpmpc) against equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) in cell cultures, mice and horses.the activity of the nucleotide analogue, (s)-1-[(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonyl methoxy) propyl] cytosine (hpmpc), against equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) was tested in cell culture, mice and foals. the ed50 for plaque reduction was found to be 0.07 and 0.03 microgram/ml in rk-13 and eel cells respectively. in mice, a single administration of hpmpc (20 mg/kg, s.c.) was very effective at reducing clinical signs and virus replication if given on the day before intranasal inoculation with ehv-1. treatment on ...19921332605
identification and transcriptional mapping of genes encoded at the ir/us junction of equine herpesvirus type 1.two open reading frames (orfs) encoded at the inverted repeat unique short (us) junction of the short (s) region of the equine herpesvirus type 1 genome were identified by dna sequencing of a 2876 base pair (bp) genomic segment, and transcripts encoding these orfs were characterized by northern blot, s1 nuclease, and primer extension analyses. these studies also established the size of each inverted repeat to be 12,768 nucleotides (nts). the ir6 orf (816 bp), mapping at nts 12,317-11,502 of the ...19921333117
serological responses of specific pathogen-free foals to equine herpesvirus-1: primary and secondary infection, and reactivation.serum antibody (virus neutralisation, complement fixation, igm and igg) responses to equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection were measured in six foals which were initially free from ehv-1 and ehv-4 infection and maternally-derived antibodies. following primary infection, high titres of virus neutralisation and complement fixation antibodies were detectable against ehv-1, however, corresponding antibody levels against ehv-4 were low or inapparent, although the two viruses share a number of cross- ...19921333670
serological evidence of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) activity in polo horses in nigeria.serological evidence of equine herpes virus type 1 (ehv-1) activity in polo horses in nigeria is reported for the first time. eighty-two percent of horses tested with known antigen had precipitating antibodies to ehv-1 while 43% of sera tested against antigen prepared from nasal discharges were positive suggesting that the virus was being excreted in the nasal discharges and probably acting as a source of infection for incontact animals as occurs in on-going acute infections. the result of this ...19921334303
the ir3 gene of equine herpesvirus type 1: a unique gene regulated by sequences within the intron of the immediate-early gene.the complete nucleotide sequence of the inverted repeat component (ir; 12,776 bp each) of the genome of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) has been determined. transcription analyses have revealed that the ehv-1 ir sequence encodes at least 6 genes. in this report, we present the dna sequence and transcriptional characterization of a gene (ir3) that maps entirely within the ir sequences. the ir3 open reading frame (orf) is located between nucleotides (nt) 6123-6411 of the ir sequence and possesse ...19921335300
immunokinetics of equine herpesvirus 1 in donkey mares: suppression of secondary cell-mediated study the immunokinetics of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1), donkey mares were immunised with a laboratory strain of ehv1, or with recommended doses of pneumabort-k vaccine (ehv1 army 183 strain, formalin-inactivated, with an oil adjuvant) and a booster was given after three months. humoral immune responses were studied by employing a virus neutralisation (vn) test. a leucocyte migration inhibition test (lmit) was employed for the assay of cellular immune responses. the vn antibody titre reached ...19921335311
detection of equine herpesvirus and differentiation of equine herpesvirus type 1 from type 4 by the polymerase chain reaction.although both equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and equine herpesvirus type 4 (ehv-4) can be associated with respiratory disease, epizootics caused by ehv-1 are much more serious because the virus can cause abortions and paralysis. it is, therefore, important to identify the type of ehv involved in an outbreak by a test that is quick, sensitive, and reliable. we have adapted the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to detect and distinguish between ehv-1 and ehv-4 in the same reaction. primers for pc ...19921335829
latent equid herpesviruses 1 and 4: detection and distinction using the polymerase chain reaction and co-cultivation from lymphoid tissues.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and co-cultivation were used to identify the lymphoreticular system as the site of latency of equid herpesvirus i (ehv-1). primers for pcr were designed from aligned nucleotide sequences of the glycoprotein gb genes to amplify the same region of both the ehv-1 and ehv-4 genomes. subsequent restriction digests using specific enzymes distinguished the amplified fragments of the ehv-1 genome from those of the ehv-4 genome. ten weeks following an experimental infe ...19921347078
icp22 homolog of equine herpesvirus 1: expression from early and late promoters.the complete nucleotide sequence of the short region, made up of a unique segment (us; 6.5 kb) bracketed by a pair of inverted repeat sequences (ir; 12.8 kb each), of the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) genome has been determined recently in our laboratory. analysis of the ir segment revealed a major open reading frame (orf) designated ir4. the ir4 orf exhibits significant homology to the immediate-early gene us1 (icp22) of herpes simplex virus type 1 and to the icp22 homologs of varicella-zoster v ...19921370553
equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein d: mapping of the transcript and a neutralization epitope.studies with molecular and immunological techniques identified and mapped the transcript encoding glycoprotein d (gd) of equine herpesvirus 1 kya, as well as two continuous gd antigenic determinants. three mrna species of 5.5, 3.8, and 1.7 kb overlap the gd open reading frame and are transcribed from the dna strand encoding gd. northern (rna) blot hybridization with both dna clones and riboprobes, as well as s1 nuclease analyses, showed the 3.8-kb mrna to encode gd and to be synthesized as a lat ...19921383565
[causes of prenatal foal loss in switzerland].in switzerland during the foaling season 1988 and 1989 the cause of abortion in 60 foals was investigated. special attention was paid to infections with equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv 1). diagnosis were based on post-mortem, histopathological, bacteriological and immunofluorescence investigation. the results confirm data from other countries, that ehv 1 is the most prevalent viral (20%) cause of abortion, followed by various bacterial agents (12%). other causes were umbilical torsion, twin pregnancy ...19921455212
identification of equine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein g: a type-specific, secreted glycoprotein.equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv4) glycoproteins of m(r) 63k and 250k were identified in the supernatant of infected cell cultures. the 63k glycoprotein was type-specific; that is, it reacted with monospecific sera from horses that had been immunized or infected with ehv4, but not with monospecific sera from horses immunized or infected with ehv1, a closely related alphaherpesvirus. it was postulated that the secreted protein may be the homologue of similarly secreted glycoproteins of herpes simplex vi ...19921529525
identification and control of the cis-acting elements of the immediate early gene of equid herpesvirus type 1.consensus cis-acting dna sequences upstream of the immediate early (ie) gene of equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1, strain ab4) were identified. one copy of the conserved motif taatgarattc, which is the binding site for the host cellular factor oct-1 and herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) virion protein, vmw65, complex, was identified at positions -630 to -620. using transient transfections and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assays the ie promoter of ehv-1 was shown to be trans-activated by vmw ...19921545217
[virologico-serologic studies in horses with respiratory tract diseases].of 1081 acute and chronically respiratory diseased as well as clinically normal horses 824 sera and 257 paired serum samples collected 1986 and 1987 were tested for antibodies against several different respiratory viruses such as influenza virus a/equi 1 and 2 (influenza 1 a. 2), equine herpesvirus type 1/4 (ehv 1/4), mammalian reovirus type 1-3 (reovirus 1-3), equine rhinovirus type 1 (erv 1), equine adenovirus type 1 (eadv 1), and equine arteritis virus (eav). the investigations resulted in an ...19921558530
an early gene maps within and is 3' coterminal with the immediate-early gene of equine herpesvirus 1.the immediate-early (ie) gene (ir1 gene) of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) encodes a single, spliced 6.0-kb mrna during cytolytic infection. however, under early (in the presence of phosphonoacetic acid) and late (8 h postinfection; no metabolic inhibitors) conditions, in addition to the 6.0-kb ie mrna, a 4.4-kb early (e) mrna is transcribed from the ie gene region beginning at approximately 4 h postinfection. to map and characterize the 4.4-kb e mrna and the protein product of this early gene (ir ...19911645793
equine herpesvirus 1 sequence near the left terminus codes for two open reading frames.we have previously reported the sequence of the equine herpesvirus one genomic termini that are homologous to the genomic termini of other herpesviruses. in this paper, we present the nucleotide sequence adjacent to the left terminus sequence (map units 0.0087 to 0.0237). this sequence codes for two open reading frames (orf) which are homologous to orf2 and orf3 of the varicella-zoster virus genome and are located at colinear positions. the l region sequence presented here also contains a segmen ...19911645901
[year-round antibody profile of groups of horses of a herd kept in isolation after differently terminating use of an experimental viral combination vaccine].the commercial vaccine "resequin f konz." devised against viral respiratory infections of horses contains the abortigenic equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1). therefore we had used it in our protection project of the austrian lipizzaners+ primarily to prevent abortions. taking into account the recent perception that for young horses the respiratory-pathogenic ehv-4 type is essential behringwerke marburg added this particular virus to their market product to produce a multicomponent experimental vaccine ...19911646100
an outbreak of equid herpesvirus abortion in new south wales.thirty-three of the 44 mares on a thoroughbred stud in new south wales aborted or lost foals within one day of birth. gross pathological and histological changes were in keeping with equid herpesvirus i (ehv-1) abortion. in the six foals that underwent virological examination, ehv was isolated and typed as ehv-1 by restriction endonuclease analysis. ehv-1 abortion had not occurred previously on this stud and the source of the infection was not identified.19911646102
the raising of equine colostrum-deprived foals; maintenance and assessment of specific pathogen (ehv-1/4) free status.over a period of two years, a total of 22 full term foals from welsh mountain pony mares were raised in conditions that were free from infection by equid herpesvirus (ehv-1/4). parturition dates were predicted by monitoring colostrum electrolytes, and the mares allowed to foal naturally under supervision or following induction with intravenous oxytocin. immediately following birth, foals were separated from their dams and transferred to a specially built, positive pressure isolation unit. they w ...19911646103
the epidemiology of equid herpesvirus abortion: a tantalizing mystery. 19911646104
sequence analysis of the 4.7-kb bamhi-ecori fragment of the equine herpesvirus type-1 short unique localize gene that may encode immunogens potentially important for recombinant vaccine design, we have analysed a region of the equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) genome where a glycoprotein-encoding gene had previously been mapped. the 4707-bp bamhi-ecori fragment from the short unique region of the ehv-1 genome was sequenced. this sequence contains three entire open reading frames (orfs), and portions of two more. orf1 codes for 161 amino acids (aa), and represents the c terminus of a possib ...19911647359
transcriptional analysis of the ul1 gene of equine herpesvirus 1: a gene conserved in the genome of defective interfering particles.defective interfering particles (dips) of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) are biologically active, in that they mediate the coestablishment of oncogenic transformation and persistent infection in permissive, primary hamster embryo fibroblasts. the dip genome is composed of ehv-1 sequences originating from the l-terminus (mapping units (m.u.) 0.00-0.023), the junction of the unique long (ul) region and the internal inverted repeat (ir) (m.u. 0.78-0.79 and 0.99-1.00), and the central portion of ...19911649513
effect of tunicamycin and monensin on fusion and hemadsorptive activities of equid herpesvirus 1. 19911650594
the role of endothelial cell infection in the endometrium, placenta and foetus of equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) of three mares in the last trimester of pregnancy became paraplegic 7 days after experimental infection with ehv-1 and was killed 10 days after infection (d.p.i.). the other two mares aborted foetuses at 12 and 14 d.p.i. in the first mare, virus was detected by immunofluorescence (iif) and immunoperoxidase (ip) staining in endothelial cells of the endometrium, placenta and umbilical vein, but not in any other foetal tissues. in the experimentally aborted foetuses, and in two other independen ...19911651960
experimental equine herpesvirus-1 infection in llamas (lama glama).three llamas (lama glama) were experimentally infected intranasally with an isolate of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) from the brain of an alpaca that had experienced severe neurologic signs. two of the 3 llamas developed severe neurologic disorders following inoculation; 1 died, and 1 was euthanized in a moribund state. the third llama showed only mild neurologic signs. the euthanized llama had preexisting antibodies to ehv-1, and the remaining 2 llamas were seronegative (virus neutralization tit ...19911654133
a murine model for studying ehv-1-induced abortion.balb/c mice were infected with two abortigenic strains of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) by intranasal inoculation. the inoculation of one strain produced subclinical disease while the other produced a disease characterised by weight loss, constitutional signs, and death in the most severely affected animals. when pregnant mice were infected by the same method of inoculation, one strain of virus produced premature parturition; both strains produced fetal abnormalities. in some cases, virus could b ...19911654586
location of open reading frames coding for equine herpesvirus type-1 glycoproteins with homology to ge and gi of herpes simplex virus.the dna fragments representing the entire short unique region and part of the repeat sequences of the equine herpesvirus type-1 genome were cloned into plasmid vectors. the approximate positions of the junctions between the short unique region and the inverted repeats were then located by restriction endonuclease mapping. two open reading frames coding for potential glycoproteins have been identified within the short unique region, using dna sequence analysis. the predicted amino acid sequences ...19911656822
attempts to immunoprotect adult horses, specifically pregnant mares, with commercial vaccines against clinical disease induced by equine a project lasting 4 years more than 300 lipizzans, around 180 of them adults, were vaccinated systematically against equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) and representative groups thereof were serologically controlled for their antibody responses. in part, vaccination intervals recommended on packing slips were followed, in part other intervals, implicated by intermediary results, were used. a live virus vaccine proved ineffective if humoral antibodies were present. an oil-adjuvanted vaccine proved o ...19911659067
isolation of equine herpesvirus-1 mutants in the presence of (s)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine: demonstration of resistance in vitro and in vivo.the compound (s)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine (hpmpa) had been previously shown to be highly effective in treatment of ehv-1 in a murine model for the equine disease. this paper describes the isolation of a series of mutants resistant to the drug. resistance was demonstrated in cell culture and one mutant was tested in a murine model. the resistant mutant was pathogenic for mice; infectious virus was recovered from respiratory tissues and blood at levels similar to the parental ...19911663728
clinical signs and humoral immune response in horses following equine herpesvirus type-1 infection and their susceptibility to equine herpesvirus type-4 challenge.a group of three horses was experimentally infected with equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and showed clinical signs characterised by a biphasic febrile response, leucopenia and cell associated viraemia accompanied by virus shedding from the nasopharynx. a second exposure to the virus 18 days later resulted in the isolation of virus from the nasopharynx of one horse. this and a further group of three ehv-1 seropositive horses were subsequently infected with equine herpesvirus type 4 (ehv-4) 147 ...19911664967
studies of bone marrow and leucocyte counts in peripheral blood in fetal and newborn foals.clinical and pathological records of 124 foals were studied. the foals were assigned to six groups; normal, premature, dysmature, bacterially infected, neonatal maladjustment syndrome and equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infected. also, 6 pony fetuses were sampled via catheters in the umbilical vein and artery between 280 and 310 days gestation. bone marrow aspiration was performed on a further 14 foals. premature foals had significantly lower neutrophil counts than normal foals up to 5 h. foals ...19911665520
identification and comparative sequence analysis of a gene in equine herpesvirus 1 with homology to the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d gene.a homologue of the herpes simplex virus (hsv) glycoprotein d gene has been identified in the genome of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1, equine abortion virus). an open reading frame in the middle of the short unique (us) region is capable of encoding a polypeptide of 402 amino acids that has 26% and 20% of its residues matching pseudorabies virus (prv) gp50 and hsv-1 gd, respectively. despite this low level of similarity, the positional identity of six cysteine residues and certain motifs, and the l ...19911665613
sequence characteristics of a gene in equine herpesvirus 1 homologous to glycoprotein h of herpes simplex virus.a gene in equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1, equine abortion virus) homologous to the glycoprotein h gene of herpes simplex virus (hsv) was identified and characterised by its nucleotide and derived amino acid sequence. the ehv-1 gh gene is located at 0.47-0.49 map units and contains an open reading frame capable of specifying a polypeptide of 848 amino acids, including n- and c-terminal hydrophobic domains consistent with signal and membrane anchor regions respectively, and 11 potential sites for n-g ...19911666854
amplification and differentiation of the dna of an abortigenic (type 1) and a respiratory (type 4) strain of equine herpesvirus by the polymerase chain reaction.unpurified dna derived from cultures of equine fetal kidney cells infected with either equine herpesvirus type 1 or equine herpesvirus type 4 was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using one pair of oligonucleotide primers. restriction endonuclease digestion of the amplified segments with pvuii, followed by electrophoresis, revealed restriction fragment length polymorphisms which enabled the two virus types to be differentiated.19911679247
characterization of the gene and an antigenic determinant of equine herpesvirus type-1 glycoprotein 14 with homology to gb-equivalent glycoproteins of other herpesviruses.the gene encoding glycoprotein 14 (gp14) of equine herpesvirus type 1 was sequenced. nucleotide sequence analysis revealed a complete transcription unit composed of a cat box, a tata box, a ribosome-binding sequence, a polyadenylation signal and an open reading frame (orf) of 2940 bp transcribed from left to right. the amino acid (aa) sequence deduced from this orf corresponded to that of a protein with 979 aa and had the characteristic features of membrane gp including a 20-aa signal sequence a ...19901692002
evidence for allelic exclusion in chinese hamster ovary cells.earlier results suggested that the functional hemizygosity of genes in pseudodiploid chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells is due to the silencing of one allele by dna methylation. from this one could make a strong prediction that we have now been able to confirm by genetic experiments, using thymidine kinase (tk) alleles. tk- mutants induced by ethylmethane sulphonate (ems) were all revertible to tk+ at high frequency by the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine (5-aza-cr). this revertibility was due t ...19901704254
studies on glycoprotein 13 (gp13) of equid herpesvirus 1 using affinity-purified gp13, glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies and synthetic peptides in a hamster model.hamsters were immunized with either an affinity-purified preparation of equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein 13 (gp13) or synthetic peptides representing three sequences within the homologous glycoprotein of ehv-4, resulting in the production of anti-peptide (in the case of peptide-immunized animals) or antivirus antibodies. the sera from gp13-immunized hamsters contained antibodies which showed virus-neutralizing activity and complement-mediated antibody lysis of ehv-1-infected target cells ...19911707948
characterization of the major glycoproteins of equine herpesviruses 4 and 1 and asinine herpesvirus 3 using monoclonal antibodies.a panel of 14 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) was used to characterize the high abundance glycoproteins of equine herpesviruses 4 (ehv-4) and 1 (ehv-1), and asinine herpesvirus 3 (ahv-3). the specificities of the mabs, which had been determined previously for strains of ehv-4 and -1 from the u.s.a., in general were confirmed by elisa for australian strains of these viruses. of the 14 mabs seven were ehv-4 and -1 type-common and cross-reacted with ahv-3. of the five mabs that were ehv-1 type-specifi ...19911716650
sequence analysis of a glycoprotein d gene homolog within the unique short segment of the ehv-1 genome.dna sequence analysis of one-third of the unique short (us) segment of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) genome revealed an open reading frame (orf) whose translated sequence exhibits significant homology to glycoprotein d of herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 and to pseudorabies virus (prv) glycoprotein 50, the gd equivalent. the orf of the ehv-1 gd homolog lies within the psz-4 bamhi/kpni fragment (map units 0.865 to 0.872 and 0.869 to 0.884) and is capable of encoding a polypeptide ...19911845821
translational control of equine herpesvirus type 1 gene expression.translational control mechanisms modulate gene expression in a variety of cellular and viral systems. using hypertonic conditions to block protein synthesis in vivo, we observed that the synthesis of several major equine herpesvirus type 1 proteins was selectively inhibited. although sensitivity to hypertonic conditions was graded across a continuum, messages coding for proteins of 203, 130.5, and 31.5 kda were significantly more resistant to higher salt concentrations in vivo than those coding ...19911845836
the three major immediate-early transcripts of bovine herpesvirus 1 arise from two divergent and spliced transcription units.among 54 transcripts expressed in a temporal cascade during lytic infection with bovine herpesvirus 1, we have previously identified three major immediate-early (ie) rnas, ier4.2 (4.2 kb), ier2.9 (2.9 kb), and ier1.7 (1.6 to 1.8 kb depending on the virus strain) transcribed from the hindiii c genome region (u. v. wirth, k. gunkel, m. engels, and m. schwyzer, j. virol. 63:4882-4889, 1989). northern (rna) blot, s1 nuclease protection, and primer extension analysis used in the present study demonst ...19911845884
the conserved dna-binding domains encoded by the herpes simplex virus type 1 icp4, pseudorabies virus ie180, and varicella-zoster virus orf62 genes recognize similar sites in the corresponding promoters.herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2), pseudorabies virus (prv), varicella-zoster virus (vzv), and equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) are all classified as alphaherpesvirinae. each of these five viruses encodes an essential immediate-early (ie) regulatory protein referred to as hsv-1 icp4, hsv-2 icp4, prv ie180, vzv orf62 protein, and ehv-1 ie1, respectively. these five proteins share extensive homology with each other in domains referred to as regions 2 and 4. the hsv-1 icp4 region 2 d ...19911847444
equine herpesvirus: new approaches to an old problem. 19911849814
properties and evolutionary relationships of the marek's disease virus homologues of protein kinase, glycoprotein d and glycoprotein i of herpes simplex virus.the deduced amino acid sequences of the open reading frames (orfs) mapping in the short unique segment (us) of marek's disease virus (mdv) reported in the accompanying paper have been analysed using computer programs to determine their relationships to herpesvirus proteins. analysis of the catalytic domains of protein kinases showed that the mdv kinase (mdv pk) was closely related to the alphaherpesvirus protein kinase mapping in us. the results also showed that the mdv pk was more closely relat ...19911849976
antigenic and protein sequence homology between vp13/14, a herpes simplex virus type 1 tegument protein, and gp10, a glycoprotein of equine herpesvirus 1 and 4.monospecific polyclonal antisera raised against vp13/14, a major tegument protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 cross-reacted with structural equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 proteins of mr 120,000 and 123,000, respectively; these proteins are identical in molecular weight to the corresponding glycoprotein 10 (gp10) of each virus. using a combination of immune precipitation and western immunoblotting techniques, we confirmed that anti-vp13/14 and a monoclonal antibody to gp10 reacted with the same pr ...19911850013
structure and physical map of the genome of parma wallaby herpesvirus.the dna of parma wallaby herpesvirus (macropodid herpesvirus 1; mhv-1) was analysed by restriction mapping and southern hybridizations, and clones of ecori and sali fragments were prepared which represented approximately 85% of the genome. it has a length of about 135 kbp consisting of a long unique sequence joined to a short unique sequence bounded by inverted repeat sequences, and occurs as 2 isomers. these findings place mhv-1 in the herpesvirus structural classification group d, along with e ...19901964521
effects of human alpha interferon on experimentally induced equine herpesvirus-1 infection in horses.the immunotherapeutic effect of low-dose human alpha interferon on viral shedding and clinical disease was evaluated in horses inoculated with equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1). eighteen clinically healthy weanling horses, 5 to 7 months old, were allotted to 3 equal groups. two groups were treated orally with human alpha-2a interferon (0.22 or 2.2 u/kg of body weight), on days 2 and 1 before inoculation with ehv-1, the day of inoculation, and again on postinoculation day 1. the horses of the remainin ...19901964771
equine herpes virus 1 and pseudorabies virus resistance to 2'-fluoropyrimidine analogs and to bromovinyldeoxyuridine: implications for dtmp kinase activity.the 2'-fluoropyrimidine nucleoside analogs 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodocytosine (fiac). 1(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluracil (fmau), and 1(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil (fiau) showed higher in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), than equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) or pseudorabies virus (prv). comparison of the 50% plaque inhibitory doses for hsv-1 and its mutant mmdur-20 in cell cultures with inhibition c ...19901983184
three-dimensional structures of maturable and abortive capsids of equine herpesvirus 1 from cryoelectron microscopy.cryoelectron microscopy and three-dimensional computer reconstruction techniques have been used to compare the structures of two types of dna-free capsids of equine herpesvirus 1 at a resolution of 4.5 nm. "light" capsids are abortive, whereas "intermediate" capsids are related to maturable intracellular precursors. their t = 16 icosahedral outer shells, approximately 125 nm in diameter, are indistinguishable and may be described in terms of three layers of density, totalling 15 nm in thickness. ...19902153224
genomic termini of equine herpesvirus 1.after cell infection with the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), the termini of the linear double-stranded dna genome fuse to form circular forms. to investigate the mechanisms in the generation and cleavage of such replicative-form dnas, the genomic termini, the fusion of termini from replicative-form molecules, and the junction between the short and long genome segments have been analyzed by restriction mapping, blot hybridizations, cloning, and sequencing. the data suggest that the genome ends are ...19902153249
temporal regulation of equine herpesvirus type 3 transcription.the transcription of equine herpesvirus type 3 (ehv-3; equine coital exanthema virus) has been examined and found to be temporally regulated into three classes: immediate early (ie), early (e), and late (l). hybridization of in vivo 32po4-labeled transcripts revealed that ie transcript(s) are derived exclusively from the inverted repeat segments (irs) of the viral genome, while e and l transcripts are not restricted to any specific region of the genome. northern blot analysis of ehv-3 ie rna rev ...19902157315
sequence and organization of the genomic termini of equine herpesvirus type 1.the nucleotide sequence and organization of the genomic termini and of the junction of the long (l) and short (s) regions of the equine herpesvirus type 1 genome were determined. sequencing of the xbai-q fragment (1441 nucleotides) revealed that the left terminus contains sets of inverted repeat and direct repeat sequences. the terminal sequence is described as dr1-uc-dr4 (18, 60, and 16 nucleotides, respectively) because of its homology to these elements of the 'a' sequence of herpes simplex vi ...19902157316
coexpression by vaccinia virus recombinants of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoproteins gp13 and gp14 results in potentiated immunity.the equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein 14 (ehv-1 gp14) gene was cloned, sequenced, and expressed by vaccinia virus recombinants. recombinant virus vp613 elicited the production of ehv-1-neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs and was effective in protecting hamsters from subsequent lethal ehv-1 challenge. coexpression of ehv-1 gp14 in vaccinia virus recombinant vp634 along with ehv-1 gp13 (p. guo, s. goebel, s. davis, m. e. perkus, b. languet, p. desmettre, g. allen, and e. paoletti, j. virol. 63: ...19902157895
identification of the site of recombination in the generation of the genome of di particles of equine herpesvirus type 1.defective interfering particles (dips) are generated by serial, undiluted propagation of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). dip-rich preparations of ehv-1 mediate oncogenic transformation and persistent infection in permissive hamster embryo fibroblasts. the defective genomes consist of reiterations of sequences from the left terminus (0.00 to 0.04 map units) of the long (l) region covalently linked to sequences from the inverted repeats (0.78 to 0.79, 0.83 to 0.87, 0.91 to 0.95, and 0.99 to 1.0 ...19902158182
one way protection between equid herpesvirus 1 and 4 in vivo.two groups each of six sibling ponies were exposed to sequential infections with equid herpesvirus 1 or 4 (ehv-1 or ehv-4) at four or five month intervals. two exposures to ehv-4 did not significantly reduce virus shedding or pyrexia when the ponies were subsequently exposed to ehv-1. however, two sequential infections with ehv-1 completely protected against challenge with ehv-4. virus neutralising antibody in each group did not increase until 21 days after primary exposure and was subtype speci ...19902159176
haematological measurements as an aid to early diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory viral infections in thoroughbred late november 1988 large numbers of thoroughbred horses in training in hong kong developed a transient pyrexia with, in some cases, the clinical signs of viral respiratory disease. serial blood samples for haematological examination were taken from 10 of the horses which were stabled in six different blocks. they had developed a high temperature within three days of each other and subsequently seroconverted to equine herpes virus 1 (ehv1). the absolute monocyte count was more than 0.5 x 10(9) ...19902159670
transcript analysis of the equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein b gene homologue and its expression by a recombinant vaccinia virus.transcript mapping of the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein b (gb) gene homologue by northern blot, s1 nuclease and primer extension analyses indicated that two overlapping transcripts of 3.4 and 4.6 kb originated from the same strand and were transcribed from left to right between coordinates 0.40 and 0.43 of the ehv-1 genome. the 3.4 kb transcript encoded ehv-1 gb and the 5' rna terminus was located approximately 30 bases downstream from a probable tata element. the coding region of th ...19902161047
the pathogenesis of equine herpesvirus type 1 in the mouse: a new model for studying host responses to the infection was established in adult balb/c mice by means of intranasal inoculation of the ab4 strain of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). the acute infection was confined to the respiratory tract and blood. virus was shown to replicate in the nasal mucosa, trachea and lung for several days producing clinical signs of disease. viraemia was also detected and a small proportion of peripheral blood cells contained virus at the peak of the infection. histological and electron microscopic evidence ...19902161048
inhibition of equine herpesvirus type 1 subtype 1-induced ribonucleotide reductase by the nonapeptide yagavvndl.the synthetic nonapeptide yagavvndl [identical to the nine carboxy-terminal amino acids of the small subunit of herpes simplex virus (hsv)-encoded ribonucleotide reductase (rr)] was found to inhibit the rr activity induced by equine herpesvirus type 1 subtype 1 (ehv-1). parallel experiments with hsv type 1 (hsv-1)-encoded rr established that the concentration of peptide required to inhibit 50% of the rr activity was 28 microm for both enzymes. the optimum ph for the ehv-1 enzyme was found to be ...19902161904
safety and efficacy of a thymidine kinase negative equine herpesvirus-1 vaccine in young horses.a drug induced equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) mutant lacking thymidine kinase inducing activity was developed and evaluated as a vaccine. the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine to protect against experimentally induced ehv-1 respiratory disease were evaluated in weanling horses free of ehv-1 neutralizing antibody. the vaccine was safe when administered either intramuscularly or intravenously, and ehv-1 was not shed intranasally during the 12 days following administration. intranasal challenge ...19902162730
effective chemotherapy of equine herpesvirus 1 by phosphonylmethoxyalkyl derivatives of adenine demonstrated in a novel murine model for the disease.equine herpesvirus 1 was established in adult mice by means of intranasal inoculation. a disease developed that showed several features closely resembling the infection in the natural host. these included the restriction of virus replication to the respiratory tract and blood, the replication of virus in ciliated mucosa, and development of viremia for several days during the acute phase of the infection. infected mice were treated with the antiviral agent (s)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxyprop ...19902163242
viraemia and abortions are not prevented by two commercial equine herpesvirus-1 vaccines after experimental challenge of horses.eighteen horses, vaccinated on a number of occasions over a period of 12 to 20 months with either a live equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) or an inactivated ehv-1 vaccine, were challenged by the intranasal instillation of the subtype 1 virus isolated from the 1983 outbreak of abortion and paralytic disease at the lipizzan stud, piber, austria. the prechallenge serum titres of all vaccinated horses were remarkably low, although most horses had received their last vaccine dose only 3 weeks before test- ...19902163560
equine herpesvirus type 1: detection of viral dna sequences in aborted fetuses with the polymerase chain reaction.primers and probes were selected from the gene encoding glycoprotein 13 (gp 13) of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1). the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was run on infected and noninfected cultured cells and on 63 specimens from 29 aborted equine fetuses. the results were evaluated by electrophoresis and dot-blot hybridization using an oligonucleotide probe labeled with biotin. in the infected samples electrophoresis showed a pcr product of about 280 base pairs. the dot-blot hybridization confirmed ...19902163562
the nucleotide sequence of an equine herpesvirus 4 gene homologue of the herpes simplex virus 1 glycoprotein h gene.the equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) gene glycoprotein h (gh) gene homologue was localized by virtue of the conserved genomic position of this gene throughout members of the herpesvirus family. the gene maps immediately downstream of the thymidine kinase gene at approximately 0.49 to 0.51 map units within genomic fragment bamh1 c. the ehv-4 gh primary translation product is predicted to be a polypeptide of mr 94,100, 855 amino acids long, which possesses features characteristic of a membrane glycopr ...19902167933
comparative studies of the proteins of equine herpesviruses 4 and 1 and asinine herpesvirus 3: antibody response of the natural hosts.proteins of purified virions of equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4; equine rhinopneumonitis), ehv-1 (equine abortion virus) and asinine herpesvirus 3 (ahv-3) were compared by metabolic labelling with [35s]methionine or [14c]glucosamine during growth of low passage virus in natural host cells (horse or donkey) and high passage virus in an appropriate cell line and analysis by sds-page. approximately 25 different proteins (mr 300k to 21.5k) were clearly resolved for each virus. the three viruses had simi ...19902170572
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