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replication kinetics of neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) strains in primary murine neurons and ed cell line.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) causes respiratory infections, abortion and neurological disorders in horses. molecular epidemiology studies have demonstrated that a single-point mutation in dna polymerase gene, resulting in an amino acid variation (n752/d752), is significantly associated with the neuropathogenic potential of ehv-1 strains. the aim of the study was to elucidate if there are any differences between neuropathogenic (ehv-1 26) and non-neuropathogenic (jan-e and rac-h) ehv-1 strai ...201628092604
detection of equine herpesvirus (ehv) -1, -2, -4 and -5 in ethiopian equids with and without respiratory problems and genetic characterization of ehv-2 and ehv-5 strains.infections with equine herpesviruses (ehvs) are widespread in equine populations worldwide. whereas both ehv-1 and ehv-4 produce well-documented respiratory syndromes in equids, the contribution of ehv-2 and ehv-5 to disease of the respiratory tract is still enigmatic. this study describes the detection and genetic characterization of ehvs from equids with and without clinical respiratory disease. virus-specific pcrs were used to detect ehv-1, -2, -4 and -5. from the total of 160 equids with res ...201728102009
replication of neurovirulent equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) in cd172a(+) monocytic cells.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is responsible for respiratory disorders, abortion and myeloencephalopathy (ehm) in horses. two pathotypes of ehv-1 strains are circulating in the field: neurovirulent (n) and non-neurovirulent (nn). for both strains, cd172a(+) monocytic cells are one of the main carrier cells of ehv-1 during primary infection, allowing the virus to invade the horse's body. recently, we showed that ehv-1 nn strains showed a restricted and delayed replication in cd172a(+) cells. ...201728131380
ccl2 and ccl5 driven attraction of cd172a(+) monocytic cells during an equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection in equine nasal mucosa and the impact of two migration inhibitors, rosiglitazone (rsg) and quinacrine (qc).equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) causes respiratory disease, abortion and neurological disorders in horses. besides epithelial cells, cd172a(+) monocytic cells become infected with ehv-1 in the respiratory mucosa and transport the virus from the apical side of the epithelium to the lamina propria en route to the lymph and blood circulation. whether cd172a(+) monocytic cells are specifically recruited to the infection sites in order to pick up virus is unknown. in our study, equine nasal mucosa ...201728241864
size-dependent inhibition of herpesvirus cellular entry by polyvalent nanoarchitectures.carbon-based architectures, especially graphene and its derivatives, have recently attracted much attention in the field of biomedicine and biotechnology for their use as pathogen inhibitors or biosensors. one of the major problems in the development of novel virus inhibitor systems is the adaption of the inhibitor to the size of virus particles. we here report the synthesis and biological testing of carbon-based inhibitors differing in size for evaluating the potential size effect on the inhibi ...201728266670
antiherpetic drugs in equine medicine.since vaccination may not prevent disease, antiherpetic drugs have been investigated for the therapy of several equine herpesviruses. drug efficacy has been assessed in horses with disease, but most evidence is in vitro, in other species, or empirical. oral valacyclovir is most often administered in the therapy of equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) to protect adult horses from equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy, while oral acyclovir is frequently administered for ehv-5 infection in the therap ...201728325183
intramuscular immunization of mice with the live-attenuated herpes simplex virus 1 vaccine strain vc2 expressing equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein d generates anti-ehv-1 immune responses in mice.vaccination remains the best option to combat equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection, and several different strategies of vaccination have been investigated and developed over the past few decades. herein, we report that the live-attenuated herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) vc2 vaccine strain, which has been shown to be unable to enter into neurons and establish latency in mice, can be utilized as a vector for the heterologous expression of ehv-1 glycoprotein d (gd) and that the intramuscular immun ...201728404844
influence of long-term equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection on primary murine neurons-the possible effects of the multiple passages of ehv-1 on its neurovirulence.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), like other members of the alphaherpesvirinae subfamily, is a neurotropic virus causing latent infections in the nervous system of the natural host. in the present study, we have investigated ehv-1 replication (wild-type jan-e strain and rac-h laboratory strain) during long-term infection and during the passages of the virus in cultured neurons. the studies were performed on primary murine neurons, which are an excellent in vitro model for studying neurotropism and n ...201728409422
zebra-borne neurotropic equid herpesvirus 1 meningoencephalitis in a thomson's gazelle ( eudorcas thomsonii).we describe the histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of a case of meningoencephalitis in a thomson's gazelle ( eudorcas thomsonii) naturally infected with zebra-borne equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and the implications for the molecular detection of zebra-borne ehv-1. a 4-y-old female thomson's gazelle was submitted for postmortem examination; no gross abnormalities were noted except for meningeal congestion. microscopic evaluation demonstrated multifocal nonsuppurative meni ...201728425387
long term stability and infectivity of herpesviruses in water.for viruses to utilize environmental vectors (hard surfaces, soil, water) for transmission, physical and chemical stability is a prerequisite. there are many factors including ph, salinity, temperature, and turbidity that are known to contribute to the ability of viruses to persist in water. equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) is a pathogenic alphaherpesvirus associated with domestic horses and wild equids. ehv-1 and recombinants of ehv-1 and ehv-9 are able to cause infections in non-equid animal ...201728429732
application of gold nanoparticle-assisted pcr for equine herpesvirus 1 diagnosis in field samples.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is one of the most significant pathogens that affects equine species worldwide, causing sporadic abortion, neonatal deaths, chorioretinopathy, as well as neurological and upper respiratory tract diseases. currently, conventional pcr targeting different genes is used widely for the molecular detection of ehv-1, but the low viral titer in some clinical samples can lead to false negative results. in this study, we aimed to assess gold nanoparticle (gnp)-assisted pcr as ...201728439710
development and application of a quantitative pcr assay to study equine herpesvirus 5 invasion and replication in equine tissues in vitro and in vivo.equine herpesvirus 5 (ehv-5) infection is associated with pulmonary fibrosis in horses, but further studies on ehv-5 persistence in equine cells are needed to fully understand viral and host contributions to disease pathogenesis. our aim was to develop a quantitative pcr (qpcr) assay to measure ehv-5 viral copy number in equine cell cultures, blood lymphocytes, and nasal swabs of horses. furthermore, we used a recently developed equine primary respiratory cell culture system to study ehv-5 patho ...201728455133
equine herpesvirus type 1 induces both neurological and respiratory disease in syrian hamsters.the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is an important cause of myeloencephalopathy and respiratory disease in horses. animal models for ehv-1 infection have been specially developed using mice and syrian hamsters (mesocricetus auratus). however, few studies have attempted to evaluate the pathogenesis of ehv-1 infection in the central nervous system (cns) and respiratory system of hamsters. therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenesis of four brazilian ehv-1 strains within th ...201728619133
viral genes and cellular markers associated with neurological complications during herpesvirus infections.despite the importance of neurological disorders associated with herpesviruses, the mechanism by which these viruses influence the central nervous system (cns) has not been definitively established. owing to the limitations of studying neuropathogenicity of human herpesviruses in their natural host, many aspects of their pathogenicity and immune response are studied in animal models. here, we present an important model system that enables studying neuropathogenicity of herpesviruses in the natur ...201728631601
epidemiology and molecular detection of equine herpesviruses in western algeria in 2011.an episode of acute equine respiratory infection was reported in western algeria (tiaret province) between february and march 2011, affecting a large population of horses. nasal swabs (n=100) were taken from horses aged between 1 and 27 years, presenting with cough and mucopurulent nasal discharge. the prevalence of equine respiratory virus infections was examined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qpcr). one, or more, of four equine respiratory viruses were detected in the nasal swab ...201728757025
an equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) vector expressing rift valley fever virus (rvfv) gn and gc induces neutralizing antibodies in sheep.rift valley fever virus (rvfv) is an arthropod-borne bunyavirus that can cause serious and fatal disease in humans and animals. rvfv is a negative-sense rna virus of the phlebovirus genus in the bunyaviridae family. the main envelope rvfv glycoproteins, gn and gc, are encoded on the m segment of rvfv and known inducers of protective immunity. in an attempt to develop a safe and efficacious rvf vaccine, we constructed and tested a vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) vaccine that expresses ...201728807043
the recombinant ehv-1 vector producing cdv hemagglutinin as potential vaccine against canine distemper.canine distemper virus (cdv), is a pantropic agent of morbillivirus that causes fetal disease in dogs. base on a broad host rang of cdv, the continued vaccines inoculation is unavoidable to pose gene recombination risk in vaccine virus and wild virus. the current study presents the construction of novel vectors, using equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) expressing the canine distemper virus (cdv). the recent field strain hemagglutinin protein and nucleoprotein were used for the construction of the ...201728888886
efficacy of the early administration of valacyclovir hydrochloride for the treatment of neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type-1 infection in horses.objective to determine whether prophylactic administration of valacyclovir hydrochloride versus initiation of treatment at the onset of fever would differentially protect horses from viral replication and clinical disease attributable to equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) infection. animals 18 aged mares. procedures horses were randomly assigned to receive an oral placebo (control), treatment at detection of fever, or prophylactic treatment (initiated 1 day prior to viral challenge) and then inoc ...201728945127
equine herpesvirus type 1 orf51 encoding ul11 as an essential gene for replication in cultured cells.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) ul11 is a 74-amino-acid tegument protein encoded by orf51 of the ehv-1 genome. ehv-1 ul11 was previously reported by other researchers using the racl22 and rach strains to be nonessential for viral replication in cultured cells. here, we constructed ul11 mutant viruses including a ul11 null mutant and three c-terminal truncated mutants, for further characterization of ehv-1 ul11 using bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) technology based on the neuropathogenic ...201729149435
investigation of apoptosis in cultured cells infected with equine herpesvirus 1.many viruses alter different stages of apoptosis of infected cells as a strategy for successful infection. few studies have addressed mechanisms of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strain-induced cell death. we investigated the effect of an abortigenic strain (ar8 strain) on heterologous madin-darby bovine kidney cells and homologous equine dermis (ed) cells cell lines. we compared morphologic and biochemical features of early and late apoptosis at different postinfection times. we investigated tran ...201729161169
access to a main alphaherpesvirus receptor, located basolaterally in the respiratory epithelium, is masked by intercellular junctions.the respiratory epithelium of humans and animals is frequently exposed to alphaherpesviruses, originating from either external exposure or reactivation from latency. to date, the polarity of alphaherpesvirus infection in the respiratory epithelium and the role of respiratory epithelial integrity herein has not been studied. equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv1), a well-known member of the alphaherpesvirus family, was used to infect equine respiratory mucosal explants and primary equine respiratory ep ...201729192251
decreased expression of the immediate early protein, icp4, by deletion of the tegument protein vp22 of equine herpesvirus type 1.vp22 is a major tegument protein of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). in the present study, we examined functions of vp22 in ehv-1 replication by viral protein expression analyses in cells infected with the vp22-deficient virus. the expressions of several viral proteins in the cells infected with the vp22-deficient virus were lower than those in the cells infected with the parent virus. one of the weakly expressed proteins was identified as icp4, which is a major regulatory protein encoded by a ...201729279464
comparative genomic sequencing and pathogenic properties of equine herpesvirus 1 kya and racl11.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is a major pathogen affecting equines worldwide. the virus causes respiratory disease, abortion, and, in some cases, neurological disease. ehv-1 kentucky a (kya) is attenuated in the mouse and equine, whereas wild-type pathogenic strain racl11 induces severe inflammatory infiltration of the lung, causing infected mice to succumb. the complete dna sequencing of the kya genome revealed that genes ul17 (orf17), us6 (orf73; gi), us7 (orf74; ge), and us8 (orf75; 10‚ÄČk) are ...201729312962
west nile virus associated with equid encephalitis in brazil, 2018.mosquito-borne arboviruses are a major public health concern worldwide and are responsible for emerging and re-emerging diseases. taken together, the arboviruses have a strong impact on public health and are the most common causes of equine encephalitis. in-depth diagnostic investigation of equine viral encephalitis is of utmost importance for the epidemiological surveillance and control of this disease. regarding neurological disorders in equids, in april-may 2018, at least 12 cases of equid mo ...201930318735
abortion in donkeys associated with salmonella abortus equi infection.salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar abortus equi (s. abortus equi) is well known as the aetiological agent of equine abortion. however, abortion caused by s. abortus equi has not been previously described in donkeys.201930868638
a pilot serosurvey for selected pathogens in feral donkeys (equus asinus).recent removal and relocation of feral donkeys from vast public lands to more concentrated holding pens, training facilities, and offsite adoption locations raises several health and welfare concerns. very little is known regarding the common equid pathogens that are circulating within the feral donkey population in and around death valley national park, california, usa. the aim of this study was to utilize serologic assays to assess previous exposure of these donkeys to equine herpesvirus 1 (eh ...202033023217
evaluation of colostral immunity against equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) in martina franca's foals.eight martina franca pregnant jennies were selected in order to evaluate the transfer of colostral antibodies against equine herpesvirus type 1 in their relative foals after immunization with a commercial inactivated vaccine, compared with an unvaccinated group. samples of serum and colostrums/milk were collected from jennies and foals under study starting from 10 min before and up to 21 days after the foaling. specific anti-ehv-1 antibody titers were evaluated by means of a serum neutralization ...202033330699
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