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molecular characterisation of the orf68 region of equine herpesvirus-1 strains isolated from aborted fetuses in hungary between 1977 and 2008.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) can be classified into distinct groups by single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) in their genomes. only a few of these can be associated with a special attribute of the virus. differences in the orf30 region can determine the neuropathogenic potential, while by substitutions in the orf68 region several strain groups can be made. in previous studies no connection was found between the neuropathogenic potential and the snps in orf68, but the occurrence of members of di ...201222366142
nasal shedding of equine herpesvirus-1 from horses in an outbreak of equine herpes myeloencephalopathy in western canada.there is little information on the duration of nasal shedding of ehv-1 from horses with naturally occurring equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm).201622332764
identification and characterization of equine herpesvirus type 1 pul56 and its role in virus-induced downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class i.major histocompatibility complex class i (mhc-i) molecules play an important role in host immunity to infection by presenting antigenic peptides to cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctls), which recognize and destroy virus-infected cells. members of the herpesviridae have developed multiple mechanisms to avoid ctl recognition by virtue of downregulation of mhc-i on the cell surface. we report here on an immunomodulatory protein involved in this process, pul56, which is encoded by orf1 of equine herpesvir ...201222278226
characterization of cis-acting elements required for autorepression of the equine herpesvirus 1 ie gene.the immediate-early protein (iep), the major regulatory protein encoded by the ie gene of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), plays a crucial role as both transcription activator and repressor during a productive lytic infection. to investigate the mechanism by which the ehv-1 iep inhibits its own promoter, ie promoter-luciferase reporter plasmids containing wild-type and mutant iep-binding site (iebs) were constructed and used for luciferase reporter assays. the iep inhibited transcription from its o ...201222265772
evaluation of the usefulness of a pcr assay performed at a clinical laboratory for the diagnosis of respiratory disease induced by equine herpesvirus type 1 in the field.a pcr assay for the diagnosis of respiratory disease induced by equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was performed at the clinical laboratory in the racehorse clinic of the ritto training center of the japan racing association from december 2007 to march 2008. the assay was performed without the trouble of contamination throughout the study and its turnaround time was approximately 6 hr. the pcr detection rates of ehv-1 among seroconverted horses were 22.2% for nasal swabs and 33.3% for blood sampl ...201124833987
equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 infections: an update.summary equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) and equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv4) are important ubiquitous equine pathogens, causing much damage to the viral horse industry. ehv1 strains are associated with respiratory disease, abortion, and paresis/paralysis, whereas ehv4 strains are predominantly associated with respiratory disease. in the past decades much research effort has been put into improving knowledge about these viruses. in this paper the current state of knowledge of these viruses and the most im ...200222066759
epidemiology and molecular detection of equine herpesviruses in western algeria in 2011.an episode of acute equine respiratory infection was reported in western algeria (tiaret province) between february and march 2011, affecting a large population of horses. nasal swabs (n=100) were taken from horses aged between 1 and 27 years, presenting with cough and mucopurulent nasal discharge. the prevalence of equine respiratory virus infections was examined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qpcr). one, or more, of four equine respiratory viruses were detected in the nasal swab ...201728757025
viral genes and cellular markers associated with neurological complications during herpesvirus infections.despite the importance of neurological disorders associated with herpesviruses, the mechanism by which these viruses influence the central nervous system (cns) has not been definitively established. owing to the limitations of studying neuropathogenicity of human herpesviruses in their natural host, many aspects of their pathogenicity and immune response are studied in animal models. here, we present an important model system that enables studying neuropathogenicity of herpesviruses in the natur ...201728631601
equine herpesvirus type 1 induces both neurological and respiratory disease in syrian hamsters.the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is an important cause of myeloencephalopathy and respiratory disease in horses. animal models for ehv-1 infection have been specially developed using mice and syrian hamsters (mesocricetus auratus). however, few studies have attempted to evaluate the pathogenesis of ehv-1 infection in the central nervous system (cns) and respiratory system of hamsters. therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenesis of four brazilian ehv-1 strains within th ...201728619133
development and application of a quantitative pcr assay to study equine herpesvirus 5 invasion and replication in equine tissues in vitro and in vivo.equine herpesvirus 5 (ehv-5) infection is associated with pulmonary fibrosis in horses, but further studies on ehv-5 persistence in equine cells are needed to fully understand viral and host contributions to disease pathogenesis. our aim was to develop a quantitative pcr (qpcr) assay to measure ehv-5 viral copy number in equine cell cultures, blood lymphocytes, and nasal swabs of horses. furthermore, we used a recently developed equine primary respiratory cell culture system to study ehv-5 patho ...201728455133
application of gold nanoparticle-assisted pcr for equine herpesvirus 1 diagnosis in field samples.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is one of the most significant pathogens that affects equine species worldwide, causing sporadic abortion, neonatal deaths, chorioretinopathy, as well as neurological and upper respiratory tract diseases. currently, conventional pcr targeting different genes is used widely for the molecular detection of ehv-1, but the low viral titer in some clinical samples can lead to false negative results. in this study, we aimed to assess gold nanoparticle (gnp)-assisted pcr as ...201728439710
long term stability and infectivity of herpesviruses in water.for viruses to utilize environmental vectors (hard surfaces, soil, water) for transmission, physical and chemical stability is a prerequisite. there are many factors including ph, salinity, temperature, and turbidity that are known to contribute to the ability of viruses to persist in water. equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) is a pathogenic alphaherpesvirus associated with domestic horses and wild equids. ehv-1 and recombinants of ehv-1 and ehv-9 are able to cause infections in non-equid animal ...201728429732
influence of long-term equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection on primary murine neurons-the possible effects of the multiple passages of ehv-1 on its neurovirulence.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), like other members of the alphaherpesvirinae subfamily, is a neurotropic virus causing latent infections in the nervous system of the natural host. in the present study, we have investigated ehv-1 replication (wild-type jan-e strain and rac-h laboratory strain) during long-term infection and during the passages of the virus in cultured neurons. the studies were performed on primary murine neurons, which are an excellent in vitro model for studying neurotropism and n ...201728409422
intramuscular immunization of mice with the live-attenuated herpes simplex virus 1 vaccine strain vc2 expressing equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) glycoprotein d generates anti-ehv-1 immune responses in mice.vaccination remains the best option to combat equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection, and several different strategies of vaccination have been investigated and developed over the past few decades. herein, we report that the live-attenuated herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) vc2 vaccine strain, which has been shown to be unable to enter into neurons and establish latency in mice, can be utilized as a vector for the heterologous expression of ehv-1 glycoprotein d (gd) and that the intramuscular immun ...201728404844
zebra-borne neurotropic equid herpesvirus 1 meningoencephalitis in a thomson's gazelle ( eudorcas thomsonii).we describe the histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of a case of meningoencephalitis in a thomson's gazelle ( eudorcas thomsonii) naturally infected with zebra-borne equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and the implications for the molecular detection of zebra-borne ehv-1. a 4-y-old female thomson's gazelle was submitted for postmortem examination; no gross abnormalities were noted except for meningeal congestion. microscopic evaluation demonstrated multifocal nonsuppurative meni ...201728425387
an equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) vector expressing rift valley fever virus (rvfv) gn and gc induces neutralizing antibodies in sheep.rift valley fever virus (rvfv) is an arthropod-borne bunyavirus that can cause serious and fatal disease in humans and animals. rvfv is a negative-sense rna virus of the phlebovirus genus in the bunyaviridae family. the main envelope rvfv glycoproteins, gn and gc, are encoded on the m segment of rvfv and known inducers of protective immunity. in an attempt to develop a safe and efficacious rvf vaccine, we constructed and tested a vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) vaccine that expresses ...201728807043
comparative genomic sequencing and pathogenic properties of equine herpesvirus 1 kya and racl11.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is a major pathogen affecting equines worldwide. the virus causes respiratory disease, abortion, and, in some cases, neurological disease. ehv-1 kentucky a (kya) is attenuated in the mouse and equine, whereas wild-type pathogenic strain racl11 induces severe inflammatory infiltration of the lung, causing infected mice to succumb. the complete dna sequencing of the kya genome revealed that genes ul17 (orf17), us6 (orf73; gi), us7 (orf74; ge), and us8 (orf75; 10‚ÄČk) are ...201729312962
decreased expression of the immediate early protein, icp4, by deletion of the tegument protein vp22 of equine herpesvirus type 1.vp22 is a major tegument protein of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). in the present study, we examined functions of vp22 in ehv-1 replication by viral protein expression analyses in cells infected with the vp22-deficient virus. the expressions of several viral proteins in the cells infected with the vp22-deficient virus were lower than those in the cells infected with the parent virus. one of the weakly expressed proteins was identified as icp4, which is a major regulatory protein encoded by a ...201729279464
access to a main alphaherpesvirus receptor, located basolaterally in the respiratory epithelium, is masked by intercellular junctions.the respiratory epithelium of humans and animals is frequently exposed to alphaherpesviruses, originating from either external exposure or reactivation from latency. to date, the polarity of alphaherpesvirus infection in the respiratory epithelium and the role of respiratory epithelial integrity herein has not been studied. equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv1), a well-known member of the alphaherpesvirus family, was used to infect equine respiratory mucosal explants and primary equine respiratory ep ...201729192251
investigation of apoptosis in cultured cells infected with equine herpesvirus 1.many viruses alter different stages of apoptosis of infected cells as a strategy for successful infection. few studies have addressed mechanisms of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strain-induced cell death. we investigated the effect of an abortigenic strain (ar8 strain) on heterologous madin-darby bovine kidney cells and homologous equine dermis (ed) cells cell lines. we compared morphologic and biochemical features of early and late apoptosis at different postinfection times. we investigated tran ...201729161169
equine herpesvirus type 1 orf51 encoding ul11 as an essential gene for replication in cultured cells.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) ul11 is a 74-amino-acid tegument protein encoded by orf51 of the ehv-1 genome. ehv-1 ul11 was previously reported by other researchers using the racl22 and rach strains to be nonessential for viral replication in cultured cells. here, we constructed ul11 mutant viruses including a ul11 null mutant and three c-terminal truncated mutants, for further characterization of ehv-1 ul11 using bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) technology based on the neuropathogenic ...201729149435
efficacy of the early administration of valacyclovir hydrochloride for the treatment of neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type-1 infection in horses.objective to determine whether prophylactic administration of valacyclovir hydrochloride versus initiation of treatment at the onset of fever would differentially protect horses from viral replication and clinical disease attributable to equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) infection. animals 18 aged mares. procedures horses were randomly assigned to receive an oral placebo (control), treatment at detection of fever, or prophylactic treatment (initiated 1 day prior to viral challenge) and then inoc ...201728945127
the recombinant ehv-1 vector producing cdv hemagglutinin as potential vaccine against canine distemper.canine distemper virus (cdv), is a pantropic agent of morbillivirus that causes fetal disease in dogs. base on a broad host rang of cdv, the continued vaccines inoculation is unavoidable to pose gene recombination risk in vaccine virus and wild virus. the current study presents the construction of novel vectors, using equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) expressing the canine distemper virus (cdv). the recent field strain hemagglutinin protein and nucleoprotein were used for the construction of the ...201728888886
west nile virus associated with equid encephalitis in brazil, 2018.mosquito-borne arboviruses are a major public health concern worldwide and are responsible for emerging and re-emerging diseases. taken together, the arboviruses have a strong impact on public health and are the most common causes of equine encephalitis. in-depth diagnostic investigation of equine viral encephalitis is of utmost importance for the epidemiological surveillance and control of this disease. regarding neurological disorders in equids, in april-may 2018, at least 12 cases of equid mo ...201930318735
a pilot serosurvey for selected pathogens in feral donkeys (equus asinus).recent removal and relocation of feral donkeys from vast public lands to more concentrated holding pens, training facilities, and offsite adoption locations raises several health and welfare concerns. very little is known regarding the common equid pathogens that are circulating within the feral donkey population in and around death valley national park, california, usa. the aim of this study was to utilize serologic assays to assess previous exposure of these donkeys to equine herpesvirus 1 (eh ...202033023217
abortion in donkeys associated with salmonella abortus equi infection.salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar abortus equi (s. abortus equi) is well known as the aetiological agent of equine abortion. however, abortion caused by s. abortus equi has not been previously described in donkeys.201930868638
evaluation of colostral immunity against equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) in martina franca's foals.eight martina franca pregnant jennies were selected in order to evaluate the transfer of colostral antibodies against equine herpesvirus type 1 in their relative foals after immunization with a commercial inactivated vaccine, compared with an unvaccinated group. samples of serum and colostrums/milk were collected from jennies and foals under study starting from 10 min before and up to 21 days after the foaling. specific anti-ehv-1 antibody titers were evaluated by means of a serum neutralization ...202033330699
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