PMID(sorted ascending)
production of equine herpesvirus 1 recombinant glycoprotein d and development of an agar gel immunodiffusion test for serological diagnosis.equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and 4) infect most of the world's horses, causing serious clinical illness. viral glycoproteins have been identified as the immunodominant antigens that generate the antiviral serological responses to ehv-1 and ehv-4 in infected horses. here, glycoprotein d of ehv-1 was expressed by a recombinant baculovirus, purified and evaluated by a simple agar gel immunodiffusion test (agid). compared with virus neutralization, serological analysis by agid showed good speci ...201424631347
molecular cloning and characterization of the pseudorabies virus ul31 gene.we amplified a 816-bp sequence of the ul31 gene from the pseudorabies virus (prv) becker strain genome. evidence that this was the ul31 gene was confirmed by cloning and sequencing. the prv ul31 gene encodes a putative protein of 271-amino acid residues, which was designated the ul31 protein. bioinformatic analysis indicated that prv ul31 contains a conserved pha03328 domain, closely related with the herpes virus nuclear egress lamina protein ul31 family and highly conserved among counterparts e ...201424668671
recombinant herpesvirus glycoprotein g improves the protective immune response to helicobacter pylori vaccination in a mouse model of disease.alphaherpesviruses, which have co-evolved with their hosts for more than 200 million years, evade and subvert host immune responses, in part, by expression of immuno-modulatory molecules. alphaherpesviruses express a single, broadly conserved chemokine decoy receptor, glycoprotein g (gg), which can bind multiple chemokine classes from multiple species, including human and mouse. previously, we demonstrated that infection of chickens with an infectious laryngotracheitis virus (iltv) mutant defici ...201424794215
evaluation of the usefulness of a pcr assay performed at a clinical laboratory for the diagnosis of respiratory disease induced by equine herpesvirus type 1 in the field.a pcr assay for the diagnosis of respiratory disease induced by equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was performed at the clinical laboratory in the racehorse clinic of the ritto training center of the japan racing association from december 2007 to march 2008. the assay was performed without the trouble of contamination throughout the study and its turnaround time was approximately 6 hr. the pcr detection rates of ehv-1 among seroconverted horses were 22.2% for nasal swabs and 33.3% for blood sampl ...201124833987
improving a complement-fixation test for equine herpesvirus type-1 by pretreating sera with potassium periodate to reduce non-specific hemolysis.non-specific hemolysis has often been observed during complement-fixation (cf) tests for equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1), even when the sera have virus-specific cf antibodies. this phenomenon has also been reported in cf tests for various infectious diseases of swine. we found that the sera from 22 of 85 field horses (25.9%) showed non-specific hemolysis during conventional cf testing for ehv-1. because pretreatment of swine sera with potassium periodate (kio4) improves the cf test for swine i ...201324834005
immediate-early protein of equid herpesvirus type 1 as a target for cytotoxic t-lymphocytes in the thoroughbred horse.cytotoxic t-lymphocytes (ctls) are associated with protective immunity against disease caused by equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). however, the ehv-1 target proteins for ctls are poorly defined. this limits the development of vaccine candidates designed to stimulate strong ctl immunity. here, classical ctl assays using lymphocytes from horses of three defined mhc class i types that experienced natural infection with ehv-1 and a modified vaccinia virus construct containing an ehv-1 gene encoding ...201424836672
successful control of winter pyrexias caused by equine herpesvirus type 1 in japanese training centers by achieving high vaccination coverage.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is a major cause of winter pyrexia in racehorses in two training centers (ritto and miho) in japan. until the epizootic period of 2008-2009, a vaccination program using a killed ehv-1 vaccine targeted only susceptible 3-year-old horses with low antibody levels to ehv-1 antigens. however, because the protective effect was not satisfactory, in 2009-2010 the vaccination program was altered to target all 3-year-old horses. to evaluate the vaccine's efficacy, we inve ...201424872513
full genome sequences of zebra-borne equine herpesvirus type 1 isolated from zebra, onager and thomson's gazelle.a strain of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was isolated from zebra. this strain, called "zebra-borne ehv-1", was also isolated from an onager and a gazelle in zoological gardens in u.s.a. the full genome sequences of the 3 strains were determined. they shared 99% identities with each other, while they shared 98% and 95% identities with the horse derived ehv-1 and equine herpesvirus type 9, respectively. sequence data indicated that the ehv-1 isolated from a polar bear in germany is one of the ...201424920546
ubiquitination and degradation of the orf34 gene product of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) at late times of infection.the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) open reading frame 34 (orf34) is predicted to encode a polypeptide of 161 amino acids. we show that an orf34 deletion mutant exhibited a significant growth defect in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells taken directly ex vivo during early but not late times of infection. orf34 protein (porf34)-specific antibodies specifically reacted with a 28-kda early polypeptide present in the cytosol of infected cells. from 10h post infection, multiple smaller porf3 ...201425010266
a severe equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) abortion outbreak caused by a neuropathogenic strain at a breeding farm in northern germany.a particularly severe equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) abortion outbreak occurred at a breeding farm in northern germany. sixteen of 25 pregnant mares that had received regular vaccination using an inactivated vaccine aborted and two gave birth to weak non-viable foals in a span of three months, with 89% of cases occurring within 40 days after the initial abortion case. virological examinations revealed the presence of ehv-1 in all cases of abortion and serological follow-up in mares confirmed ...201425042527
equine herpesvirus type 1 pul56 modulates innate responses of airway epithelial cells.recently, the product of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) orf1, a homolog to hsv-1 pul56, was shown to modulate mhc-i expression and innate immunity. here, we investigated modulation of respiratory epithelial immunity by ehv-1 pul56 and compared responses to those of pbmcs, which are important target cells that allow cell-associated ehv-1 viremia. the salient observations are as follows: (i) ehv-1 significantly down-modulated mhc-i and mhc-ii expression in equine respiratory epithelial cells (e ...201425046270
protective effects of intranasal immunization with recombinant glycoprotein d in pregnant balb/c mice challenged with different strains of equine herpesvirus 1.equine herpesvirus (ehv)-1 induces respiratory infection, neurological disorders and abortion in horses. most of the currently available attenuated or inactivated vaccines against this infection are administered intramuscularly and only provide partial protection against the respiratory disease. the present study examines the effect of intranasal immunization with purified ehv-1 recombinant glycoprotein d (gd) in balb/c mice followed by challenge with three different ehv-1 strains during early t ...201425124330
efficacy of a parapoxvirus ovis-based immunomodulator against equine herpesvirus type 1 and streptococcus equi equi infections in horses.the efficacy of zylexis®, an immunomodulator in horses based on inactivated parapoxvirus ovis (ippvo), was assessed using an equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) challenge model in the presence of a natural infection with streptococcus equi equi (s. equi). eleven horses were treated with ippvo and twelve were kept as controls. six horses were challenged with ehv-1 and commingled with the horses on study. animals were dosed on days -2, 0 (just before commingling) and day 7. on day 11 significantly l ...201425153651
major histocompatibility complex class i downregulation induced by equine herpesvirus type 1 pul56 is through dynamin-dependent endocytosis.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) downregulates cell surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class i (mhc-i) in infected cells. we have previously shown that pul56 encoded by the ehv-1 orf1 gene regulates the process (g. ma, s. feineis, n. osterrieder, and g. r. van de walle, j. virol. 86:3554-3563, 2012, doi: here, we report that cell surface mhc-i in ehv-1-infected cells is internalized and degraded in the lysosomal compartment in a pul56- ...201425165105
intracellular localization of equine herpesvirus type 1 tegument protein vp22.intracellular localization of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) tegument protein vp22 was examined by using a plasmid that expressed vp22 fused with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp). also a recombinant ehv-1 expressing vp22 fused with a red fluorescent protein (mcherry) was constructed to observe the localization of vp22 in infected cells. when egfp-fused vp22 was overexpressed in the cells, vp22 localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus. live cell imaging suggested that the fluorescent ...201425192624
characterisation of immune responses in healthy foals when a multivalent vaccine protocol was initiated at age 90 or 180 from infectious disease requires antigen-specific immunity. in foals, most vaccine protocols are delayed until 6 months to avoid maternal antibody interference. susceptibility to disease may exist prior to administration of vaccination at age 4-6 months.201525205445
quantitative molecular viral loads in 7 horses with naturally occurring equine herpesvirus-1 associating quantitative viral load with severity, clinical signs and survival in equine herpesvirus-1 myeloencephalopathy (ehm) have not been reported.201525212737
equine herpesvirus type 1 replication is delayed in cd172a+ monocytic cells and controlled by histone deacetylases.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) replicates in the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract and disseminates through the body via a cell-associated viraemia in monocytic cells, despite the presence of neutralizing antibodies. however, the mechanism by which ehv-1 hijacks immune cells and uses them as 'trojan horses' in order to disseminate inside its host is still unclear. here, we hypothesize that ehv-1 delays its replication in monocytic cells in order to avoid recognition by the immun ...201525239765
autophagy in cultured murine neurons infected with equid herpesvirus this study we investigated the relationship of equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection to autophagy in primary culture of murine neurons. infection with both jan-e and rac-h strains of ehv-1 resulted in the formation of autophagosomes in the cytoplasm during early stages of infection, while in late stages of infection autophagosomes were mainly concentrated around the nucleus what suggests the induction of nuclear envelope-derived autophagy (neda). no significant effect of an authophagy inhibit ...201425283867
equine herpesvirus 1 myeloencephalopathy.equine myeloencephalopathy (ehm), an uncommon manifestation of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection, can cause devastating losses on individual farms, boarding stables, veterinary hospitals, and show and racing venues. an improved understanding of ehm has emerged from experimental studies and from data collected during field outbreaks at riding schools, racetracks, horse shows, and veterinary hospitals throughout north america and europe. these outbreaks have highlighted the contagious nature ...201425300635
pathological findings in equine herpesvirus 9-induced abortion in rats.pregnant rats were infected experimentally with equine herpesvirus (ehv)-9, a new neurotropic equine herpesvirus serologically similar to ehv-1, during the first and third trimesters. the inoculated dams had mild to severe neurological signs and gave birth to dead fetuses or undersized pups. rats inoculated during the first and last trimesters had varying degrees of encephalitis as well as abnormalities of the placentas in the form of marked dilation of maternal blood sinusoids and varying degre ...201425304504
equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.equine influenza in england and scotland, significant numbers of outbreaks of equine herpesvirus 1 neurological disease in the usa, summary of surveillance testing, april to june 2014. these are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by defra, the animal health trust and the british equine veterinary association.201425431382
impact of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection on the migration of monocytic cells through equine nasal mucosa.the mucosal surfaces are important sites of entry for a majority of pathogens, and viruses in particular. the migration of antigen presenting cells (apcs) from the apical side of the mucosal epithelium to the lymph node is a key event in the development of mucosal immunity during viral infections. however, the mechanism by which viruses utilize the transmigration of these cells to invade the mucosa is largely unexplored. here, we establish an ex vivo explant model of monocytic cell transmigratio ...201425456193
the haemagglutination activity of equine herpesvirus type 1 glycoprotein c.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) has haemagglutination (ha) activity toward equine red blood cells (rbcs), but the identity of its haemagglutinin is unknown. to identify the haemagglutinin of ehv-1, the major glycoproteins of ehv-1 were expressed in 293t cells, and the cells or cell lysates were mixed with equine rbcs. the results showed that only ehv-1 glycoprotein c (gc)-producing cells adsorbed equine rbcs, and that the lysate of ehv-1 gc-expressing cells agglutinated equine rbcs. ehv-1 lack ...201525456403
equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) infection of equine mesenchymal stem cells induces a pul56-dependent downregulation of select cell surface markers.equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) is an ubiquitous alphaherpesvirus that can cause respiratory disease, abortion and central nervous disorders. ehv1 is known to infect a variety of different cell types in vitro, but its tropism for cultured primary equine mesenchymal stem cells (msc) has never been explored. we report that equine msc were highly permissive for ehv1 and supported lytic replication of the virus in vitro. interestingly, we observed that an infection of msc with ehv1 resulted in a consiste ...201525582614
a 34-year retrospective study of equine viral abortion in poland.the purpose of the present review was a comparison of the abortions caused by eav and ehv-1 viruses over the 34 years. a total of 452 tissues samples from aborted fetuses (347) or foals (105) stillborn or newborn that died within 72 hours were investigated. the material for the examinations came from different farms located throughout poland. the tissue homogenates were examined by using virus isolation test in rk-13 and vero cell lines and the cytopathic agent was confirmed as ehv-1 by the dire ...201425638974
equine herpesvirus-1: dealing practically but effectively with an ever present threat. 201525644768
comparative analysis of glycoprotein b (gb) of equine herpesvirus type 1 and type 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) in cellular tropism and cell-to-cell transmission.glycoprotein b (gb) plays an important role in alphaherpesvirus cellular entry and acts in concert with gd and the gh/gl complex. to evaluate whether functional differences exist between gb1 and gb4, the corresponding genes were exchanged between the two viruses. the gb4-containing-ehv-1 (ehv-1_gb4) recombinant virus was analyzed for growth in culture, cell tropism, and cell entry rivaling no significant differences when compared to parental virus. we also disrupted a potential integrin-binding ...201525654240
virological and serological investigation of equid herpesvirus 1 infection in new zealand.infection with equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) may be asymptomatic, or may result in respiratory disease, abortion, neonatal death, or neurological disease. the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ehv-1 infection, including differentiation between genotypes with aspartic acid (d) and asparagine (n) at position 752 of the dna polymerase sequence, within a selected population of new zealand horses. the second aim was to determine the predictive value of serology for detection of latent ...201525666453
equine herpesvirus 1 multiply inserted transmembrane protein pul43 cooperates with pul56 in downregulation of cell surface major histocompatibility complex class i.herpesviruses have evolved an array of strategies to counteract antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class i (mhc-i). previously, we identified pul56 of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) as one major determinant of the downregulation of cell surface mhc-i (g. ma, s. feineis, n. osterrieder, and g. r. van de walle, j. virol. 86:3554-3563, 2012,; t. huang, m. j. lehmann, a. said, g. ma, and n. osterrieder, j. virol. 88:12802-12815, 2014, http:/ ...201525833055
equid herpesvirus 9 (ehv-9) isolates from zebras in ontario, canada, 1989 to 2007.the objective of this study was to identify and partially characterize 3 equid herpesviruses that were isolated postmortem from zebras in ontario, canada in 1989, 2002, and 2007. these 3 virus isolates were characterized by plaque morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) of their genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (dna), real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay, and sequence analyses of the full length of the glycoprotein g (gg) gene (orf70) and a portion of the dna polymera ...201525852233
[infection control and hygiene management in equine hospitals].with the rising importance of nosocomial infections in equine hospitals, increased efforts with regard to biosecurity and infection control are necessary. this even more since nosocomial infections are often associated with multi-drug resistant pathogens. consequently, the implementation of targeted prevention programs is essential. since nosocomial infections are usually multifactorial events, realization of only a single measure is rarely effective to overcome nosocomial spread in clinical pra ...201525872258
equid herpesvirus type 1 activates platelets.equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) causes outbreaks of abortion and neurological disease in horses. one of the main causes of these clinical syndromes is thrombosis in placental and spinal cord vessels, however the mechanism for thrombus formation is unknown. platelets form part of the thrombus and amplify and propagate thrombin generation. here, we tested the hypothesis that ehv-1 activates platelets. we found that two ehv-1 strains, racl11 and ab4 at 0.5 or higher plaque forming unit/cell, activ ...201525905776
equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) disrupts actin cytoskeleton during productive infection in equine leukocytes.equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is a prevalent causative agent of equine diseases worldwide. after primary replication in the respiratory epithelium the virus disseminates systemically through a peripheral blood mononuclear cell (pbmc)-associated viraemia. ehv-1 is the only alphaherpes- virus known so far which is capable of establishing latent infection not only in neurons but also in immune system cells (mainly in lymphocytes and macrophages). since leukocytes are not the target cells for vir ...201525928917
detection of the neuropathogenic variant of equine herpesvirus 1 associated with abortions in mares in poland.the incidence of reported cases of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm) caused by infection with neuropathogenic strains of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) has markedly increased over the last decade in many western countries. the purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the neuropathogenic (g2254) and non-neuropathogenic (a2254) variants of ehv-1 among isolates associated with abortions in polish stud farms.201525929692
similar regulation of two distinct ul24 promoters by regulatory proteins of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1).to characterise the pattern of the transcriptional regulation of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) ul24 by regulatory proteins, we identified two distinct promoter regions and two transcription initiation (tci) sites located upstream of the ul24 open reading frame (orf). the orf proximal promoter exhibited higher cis-activity than that of the distal one. contrary to the former, the latter performed its function dependent on an initiator (inr) due to its lack of a tata box. our results showed tha ...201525937123
equine herpesvirus type 1 tegument protein vp22 is not essential for pathogenicity in a hamster model, but is required for efficient viral growth in cultured cells.vp22 is a major tegument protein of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) that is a conserved protein among alphaherpesviruses. however, the roles of vp22 differ among each virus, and the roles of ehv-1 vp22 are still unclear. here, we constructed an ehv-1 vp22 deletion mutant and a revertant virus to clarify the role of vp22. we found that ehv-1 vp22 was required for efficient viral growth in cultured cells, but not for virulence in a hamster model.201525948053
equine herpesvirus-1 myeloencephalopathy, an emerging threat of working equids in ethiopia.although equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm) is a sporadic and relatively uncommon manifestation of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), it has the potential for causing devastating outbreaks in horses. up till now, there were no reported ehm outbreaks in donkeys and mules. this study describes the isolation and molecular characterization of ehv-1 from clinically ehm-affected horses (n = 6), mules (n = 3) and donkeys (n = 82) in ethiopia during outbreaks from may 2011 to december 2013. the inc ...201726010868
efficacy of five commercial disinfectants and one anionic surfactant against equine herpesvirus type 1.we investigated the influences of various reaction conditions on equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) disinfection by 5 commercial disinfectants (3 quaternary ammonium compounds [qacs] and 2 chlorine-based disinfectants) and 1 anionic surfactant. qacs at their highest recommended concentrations had no virucidal effect on ehv-1 with a 10-min reaction time at 0°c or a 1-min reaction time at room temperature. chlorine-based disinfectants achieved ehv-1 disinfection with a 10-min reaction time at -10°c ...201526074409
animal herpesviruses and their zoonotic potential for cross-species infection.herpesviruses of humans and animals cause severe diseases that influence not only the health and epidemiological status but are also economically important in the context of food production. the members of herpesviridae are host specific agents that also share many properties that potentially make them capable of crossing the species barriers. the objective of presented review paper was to summarize the relationship between herpesviruses of animals and humans and their zoonotic potential. in hum ...201526094506
respiratory and neurological disease in rabbits experimentally infected with equid herpesvirus 1.equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is an important pathogen of horses worldwide, associated with respiratory, reproductive and/or neurological disease. a mouse model for ehv-1 infection has been established but fails to reproduce some important aspects of the viral pathogenesis. then, we investigated the susceptibility of rabbits to ehv-1 aiming at proposing this species as an alternative model for ehv-1 infection. weanling rabbits inoculated intranasal with ehv-1 kentucky d (10(7) tcid50/animal) ...201526187161
a retrospective study on equine herpesvirus type-1 associated myeloencephalopathy in france (2008-2011).diagnosis of equine herpesvirus-1 associated myeloencephalopathy (ehm) can be troublesome, but early recognition and knowledge of risk factors are essential for prevention and control. the objectives for this study are to (1) describe ehm in france, (2) improve clinical recognition, (3) identify risk factors. through epidemiosurveillance of acute neurological cases (all considered to be potentially infectious cases) in france (2008-2011), 26 ehm cases were identified and 29 ehm negative control ...201526228835
molecular characterization of brazilian equid herpesvirus type 1 strains based on neuropathogenicity markers.partial nucleotide sequences of orf72 (glycoprotein d, gd), orf64 (infected cell protein 4, icp4) and orf30 (dna polymerase) genes were compared with corresponding sequences of ehv-1 reference strains to characterize the molecular variability of brazilian strains. virus isolation assays were applied to 74 samples including visceral tissue, total blood, cerebrospinal fluid (csf) and nasal swabs of specimens from a total of 64 animals. only one csf sample (iso07/05 strain) was positive by virus is ...201526273275
equine herpesvirus-1 suppresses type-i interferon induction in equine endothelial cells.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is one of the most common and important respiratory viral pathogens of horses. ehv-1 in horses replicates initially in the respiratory epithelium and then spreads systematically to endothelial cells lining the small blood vessels in the uterus and spinal cord, and highly pathogenic virus strains can produce aborted fetuses or myeloencephalopathy. like other herpes viruses, ehv-1 employs a variety of mechanisms for immune evasion. some herpes viruses down-regulate the ...201526275803
seroprevalence and factors associated with seropositivity to equine arteritis virus in spanish purebred horses in spain.equine viral arteritis (eva), a disease caused by infection with the equine arteritis virus (eav), is present in many european countries. in spain, the last confirmed outbreak was reported in 1992 and there is a paucity of seroprevalence studies. the disease has a major impact on the equine breeding industry, which is mainly represented by spanish purebred (sp) horses in spain.201626278700
equine herpesvirus type 1 enhances viral replication in cd172a+ monocytic cells upon adhesion to endothelial cells.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is a main cause of respiratory disease, abortion, and encephalomyelopathy in horses. monocytic cells (cd172a(+)) are the main carrier cells of ehv-1 during primary infection and are proposed to serve as a "trojan horse" to facilitate the dissemination of ehv-1 to target organs. however, the mechanism by which ehv-1 is transferred from cd172a(+) cells to endothelial cells (ec) remains unclear. the aim of this study was to investigate ehv-1 transmission between th ...201526292328
role of gb and pus3 in equine herpesvirus 1 transfer between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endothelial cells: a dynamic in vitro model.infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) effectively transport equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), but not ehv-4, to endothelial cells (ec) lining the blood vessels of the pregnant uterus or central nervous system, a process that can result in abortion or myeloencephalopathy. we examined, using a dynamic in vitro model, the differences between ehv-1 and ehv-4 infection of pbmc and pbmc-ec interactions. in order to evaluate viral transfer between infected pbmc and ec, cocultivation assay ...201526378176
comprehensive serology based on a peptide elisa to assess the prevalence of closely related equine herpesviruses in zoo and wild animals.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while ehv-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm), a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. both ehv-1 and ehv-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. hence, ehv-1 and ehv-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained ...201526378452
antibody and cellular immune responses of naïve mares to repeated vaccination with an inactivated equine herpesvirus vaccine.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) continues to cause severe outbreaks of abortions or myeloencephalopathy in horses despite widely used vaccination. the aim of this work was to determine the effects of frequent vaccination with an inactivated ehv vaccine on immune development in horses. fifteen ehv-1 naïve mares were vaccinated a total of 5 times over a period of 8 months with intervals of 20, 60, 90 and 60 days between vaccine administrations. total antibody and antibody isotype responses were ...201526384446
a longitudinal study of poor performance and subclinical respiratory viral activity in standardbred trotters.while clinical respiratory disease is considered a main cause of poor performance in horses, the role of subclinical respiratory virus infections is less clear and needs further investigation.201526392904
the common equine class i molecule eqca-1*00101 (ela-a3.1) is characterized by narrow peptide binding and t cell epitope we describe a detailed quantitative peptide-binding motif for the common equine leukocyte antigen (ela) class i allele eqca-1*00101, present in roughly 25 % of thoroughbred horses. we determined a preliminary binding motif by sequencing endogenously bound ligands. subsequently, a positional scanning combinatorial library (pscl) was used to further characterize binding specificity and derive a quantitative motif involving aspartic acid in position 2 and hydrophobic residues at the c-terminus ...201526399241
the first reported outbreak of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in new zealand.on 9 january 2014 (day 0) a mare from a stud farm in the waikato region presented with urinary incontinence without pyrexia. over the following 33 days 15 mares were clinically affected with neurological signs. all but one mare had a foal at foot. the most commonly observed clinical signs were hind limb paresis and ataxia. in some cases recumbency occurred very early in the course of disease and seven mares were subject to euthanasia for humane reasons.201626414406
a review of traditional and contemporary assays for direct and indirect detection of equid herpesvirus 1 in clinical samples.equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is one of the most economically important equine viral pathogens. its clinical manifestations in horses vary from acute upper respiratory tract disease, abortion, or neonatal death, to neurological disease termed equine herpesviral myeloencephalopathy, which may lead to paralysis and a fatal outcome. successful identification of ehv-1 infection in horses depends on a variety of factors such as suitable case selection with emphasis on timing of sample collection, selec ...201526472746
binding of alphaherpesvirus glycoprotein h to surface α4β1-integrins activates calcium-signaling pathways and induces phosphatidylserine exposure on the plasma membrane.intracellular signaling connected to integrin activation is known to induce cytoplasmic ca(2+) release, which in turn mediates a number of downstream signals. the cellular entry pathways of two closely related alphaherpesviruses, equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4), are differentially regulated with respect to the requirement of interaction of glycoprotein h (gh) with α4β1-integrins. we show here that binding of ehv-1, but not ehv-4, to target cells resulted in a rapid and significant ...201526489864
effect of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection of nasal mucosa epithelial cells on integrin alpha 6 and on different components of the basement membrane.the respiratory mucosa is the common port of entry of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and several other alphaherpesviruses. an important prerequisite for successful host invasion of the virus is to cross the epithelial cell layer and the underlying basement membrane barrier. in the present study, an analysis was performed to see if an ehv-1 infection of nasal mucosa epithelial cells leads to damage of the underlying extracellular matrix proteins. nasal mucosa explants were inoculated with ehv- ...201626497179
functional characterization of the serine-rich tract of varicella-zoster virus ie62.the immediate early 62 protein (ie62) of varicella-zoster virus (vzv), a major viral trans-activator, initiates the virus life cycle and is a key component of pathogenesis. the ie62 possesses several domains essential for trans-activation, including an acidic trans-activation domain (tad), a serine-rich tract (srt), and binding domains for usf, tfiib, and tata box binding protein (tbp). transient-transfection assays showed that the vzv ie62 lacking the srt trans-activated the early vzv orf61 pro ...201526537679
full trans-activation mediated by the immediate-early protein of equine herpesvirus 1 requires a consensus tata box, but not its cognate binding sequence.the immediate-early protein (iep) of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) has extensive homology to the iep of alphaherpesviruses and possesses domains essential for trans-activation, including an acidic trans-activation domain (tad) and binding domains for dna, tfiib, and tbp. our data showed that the iep directly interacted with transcription factor tfiia, which is known to stabilize the binding of tbp and tfiid to the tata box of core promoters. when the tata box of the eicp0 promoter was mutated to ...201626541315
prevalence factors associated with equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in equids with upper respiratory tract infection and/or acute onset of neurological signs from 2008 to 2014.the objective of the present case-control study was to determine prevalence factors associated with the detection of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) by quantitative pcr (qpcr) in horses presented to veterinarians with clinical signs related to an upper respiratory tract infection and/or acute onset of neurological disease from march 2008 to december 2014. nasal secretions and whole blood from 4228 equids with acute onset of fever, respiratory signs and/or neurological deficits were tested by q ...201626607427
serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the central valley of costa rica.blood samples from 181 equines from the central valley of costa rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. the presence of antibodies against equine infectious anemia virus (eiav), equine herpes virus 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4), west nile virus (wnv), influenza a virus (iav), equine viral arteritis virus (evav), babesia caballi, theileria equi, neospora ca ...201426623349
entry of equid herpesvirus 1 into cd172a+ monocytic cells.equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) causes respiratory disease, abortion and neurological disorders in horses. cells from the myeloid lineage (cd172a+) are one of the main target cells of ehv-1 during primary infection. recently, we showed that ehv-1 restricts and delays its replication in cd172a+ cells as part of an immune-evasive strategy to disseminate to target organs. here, we hypothesize that a low efficiency of ehv-1 binding to and entry in cd172a+ cells is responsible for this restriction. thus, ...201626684016
evidence of widespread natural recombination among field isolates of equine herpesvirus 4 but not among field isolates of equine herpesvirus 1.recombination in alphaherpesviruses allows evolution to occur in viruses that have an otherwise stable dna genome with a low rate of nucleotide substitution. high-throughput sequencing of complete viral genomes has recently allowed natural (field) recombination to be studied in a number of different alphaherpesviruses, however, such studies have not been applied to equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) or equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4). these two equine alphaherpesviruses are genetically similar, but diffe ...201626691326
replication characteristics of equine herpesvirus 1 and equine herpesvirus 3: comparative analysis using ex vivo tissue cultures.replication kinetics and invasion characteristics of equine herpesvirus-1 and -3 (ehv-1/-3) in nasal and vaginal mucosae were compared using explants. the explants were cultured during 96 h with little change in viability. the tissues were inoculated with ehv-1 03p37 (neuropathogenic), 97p70 (abortigenic) and ehv-3 04p57, collected at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post inoculation (pi) and stained for viral antigens. both ehv-1 and ehv-3 replicated in a plaquewise manner. the plaques were already observed ...201626768993
how common is equine herpesvirus type 1 infection? 201626769811
the neuropathogenic t953 strain of equine herpesvirus-1 inhibits type-i ifn mediated antiviral activity in equine endothelial cells.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infects equine endothelial cells (eecs) lining the small blood vessels in the central nervous system. however, the effect of type i ifn on ehv-1 replication in the eecs is not well studied. thus, the primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of type-i ifn on the replication of the neuropathogenic t953 strain of ehv-1 in vitro in eecs. the initial data showed that the ehv-1 was partly resistant to the biological effect of exogenously supplied recom ...201626790943
application of real-time pcr for evaluation of distribution of equine herpesvirus type 1 in tissues of aborted fetuses.a highly sensitive and specific real-time pcr assay was used for detection and quantitation of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) in the different internal organs of aborted fetuses. tissue samples from 23 aborted fetuses submitted to the department of virology of the national veterinary research institute in pulawy between 2012 and 2013 were used for testing. total dna was extracted using a phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol standard protocol. a real-time pcr with forward and reverse primers enco ...201526812827
glycoprotein b of equine herpesvirus type 1 has two recognition sites for subtilisin-like proteases that are cleaved by furin.glycoprotein b (gb) of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is predicted to be cleaved by furin in a fashion similar to that of related herpesviruses. to investigate the contribution of furin-mediated gb cleavage to ehv-1 growth, canonical furin cleavage sites were mutated. western blot analysis of mutated ehv-1 gb showed that it was cleaved at two positions, 518rrrr521 and 544rlhk547, and that the 28 aa between the two sites were removed after cleavage. treating infected cells with either converta ...201626843465
equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv1) induces alterations in the immunophenotypic profile of equine monocyte-derived dendritic cells.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) is an α-herpesvirus that can infect a variety of different cells in vitro and in vivo, including dendritic cells (dc) which are essential in the immune response against ehv1. infection of equine monocyte-derived dc (mddc) with ehv1 induced down-regulation of major histocompatibility complex i (mhci), cd83, cd86, cd206, cd29 and cd172a, but not of cd11a/cd18 and mhcii. this down-regulation was not mediated by the virion host-shutoff (vhs) protein or pul49.5. interestin ...201626920348
seroprevalence and factors associated with equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 in spanish purebred horses in spain.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and type 4 (ehv-4) have a worldwide distribution and cause respiratory disease, abortion, neonatal death and myeloencephalopathy in susceptible horses. given the scarcity of serological ehv-1/ehv-4 data in spain, the objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the seroprevalence of ehv-1/ehv-4 and to identify potential horse-level and stud farm-level factors associated with ehv-1/ehv-4 in the breeding spanish purebred (sp) horse population in central ...201626984900
assessing the role of caspase activity and metacaspase expression on viral susceptibility of the coccolithophore, emiliania huxleyi (haptophyta).as part of their strategy to infect the globally important coccolithophore, emiliania huxleyi (lohmann) w.w. hay & h.p. mohler, coccolithoviruses trigger and regulate the host's programmed cell death (pcd) machinery during lytic infection. the induction and recruitment of host metacaspases, specialized, ancestral death proteases that facilitate viral lysis, suggests they may be important subcellular determinants to infection. we examined the "basal" levels and patterns of caspase activity and me ...201227011269
equine herpesvirus-1 infection disrupts interferon regulatory factor-3 (irf-3) signaling pathways in equine endothelial cells.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is a major respiratory viral pathogen of horses, causing upper respiratory tract disease, abortion, neonatal death, and neurological disease that may lead to paralysis and death. ehv-1 replicates initially in the respiratory epithelium and then spreads systemically to endothelial cells lining the small blood vessels in the uterus and spinal cord leading to abortion and ehm in horses. like other herpesviruses, ehv-1 employs a variety of mechanisms for immune evasion i ...201627090619
dual infections of equine herpesvirus 1 and equine arteritis virus in equine respiratory mucosa explants.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and equine arteritis virus (eav) induce respiratory problems and abortion in horses and are considered as two serious threats to equine industry. both ehv-1 and eav misuse patrolling leukocytes in the upper respiratory tract to breach the basement membrane (bm) and to migrate to blood vessels. so far, the behavior and impact of a double infection in the respiratory mucosa of a horse are unknown. in the present study, the outcome of double infections with ehv-1 and th ...201627117322
polarisation of equine pregnancy outcome associated with a maternal mhc class i allele: preliminary evidence.identification of risk factors which are associated with severe clinical signs can assist in the management of disease outbreaks and indicate future research areas. pregnancy loss during late gestation in the mare compromises welfare, reduces fecundity and has financial implications for horse owners. this retrospective study focussed on the identification of risk factors associated with pregnancy loss among 46 thoroughbred mares on a single british stud farm, with some but not all losses involvi ...201627139027
concurrent vaccination against equine influenza and equine herpesvirus - a practical approach.there is a lack of information concerning concurrent administration of vaccines against equine influenza virus (eiv) and equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 (ehv-1/4).201627169603
equine herpes virus type 1 (ehv-1) and 4 (ehv-4) infections in horses and donkeys in northeastern turkey.the herpesviruses infections in equides are caused by five different serotypes of viruses, belonging to family herpesviridae. the goal of this study was to conduct a seroepidemiological investigation of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and type 4 (ehv-4) in horses and donkeys raised in two provinces and their villages in northeastern turkey. a total of 666 samples from 423 horses and 243 donkeys that were not immunized against these infections were tested with elisa. while 52.48% of tested hors ...201527175200
equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.multiple reports of equine herpesvirus type 1 in the ukfirst cases of dourine in botswana and equine infectious anaemia in greecesummary of uk surveillance testing, october to december 2015these are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by defra, the animal health trust and the british equine veterinary association.201627179087
equid herpesvirus 1 and rhodococcus equi coinfection in a foal with bronchointerstitial pneumonia.a 2-month-old foal with septic shock and severe respiratory distress was referred to the veterinary teaching hospital. due to poor prognosis, the foal was euthanized. histopathology showed lesions suggestive of rhodococcus equi infection associated with a diffuse interstitial infiltrate of foamy macrophages and syncytial cells presenting large acidophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies, fibrin exudates and hyaline membranes. bacteriological examination from lung and respiratory exudates confirmed ...201627264610
immunization with attenuated equine herpesvirus 1 strain kya induces innate immune responses that protect mice from lethal challenge.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is a major pathogen affecting equines worldwide. the virus causes respiratory disease, abortion, and, in some cases, neurological disease. ehv-1 strain kya is attenuated in the mouse and equine, whereas wild-type strain racl11 induces severe inflammation of the lung, causing infected mice to succumb at 4 to 6 days postinfection. our previous results showed that kya immunization protected cba mice from pathogenic racl11 challenge at 2 and 4 weeks postimmunization and ...201627356904
equine herpesvirus type 1 modulates inflammatory host immune response genes in equine endothelial cells.equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm), a disease caused by equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), is characterized by severe inflammation, thrombosis, and hypoxia in central nervous system (cns) endothelial cells, which can result in a spectrum of clinical signs including urinary incontinence, ataxia, and paralysis. strains of ehv-1 that contain a single point mutation within the viral dna polymerase (nucleotide a2254>g2254: amino acid n752→d752) are isolated from ehm afflicted horses at high ...201627527764
application of scanning cytometry and confocal-microscopy-based image analysis for investigation the role of cytoskeletal elements during equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection of primary murine neurons.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), a member of alphaherpesvirinae, has a broad host range in vitro, allowing for study of the mechanisms of productive viral infection, including intracellular transport in various cell cultures. in the current study, quantitative methods (scanning cytometry and real-time pcr) and confocal-microscopy-based image analysis were used to investigate the contribution of microtubules and neurofilaments in the transport of virus in primary murine neurons separately infec ...201627555479
prevention of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy - is heparin a novel option? a case report.equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm) is a severe manifestation of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection. prevention and treatment of ehm during ehv-1 outbreaks is critical, but no reliable and tested specific medication is available. due to the thromboischemic nature of ehm and due to the fact that ehv-1 entry in cells is blocked by heparin, it was hypothesized that this compound may be useful in reduction of ehm incidence and severity. therefore, during an acute ehv-1 outbreak with the ...201627652372
zebra alphaherpesviruses (ehv-1 and ehv-9): genetic diversity, latency and co-infections.alphaherpesviruses are highly prevalent in equine populations and co-infections with more than one of these viruses' strains frequently diagnosed. lytic replication and latency with subsequent reactivation, along with new episodes of disease, can be influenced by genetic diversity generated by spontaneous mutation and recombination. latency enhances virus survival by providing an epidemiological strategy for long-term maintenance of divergent strains in animal populations. the alphaherpesviruses ...201627657113
bovine herpesvirus type-1 glycoprotein k (gk) interacts with ul20 and is required for infectious virus production.we have previously shown that the hsv-1 gk and ul20 proteins interact and function in virion envelopment, membrane fusion, and neuronal entry. alignment of the predicted secondary structures of gks encoded by bohv-1, hsv-1, hsv-2, ehv-1 and vzv indicated a high degree of domain conservation. two bohv-1 gk-null mutant viruses were created by either gk gene deletion or stop codon insertion. in addition, a v5 epitope-tag was inserted at the carboxyl terminus of gk gene to detect gk. the engineered ...201627661734
genetic characterization of equine herpesvirus 1 isolates from abortion outbreaks in india.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) is a common pathogen of horses that causes upper respiratory tract disease, abortion, neonatal death and neurological disease. the neurological form of disease is called equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm). during the past decade, the incidence of ehm has been on the rise in europe, north america, australia and asia. some ehv1 isolates causing ehm exhibit a single-nucleotide polymorphism (snp) in the dna polymerase gene (orf30) at position 2254 (a2254 to g225 ...201727699511
the role of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) us3-encoded protein kinase in actin reorganization and nuclear egress.the serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by us3 gene (pus3) of alphaherpesviruses was shown to modulate actin reorganization, cell-to-cell spread, and virus egress in a number of virus species. however, the role of the us3 orthologues of equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) has not yet been studied. here, we show that us3 is not essential for virus replication in vitro. however, growth rates and plaque diameters of a us3-deleted ehv-1 and a mutant in which the catalytic active si ...201627754319
equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.of surveillance testing, april to june 2016continuing reports of abortion due to equine herpesvirus type 1 infectioninternational disease occurrence in the second quarter of 2016these are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by defra, the animal health trust and the british equine veterinary association.201627789862
intranasal location and immunohistochemical characterization of the equine olfactory epithelium.the olfactory epithelium (oe) is the only body site where neurons contact directly the environment and are therefore exposed to a broad variation of substances and insults. it can serve as portal of entry for neurotropic viruses which spread via the olfactory pathway to the central nervous system. for horses, it has been proposed and concluded mainly from rodent studies that different viruses, e.g., borna disease virus, equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), hendra virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, v ...201627790096
occurrence of primary lymphocytic hypophysitis in two horses and presence of scattered t-lymphocytes in the normal equine pituitary gland.the postmortem examination of a 14-y-old appaloosa gelding with clinically diagnosed pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction showed a unique finding of moderate multifocal lymphocytic hypophysitis (lh). the pituitary glands of 24 horses submitted for postmortem examination were examined grossly and examined histologically for the presence of lymphocytes. of these 23 horses, 1 additional case suffered from moderate lh. the 2 cases with lh tested negative for equid herpesvirus 1 and 4 by polymerase ...201727852816
amiata donkey milk chain: animal health evaluation and milk quality.this study presents an investigation of amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. the following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic (brucella spp., leptospira spp.) and donkey abortion agents (brucella spp., leptospira spp., sa ...201627853717
anti-inflammatory drugs decrease infection of brain endothelial cells with ehv-1 in vitro.equine herpesvirus-associated myeloencephalopathy is the result of endothelial cell infection of the spinal cord vasculature with equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) during cell-associated viraemia. endothelial cell infection requires contact between infected peripheral blood mononuclear and endothelial cells. inflammation generated during viraemia likely upregulates adhesion molecule expression on both cell types increasing contact and facilitating endothelial cell infection.201627864898
pathogens inactivated by low-energy-electron irradiation maintain antigenic properties and induce protective immune responses.inactivated vaccines are commonly produced by incubating pathogens with chemicals such as formaldehyde or β-propiolactone. this is a time-consuming process, the inactivation efficiency displays high variability and extensive downstream procedures are often required. moreover, application of chemicals alters the antigenic components of the viruses or bacteria, resulting in reduced antibody specificity and therefore stimulation of a less effective immune response. an alternative method for inactiv ...201627886076
microvascular lesions and changes in cell proliferation and death, and cytokine expression in the placentas of mice experimentally infected with equid herpesvirus 1.this study describes the changes observed in the placentas of mice experimentally infected with an abortigenic strain of ehv-1 at mid-pregnancy and euthanized at days 3 and 4 post-infection. we analyzed microscopic vascular alterations, cell proliferation and death by immunohistochemistry, and the expression of ifn-γ, tnf-α and the il-10 by qpcr and flow cytometry. infected mice showed slight respiratory signs and ruffled fur during the first two days post-infection. virus isolation and dna dete ...201627892860
multiple molecular detection of respiratory viruses and associated signs of airway inflammation in racehorses.the potential involvement of viruses in inflammatory airway disease (iad) was previously investigated through either serology or pcr from nasopharyngeal swabs (ns). the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and incidence of viral genome detection by qpcr in the equine airways, and their association with respiratory clinical signs.201627899161
effects of various antiplatelet drugs on ex vivo platelet activation induced by equine herpesvirus type 1.objective to evaluate the effects of treatment of horses with standard platelet inhibitors on ex vivo inhibition of platelet activation by equine herpesvirus type i (ehv-i). animals ii healthy adult horses. procedures in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study, horses were treated orally for 5 days with theophylline (5 mg/kg, q 12 h), pentoxifylline (10 mg/kg, q 12 h), clopidogrel bisulfate (4 mg/kg, q 24 h), acetylsalicylic acid (20 mg/kg, q 24 h), or placebo. horses received all t ...201627901390
unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparin and the phosphodiesterase inhibitors, ibmx and cilostazol, block ex vivo equid herpesvirus type-1-induced platelet activation.equid herpes virus type-1 (ehv-1) is a major pathogen of horses, causing abortion storms and outbreaks of herpes virus myeloencephalopathy. these clinical syndromes are partly attributed to ischemic injury from thrombosis in placental and spinal vessels. the mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. we have previously shown that ehv-1 activates platelets through virus-associated tissue factor-initiated thrombin generation. activated platelets participate in thrombus formation by pro ...201627909693
function of myosin during entry and egress of equid herpesvirus type 1 in primary murine neurons.equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is a major pathogen of horses with a worldwide distribution, which can cause various clinical signs ranging from mild respiratory disease to neurological disorders. to initiate an effective infection, ehv-1 evolved a broad spectrum of mechanisms exploiting the host cell, including its actin filaments. an actin-myosin-driven transport has been described to precede cellular entry of different viruses. therefore, in the present study we investigated the role of acti ...201727928922
high-throughput detection of respiratory pathogens in animal specimens by nanoscale pcr.nanoliter scale real-time pcr uses spatial multiplexing to allow multiple assays to be run in parallel on a single plate without the typical drawbacks of combining reactions together. we designed and evaluated a panel based on this principle to rapidly identify the presence of common disease agents in dogs and horses with acute respiratory illness. this manuscript describes a nanoscale diagnostic pcr workflow for sample preparation, amplification, and analysis of target pathogen sequences, focus ...201627929456
translation of a laboratory-validated equine herpesvirus-1 specific real-time pcr assay into an insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iipcr) assay for point-of-need diagnosis using pockit™ nucleic acid analyzer.equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm), a major problem for the equine industry in the united states, is caused by equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1). in addition, ehv-1 is associated with upper respiratory disease, abortion, and chorioretinal lesions in horses. here we describe the development and evaluation of an inexpensive, user-friendly insulated isothermal pcr (iipcr) method targeting open reading 30 (orf30) to detect both neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic strains on the field-deploy ...201727993615
neonatal immunization with a single il-4/antigen dose induces increased antibody responses after challenge infection with equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) at weanling age.neonatal foals respond poorly to conventional vaccines. these vaccines typically target t-helper (th) cell dependent b-cell activation. however, th2-cell immunity is impaired in foals during the first three months of life. in contrast, neonatal basophils are potent interleukin-4 (il-4) producers. the purpose of this study was to develop a novel vaccine triggering the natural capacity of neonatal basophils to secrete il-4 and to evaluate if vaccination resulted in b-cell activation and antibody p ...201728045974
a point mutation in a herpesvirus co-determines neuropathogenicity and viral shedding.a point mutation in the dna polymerase gene in equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is one determinant for the development of neurological disease in horses. three recently conducted infection experiments using domestic horses and ponies failed to detect statistically significant differences in viral shedding between the neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic variants. these results were interpreted as suggesting the absence of a consistent selective advantage of the neuropathogenic variant and th ...201728075374
a serologic and polymerase chain reaction survey of equine herpesvirus in burchell's zebras (equus quagga), hartmann's mountain zebras (equus zebra hartmannae), and thomson's gazelles (eudorcas thomsonii) in a mixed species savannah exhibit.reports of equine herpesvirus (ehv) 1 and ehv-9 causing clinical disease in a wide range of species have been well documented in the literature. it is thought that zebras are the natural hosts of ehv-9 both in the wild and in captive collections. concerns about potential interspecies transmission of ehv-1 and ehv-9 in a mixed species savannah exhibit prompted serologic and polymerase chain reaction surveys. eighteen burchell's zebras ( equus quagga ), 11 hartmann's mountain zebras ( equus zebra ...201628080902
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