the first reported outbreak of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in new zealand.on 9 january 2014 (day 0) a mare from a stud farm in the waikato region presented with urinary incontinence without pyrexia. over the following 33 days 15 mares were clinically affected with neurological signs. all but one mare had a foal at foot. the most commonly observed clinical signs were hind limb paresis and ataxia. in some cases recumbency occurred very early in the course of disease and seven mares were subject to euthanasia for humane reasons.201626414406
the common equine class i molecule eqca-1*00101 (ela-a3.1) is characterized by narrow peptide binding and t cell epitope we describe a detailed quantitative peptide-binding motif for the common equine leukocyte antigen (ela) class i allele eqca-1*00101, present in roughly 25 % of thoroughbred horses. we determined a preliminary binding motif by sequencing endogenously bound ligands. subsequently, a positional scanning combinatorial library (pscl) was used to further characterize binding specificity and derive a quantitative motif involving aspartic acid in position 2 and hydrophobic residues at the c-terminus ...201526399241
a longitudinal study of poor performance and subclinical respiratory viral activity in standardbred trotters.while clinical respiratory disease is considered a main cause of poor performance in horses, the role of subclinical respiratory virus infections is less clear and needs further investigation.201526392904
antibody and cellular immune responses of naïve mares to repeated vaccination with an inactivated equine herpesvirus vaccine.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) continues to cause severe outbreaks of abortions or myeloencephalopathy in horses despite widely used vaccination. the aim of this work was to determine the effects of frequent vaccination with an inactivated ehv vaccine on immune development in horses. fifteen ehv-1 naïve mares were vaccinated a total of 5 times over a period of 8 months with intervals of 20, 60, 90 and 60 days between vaccine administrations. total antibody and antibody isotype responses were ...201526384446
comprehensive serology based on a peptide elisa to assess the prevalence of closely related equine herpesviruses in zoo and wild animals.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while ehv-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm), a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. both ehv-1 and ehv-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. hence, ehv-1 and ehv-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained ...201526378452
role of gb and pus3 in equine herpesvirus 1 transfer between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endothelial cells: a dynamic in vitro model.infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) effectively transport equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), but not ehv-4, to endothelial cells (ec) lining the blood vessels of the pregnant uterus or central nervous system, a process that can result in abortion or myeloencephalopathy. we examined, using a dynamic in vitro model, the differences between ehv-1 and ehv-4 infection of pbmc and pbmc-ec interactions. in order to evaluate viral transfer between infected pbmc and ec, cocultivation assay ...201526378176
equine herpesvirus type 1 enhances viral replication in cd172a+ monocytic cells upon adhesion to endothelial cells.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is a main cause of respiratory disease, abortion, and encephalomyelopathy in horses. monocytic cells (cd172a(+)) are the main carrier cells of ehv-1 during primary infection and are proposed to serve as a "trojan horse" to facilitate the dissemination of ehv-1 to target organs. however, the mechanism by which ehv-1 is transferred from cd172a(+) cells to endothelial cells (ec) remains unclear. the aim of this study was to investigate ehv-1 transmission between th ...201526292328
seroprevalence and factors associated with seropositivity to equine arteritis virus in spanish purebred horses in spain.equine viral arteritis (eva), a disease caused by infection with the equine arteritis virus (eav), is present in many european countries. in spain, the last confirmed outbreak was reported in 1992 and there is a paucity of seroprevalence studies. the disease has a major impact on the equine breeding industry, which is mainly represented by spanish purebred (sp) horses in spain.201626278700
equine herpesvirus-1 suppresses type-i interferon induction in equine endothelial cells.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is one of the most common and important respiratory viral pathogens of horses. ehv-1 in horses replicates initially in the respiratory epithelium and then spreads systematically to endothelial cells lining the small blood vessels in the uterus and spinal cord, and highly pathogenic virus strains can produce aborted fetuses or myeloencephalopathy. like other herpes viruses, ehv-1 employs a variety of mechanisms for immune evasion. some herpes viruses down-regulate the ...201526275803
molecular characterization of brazilian equid herpesvirus type 1 strains based on neuropathogenicity markers.partial nucleotide sequences of orf72 (glycoprotein d, gd), orf64 (infected cell protein 4, icp4) and orf30 (dna polymerase) genes were compared with corresponding sequences of ehv-1 reference strains to characterize the molecular variability of brazilian strains. virus isolation assays were applied to 74 samples including visceral tissue, total blood, cerebrospinal fluid (csf) and nasal swabs of specimens from a total of 64 animals. only one csf sample (iso07/05 strain) was positive by virus is ...201526273275
a retrospective study on equine herpesvirus type-1 associated myeloencephalopathy in france (2008-2011).diagnosis of equine herpesvirus-1 associated myeloencephalopathy (ehm) can be troublesome, but early recognition and knowledge of risk factors are essential for prevention and control. the objectives for this study are to (1) describe ehm in france, (2) improve clinical recognition, (3) identify risk factors. through epidemiosurveillance of acute neurological cases (all considered to be potentially infectious cases) in france (2008-2011), 26 ehm cases were identified and 29 ehm negative control ...201526228835
respiratory and neurological disease in rabbits experimentally infected with equid herpesvirus 1.equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is an important pathogen of horses worldwide, associated with respiratory, reproductive and/or neurological disease. a mouse model for ehv-1 infection has been established but fails to reproduce some important aspects of the viral pathogenesis. then, we investigated the susceptibility of rabbits to ehv-1 aiming at proposing this species as an alternative model for ehv-1 infection. weanling rabbits inoculated intranasal with ehv-1 kentucky d (10(7) tcid50/animal) ...201526187161
efficacy of five commercial disinfectants and one anionic surfactant against equine herpesvirus type 1.we investigated the influences of various reaction conditions on equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) disinfection by 5 commercial disinfectants (3 quaternary ammonium compounds [qacs] and 2 chlorine-based disinfectants) and 1 anionic surfactant. qacs at their highest recommended concentrations had no virucidal effect on ehv-1 with a 10-min reaction time at 0°c or a 1-min reaction time at room temperature. chlorine-based disinfectants achieved ehv-1 disinfection with a 10-min reaction time at -10°c ...201526074409
equine herpesvirus-1 myeloencephalopathy, an emerging threat of working equids in ethiopia.although equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm) is a sporadic and relatively uncommon manifestation of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), it has the potential for causing devastating outbreaks in horses. up till now, there were no reported ehm outbreaks in donkeys and mules. this study describes the isolation and molecular characterization of ehv-1 from clinically ehm-affected horses (n = 6), mules (n = 3) and donkeys (n = 82) in ethiopia during outbreaks from may 2011 to december 2013. the inc ...201726010868
equine herpesvirus type 1 tegument protein vp22 is not essential for pathogenicity in a hamster model, but is required for efficient viral growth in cultured cells.vp22 is a major tegument protein of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) that is a conserved protein among alphaherpesviruses. however, the roles of vp22 differ among each virus, and the roles of ehv-1 vp22 are still unclear. here, we constructed an ehv-1 vp22 deletion mutant and a revertant virus to clarify the role of vp22. we found that ehv-1 vp22 was required for efficient viral growth in cultured cells, but not for virulence in a hamster model.201525948053
similar regulation of two distinct ul24 promoters by regulatory proteins of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1).to characterise the pattern of the transcriptional regulation of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) ul24 by regulatory proteins, we identified two distinct promoter regions and two transcription initiation (tci) sites located upstream of the ul24 open reading frame (orf). the orf proximal promoter exhibited higher cis-activity than that of the distal one. contrary to the former, the latter performed its function dependent on an initiator (inr) due to its lack of a tata box. our results showed tha ...201525937123
detection of the neuropathogenic variant of equine herpesvirus 1 associated with abortions in mares in poland.the incidence of reported cases of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm) caused by infection with neuropathogenic strains of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) has markedly increased over the last decade in many western countries. the purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the neuropathogenic (g2254) and non-neuropathogenic (a2254) variants of ehv-1 among isolates associated with abortions in polish stud farms.201525929692
equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) disrupts actin cytoskeleton during productive infection in equine leukocytes.equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is a prevalent causative agent of equine diseases worldwide. after primary replication in the respiratory epithelium the virus disseminates systemically through a peripheral blood mononuclear cell (pbmc)-associated viraemia. ehv-1 is the only alphaherpes- virus known so far which is capable of establishing latent infection not only in neurons but also in immune system cells (mainly in lymphocytes and macrophages). since leukocytes are not the target cells for vir ...201525928917
[infection control and hygiene management in equine hospitals].with the rising importance of nosocomial infections in equine hospitals, increased efforts with regard to biosecurity and infection control are necessary. this even more since nosocomial infections are often associated with multi-drug resistant pathogens. consequently, the implementation of targeted prevention programs is essential. since nosocomial infections are usually multifactorial events, realization of only a single measure is rarely effective to overcome nosocomial spread in clinical pra ...201525872258
equid herpesvirus 9 (ehv-9) isolates from zebras in ontario, canada, 1989 to 2007.the objective of this study was to identify and partially characterize 3 equid herpesviruses that were isolated postmortem from zebras in ontario, canada in 1989, 2002, and 2007. these 3 virus isolates were characterized by plaque morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) of their genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (dna), real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay, and sequence analyses of the full length of the glycoprotein g (gg) gene (orf70) and a portion of the dna polymera ...201525852233
equine herpesvirus 1 multiply inserted transmembrane protein pul43 cooperates with pul56 in downregulation of cell surface major histocompatibility complex class i.herpesviruses have evolved an array of strategies to counteract antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class i (mhc-i). previously, we identified pul56 of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) as one major determinant of the downregulation of cell surface mhc-i (g. ma, s. feineis, n. osterrieder, and g. r. van de walle, j. virol. 86:3554-3563, 2012,; t. huang, m. j. lehmann, a. said, g. ma, and n. osterrieder, j. virol. 88:12802-12815, 2014, http:/ ...201525833055
virological and serological investigation of equid herpesvirus 1 infection in new zealand.infection with equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) may be asymptomatic, or may result in respiratory disease, abortion, neonatal death, or neurological disease. the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ehv-1 infection, including differentiation between genotypes with aspartic acid (d) and asparagine (n) at position 752 of the dna polymerase sequence, within a selected population of new zealand horses. the second aim was to determine the predictive value of serology for detection of latent ...201525666453
comparative analysis of glycoprotein b (gb) of equine herpesvirus type 1 and type 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) in cellular tropism and cell-to-cell transmission.glycoprotein b (gb) plays an important role in alphaherpesvirus cellular entry and acts in concert with gd and the gh/gl complex. to evaluate whether functional differences exist between gb1 and gb4, the corresponding genes were exchanged between the two viruses. the gb4-containing-ehv-1 (ehv-1_gb4) recombinant virus was analyzed for growth in culture, cell tropism, and cell entry rivaling no significant differences when compared to parental virus. we also disrupted a potential integrin-binding ...201525654240
equine herpesvirus-1: dealing practically but effectively with an ever present threat. 201525644768
a 34-year retrospective study of equine viral abortion in poland.the purpose of the present review was a comparison of the abortions caused by eav and ehv-1 viruses over the 34 years. a total of 452 tissues samples from aborted fetuses (347) or foals (105) stillborn or newborn that died within 72 hours were investigated. the material for the examinations came from different farms located throughout poland. the tissue homogenates were examined by using virus isolation test in rk-13 and vero cell lines and the cytopathic agent was confirmed as ehv-1 by the dire ...201425638974
equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) infection of equine mesenchymal stem cells induces a pul56-dependent downregulation of select cell surface markers.equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) is an ubiquitous alphaherpesvirus that can cause respiratory disease, abortion and central nervous disorders. ehv1 is known to infect a variety of different cell types in vitro, but its tropism for cultured primary equine mesenchymal stem cells (msc) has never been explored. we report that equine msc were highly permissive for ehv1 and supported lytic replication of the virus in vitro. interestingly, we observed that an infection of msc with ehv1 resulted in a consiste ...201525582614
the haemagglutination activity of equine herpesvirus type 1 glycoprotein c.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) has haemagglutination (ha) activity toward equine red blood cells (rbcs), but the identity of its haemagglutinin is unknown. to identify the haemagglutinin of ehv-1, the major glycoproteins of ehv-1 were expressed in 293t cells, and the cells or cell lysates were mixed with equine rbcs. the results showed that only ehv-1 glycoprotein c (gc)-producing cells adsorbed equine rbcs, and that the lysate of ehv-1 gc-expressing cells agglutinated equine rbcs. ehv-1 lack ...201525456403
impact of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection on the migration of monocytic cells through equine nasal mucosa.the mucosal surfaces are important sites of entry for a majority of pathogens, and viruses in particular. the migration of antigen presenting cells (apcs) from the apical side of the mucosal epithelium to the lymph node is a key event in the development of mucosal immunity during viral infections. however, the mechanism by which viruses utilize the transmigration of these cells to invade the mucosa is largely unexplored. here, we establish an ex vivo explant model of monocytic cell transmigratio ...201425456193
equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.equine influenza in england and scotland, significant numbers of outbreaks of equine herpesvirus 1 neurological disease in the usa, summary of surveillance testing, april to june 2014. these are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by defra, the animal health trust and the british equine veterinary association.201425431382
pathological findings in equine herpesvirus 9-induced abortion in rats.pregnant rats were infected experimentally with equine herpesvirus (ehv)-9, a new neurotropic equine herpesvirus serologically similar to ehv-1, during the first and third trimesters. the inoculated dams had mild to severe neurological signs and gave birth to dead fetuses or undersized pups. rats inoculated during the first and last trimesters had varying degrees of encephalitis as well as abnormalities of the placentas in the form of marked dilation of maternal blood sinusoids and varying degre ...201425304504
equine herpesvirus 1 myeloencephalopathy.equine myeloencephalopathy (ehm), an uncommon manifestation of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection, can cause devastating losses on individual farms, boarding stables, veterinary hospitals, and show and racing venues. an improved understanding of ehm has emerged from experimental studies and from data collected during field outbreaks at riding schools, racetracks, horse shows, and veterinary hospitals throughout north america and europe. these outbreaks have highlighted the contagious nature ...201425300635
autophagy in cultured murine neurons infected with equid herpesvirus this study we investigated the relationship of equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection to autophagy in primary culture of murine neurons. infection with both jan-e and rac-h strains of ehv-1 resulted in the formation of autophagosomes in the cytoplasm during early stages of infection, while in late stages of infection autophagosomes were mainly concentrated around the nucleus what suggests the induction of nuclear envelope-derived autophagy (neda). no significant effect of an authophagy inhibit ...201425283867
equine herpesvirus type 1 replication is delayed in cd172a+ monocytic cells and controlled by histone deacetylases.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) replicates in the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract and disseminates through the body via a cell-associated viraemia in monocytic cells, despite the presence of neutralizing antibodies. however, the mechanism by which ehv-1 hijacks immune cells and uses them as 'trojan horses' in order to disseminate inside its host is still unclear. here, we hypothesize that ehv-1 delays its replication in monocytic cells in order to avoid recognition by the immun ...201525239765
quantitative molecular viral loads in 7 horses with naturally occurring equine herpesvirus-1 associating quantitative viral load with severity, clinical signs and survival in equine herpesvirus-1 myeloencephalopathy (ehm) have not been reported.201525212737
characterisation of immune responses in healthy foals when a multivalent vaccine protocol was initiated at age 90 or 180 from infectious disease requires antigen-specific immunity. in foals, most vaccine protocols are delayed until 6 months to avoid maternal antibody interference. susceptibility to disease may exist prior to administration of vaccination at age 4-6 months.201525205445
intracellular localization of equine herpesvirus type 1 tegument protein vp22.intracellular localization of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) tegument protein vp22 was examined by using a plasmid that expressed vp22 fused with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp). also a recombinant ehv-1 expressing vp22 fused with a red fluorescent protein (mcherry) was constructed to observe the localization of vp22 in infected cells. when egfp-fused vp22 was overexpressed in the cells, vp22 localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus. live cell imaging suggested that the fluorescent ...201425192624
major histocompatibility complex class i downregulation induced by equine herpesvirus type 1 pul56 is through dynamin-dependent endocytosis.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) downregulates cell surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class i (mhc-i) in infected cells. we have previously shown that pul56 encoded by the ehv-1 orf1 gene regulates the process (g. ma, s. feineis, n. osterrieder, and g. r. van de walle, j. virol. 86:3554-3563, 2012, doi: here, we report that cell surface mhc-i in ehv-1-infected cells is internalized and degraded in the lysosomal compartment in a pul56- ...201425165105
efficacy of a parapoxvirus ovis-based immunomodulator against equine herpesvirus type 1 and streptococcus equi equi infections in horses.the efficacy of zylexis®, an immunomodulator in horses based on inactivated parapoxvirus ovis (ippvo), was assessed using an equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) challenge model in the presence of a natural infection with streptococcus equi equi (s. equi). eleven horses were treated with ippvo and twelve were kept as controls. six horses were challenged with ehv-1 and commingled with the horses on study. animals were dosed on days -2, 0 (just before commingling) and day 7. on day 11 significantly l ...201425153651
protective effects of intranasal immunization with recombinant glycoprotein d in pregnant balb/c mice challenged with different strains of equine herpesvirus 1.equine herpesvirus (ehv)-1 induces respiratory infection, neurological disorders and abortion in horses. most of the currently available attenuated or inactivated vaccines against this infection are administered intramuscularly and only provide partial protection against the respiratory disease. the present study examines the effect of intranasal immunization with purified ehv-1 recombinant glycoprotein d (gd) in balb/c mice followed by challenge with three different ehv-1 strains during early t ...201425124330
equine herpesvirus type 1 pul56 modulates innate responses of airway epithelial cells.recently, the product of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) orf1, a homolog to hsv-1 pul56, was shown to modulate mhc-i expression and innate immunity. here, we investigated modulation of respiratory epithelial immunity by ehv-1 pul56 and compared responses to those of pbmcs, which are important target cells that allow cell-associated ehv-1 viremia. the salient observations are as follows: (i) ehv-1 significantly down-modulated mhc-i and mhc-ii expression in equine respiratory epithelial cells (e ...201425046270
a severe equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) abortion outbreak caused by a neuropathogenic strain at a breeding farm in northern germany.a particularly severe equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) abortion outbreak occurred at a breeding farm in northern germany. sixteen of 25 pregnant mares that had received regular vaccination using an inactivated vaccine aborted and two gave birth to weak non-viable foals in a span of three months, with 89% of cases occurring within 40 days after the initial abortion case. virological examinations revealed the presence of ehv-1 in all cases of abortion and serological follow-up in mares confirmed ...201425042527
ubiquitination and degradation of the orf34 gene product of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) at late times of infection.the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) open reading frame 34 (orf34) is predicted to encode a polypeptide of 161 amino acids. we show that an orf34 deletion mutant exhibited a significant growth defect in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells taken directly ex vivo during early but not late times of infection. orf34 protein (porf34)-specific antibodies specifically reacted with a 28-kda early polypeptide present in the cytosol of infected cells. from 10h post infection, multiple smaller porf3 ...201425010266
full genome sequences of zebra-borne equine herpesvirus type 1 isolated from zebra, onager and thomson's gazelle.a strain of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was isolated from zebra. this strain, called "zebra-borne ehv-1", was also isolated from an onager and a gazelle in zoological gardens in u.s.a. the full genome sequences of the 3 strains were determined. they shared 99% identities with each other, while they shared 98% and 95% identities with the horse derived ehv-1 and equine herpesvirus type 9, respectively. sequence data indicated that the ehv-1 isolated from a polar bear in germany is one of the ...201424920546
successful control of winter pyrexias caused by equine herpesvirus type 1 in japanese training centers by achieving high vaccination coverage.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is a major cause of winter pyrexia in racehorses in two training centers (ritto and miho) in japan. until the epizootic period of 2008-2009, a vaccination program using a killed ehv-1 vaccine targeted only susceptible 3-year-old horses with low antibody levels to ehv-1 antigens. however, because the protective effect was not satisfactory, in 2009-2010 the vaccination program was altered to target all 3-year-old horses. to evaluate the vaccine's efficacy, we inve ...201424872513
immediate-early protein of equid herpesvirus type 1 as a target for cytotoxic t-lymphocytes in the thoroughbred horse.cytotoxic t-lymphocytes (ctls) are associated with protective immunity against disease caused by equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). however, the ehv-1 target proteins for ctls are poorly defined. this limits the development of vaccine candidates designed to stimulate strong ctl immunity. here, classical ctl assays using lymphocytes from horses of three defined mhc class i types that experienced natural infection with ehv-1 and a modified vaccinia virus construct containing an ehv-1 gene encoding ...201424836672
recombinant herpesvirus glycoprotein g improves the protective immune response to helicobacter pylori vaccination in a mouse model of disease.alphaherpesviruses, which have co-evolved with their hosts for more than 200 million years, evade and subvert host immune responses, in part, by expression of immuno-modulatory molecules. alphaherpesviruses express a single, broadly conserved chemokine decoy receptor, glycoprotein g (gg), which can bind multiple chemokine classes from multiple species, including human and mouse. previously, we demonstrated that infection of chickens with an infectious laryngotracheitis virus (iltv) mutant defici ...201424794215
production of equine herpesvirus 1 recombinant glycoprotein d and development of an agar gel immunodiffusion test for serological diagnosis.equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and 4) infect most of the world's horses, causing serious clinical illness. viral glycoproteins have been identified as the immunodominant antigens that generate the antiviral serological responses to ehv-1 and ehv-4 in infected horses. here, glycoprotein d of ehv-1 was expressed by a recombinant baculovirus, purified and evaluated by a simple agar gel immunodiffusion test (agid). compared with virus neutralization, serological analysis by agid showed good speci ...201424631347
epidemiology and reproductive outcomes of ehv-1 abortion epizootics in unvaccinated thoroughbred mares in south africa.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is one of the most common causes of infectious abortion in mares. analysing the demography of outbreaks and detailing subsequent reproductive performance of affected mares will assist in the management of future (threatened) epizootics.201524617603
development of a single-tube duplex evagreen real-time pcr for the detection and identification of ehv-1 and ehv-4.the objective of this study was to develop a novel evagreen (eg) based real-time pcr technique for the simultaneous detection of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) genomes from equine nasal swabs. viral genomes were identified based on their specific melting temperatures (t m), which are 88.0 and 84.4 °c for ehv-1 and ehv-4, respectively. the detection limitation of this method was 50 copies/μl or 0.15 pg/μl for ehv-1 and 5 copies/μl or 2.5 fg/μl for ehv-4. this assay ...201424615388
a review of equid herpesvirus 1 for the veterinary practitioner. part b: pathogenesis and epidemiology.equid herpesvirus (ehv) type 1 is a common pathogen of horses with worldwide distribution. infection with ehv-1 can be subclinical, or can result in sociologically and economically important outcomes such as abortion, neonatal death or neurological disease. the perceived recent increase in the reported cases of ehv-1 neurological disease in the united states of america and europe over the past decade has caused concerns amongst veterinarians and horse owners worldwide. this review provides an up ...201424597839
a review of equid herpesvirus 1 for the veterinary practitioner. part a: clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.equid herpesvirus (ehv) type 1 is a common pathogen of horses with worldwide distribution. although severe tracheobronchitis has been described in some field outbreaks of ehv-1 respiratory disease, many ehv-1 infections occur asymptomatically or are accompanied only by signs of mild respiratory disease. however, ehv-1 infection can also result in outcomes other than respiratory disease such as abortion, neonatal death or neurological disease. this review provides an overview of the diagnosis, tr ...201424597778
innate immune responses of airway epithelial cells to infection with equine herpesvirus-1.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is the cause of respiratory disease, abortion and myelitis in horses worldwide. protection following infection or vaccination is typically incomplete and this lack of protective immunity is thought to be due to the immunomodulatory properties of ehv-1. ehv-1 immune modulation is likely initiated early in the infection cycle at the respiratory epithelium, but to date, immunity to ehv-1 at the epithelial cell barrier remains poorly characterized. thus, the purpose of t ...201424560592
zebra-borne equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection in non-african captive mammals.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was detected in an indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis), which was euthanized because of severe neurological disease. encephalitis was suspected and ehv-1 dna was detected in brain, lung, and spleen tissues. the viral ir6 protein was detected in lung tissues by western blot analysis. phylogenetic analyses of ehv-1 sequences amplified from various tissues was nearly identical to one recently described that resulted in both non-fatal and fatal encephalitis in ...201424440374
equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) open reading frame 59 encodes an early protein that is localized to the cytosol and required for efficient virus growth.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) orf59 is predicted to encode a protein consisting of 180 amino acids. to determine whether orf59 in fact encodes a protein, sequences encoding an ha epitope (ypydvpdya) was inserted at the carboxyterminus of the orf59 protein in ehv-1 strain ab4. using anti-ha monoclonal antibodies, a 21-kda band was specifically detected by western blot analysis in lysates of cells infected with a recombinant ehv-1 from strain ab4 that carries the porf59-ha but not in cells inf ...201424418561
the ehv-1 ul4 protein that tempers viral gene expression interacts with cellular transcription factors.the ul4 gene is conserved within the genome of defective interfering particles of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) that mediate persistent infection. here, we show that the ul4 protein inhibits ehv-1 reporter gene expression by decreasing the level of transcribed mrna. the ul4 protein did not bind any gene class of ehv-1 promoters in electromobility or chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, but directly interacted with the tata box-binding protein (tbp) and the carboxy-terminal domain of rna pol ...201424418534
comparing the genetic diversity of orf30 of australian isolates of 3 equid alphaherpesviruses.a single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) has been previously associated with ehv-1 neurological disease in several countries around the world. this disease is very uncommon in australia and little information is available about the presence of this snp in australian ehv-1 isolates. the orf30 sequence of 66 australian ehv-1 isolates was determined and the genotype was compared to the disease manifestation of the case from which the virus was isolated. of the 66 isolates, 61 were from cases of abort ...201424418044
equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1)-induced rearrangements of actin filaments in productively infected primary murine neurons.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) causes respiratory disease, abortion and neurological disorders in horses. in the present study, we investigated reorganization of the cytoskeleton in neurons infected with two ehv-1 strains: jan-e (wild-type strain) and rac-h (attenuated strain). the studies were performed on primary murine neurons, which are an excellent model for studying neurotropism and neurovirulence of ehv-1. we have demonstrated for the first time that ehv-1 infection causes rearrangemen ...201424352436
novel molecular determinants of viral susceptibility and resistance in the lipidome of emiliania huxleyi.viruses play a key role in controlling the population dynamics of algae, including emiliania huxleyi, a globally distributed haptophyte with calcite coccoliths that comprise ca. 50% of the sinking carbonate flux from the surface ocean. emiliania huxleyi viruses (ehvs) routinely infect and terminate e. huxleyi blooms. ehvs are surrounded by a lipid envelope, which we found to be comprised largely of glycosphingolipids (gsls) with lesser amounts of polar glycerolipids. infection appears to involve ...201424330049
experimental infection with equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) induces chorioretinal lesions.equine herpesvirus myeloencephalitis (ehm) remains one of the most devastating manifestations of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection but our understanding of its pathogenesis remains rudimentary, partly because of a lack of adequate experimental models. ehv-1 infection of the ocular vasculature may offer an alternative model as ehv-1-induced chorioretinopathy appears to occur in a significant number of horses, and the pathogenesis of ehm and ocular ehv-1 may be similar. to investigate th ...201324308772
first report on equine herpesvirus type 4 isolation in poland--evaluation of diagnostic tools.upper respiratory tract infections are still a serious problem in breeding and racing horses. the most common virological factors are ehv1 and ehv4, which are both a major cause of secondary infections. high ehv4 seroprevalence in polish horses indicates a high transmission rate of this pathogen among horses and increases the need for proper diagnostics. the aim of this study was to develop a reliable laboratory diagnostic scheme for upper respiratory tract infections and to describe the first i ...201324195284
role of equine herpesviruses as co-infecting agents in cases of abortion, placental disease and neonatal foal mortality.herpesviral infections frequently occur in horses. the objective of this study was to investigate the possible association of equine herpesviruses (ehv-1, ehv-2, ehv-3, ehv-4, ehv-5) with other causes of abortion, neonatal mortality or placental disorder. sixty-seven abortions, 22 stillbirths, 14 cases of neonatal foal mortality and 3 cases of placental disease were investigated for infectious and non-infectious causes. type-specific nested pcr assays and virus isolation were performed to detect ...201324052369
development of a peptide elisa for discrimination between serological responses to equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4.a peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for discrimination between serological responses to equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and 4 (ehv-4) was developed. three and four peptides for ehv-1 and ehv-4, respectively, were designed and studied initially in the elisa using sera from foals infected experimentally. the most promising peptide pair, derived from ehv-1 glycoprotein e and ehv-4 glycoprotein g, was evaluated further using acute and convalescent sera from horses infected ex ...201323928223
equine herpesviruses type 1 (ehv-1) and 4 (ehv-4)--masters of co-evolution and a constant threat to equids and beyond.the equine herpesviruses type 1 (ehv-1) and 4 (ehv-4) are ubiquitous pathogens that affect horse populations on all continents. despite widespread vaccination, ehv-1 and ehv-4 infections remain a permanent risk. while the two viruses share a high degree of genetic and antigenic similarity, they differ significantly in host range and pathogenicity. compared to ehv-4, which mainly infects horses and causes respiratory disease, ehv-1 has a broader host range and can result in respiratory disease, a ...201323890672
effects of equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) ar8 and hh1 strains on balb-c, we used a murine model to describe and compare the pathogenic potential of the argentinean equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) ar8 strain with the japanese hh1 reference strain. in ar8-inoculated animals, clinical signs began earlier, but the viremic phase was shorter. virus isolation and dna detection in the lungs, liver and spleen were positive for both strains at different times postinfection (pi). infection foci produced by both strains were immunohistochemically detected in lungs from day 1 t ...201423851654
equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) nucleotide polymorphism determination using formalin fixed tissues in ehv-1 induced abortions and myelopathies with real-time pcr and pyrosequencing.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) strains with a single point mutation at the 2254 nucleotide position with a g2254 constitution within the dna polymerase gene are associated strongly with equine myeloencephalopathies. infections with non-neuropathogenic ehv-1 strains without the g2254 nucleotide but with an a2254 nucleotide are associated less frequently with equine neurologic disease. a retrospective study utilizing dna extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues was conducted with real ...201323850701
characterization of glycoproteins in equine this study, we attempted to express twelve glycoproteins of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) in 293t cells and to characterize these using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) and horse sera against ehv-1. expression of glycoprotein b (gb), gc, gd, gg, gi and gp2 was recognized by immunoblot analysis using horse sera, but that of ge, gh, gk, gl, gm and gn was not. four mabs recognized gb, four recognized gc and one recognized gp2. two mabs against gb cross-reacted with ehv-4. interestingly, coexpression ...201323748975
development of a focus-reduction neutralizing test for detecting equine herpesvirus type-1-neutralizing antibodies.virus-neutralizing (vn) testing is essential for evaluating virus-specific immunity in equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) infection. we developed a focus-reduction neutralization test (frnt) for ehv-1 using 96-well plates for faster large-scale testing with sufficient sensitivity. we used an overlay medium containing avicel (fmc biopolymer), a microcrystalline cellulose with lower viscosity than the methylcellulose. the foci were visualized by immuno-staining with anti-ehv-1 gp14 monoclonal antib ...201323595119
glycoprotein h and α4β1 integrins determine the entry pathway of alphaherpesviruses.herpesviruses enter cells either by direct fusion at the plasma membrane or from within endosomes, depending on the cell type and receptor(s). we investigated two closely related herpesviruses of horses, equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and ehv-4, for which the cellular and viral determinants routing virus entry are unknown. we show that ehv-1 enters equine epithelial cells via direct fusion at the plasma membrane, while ehv-4 does so via an endocytic pathway, which is dependent on dynamin ii, ...201323514881
clinical observations and management of a severe equine herpesvirus type 1 outbreak with abortion and encephalomyelitis.latent equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection is common in horse populations worldwide and estimated to reach a prevalence nearing 90% in some areas. the virus causes acute outbreaks of disease that are characterized by abortion and sporadic cases of myeloencephalopathy (ehm), both severe threats to equine facilities. different strains vary in their abortigenic and neuropathogenic potential and the simultaneous occurrence of ehm and abortion is rare. in this report, we present clinical obse ...201323497661
equine herpesvirus type 1 infection induces procoagulant activity in equine monocytes.the alphaherpesvirus, equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), is a highly prevalent cause of equine infectious abortion and encephalomyelopathy. these syndromes have been attributed to ischemic necrosis from thrombosis in placental and neural vessels, although the mechanisms underlying thrombosis are unknown. after inhalation, ehv-1 establishes a peripheral blood mononuclear cell-associated viremia, with monocytes being a target of infection. monocytes are also the main source of tissue factor (tf) i ...201323497076
identification of a major immunogenic region of equine herpesvirus-1 glycoprotein e and its application to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a major immunogenic region of equine herpesvirus (ehv)-1 glycoprotein e (ge) was identified. firstly, the various fragments of ehv-1 ge were expressed as fusion proteins with glutathione s-transferase (gst) in escherichia coli and their antigenicities were compared by immunoblot analysis using sera from horses experimentally infected with ehv-1. thirty-three amino acids of ge (a.a. 169-201) specifically and sensitively reacted with the antibodies induced by ehv-1 but not ehv-4 infection. the cor ...201323434015
a survey of respiratory viruses in new zealand determine which viruses circulate among selected populations of new zealand horses and whether or not viral infections were associated with development of respiratory disease.201323425354
case-control study of a multistate equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy outbreak.a large multistate outbreak of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm) occurred in may 2011 among horses that participated in a competitive event.201623398291
effects of different anesthetics in the murine model of ehv-1 infection.mice are commonly used as an experimental model to investigate the equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection. this model easily reproduces the disease, and the clinical signs are more or less similar to those observed in the horse, the natural host. during natural infection, the acute course of respiratory infection is mandatory for the development of adaptive immune response. since interactions between ehv-1 and anesthetics are possible, the study investigated whether the early events of murine pul ...201323381927
evaluation of metaphylactic rna interference to prevent equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in experimental herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in evaluate metaphylactic rna interference to prevent equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection in experimental herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in horses and to determine whether horses infected with a neuropathogenic strain of the virus that develop equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm) have differences in viremia.201323363350
molecular cloning and characterization of the pseudorabies virus us1 gene.using polymerase chain reaction, a 1050-bp sequence of the us1 gene was amplified from the pseudorabies virus (prv) becker strain genome; identification of the us1 gene was confirmed by further cloning and sequencing. bioinformatics analysis indicated that the prv us1 gene encodes a putative polypeptide with 349 amino acids. the encoded protein, designated picp22, had a conserved herpes_ie68 domain, which was found to be closely related with the herpes virus immediate early regulatory protein fa ...201323359028
recombinant equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) vaccine protects pigs against challenge with influenza a(h1n1)pmd09.swine influenza virus (siv) is not only an important respiratory pathogen in pigs but also a threat to human health. the pandemic influenza a(h1n1)pdm09 virus likely originated in swine through reassortment between a north american triple reassortant and eurasian avian-like siv. the north american triple reassortant virus harbors genes from avian, human and swine influenza viruses. an effective vaccine may protect the pork industry from economic losses and curb the development of new virus varia ...201323333290
the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid enhances equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1)-mediated oncolysis of human glioma cells.histone deacetylase (hdac) inhibitors represent a promising new therapy against malignant glioma. when used in conjunction with oncolytic viral vectors, these compounds have been shown to augment virotherapy. in the current study, we examined the antitumor effect of combining the lytic animal virus equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) with the hdac inhibitor valproic acid (vpa). pretreatment of two human glioblastoma cell lines (u251 and snb19) with vpa resulted in a significant increase in virus e ...201323306611
pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir and valganciclovir in the adult horse.equine herpes myeloencephalopathy, resulting from equine herpes virus type 1 (ehv-1) infection, is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in the horse. as compared to other antiviral drugs, such as acyclovir, ganciclovir has enhanced potency against ehv-1. this study investigated the pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir and its oral prodrug, valganciclovir, in six adult horses in a randomized cross-over design. ganciclovir sodium was administered intravenously as a slow bolus at a dose o ...201323301502
improving a complement-fixation test for equine herpesvirus type-1 by pretreating sera with potassium periodate to reduce non-specific hemolysis.non-specific hemolysis has often been observed during complement-fixation (cf) tests for equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1), even when the sera have virus-specific cf antibodies. this phenomenon has also been reported in cf tests for various infectious diseases of swine. we found that the sera from 22 of 85 field horses (25.9%) showed non-specific hemolysis during conventional cf testing for ehv-1. because pretreatment of swine sera with potassium periodate (kio4) improves the cf test for swine i ...201324834005
influence of importin alpha/beta and exportin 1 on equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) replication in primary murine neurons.viruses replicating in the nucleus need to cross the nuclear membrane barrier during infection, therefore disruption of specific nuclear transport pathways is crucial for their replication cycle. in the present study we have investigated the influence of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport inhibitors -- ivermectin and leptomycin b, on ehv-1 replication in primary murine neurons. obtained results suggest that the examined proteins -- exportin 1 and importin alpha/beta may participate, but are not requir ...201324597312
complete genome sequence of equine herpesvirus type 9.equine herpesvirus type 9 (ehv-9), which we isolated from a case of epizootic encephalitis in a herd of thomson's gazelles (gazella thomsoni) in 1993, has been known to cause fatal encephalitis in thomson's gazelle, giraffe, and polar bear in natural infections. our previous report indicated that ehv-9 was similar to the equine pathogen equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), which mainly causes abortion, respiratory infection, and equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy. we determined the genome sequ ...201223166237
assessing the role of caspase activity and metacaspase expression on viral susceptibility of the coccolithophore, emiliania huxleyi (haptophyta).as part of their strategy to infect the globally important coccolithophore, emiliania huxleyi (lohmann) w.w. hay & h.p. mohler, coccolithoviruses trigger and regulate the host's programmed cell death (pcd) machinery during lytic infection. the induction and recruitment of host metacaspases, specialized, ancestral death proteases that facilitate viral lysis, suggests they may be important subcellular determinants to infection. we examined the "basal" levels and patterns of caspase activity and me ...201227011269
venereal shedding of equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) in naturally infected stallions.equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is a highly prevalent pathogen in horse populations worldwide. oronasal infection represents the classic route of disease transmission. venereal shedding of ehv-1 is not regarded relevant in terms of virus spreading, which is in contrast to the close relatives of ehv-1, bovine and suid alphaherpesvirus, for which artificial insemination is a well-documented and accepted means of virus spread.201622947047
strain impact on equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) abortion models: viral loads in fetal and placental tissues and foals.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) continues to cause both sporadic and epidemic abortions despite extensive vaccination. lack of progress in the development of protective vaccines may be hindered by the lack of equine abortion models that employ contemporary ehv-1 strains. the objective of our experiments was to compare a contemporary ehv-1 strain with a previously described challenge strain, and to quantify ehv-1 loads in various maternal and fetal tissues. infection experiments were performed in tw ...201222944628
the role of glycoprotein h of equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) in cellular host range and integrin binding.equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) glycoprotein h (gh) has been hypothesized to play a role in direct fusion of the virus envelope with cellular membranes. to investigate gh's role in infection, an ehv-1 mutant lacking gh was created and the gh genes were exchanged between ehv-1 and ehv-4 to determine if gh affects cellular entry and/or host range. in addition, a serine-aspartic acid-isoleucine (sdi) integrin-binding motif present in ehv-1 gh was mutated as it was presumed importa ...201222909178
the role of secreted glycoprotein g of equine herpesvirus type 1 and type 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) in immune modulation and virulence.equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) are important pathogens of horses worldwide. infection with ehv-4 usually remains restricted to the upper respiratory tract, whereas infection with ehv-1 can generalize after leukocyte-associated viremia. here we examined whether differences in the immunomodulatory glycoprotein g (gg) between the two viruses determine ehv-1's ability to cause systemic infection. to this end, mutant viruses were constructed based on the neurovirulent ehv-1 strain ...201222902480
third international havemeyer workshop on equine herpesvirus type 1. 201222888774
identification of conserved amino acids in the herpes simplex virus type 1 ul8 protein required for dna synthesis and ul52 primase interaction in the virus replisome.we have used oris-dependent transient replication assays to search for species-specific interactions within the herpes simplex virus replisome. hybrid replisomes derived from herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) failed to support dna replication in cells. moreover, the replisomes showed a preference for their cognate origin of replication. the results demonstrate that the herpesvirus replisome behaves as a molecular machine relying on functionally important i ...201222851167
deletion of the ul4 gene sequence of equine herpesvirus 1 precludes the generation of defective interfering particles.serial, high multiplicity passage of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) leads to the generation of defective interfering particles (dip). ehv-1 dip inhibit and interfere with the replication of standard ehv-1, establishing a state of persistent infection. these dip package severely truncated and rearranged forms of the standard viral genome. contained within the dip genome are only three genes: ul3, ul4, and a unique hybrid gene (hyb). the hybrid gene forms through a recombination event that fuses por ...201222752566
serum iron parameters and acute experimental ehv-1 infection in horses.research in humans has demonstrated that high serum iron (sfe) concentration can predispose to infection, and many infections subsequently result in alterations of host sfe. a decrease in sfe concentration is an early and sensitive indicator of systemic inflammation caused by tissue necrosis, bacterial infections, or endotoxemia in horses. serum iron parameters in acute equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection have not been evaluated previously.201622748124
equine herpesvirus-1: what are we still missing? 201222738739
the early ul31 gene of equine herpesvirus 1 encodes a single-stranded dna-binding protein that has a nuclear localization signal sequence at the c-terminus.the amino acid sequence of the ul31 protein (ul31p) of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) has homology to that of the icp8 of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1). here we show that the ul31 gene is synergistically trans-activated by the iep and the ul5p (eicp27). detection of the ul31 rna transcript and the ul31p in ehv-1-infected cells at 6h post-infection (hpi) as well as metabolic inhibition assays indicated that ul31 is an early gene. the ul31p preferentially bound to single-stranded dna over doub ...201222721961
the xcelligence system for real-time and label-free analysis of neuronal and dermal cell response to equine herpesvirus type 1 infection.real-time cell electronic sensing (rt-ces) based on impedance measurements is an emerging technology for analyzing the status of cells in vitro. it allows label-free, real time monitoring of the biological status of cells. the present study was designed to assess dynamic data on the cell processes during equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection of ed (equine dermal) cells and primary murine neuronal cell culture. we have demonstrated that the xcelligence system with dynamic monitoring can be ...201222708370
serological responses and clinical outcome after vaccination of mares and foals with equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) vaccines.equine herpesvirus type 1 and type 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) cause infections of horses worldwide. while both ehv-1 and ehv-4 cause respiratory disease, abortion and myeloencephalopathy are observed after infection with ehv-1 in the vast majority of cases. disease control is achieved by hygiene measures that include immunization with either inactivated or modified live virus (mlv) vaccine preparations. we here compared the efficacy of commercially available vaccines, an ehv-1/ehv-4 inactivated combina ...201222633483
vascular mineralization in the brain of horses.vascular mineralization (siderocalcinosis) in the brain of horses has been usually assumed to be an incidental age-related finding with no clinic significance. in the present study, eight 15-32-year-old horses of different breeds with cerebral siderocalcinosis were studied. four of these horses had acute and severe central nervous system clinical signs of unknown etiology, 2 horses had neurological signs of known cause, and 2 horses did not have neurological signs. gross examination of the brain ...201222529137
expression of late viral proteins is restricted in nasal mucosal leucocytes but not in epithelial cells during early-stage equine herpes virus-1 infection.equine herpes virus (ehv)-1 replicates in the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract and reaches the lamina propria and bloodstream in infected mononuclear cells. this study evaluated expression of the late viral proteins gb, gc, gd and gm in respiratory epithelial and mononuclear cells using: (1) epithelial-like rabbit kidney cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with ehv-1 in vitro; (2) an equine ex vivo nasal explant system; and (3) nasal mucosa tissue of ponies infec ...201222425309
development of a bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) recombineering procedure using galk-untranslated region (utr) for the mutation of diploid genes.bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) recombineering using galk selection allows dna cloned in escherichia coli to be modified without introducing an unwanted selectable marker at the modification site. genomes of some herpesviruses have a pair of inverted repeat sequences that makes it very difficult to introduce mutations into diploid (duplicate) genes using the galk selection method. to mutate diploid genes, we developed a galk-utr bac recombineering procedure that blocks one copy of the targ ...201222407056
prevalence of latent alpha-herpesviruses in thoroughbred racing horses.the objective of this study was to detect and characterize latent equine herpes virus (ehv)-1 and -4 from the submandibular (smln) and bronchial lymph (bln) nodes, as well as from the trigeminal ganglia (tg) of 70 racing thoroughbred horses submitted for necropsy following sustaining serious musculoskeletal injuries while racing. a combination of nucleic acid precipitation and pre-amplification steps was used to increase analytical sensitivity. tissues were deemed positive for latent ehv-1 and/o ...201222405721
apoptotic and necrotic changes in cultured murine neurons infected with equid herpesvirus 1.equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), like other members of the alphaherpesvirinae, is a neurotropic virus, that causes latent infections in the nervous system of the natural host. all alphaherpesviruses have developed sophisticated strategies to interfere with the host cell apoptotic mechanisms, but the ability of ehv-1 to induce apoptosis in neurons has not been determined yet. in this study, apoptotic and necrotic changes in cultured murine neurons were methods identifying key stages of apoptosis. the ...201222404608
Displaying items 1201 - 1300 of 1327