TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
equine herpesvirus-1 infected peripheral blood mononuclear cell subpopulations during viremia.infection with equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) causes respiratory disease, late term abortions and equine herpesvirus myeloencephalitis (ehm) and remains an important problem in horses worldwide. despite increasing outbreaks of ehm in recent years, our understanding of ehm pathogenesis is still limited except for the knowledge that a cell-associated viremia in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) is a critical link between primary respiratory ehv-1 infection and secondary complications such a ...201021093993
induction of a th-1-biased igg subclass response against equine herpesvirus type 1 in horses previously infected with type 4 immunoglobulin g (igg) subclass response against equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection was investigated in horses that were naïve to ehv-1/4 and those that had previously been exposed to ehv-4. the igg subclass response was determined by an elisa using ehv-1-specific recombinant gg protein as an antigen. in most horses naïve to ehv-1/4, igga, iggb, and igg(t) were induced after experimental infection with ehv-1. in contrast, a subclass response dominated by igga and iggb, with no appare ...201021139350
in vitro assessment of the antiviral potential of trans-cinnamic acid, quercetin and morin against equid herpesvirus 1.the antiviral activity of quercetin, morin and trans-cinnamic acid was evaluated in vitro against equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) by determining the virucidal activity and using the time of addition assay to test inhibition of the viral replication cycle. the cytotoxicity of each substance was assessed using mtt [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide]. quercetin showed virucidal action and inhibition of the viral replication cycle at 0 and 1h. morin showed potential virucidal ...201021159355
fatal epizootic equine herpesvirus 1 infections in new and unnatural a zoological collection, four black bears (ursus americanus) died from neurological disease within six months. independently in a geographically different zoo, two thomson's gazelles (eudorcas thomsoni) and 18 guinea pigs (cavia porcellus f. dom.) suffered from neurological disorders. in addition, guinea pigs showed abortions and stillbirths. all affected animals displayed a non suppurative meningoencephalitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies. immunohistology demonstrated equine herpes viru ...201021167662
properties of an equine herpesvirus 1 mutant devoid of the internal inverted repeat sequence of the genomic short region.the 150 kbp genome of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is composed of a unique long (ul) region and a unique short (us) segment, which is flanked by identical internal and terminal repeat (ir and tr) sequences of 12.7 kbp. we constructed an ehv-1 lacking the entire ir (vl11δir) and showed that the ir is dispensable for ehv-1 replication but that the vl11δir exhibits a smaller plaque size and delayed growth kinetics. western blot analyses of cells infected with vl11δir showed that the synthesis of vi ...201021176938
surveillance of equine respiratory viruses in ontario.the objective of this project was to develop and implement an active surveillance program for the early and rapid detection of equine influenza viruses in ontario. for this purpose, from october 2003 to october 2005, nasopharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from 115 client-owned horses in 23 outbreaks of respiratory disease in ontario. sera were paired and tested for antibody to equine influenza 1 (ae1-h7n7), equine influenza 2 (ae2-h3n8), equine herpesvirus 1 ...201021197227
the effect of sirna treatment on experimental equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection in horses.available vaccines fail to induce lasting and protective immunity to equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) associated diseases. rna interference is a novel approach showing promise for therapeutic use in outbreak situations. this study examined the effect of small interfering rna (sirna) on clinical signs as well as the presence of live virus and viral dna in nasal secretions and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) in horses experimentally infected with ehv-1. sirna targeting two ehv-1 genes (glyc ...201019896512
a vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) vaccine elicits protective immune responses against ehv-1 and h3n8 equine influenza virus.vaccination is commonly used to control equine respiratory pathogens such as equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and equine influenza virus (eiv). here, we describe the generation and characterization of a recombinant ehv-1 modified live virus vaccine (mlv) based on a recent abortogenic ehv-1 strain, ny03. the immunogenicity and efficacy of the mlv was tested in horses in an ehv-1 vaccination/challenge experiment using the highly virulent neurovirulent ehv-1 strain oh03. induction of a robust ehv- ...201019897066
equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) utilizes microtubules, dynein, and rock1 to productively infect initiate infection, equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) attaches to heparan sulfate on cell surfaces and then interacts with a putative glycoprotein d receptor(s). after attachment, virus entry occurs either by direct fusion of the virus envelope with the plasma membrane or via endocytosis followed by fusion between the virus envelope and an endosomal membrane. upon fusion, de-enveloped virus particles are deposited into the cytoplasm and travel to the nucleus for viral replication. in this rep ...201019713056
herpesviruses--a zoonotic threat?herpesviruses are highly host specific and share a long synchronous evolution with their hosts. only in rare cases, species barriers fall and allow animal to human or human to animal transmission. among the zoonotic herpesviruses, cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 is the most significant and can be transmitted from macaques to human. conversely, human herpesvirus 1 is capable of causing severe disease in primates. besides those two examples, there are several herpesviruses with a certainly limited or ...201019616388
equine major histocompatibility complex class i molecules act as entry receptors that bind to equine herpesvirus-1 glycoprotein d.the endotheliotropism of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) leads to encephalomyelitis secondary to vasculitis and thrombosis in the infected horse central nervous system (cns). to identify the host factors involved in ehv-1 infection of cns endothelial cells, we performed functional cloning using an equine brain microvascular endothelial cell cdna library. exogenous expression of equine major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i heavy chain genes conferred susceptibility to ehv-1 infection in mou ...201121306483
evaluation of immune responses following infection of ponies with an ehv-1 orf1/2 deletion mutant.abstract: equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection remains a significant problem despite the widespread use of vaccines. the inability to generate a protective immune response to ehv-1 vaccination or infection is thought to be due to immunomodulatory properties of the virus, and the orf1 and orf2 gene products have been hypothesized as potential candidates with immunoregulatory properties. a pony infection study was performed to define immune responses to ehv-1, and to determine if an ehv-1 orf1/2 ...201121314906
the ul4 protein of equine herpesvirus 1 is not essential for replication or pathogenesis and inhibits gene expression controlled by viral and heterologous promoters.defective interfering particles (dip) of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) inhibit standard virus replication and mediate persistent infection. the dip genome is comprised of only three genes: ul3, ul4, and a hybrid gene composed of portions of the ir4 (eicp22) and ul5 (eicp27) genes. the hybrid gene is important for dip interference, but the function(s) of the ul3 and ul4 genes are unknown. here, we show that ul4 is an early gene activated solely by the immediate early protein. the ul4 protein (ul4p ...201121324502
equine herpesvirus type-1 modulates ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, cxcl9, and cxcl10 chemokine expression.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is highly prevalent in horses and causes rhinopneumonitis, abortion, and encephalopathy. studies on the related human herpes simplex virus and of murine models of ehv-1 suggest that chemokines play important roles in coordinating of innate and adaptive immune responses, and thus effective control of herpesvirus infection and prevention of severe clinical disease. here, equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) were infected with one of three ehv-1 strains ...201121349590
detection of neuropathogenic strains of equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) associated with abortions in germany.a single nucleotide polymorphism within ehv-1 gene orf 30, which encodes for the viral dna polymerase, allows the differentiation of the neuropathogenic (g2254) from non-neuropathogenic genotype (a2254). the aim of our study was to investigate the distribution of the neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic genotype of ehv-1 isolates associated with abortions in germany. to determine the nucleotide sequence at the polymorphic site the amplification product of orf 30 gene specific nested pcr was d ...201120619972
tenacity of mammalian viruses in the gut of leeches fed with porcine blood.leech therapy is currently considered to be of high therapeutic value in medicine. however, feeding leeches with fresh animal blood during the maintenance and reproduction phase bears the risk of transmission of zoonotic viruses to the patient. we hypothesize that this would be abolished by subjecting leeches to quarantine measures prior to use. the required duration of quarantine would depend on the maximum survival time of pathogens in contaminated leeches. in order to be able to estimate this ...201121372183
genomic study of argentinean equid herpesvirus 1 strains.equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection has a signifcant economic impact on equine production, causing abortion, respiratory disease, neonatal death and neurological disorders. the identifcation of specifc ehv-1 genes related to virulence and pathogenicity has been the aim of several research groups. the purpose of the present study was to analyze different genomic regions of argentinean ehv-1 strains and to determine their possible relationship with virulence or clinical signs. twenty-fve ehv-1 a ...201122274825
first detection of the equine herpesvirus 1 neuropathogenic variant in brazil.this report describes the first detection of an equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) neuropathogenic variant (g2254/d752) in brazil from a case of fatal equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm) in a mare. the results of nucleotide sequencing of the ehv-1 orf30 gene showed that two other brazilian ehv-1 isolates from ehm cases are representatives of the non-neuropathogenic variant (a2254/n752), suggesting that other unidentified factors are probably also involved in the neuropathogenicity of ehv-1 in ...201122435205
serological survey of equine viral diseases in mongolia.three hundred sera were collected from horses in various parts of mongolia in 2007 and seroepidemiological surveys for several equine viruses performed on them. equid herpesvirus 1 and equine rhinitis a virus were prevalent, and equine arteritis virus and equid herpesvirus 3 were detected over a wide area though their rates of antibody-positivity were not high. equine infectious anemia was distributed locally. the rates of horses antibody-positive for japanese encephalitis virus and equine influ ...201121447048
development of an antigen-capture elisa for the detection of equine influenza virus antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ac-elisa) was developed for the detection of the equine influenza virus (eiv), employing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against the a/equine/xingjiang/2007 (h3n8) nucleoprotein (np). immunoglobulin g antibodies were purified and used as capture or detector antibodies. the specificity of the optimized ac-elisa was evaluated using eiv, equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4), equine arteritis virus (eav) and japanese en ...201121536075
equine alphaherpesviruses (ehv-1 and ehv-4) differ in their efficiency to infect mononuclear cells during early steps of infection in nasal mucosal explants.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) replicates extensively in the epithelium of the upper respiratory tract, after which it can spread throughout the body via a cell-associated viremia in mononuclear leukocytes reaching the pregnant uterus and central nervous system. in a previous study, we were able to mimic the in vivo situation in an in vitro respiratory mucosal explant system. a plaquewise spread of ehv-1 was observed in the epithelial cells, whereas in the connective tissue below the basement ...201121536394
direct detection of equine herpesvirus type 1 dna in nasal swabs by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp).we evaluated loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) as a means of detecting equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) dna directly from nasal swabs. to increase the sensitivity, we added a step in which the samples were heat-treated to the original lamp procedure. the detection limit of the lamp assay with heat treatment was 10 times more sensitive than the original lamp assay even when the dna extraction step was omitted. in addition, the lamp assay with heat treatment was more sensitive than th ...201121551979
an equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) vectored h1 vaccine protects against challenge with swine-origin influenza virus 2009, a novel swine-origin h1n1 influenza a virus (s-oiv), antigenically and genetically divergent from seasonal h1n1, caused a flu pandemic in humans. development of an effective vaccine to limit transmission of s-oiv in animal reservoir hosts and from reservoir hosts to humans and animals is necessary. in the present study, we constructed and evaluated a vectored vaccine expressing the h1 hemagglutinin of a recent s-oiv isolate using equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) as the delivery vehicle. exp ...201121803510
identification of functional domains of the ir2 protein of equine herpesvirus 1 required for inhibition of viral gene expression and replication.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) negative regulatory ir2 protein (ir2p), an early 1,165-amino acid (aa) truncated form of the 1487-aa immediate-early protein (iep), lacks the trans-activation domain essential for iep activation functions but retains domains for binding dna, tfiib, and tbp and the nuclear localization signal. ir2p mutants of the n-terminal region which lack either dna-binding activity or tfiib-binding activity were unable to down-regulate ehv-1 promoters. in ehv-1-infected cells ...201121794889
infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type-1 strain ab4 reveals intact interferon-a induction and induces suppression of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 responses in comparison to other viral strains.the recent increase in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of neurological disease induced by equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) has suggested a change of virulence of the virus. the exact mechanisms by which ehv-1 induces neurologic disease are not known. environmental, viral, and host risk factors might contribute to neurological manifestation. here, we investigated innate interferon-a (ifn-a), interleukin-10 (il-10) and il-4 responses after infection of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cell ...201121764140
structural and functional analysis of the tap-inhibiting ul49.5 proteins of varicelloviruses.viral infections are counteracted by virus-specific cytotoxic t cells that recognize the infected cell via mhc class i (mhc i) molecules presenting virus-derived peptides. the loading of the peptides onto mhc i molecules occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (er) and is facilitated by the peptide loading complex. a key player in this complex is the transporter associated with antigen processing (tap), which translocates the viral peptides from the cytosol into the er. herpesviruses have developed ...201121764135
prevalence of equine herpesvirus type 1 strains of neuropathogenic genotype in a major breeding area of japan.a single non-synonymous nucleotide substitution of guanine (g) for adenine (a) at position 2254 in the viral dna polymerase gene (encoded by open reading frame [orf] 30) of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) has been significantly associated with neuropathogenic potential in strains of this virus. to estimate the prevalence of ehv-1 strains with the neuropathogenic genotype (orf30 g(2254)) in the hidaka district-a major horse breeding area in japan-we analyzed the orf30 genomic region in cases of ...201121828961
molecular data of ul24 homolog gene (orf37) from brazilian isolates of equine herpesvirus type 1.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is associated with abortions, respiratory distress, and neurological disturbances in horses. the orf37 of ehv-1 encodes a protein homolog to ul24 gene product of human herpesvirus that has been associated with neurovirulence. in the present work, orf37 pcr fragments derived from two brazilian ehv-1 isolates, a german isolate and an american reference strain were sequenced and characterized by molecular phylogenetic analysis. this genomic region is highly conserv ...201121684566
surveillance programme for important equine infectious respiratory pathogens in the usa.the prevalence and epidemiology of important viral (equine influenza virus [eiv], equine herpesvirus type 1 [ehv-1] and ehv-4) and bacterial (streptococcus equi subspecies equi) respiratory pathogens shed by horses presented to equine veterinarians with upper respiratory tract signs and/or acute febrile neurological disease were studied. veterinarians from throughout the usa were enrolled in a surveillance programme and were asked to collect blood and nasal secretions from equine cases with acut ...201121676986
equid herpesvirus type-1 exhibits neurotropism and neurovirulence in a mouse model.intranasal inoculation of equid herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) brazilian strains a4/72 and a9/92 induced an acute and lethal infection in four different inbred mouse strains. clinical and neurological signs appeared between the 2nd and 3rd day post inoculation (dpi) and included weight loss, ruffled fur, a hunched posture, crouching in corners, nasal and ocular discharges, dyspnoea, dehydration and increased salivation. these signs were followed by increased reactivity to external stimulation, seizu ...201121689826
absence of equid herpesvirus-1 reactivation and viremia in hospitalized critically ill horses.equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) reactivation and shedding can occur in latently infected, asymptomatic animals. risk factors for reactivation include stress and illness. the risk of asymptomatic shedding in hospitalized, critically ill horses with acute abdominal disease is unknown. this information is important to assess the need for additional biosecurity protocols to prevent spread of ehv-1 in hospitalized critically ill horses with acute abdominal disorders.201121848945
evaluation of the antiviral activity of (1's,2'r)-9-[[1',2'-bis(hydroxymethyl)cycloprop-1'-yl]methyl]guanine (a-5021) against equine herpesvirus type 1 in cell monolayers and equine nasal mucosal explants.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) is a ubiquitous equine alphaherpesvirus that causes respiratory disease, neurological symptoms and abortions. current vaccines are not fully protective and effective therapeutics are lacking. a-5021 [(1's,2'r)-9-[[1',2'-bis(hydroxymethyl)cycloprop-1'-yl]methyl]guanine], previously shown to possess potent anti-herpetic activity against most human herpesviruses, was evaluated for its potential to inhibit ehv1 replication. in equine embryonic lung (eel) cells, infected w ...201122178244
the early ul3 gene of equine herpesvirus-1 encodes a tegument protein not essential for replication or virulence in the mouse.the ul3 gene of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is retained in the genome of defective interfering particles and encodes a ~33kda myristylated protein. further characterization showed that the ul3 gene is trans-activated only by the sole immediate early (ie) protein and encodes an early protein that is dispensable for ehv-1 replication and localizes in the tegument of purified virions. ul3-deleted ehv-1 (vl11δul3) exhibits properties of host cell tropism, plaque size, and growth kinetics similar to ...201121917286
outbreak of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in france: a clinical and molecular investigation.equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1)-associated myeloencephalopathy (ehm) is a disease affecting the central nervous system of horses. despite the constantly increasing interest about this syndrome, epidemiological data are limited especially when related to the description of large outbreaks. the aim of this article is to describe clinical, virological and molecular data obtained throughout a severe outbreak of ehm, with emphasis on laboratory diagnostic methods. the epidemic disease concerned a riding ...201121975071
Cloning of equine herpesvirus type 1 438/77 strain genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome.Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is a major cause of respiratory and reproductive diseases in horses worldwide. The genome of EHV-1 strain 438/77 (isolated from an aborted equine fetus) was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in E. coli without any gene deletions. The mini-F plasmid sequence was inserted in the middle of ORF19 and 20 via homologous recombination following co-transfection of viral DNA and plasmid pE19_20/HA into RK13 cells. Circular viral DNA was extracted from RK1 ...201122059290
Glycoproteins D (gD) of equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4) determine cellular tropism independently of integrins.Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and EHV-4 are genetically and antigenically very similar but their pathogenic potential is strikingly different. The differences in pathogenicity between both viruses seem to be reflected in cellular host range: EHV-1 can readily be propagated in many cell types of multiple species, while EHV-4 entry and replication appears to be restricted mainly to equine cells. The clear difference in cellular tropism may well be associated with differences in the gene produc ...201122171258
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) mediated oncolysis of human glioblastoma multiforme cells.The cytolytic animal virus equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) was evaluated for its oncolytic potential against five human glioblastoma cell lines. EHV-1 productively infected four of these cell lines and the degree of infection was positively correlated with glioma cell death. No human MHC-I was detected in the resistant glioma line, while infection of the susceptible glioma cell lines, which expressed human MHC-I, were blocked with antibody to MHC-I, indicating that human MHC-I acts as an EHV-1 ...201122205738
Single amino acid residue in the A2 domain of major histocompatibility complex class I is involved in the efficiency of equine herpesvirus-1 entry.Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), an a-herpesvirus of the family Herpesviridae, causes respiratory disease, abortion, and encephalomyelitis in horses. EHV-1 utilizes equine MHC class I molecules as entry receptors. However, hamster MHC class I molecules on EHV-1-susceptible CHO-K1 cells play no role in EHV-1 entry. To identify the MHC class I molecule region that is responsible for EHV-1 entry, domain exchange and site-directed mutagenesis experiments were performed, in which parts of the extracellu ...201121949188
functional characterization of eul47 in productive replication, morphogenesis and infectivity of equine herpesvirus 1.eul47 is a major component of the tegument of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1). to determine its function, we used red/et cloning to delete its gene (gene 13) from ehv-1 strain ab4p inserted into a bacterial artificial chromosome (bac), yielding ab4pattbδ13. we also examined the reverted virus (ab4pattb13r). ab4pattbδ13 replicated in rabbit kidney (rk)-13 cells, indicating that orf13 is dispensable for virus replication in cell culture. its intracellular and extracellular titers were about 10- and 1 ...201122056848
Immunological correlates of vaccination and infection for equine herpesvirus type 1.Equine herpesvirus type I (EHV-1) induces a variety of disease manifestations including respiratory disease, abortions and myeloencephalopathy. Several vaccines are commercially available but could not previously be distinguished by serologic testing from infection with EHV-1 (or the closely related EHV-4). Currently available vaccines are not reliably protective from the severe manifestations of the disease, including fatal myeloencephalopathy. We determined immunological parameters that can di ...201122205656
evaluation of the usefulness of a pcr assay performed at a clinical laboratory for the diagnosis of respiratory disease induced by equine herpesvirus type 1 in the field.a pcr assay for the diagnosis of respiratory disease induced by equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was performed at the clinical laboratory in the racehorse clinic of the ritto training center of the japan racing association from december 2007 to march 2008. the assay was performed without the trouble of contamination throughout the study and its turnaround time was approximately 6 hr. the pcr detection rates of ehv-1 among seroconverted horses were 22.2% for nasal swabs and 33.3% for blood sampl ...201124833987
identification and characterization of equine herpesvirus type 1 pul56 and its role in virus-induced downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class i.major histocompatibility complex class i (mhc-i) molecules play an important role in host immunity to infection by presenting antigenic peptides to cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctls), which recognize and destroy virus-infected cells. members of the herpesviridae have developed multiple mechanisms to avoid ctl recognition by virtue of downregulation of mhc-i on the cell surface. we report here on an immunomodulatory protein involved in this process, pul56, which is encoded by orf1 of equine herpesvir ...201222278226
characterization of cis-acting elements required for autorepression of the equine herpesvirus 1 ie gene.the immediate-early protein (iep), the major regulatory protein encoded by the ie gene of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), plays a crucial role as both transcription activator and repressor during a productive lytic infection. to investigate the mechanism by which the ehv-1 iep inhibits its own promoter, ie promoter-luciferase reporter plasmids containing wild-type and mutant iep-binding site (iebs) were constructed and used for luciferase reporter assays. the iep inhibited transcription from its o ...201222265772
complete genome sequence of equine herpesvirus type 9.equine herpesvirus type 9 (ehv-9), which we isolated from a case of epizootic encephalitis in a herd of thomson's gazelles (gazella thomsoni) in 1993, has been known to cause fatal encephalitis in thomson's gazelle, giraffe, and polar bear in natural infections. our previous report indicated that ehv-9 was similar to the equine pathogen equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), which mainly causes abortion, respiratory infection, and equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy. we determined the genome sequ ...201223166237
assessing the role of caspase activity and metacaspase expression on viral susceptibility of the coccolithophore, emiliania huxleyi (haptophyta).as part of their strategy to infect the globally important coccolithophore, emiliania huxleyi (lohmann) w.w. hay & h.p. mohler, coccolithoviruses trigger and regulate the host's programmed cell death (pcd) machinery during lytic infection. the induction and recruitment of host metacaspases, specialized, ancestral death proteases that facilitate viral lysis, suggests they may be important subcellular determinants to infection. we examined the "basal" levels and patterns of caspase activity and me ...201227011269
strain impact on equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) abortion models: viral loads in fetal and placental tissues and foals.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) continues to cause both sporadic and epidemic abortions despite extensive vaccination. lack of progress in the development of protective vaccines may be hindered by the lack of equine abortion models that employ contemporary ehv-1 strains. the objective of our experiments was to compare a contemporary ehv-1 strain with a previously described challenge strain, and to quantify ehv-1 loads in various maternal and fetal tissues. infection experiments were performed in tw ...201222944628
the role of glycoprotein h of equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) in cellular host range and integrin binding.equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) glycoprotein h (gh) has been hypothesized to play a role in direct fusion of the virus envelope with cellular membranes. to investigate gh's role in infection, an ehv-1 mutant lacking gh was created and the gh genes were exchanged between ehv-1 and ehv-4 to determine if gh affects cellular entry and/or host range. in addition, a serine-aspartic acid-isoleucine (sdi) integrin-binding motif present in ehv-1 gh was mutated as it was presumed importa ...201222909178
the role of secreted glycoprotein g of equine herpesvirus type 1 and type 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) in immune modulation and virulence.equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) are important pathogens of horses worldwide. infection with ehv-4 usually remains restricted to the upper respiratory tract, whereas infection with ehv-1 can generalize after leukocyte-associated viremia. here we examined whether differences in the immunomodulatory glycoprotein g (gg) between the two viruses determine ehv-1's ability to cause systemic infection. to this end, mutant viruses were constructed based on the neurovirulent ehv-1 strain ...201222902480
third international havemeyer workshop on equine herpesvirus type 1. 201222888774
identification of conserved amino acids in the herpes simplex virus type 1 ul8 protein required for dna synthesis and ul52 primase interaction in the virus replisome.we have used oris-dependent transient replication assays to search for species-specific interactions within the herpes simplex virus replisome. hybrid replisomes derived from herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) failed to support dna replication in cells. moreover, the replisomes showed a preference for their cognate origin of replication. the results demonstrate that the herpesvirus replisome behaves as a molecular machine relying on functionally important i ...201222851167
deletion of the ul4 gene sequence of equine herpesvirus 1 precludes the generation of defective interfering particles.serial, high multiplicity passage of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) leads to the generation of defective interfering particles (dip). ehv-1 dip inhibit and interfere with the replication of standard ehv-1, establishing a state of persistent infection. these dip package severely truncated and rearranged forms of the standard viral genome. contained within the dip genome are only three genes: ul3, ul4, and a unique hybrid gene (hyb). the hybrid gene forms through a recombination event that fuses por ...201222752566
equine herpesvirus-1: what are we still missing? 201222738739
the early ul31 gene of equine herpesvirus 1 encodes a single-stranded dna-binding protein that has a nuclear localization signal sequence at the c-terminus.the amino acid sequence of the ul31 protein (ul31p) of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) has homology to that of the icp8 of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1). here we show that the ul31 gene is synergistically trans-activated by the iep and the ul5p (eicp27). detection of the ul31 rna transcript and the ul31p in ehv-1-infected cells at 6h post-infection (hpi) as well as metabolic inhibition assays indicated that ul31 is an early gene. the ul31p preferentially bound to single-stranded dna over doub ...201222721961
the xcelligence system for real-time and label-free analysis of neuronal and dermal cell response to equine herpesvirus type 1 infection.real-time cell electronic sensing (rt-ces) based on impedance measurements is an emerging technology for analyzing the status of cells in vitro. it allows label-free, real time monitoring of the biological status of cells. the present study was designed to assess dynamic data on the cell processes during equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection of ed (equine dermal) cells and primary murine neuronal cell culture. we have demonstrated that the xcelligence system with dynamic monitoring can be ...201222708370
serological responses and clinical outcome after vaccination of mares and foals with equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) vaccines.equine herpesvirus type 1 and type 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) cause infections of horses worldwide. while both ehv-1 and ehv-4 cause respiratory disease, abortion and myeloencephalopathy are observed after infection with ehv-1 in the vast majority of cases. disease control is achieved by hygiene measures that include immunization with either inactivated or modified live virus (mlv) vaccine preparations. we here compared the efficacy of commercially available vaccines, an ehv-1/ehv-4 inactivated combina ...201222633483
vascular mineralization in the brain of horses.vascular mineralization (siderocalcinosis) in the brain of horses has been usually assumed to be an incidental age-related finding with no clinic significance. in the present study, eight 15-32-year-old horses of different breeds with cerebral siderocalcinosis were studied. four of these horses had acute and severe central nervous system clinical signs of unknown etiology, 2 horses had neurological signs of known cause, and 2 horses did not have neurological signs. gross examination of the brain ...201222529137
expression of late viral proteins is restricted in nasal mucosal leucocytes but not in epithelial cells during early-stage equine herpes virus-1 infection.equine herpes virus (ehv)-1 replicates in the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract and reaches the lamina propria and bloodstream in infected mononuclear cells. this study evaluated expression of the late viral proteins gb, gc, gd and gm in respiratory epithelial and mononuclear cells using: (1) epithelial-like rabbit kidney cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with ehv-1 in vitro; (2) an equine ex vivo nasal explant system; and (3) nasal mucosa tissue of ponies infec ...201222425309
development of a bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) recombineering procedure using galk-untranslated region (utr) for the mutation of diploid genes.bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) recombineering using galk selection allows dna cloned in escherichia coli to be modified without introducing an unwanted selectable marker at the modification site. genomes of some herpesviruses have a pair of inverted repeat sequences that makes it very difficult to introduce mutations into diploid (duplicate) genes using the galk selection method. to mutate diploid genes, we developed a galk-utr bac recombineering procedure that blocks one copy of the targ ...201222407056
prevalence of latent alpha-herpesviruses in thoroughbred racing horses.the objective of this study was to detect and characterize latent equine herpes virus (ehv)-1 and -4 from the submandibular (smln) and bronchial lymph (bln) nodes, as well as from the trigeminal ganglia (tg) of 70 racing thoroughbred horses submitted for necropsy following sustaining serious musculoskeletal injuries while racing. a combination of nucleic acid precipitation and pre-amplification steps was used to increase analytical sensitivity. tissues were deemed positive for latent ehv-1 and/o ...201222405721
apoptotic and necrotic changes in cultured murine neurons infected with equid herpesvirus 1.equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), like other members of the alphaherpesvirinae, is a neurotropic virus, that causes latent infections in the nervous system of the natural host. all alphaherpesviruses have developed sophisticated strategies to interfere with the host cell apoptotic mechanisms, but the ability of ehv-1 to induce apoptosis in neurons has not been determined yet. in this study, apoptotic and necrotic changes in cultured murine neurons were methods identifying key stages of apoptosis. the ...201222404608
molecular characterisation of the orf68 region of equine herpesvirus-1 strains isolated from aborted fetuses in hungary between 1977 and 2008.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) can be classified into distinct groups by single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) in their genomes. only a few of these can be associated with a special attribute of the virus. differences in the orf30 region can determine the neuropathogenic potential, while by substitutions in the orf68 region several strain groups can be made. in previous studies no connection was found between the neuropathogenic potential and the snps in orf68, but the occurrence of members of di ...201222366142
latent equine herpesvirus-1 in trigeminal ganglia and equine idiopathic headshaking.trigeminal neuralgia or neuropathic pain has been regarded as a putative cause of idiopathic headshaking in horses. equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection and resultant postherpetic pain have been suggested as a possible cause of such neuropathic pain.201222211434
two outbreaks of neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type 1 with breed-dependent clinical signs.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is a worldwide spread pathogen of horses. it can cause abortion, respiratory and neurological disease and consequentially significant economic losses in equine industries. during 2009, two outbreaks of ehv-1 were confirmed in two stud farms in eastern croatia. the first outbreak occurred in february following the import of 12 horses from usa, serologically negative to ehv-1 before transport. four mares aborted in the late stage of pregnancy and one perinatal dea ...201222262701
mitigation of pyrexia by a th-1-biased igg subclass response after infection with equine herpesvirus type 1 in horses pre-immunized with inactivated vaccine.the immunoglobulin g (igg) subclass response was investigated in horses with or without pyrexia after natural infection with equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) in the field. all horses were kept at the training centers of the japan racing association and were immunized with an inactivated ehv-1 vaccine before ehv-1 infection. an igg subclass response dominated by igga and iggb was induced in horses without pyrexia after ehv-1 infection. in contrast, horses that developed pyrexia showed increased ...201222230983
new real-time pcr assay using allelic discrimination for detection and differentiation of equine herpesvirus-1 strains with a2254 and g2254 polymorphisms.a single-nucleotide polymorphism (a(2254) or g(2254)) in open reading frame 30 (orf30) has been linked to the neuropathogenic phenotype of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1). identification of this polymorphism led to the development of a real-time pcr (rpcr) assay using allelic discrimination (e(2)) to distinguish between potentially neuropathogenic and nonneuropathogenic ehv-1 strains (g. p. allen, j. vet. diagn. invest. 19:69-72, 2007). although this rpcr assay can detect and genotype ehv-1 strains ...201222493339
an equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) expressing vp2 and vp5 of serotype 8 bluetongue virus (btv-8) induces protection in a murine infection model.bluetongue virus (btv) can infect most species of domestic and wild ruminants causing substantial morbidity and mortality and, consequently, high economic losses. in 2006, an epizootic of btv serotype 8 (btv-8) started in northern europe that caused significant disease in cattle and sheep before comprehensive vaccination was introduced two years later. here, we evaluate the potential of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), an alphaherpesvirus, as a novel vectored diva (differentiating infected fro ...201222511939
experimental infection with equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) induces chorioretinal lesions.equine herpesvirus myeloencephalitis (ehm) remains one of the most devastating manifestations of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection but our understanding of its pathogenesis remains rudimentary, partly because of a lack of adequate experimental models. ehv-1 infection of the ocular vasculature may offer an alternative model as ehv-1-induced chorioretinopathy appears to occur in a significant number of horses, and the pathogenesis of ehm and ocular ehv-1 may be similar. to investigate th ...201324308772
first report on equine herpesvirus type 4 isolation in poland--evaluation of diagnostic tools.upper respiratory tract infections are still a serious problem in breeding and racing horses. the most common virological factors are ehv1 and ehv4, which are both a major cause of secondary infections. high ehv4 seroprevalence in polish horses indicates a high transmission rate of this pathogen among horses and increases the need for proper diagnostics. the aim of this study was to develop a reliable laboratory diagnostic scheme for upper respiratory tract infections and to describe the first i ...201324195284
role of equine herpesviruses as co-infecting agents in cases of abortion, placental disease and neonatal foal mortality.herpesviral infections frequently occur in horses. the objective of this study was to investigate the possible association of equine herpesviruses (ehv-1, ehv-2, ehv-3, ehv-4, ehv-5) with other causes of abortion, neonatal mortality or placental disorder. sixty-seven abortions, 22 stillbirths, 14 cases of neonatal foal mortality and 3 cases of placental disease were investigated for infectious and non-infectious causes. type-specific nested pcr assays and virus isolation were performed to detect ...201324052369
development of a peptide elisa for discrimination between serological responses to equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4.a peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for discrimination between serological responses to equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and 4 (ehv-4) was developed. three and four peptides for ehv-1 and ehv-4, respectively, were designed and studied initially in the elisa using sera from foals infected experimentally. the most promising peptide pair, derived from ehv-1 glycoprotein e and ehv-4 glycoprotein g, was evaluated further using acute and convalescent sera from horses infected ex ...201323928223
equine herpesviruses type 1 (ehv-1) and 4 (ehv-4)--masters of co-evolution and a constant threat to equids and beyond.the equine herpesviruses type 1 (ehv-1) and 4 (ehv-4) are ubiquitous pathogens that affect horse populations on all continents. despite widespread vaccination, ehv-1 and ehv-4 infections remain a permanent risk. while the two viruses share a high degree of genetic and antigenic similarity, they differ significantly in host range and pathogenicity. compared to ehv-4, which mainly infects horses and causes respiratory disease, ehv-1 has a broader host range and can result in respiratory disease, a ...201323890672
equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) nucleotide polymorphism determination using formalin fixed tissues in ehv-1 induced abortions and myelopathies with real-time pcr and pyrosequencing.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) strains with a single point mutation at the 2254 nucleotide position with a g2254 constitution within the dna polymerase gene are associated strongly with equine myeloencephalopathies. infections with non-neuropathogenic ehv-1 strains without the g2254 nucleotide but with an a2254 nucleotide are associated less frequently with equine neurologic disease. a retrospective study utilizing dna extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues was conducted with real ...201323850701
characterization of glycoproteins in equine this study, we attempted to express twelve glycoproteins of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) in 293t cells and to characterize these using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) and horse sera against ehv-1. expression of glycoprotein b (gb), gc, gd, gg, gi and gp2 was recognized by immunoblot analysis using horse sera, but that of ge, gh, gk, gl, gm and gn was not. four mabs recognized gb, four recognized gc and one recognized gp2. two mabs against gb cross-reacted with ehv-4. interestingly, coexpression ...201323748975
development of a focus-reduction neutralizing test for detecting equine herpesvirus type-1-neutralizing antibodies.virus-neutralizing (vn) testing is essential for evaluating virus-specific immunity in equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) infection. we developed a focus-reduction neutralization test (frnt) for ehv-1 using 96-well plates for faster large-scale testing with sufficient sensitivity. we used an overlay medium containing avicel (fmc biopolymer), a microcrystalline cellulose with lower viscosity than the methylcellulose. the foci were visualized by immuno-staining with anti-ehv-1 gp14 monoclonal antib ...201323595119
glycoprotein h and α4β1 integrins determine the entry pathway of alphaherpesviruses.herpesviruses enter cells either by direct fusion at the plasma membrane or from within endosomes, depending on the cell type and receptor(s). we investigated two closely related herpesviruses of horses, equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and ehv-4, for which the cellular and viral determinants routing virus entry are unknown. we show that ehv-1 enters equine epithelial cells via direct fusion at the plasma membrane, while ehv-4 does so via an endocytic pathway, which is dependent on dynamin ii, ...201323514881
clinical observations and management of a severe equine herpesvirus type 1 outbreak with abortion and encephalomyelitis.latent equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection is common in horse populations worldwide and estimated to reach a prevalence nearing 90% in some areas. the virus causes acute outbreaks of disease that are characterized by abortion and sporadic cases of myeloencephalopathy (ehm), both severe threats to equine facilities. different strains vary in their abortigenic and neuropathogenic potential and the simultaneous occurrence of ehm and abortion is rare. in this report, we present clinical obse ...201323497661
equine herpesvirus type 1 infection induces procoagulant activity in equine monocytes.the alphaherpesvirus, equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), is a highly prevalent cause of equine infectious abortion and encephalomyelopathy. these syndromes have been attributed to ischemic necrosis from thrombosis in placental and neural vessels, although the mechanisms underlying thrombosis are unknown. after inhalation, ehv-1 establishes a peripheral blood mononuclear cell-associated viremia, with monocytes being a target of infection. monocytes are also the main source of tissue factor (tf) i ...201323497076
identification of a major immunogenic region of equine herpesvirus-1 glycoprotein e and its application to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a major immunogenic region of equine herpesvirus (ehv)-1 glycoprotein e (ge) was identified. firstly, the various fragments of ehv-1 ge were expressed as fusion proteins with glutathione s-transferase (gst) in escherichia coli and their antigenicities were compared by immunoblot analysis using sera from horses experimentally infected with ehv-1. thirty-three amino acids of ge (a.a. 169-201) specifically and sensitively reacted with the antibodies induced by ehv-1 but not ehv-4 infection. the cor ...201323434015
a survey of respiratory viruses in new zealand determine which viruses circulate among selected populations of new zealand horses and whether or not viral infections were associated with development of respiratory disease.201323425354
effects of different anesthetics in the murine model of ehv-1 infection.mice are commonly used as an experimental model to investigate the equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection. this model easily reproduces the disease, and the clinical signs are more or less similar to those observed in the horse, the natural host. during natural infection, the acute course of respiratory infection is mandatory for the development of adaptive immune response. since interactions between ehv-1 and anesthetics are possible, the study investigated whether the early events of murine pul ...201323381927
evaluation of metaphylactic rna interference to prevent equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in experimental herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in evaluate metaphylactic rna interference to prevent equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection in experimental herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in horses and to determine whether horses infected with a neuropathogenic strain of the virus that develop equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm) have differences in viremia.201323363350
molecular cloning and characterization of the pseudorabies virus us1 gene.using polymerase chain reaction, a 1050-bp sequence of the us1 gene was amplified from the pseudorabies virus (prv) becker strain genome; identification of the us1 gene was confirmed by further cloning and sequencing. bioinformatics analysis indicated that the prv us1 gene encodes a putative polypeptide with 349 amino acids. the encoded protein, designated picp22, had a conserved herpes_ie68 domain, which was found to be closely related with the herpes virus immediate early regulatory protein fa ...201323359028
recombinant equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) vaccine protects pigs against challenge with influenza a(h1n1)pmd09.swine influenza virus (siv) is not only an important respiratory pathogen in pigs but also a threat to human health. the pandemic influenza a(h1n1)pdm09 virus likely originated in swine through reassortment between a north american triple reassortant and eurasian avian-like siv. the north american triple reassortant virus harbors genes from avian, human and swine influenza viruses. an effective vaccine may protect the pork industry from economic losses and curb the development of new virus varia ...201323333290
the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid enhances equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1)-mediated oncolysis of human glioma cells.histone deacetylase (hdac) inhibitors represent a promising new therapy against malignant glioma. when used in conjunction with oncolytic viral vectors, these compounds have been shown to augment virotherapy. in the current study, we examined the antitumor effect of combining the lytic animal virus equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) with the hdac inhibitor valproic acid (vpa). pretreatment of two human glioblastoma cell lines (u251 and snb19) with vpa resulted in a significant increase in virus e ...201323306611
pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir and valganciclovir in the adult horse.equine herpes myeloencephalopathy, resulting from equine herpes virus type 1 (ehv-1) infection, is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in the horse. as compared to other antiviral drugs, such as acyclovir, ganciclovir has enhanced potency against ehv-1. this study investigated the pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir and its oral prodrug, valganciclovir, in six adult horses in a randomized cross-over design. ganciclovir sodium was administered intravenously as a slow bolus at a dose o ...201323301502
improving a complement-fixation test for equine herpesvirus type-1 by pretreating sera with potassium periodate to reduce non-specific hemolysis.non-specific hemolysis has often been observed during complement-fixation (cf) tests for equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1), even when the sera have virus-specific cf antibodies. this phenomenon has also been reported in cf tests for various infectious diseases of swine. we found that the sera from 22 of 85 field horses (25.9%) showed non-specific hemolysis during conventional cf testing for ehv-1. because pretreatment of swine sera with potassium periodate (kio4) improves the cf test for swine i ...201324834005
influence of importin alpha/beta and exportin 1 on equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) replication in primary murine neurons.viruses replicating in the nucleus need to cross the nuclear membrane barrier during infection, therefore disruption of specific nuclear transport pathways is crucial for their replication cycle. in the present study we have investigated the influence of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport inhibitors -- ivermectin and leptomycin b, on ehv-1 replication in primary murine neurons. obtained results suggest that the examined proteins -- exportin 1 and importin alpha/beta may participate, but are not requir ...201324597312
effects of equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) ar8 and hh1 strains on balb-c, we used a murine model to describe and compare the pathogenic potential of the argentinean equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) ar8 strain with the japanese hh1 reference strain. in ar8-inoculated animals, clinical signs began earlier, but the viremic phase was shorter. virus isolation and dna detection in the lungs, liver and spleen were positive for both strains at different times postinfection (pi). infection foci produced by both strains were immunohistochemically detected in lungs from day 1 t ...201423851654
development of a single-tube duplex evagreen real-time pcr for the detection and identification of ehv-1 and ehv-4.the objective of this study was to develop a novel evagreen (eg) based real-time pcr technique for the simultaneous detection of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) genomes from equine nasal swabs. viral genomes were identified based on their specific melting temperatures (t m), which are 88.0 and 84.4 °c for ehv-1 and ehv-4, respectively. the detection limitation of this method was 50 copies/μl or 0.15 pg/μl for ehv-1 and 5 copies/μl or 2.5 fg/μl for ehv-4. this assay ...201424615388
a review of equid herpesvirus 1 for the veterinary practitioner. part b: pathogenesis and epidemiology.equid herpesvirus (ehv) type 1 is a common pathogen of horses with worldwide distribution. infection with ehv-1 can be subclinical, or can result in sociologically and economically important outcomes such as abortion, neonatal death or neurological disease. the perceived recent increase in the reported cases of ehv-1 neurological disease in the united states of america and europe over the past decade has caused concerns amongst veterinarians and horse owners worldwide. this review provides an up ...201424597839
a review of equid herpesvirus 1 for the veterinary practitioner. part a: clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.equid herpesvirus (ehv) type 1 is a common pathogen of horses with worldwide distribution. although severe tracheobronchitis has been described in some field outbreaks of ehv-1 respiratory disease, many ehv-1 infections occur asymptomatically or are accompanied only by signs of mild respiratory disease. however, ehv-1 infection can also result in outcomes other than respiratory disease such as abortion, neonatal death or neurological disease. this review provides an overview of the diagnosis, tr ...201424597778
innate immune responses of airway epithelial cells to infection with equine herpesvirus-1.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is the cause of respiratory disease, abortion and myelitis in horses worldwide. protection following infection or vaccination is typically incomplete and this lack of protective immunity is thought to be due to the immunomodulatory properties of ehv-1. ehv-1 immune modulation is likely initiated early in the infection cycle at the respiratory epithelium, but to date, immunity to ehv-1 at the epithelial cell barrier remains poorly characterized. thus, the purpose of t ...201424560592
zebra-borne equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection in non-african captive mammals.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was detected in an indian rhinoceros (rhinoceros unicornis), which was euthanized because of severe neurological disease. encephalitis was suspected and ehv-1 dna was detected in brain, lung, and spleen tissues. the viral ir6 protein was detected in lung tissues by western blot analysis. phylogenetic analyses of ehv-1 sequences amplified from various tissues was nearly identical to one recently described that resulted in both non-fatal and fatal encephalitis in ...201424440374
equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) open reading frame 59 encodes an early protein that is localized to the cytosol and required for efficient virus growth.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) orf59 is predicted to encode a protein consisting of 180 amino acids. to determine whether orf59 in fact encodes a protein, sequences encoding an ha epitope (ypydvpdya) was inserted at the carboxyterminus of the orf59 protein in ehv-1 strain ab4. using anti-ha monoclonal antibodies, a 21-kda band was specifically detected by western blot analysis in lysates of cells infected with a recombinant ehv-1 from strain ab4 that carries the porf59-ha but not in cells inf ...201424418561
the ehv-1 ul4 protein that tempers viral gene expression interacts with cellular transcription factors.the ul4 gene is conserved within the genome of defective interfering particles of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) that mediate persistent infection. here, we show that the ul4 protein inhibits ehv-1 reporter gene expression by decreasing the level of transcribed mrna. the ul4 protein did not bind any gene class of ehv-1 promoters in electromobility or chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, but directly interacted with the tata box-binding protein (tbp) and the carboxy-terminal domain of rna pol ...201424418534
comparing the genetic diversity of orf30 of australian isolates of 3 equid alphaherpesviruses.a single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) has been previously associated with ehv-1 neurological disease in several countries around the world. this disease is very uncommon in australia and little information is available about the presence of this snp in australian ehv-1 isolates. the orf30 sequence of 66 australian ehv-1 isolates was determined and the genotype was compared to the disease manifestation of the case from which the virus was isolated. of the 66 isolates, 61 were from cases of abort ...201424418044
equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1)-induced rearrangements of actin filaments in productively infected primary murine neurons.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) causes respiratory disease, abortion and neurological disorders in horses. in the present study, we investigated reorganization of the cytoskeleton in neurons infected with two ehv-1 strains: jan-e (wild-type strain) and rac-h (attenuated strain). the studies were performed on primary murine neurons, which are an excellent model for studying neurotropism and neurovirulence of ehv-1. we have demonstrated for the first time that ehv-1 infection causes rearrangemen ...201424352436
novel molecular determinants of viral susceptibility and resistance in the lipidome of emiliania huxleyi.viruses play a key role in controlling the population dynamics of algae, including emiliania huxleyi, a globally distributed haptophyte with calcite coccoliths that comprise ca. 50% of the sinking carbonate flux from the surface ocean. emiliania huxleyi viruses (ehvs) routinely infect and terminate e. huxleyi blooms. ehvs are surrounded by a lipid envelope, which we found to be comprised largely of glycosphingolipids (gsls) with lesser amounts of polar glycerolipids. infection appears to involve ...201424330049
impact of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection on the migration of monocytic cells through equine nasal mucosa.the mucosal surfaces are important sites of entry for a majority of pathogens, and viruses in particular. the migration of antigen presenting cells (apcs) from the apical side of the mucosal epithelium to the lymph node is a key event in the development of mucosal immunity during viral infections. however, the mechanism by which viruses utilize the transmigration of these cells to invade the mucosa is largely unexplored. here, we establish an ex vivo explant model of monocytic cell transmigratio ...201425456193
equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.equine influenza in england and scotland, significant numbers of outbreaks of equine herpesvirus 1 neurological disease in the usa, summary of surveillance testing, april to june 2014. these are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by defra, the animal health trust and the british equine veterinary association.201425431382
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