infection of central nervous system endothelial cells by cell-associated ehv-1.infection with equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) causes respiratory disease, late-term abortions and equine herpesvirus myeloencephalitis (ehm). our understanding of ehm pathogenesis is limited except for the knowledge that ehv-1 infected, circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) transport virus to the central nervous system vasculature causing endothelial cell infection leading to development of ehm. our objective was to develop a model of cns endothelial cell infection using ehv-1 infe ...201020884134
relationship between equine herpesvirus-1 myeloencephalopathy and viral genotype. 201021039794
equine herpesvirus-1 infected peripheral blood mononuclear cell subpopulations during viremia.infection with equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) causes respiratory disease, late term abortions and equine herpesvirus myeloencephalitis (ehm) and remains an important problem in horses worldwide. despite increasing outbreaks of ehm in recent years, our understanding of ehm pathogenesis is still limited except for the knowledge that a cell-associated viremia in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) is a critical link between primary respiratory ehv-1 infection and secondary complications such a ...201021093993
induction of a th-1-biased igg subclass response against equine herpesvirus type 1 in horses previously infected with type 4 immunoglobulin g (igg) subclass response against equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection was investigated in horses that were naïve to ehv-1/4 and those that had previously been exposed to ehv-4. the igg subclass response was determined by an elisa using ehv-1-specific recombinant gg protein as an antigen. in most horses naïve to ehv-1/4, igga, iggb, and igg(t) were induced after experimental infection with ehv-1. in contrast, a subclass response dominated by igga and iggb, with no appare ...201021139350
in vitro assessment of the antiviral potential of trans-cinnamic acid, quercetin and morin against equid herpesvirus 1.the antiviral activity of quercetin, morin and trans-cinnamic acid was evaluated in vitro against equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) by determining the virucidal activity and using the time of addition assay to test inhibition of the viral replication cycle. the cytotoxicity of each substance was assessed using mtt [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide]. quercetin showed virucidal action and inhibition of the viral replication cycle at 0 and 1h. morin showed potential virucidal ...201021159355
fatal epizootic equine herpesvirus 1 infections in new and unnatural a zoological collection, four black bears (ursus americanus) died from neurological disease within six months. independently in a geographically different zoo, two thomson's gazelles (eudorcas thomsoni) and 18 guinea pigs (cavia porcellus f. dom.) suffered from neurological disorders. in addition, guinea pigs showed abortions and stillbirths. all affected animals displayed a non suppurative meningoencephalitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies. immunohistology demonstrated equine herpes viru ...201021167662
properties of an equine herpesvirus 1 mutant devoid of the internal inverted repeat sequence of the genomic short region.the 150 kbp genome of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is composed of a unique long (ul) region and a unique short (us) segment, which is flanked by identical internal and terminal repeat (ir and tr) sequences of 12.7 kbp. we constructed an ehv-1 lacking the entire ir (vl11δir) and showed that the ir is dispensable for ehv-1 replication but that the vl11δir exhibits a smaller plaque size and delayed growth kinetics. western blot analyses of cells infected with vl11δir showed that the synthesis of vi ...201021176938
surveillance of equine respiratory viruses in ontario.the objective of this project was to develop and implement an active surveillance program for the early and rapid detection of equine influenza viruses in ontario. for this purpose, from october 2003 to october 2005, nasopharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from 115 client-owned horses in 23 outbreaks of respiratory disease in ontario. sera were paired and tested for antibody to equine influenza 1 (ae1-h7n7), equine influenza 2 (ae2-h3n8), equine herpesvirus 1 ...201021197227
equine major histocompatibility complex class i molecules act as entry receptors that bind to equine herpesvirus-1 glycoprotein d.the endotheliotropism of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) leads to encephalomyelitis secondary to vasculitis and thrombosis in the infected horse central nervous system (cns). to identify the host factors involved in ehv-1 infection of cns endothelial cells, we performed functional cloning using an equine brain microvascular endothelial cell cdna library. exogenous expression of equine major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i heavy chain genes conferred susceptibility to ehv-1 infection in mou ...201121306483
evaluation of immune responses following infection of ponies with an ehv-1 orf1/2 deletion mutant.abstract: equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection remains a significant problem despite the widespread use of vaccines. the inability to generate a protective immune response to ehv-1 vaccination or infection is thought to be due to immunomodulatory properties of the virus, and the orf1 and orf2 gene products have been hypothesized as potential candidates with immunoregulatory properties. a pony infection study was performed to define immune responses to ehv-1, and to determine if an ehv-1 orf1/2 ...201121314906
the ul4 protein of equine herpesvirus 1 is not essential for replication or pathogenesis and inhibits gene expression controlled by viral and heterologous promoters.defective interfering particles (dip) of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) inhibit standard virus replication and mediate persistent infection. the dip genome is comprised of only three genes: ul3, ul4, and a hybrid gene composed of portions of the ir4 (eicp22) and ul5 (eicp27) genes. the hybrid gene is important for dip interference, but the function(s) of the ul3 and ul4 genes are unknown. here, we show that ul4 is an early gene activated solely by the immediate early protein. the ul4 protein (ul4p ...201121324502
equine herpesvirus type-1 modulates ccl2, ccl3, ccl5, cxcl9, and cxcl10 chemokine expression.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is highly prevalent in horses and causes rhinopneumonitis, abortion, and encephalopathy. studies on the related human herpes simplex virus and of murine models of ehv-1 suggest that chemokines play important roles in coordinating of innate and adaptive immune responses, and thus effective control of herpesvirus infection and prevention of severe clinical disease. here, equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) were infected with one of three ehv-1 strains ...201121349590
equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) replication in primary murine neurons culture.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infections cause significant economic losses for equine industries worldwide as a result of abortion, respiratory illness, and neurologic disease in all breeds of horses. the occurrence of abortions caused by ehv-1 has repeatedly been confirmed in poland, but neurological manifestations of the infection have not been described yet. also it is unknown how the infection of neurons with non-neuropathogenic strains is regulated. to further understand the virus-neuron int ...201021370750
tenacity of mammalian viruses in the gut of leeches fed with porcine blood.leech therapy is currently considered to be of high therapeutic value in medicine. however, feeding leeches with fresh animal blood during the maintenance and reproduction phase bears the risk of transmission of zoonotic viruses to the patient. we hypothesize that this would be abolished by subjecting leeches to quarantine measures prior to use. the required duration of quarantine would depend on the maximum survival time of pathogens in contaminated leeches. in order to be able to estimate this ...201121372183
preparation of hsv-dna and production of infectious virus.this chapter deals with (1) the preparation of herpes simplex virus (hsv) virion dna of a quality and purity suitable to be used for the generation of infectious virus, and (2) its use in the preparation of infectious virus. an important development in the understanding of virus genetics and gene products has been the ability to carry out reverse genetics. this is dependent on the ability to manipulate the genome in vitro and reconstitute infectious virus. our understanding of dna viruses and po ...199821374220
serological survey of equine viral diseases in mongolia.three hundred sera were collected from horses in various parts of mongolia in 2007 and seroepidemiological surveys for several equine viruses performed on them. equid herpesvirus 1 and equine rhinitis a virus were prevalent, and equine arteritis virus and equid herpesvirus 3 were detected over a wide area though their rates of antibody-positivity were not high. equine infectious anemia was distributed locally. the rates of horses antibody-positive for japanese encephalitis virus and equine influ ...201121447048
development of an antigen-capture elisa for the detection of equine influenza virus antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ac-elisa) was developed for the detection of the equine influenza virus (eiv), employing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against the a/equine/xingjiang/2007 (h3n8) nucleoprotein (np). immunoglobulin g antibodies were purified and used as capture or detector antibodies. the specificity of the optimized ac-elisa was evaluated using eiv, equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4), equine arteritis virus (eav) and japanese en ...201121536075
equine alphaherpesviruses (ehv-1 and ehv-4) differ in their efficiency to infect mononuclear cells during early steps of infection in nasal mucosal explants.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) replicates extensively in the epithelium of the upper respiratory tract, after which it can spread throughout the body via a cell-associated viremia in mononuclear leukocytes reaching the pregnant uterus and central nervous system. in a previous study, we were able to mimic the in vivo situation in an in vitro respiratory mucosal explant system. a plaquewise spread of ehv-1 was observed in the epithelial cells, whereas in the connective tissue below the basement ...201121536394
direct detection of equine herpesvirus type 1 dna in nasal swabs by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp).we evaluated loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) as a means of detecting equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) dna directly from nasal swabs. to increase the sensitivity, we added a step in which the samples were heat-treated to the original lamp procedure. the detection limit of the lamp assay with heat treatment was 10 times more sensitive than the original lamp assay even when the dna extraction step was omitted. in addition, the lamp assay with heat treatment was more sensitive than th ...201121551979
an equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) vectored h1 vaccine protects against challenge with swine-origin influenza virus 2009, a novel swine-origin h1n1 influenza a virus (s-oiv), antigenically and genetically divergent from seasonal h1n1, caused a flu pandemic in humans. development of an effective vaccine to limit transmission of s-oiv in animal reservoir hosts and from reservoir hosts to humans and animals is necessary. in the present study, we constructed and evaluated a vectored vaccine expressing the h1 hemagglutinin of a recent s-oiv isolate using equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) as the delivery vehicle. exp ...201121803510
identification of functional domains of the ir2 protein of equine herpesvirus 1 required for inhibition of viral gene expression and replication.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) negative regulatory ir2 protein (ir2p), an early 1,165-amino acid (aa) truncated form of the 1487-aa immediate-early protein (iep), lacks the trans-activation domain essential for iep activation functions but retains domains for binding dna, tfiib, and tbp and the nuclear localization signal. ir2p mutants of the n-terminal region which lack either dna-binding activity or tfiib-binding activity were unable to down-regulate ehv-1 promoters. in ehv-1-infected cells ...201121794889
infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type-1 strain ab4 reveals intact interferon-a induction and induces suppression of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 responses in comparison to other viral strains.the recent increase in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of neurological disease induced by equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) has suggested a change of virulence of the virus. the exact mechanisms by which ehv-1 induces neurologic disease are not known. environmental, viral, and host risk factors might contribute to neurological manifestation. here, we investigated innate interferon-a (ifn-a), interleukin-10 (il-10) and il-4 responses after infection of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cell ...201121764140
structural and functional analysis of the tap-inhibiting ul49.5 proteins of varicelloviruses.viral infections are counteracted by virus-specific cytotoxic t cells that recognize the infected cell via mhc class i (mhc i) molecules presenting virus-derived peptides. the loading of the peptides onto mhc i molecules occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (er) and is facilitated by the peptide loading complex. a key player in this complex is the transporter associated with antigen processing (tap), which translocates the viral peptides from the cytosol into the er. herpesviruses have developed ...201121764135
prevalence of equine herpesvirus type 1 strains of neuropathogenic genotype in a major breeding area of japan.a single non-synonymous nucleotide substitution of guanine (g) for adenine (a) at position 2254 in the viral dna polymerase gene (encoded by open reading frame [orf] 30) of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) has been significantly associated with neuropathogenic potential in strains of this virus. to estimate the prevalence of ehv-1 strains with the neuropathogenic genotype (orf30 g(2254)) in the hidaka district-a major horse breeding area in japan-we analyzed the orf30 genomic region in cases of ...201121828961
molecular data of ul24 homolog gene (orf37) from brazilian isolates of equine herpesvirus type 1.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is associated with abortions, respiratory distress, and neurological disturbances in horses. the orf37 of ehv-1 encodes a protein homolog to ul24 gene product of human herpesvirus that has been associated with neurovirulence. in the present work, orf37 pcr fragments derived from two brazilian ehv-1 isolates, a german isolate and an american reference strain were sequenced and characterized by molecular phylogenetic analysis. this genomic region is highly conserv ...201121684566
surveillance programme for important equine infectious respiratory pathogens in the usa.the prevalence and epidemiology of important viral (equine influenza virus [eiv], equine herpesvirus type 1 [ehv-1] and ehv-4) and bacterial (streptococcus equi subspecies equi) respiratory pathogens shed by horses presented to equine veterinarians with upper respiratory tract signs and/or acute febrile neurological disease were studied. veterinarians from throughout the usa were enrolled in a surveillance programme and were asked to collect blood and nasal secretions from equine cases with acut ...201121676986
equid herpesvirus type-1 exhibits neurotropism and neurovirulence in a mouse model.intranasal inoculation of equid herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) brazilian strains a4/72 and a9/92 induced an acute and lethal infection in four different inbred mouse strains. clinical and neurological signs appeared between the 2nd and 3rd day post inoculation (dpi) and included weight loss, ruffled fur, a hunched posture, crouching in corners, nasal and ocular discharges, dyspnoea, dehydration and increased salivation. these signs were followed by increased reactivity to external stimulation, seizu ...201121689826
absence of equid herpesvirus-1 reactivation and viremia in hospitalized critically ill horses.equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) reactivation and shedding can occur in latently infected, asymptomatic animals. risk factors for reactivation include stress and illness. the risk of asymptomatic shedding in hospitalized, critically ill horses with acute abdominal disease is unknown. this information is important to assess the need for additional biosecurity protocols to prevent spread of ehv-1 in hospitalized critically ill horses with acute abdominal disorders.201121848945
evaluation of the antiviral activity of (1's,2'r)-9-[[1',2'-bis(hydroxymethyl)cycloprop-1'-yl]methyl]guanine (a-5021) against equine herpesvirus type 1 in cell monolayers and equine nasal mucosal explants.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) is a ubiquitous equine alphaherpesvirus that causes respiratory disease, neurological symptoms and abortions. current vaccines are not fully protective and effective therapeutics are lacking. a-5021 [(1's,2'r)-9-[[1',2'-bis(hydroxymethyl)cycloprop-1'-yl]methyl]guanine], previously shown to possess potent anti-herpetic activity against most human herpesviruses, was evaluated for its potential to inhibit ehv1 replication. in equine embryonic lung (eel) cells, infected w ...201122178244
the early ul3 gene of equine herpesvirus-1 encodes a tegument protein not essential for replication or virulence in the mouse.the ul3 gene of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is retained in the genome of defective interfering particles and encodes a ~33kda myristylated protein. further characterization showed that the ul3 gene is trans-activated only by the sole immediate early (ie) protein and encodes an early protein that is dispensable for ehv-1 replication and localizes in the tegument of purified virions. ul3-deleted ehv-1 (vl11δul3) exhibits properties of host cell tropism, plaque size, and growth kinetics similar to ...201121917286
outbreak of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in france: a clinical and molecular investigation.equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1)-associated myeloencephalopathy (ehm) is a disease affecting the central nervous system of horses. despite the constantly increasing interest about this syndrome, epidemiological data are limited especially when related to the description of large outbreaks. the aim of this article is to describe clinical, virological and molecular data obtained throughout a severe outbreak of ehm, with emphasis on laboratory diagnostic methods. the epidemic disease concerned a riding ...201121975071
Cloning of equine herpesvirus type 1 438/77 strain genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome.Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is a major cause of respiratory and reproductive diseases in horses worldwide. The genome of EHV-1 strain 438/77 (isolated from an aborted equine fetus) was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in E. coli without any gene deletions. The mini-F plasmid sequence was inserted in the middle of ORF19 and 20 via homologous recombination following co-transfection of viral DNA and plasmid pE19_20/HA into RK13 cells. Circular viral DNA was extracted from RK1 ...201122059290
Glycoproteins D (gD) of equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4) determine cellular tropism independently of integrins.Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and EHV-4 are genetically and antigenically very similar but their pathogenic potential is strikingly different. The differences in pathogenicity between both viruses seem to be reflected in cellular host range: EHV-1 can readily be propagated in many cell types of multiple species, while EHV-4 entry and replication appears to be restricted mainly to equine cells. The clear difference in cellular tropism may well be associated with differences in the gene produc ...201122171258
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) mediated oncolysis of human glioblastoma multiforme cells.The cytolytic animal virus equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) was evaluated for its oncolytic potential against five human glioblastoma cell lines. EHV-1 productively infected four of these cell lines and the degree of infection was positively correlated with glioma cell death. No human MHC-I was detected in the resistant glioma line, while infection of the susceptible glioma cell lines, which expressed human MHC-I, were blocked with antibody to MHC-I, indicating that human MHC-I acts as an EHV-1 ...201122205738
Single amino acid residue in the A2 domain of major histocompatibility complex class I is involved in the efficiency of equine herpesvirus-1 entry.Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), an a-herpesvirus of the family Herpesviridae, causes respiratory disease, abortion, and encephalomyelitis in horses. EHV-1 utilizes equine MHC class I molecules as entry receptors. However, hamster MHC class I molecules on EHV-1-susceptible CHO-K1 cells play no role in EHV-1 entry. To identify the MHC class I molecule region that is responsible for EHV-1 entry, domain exchange and site-directed mutagenesis experiments were performed, in which parts of the extracellu ...201121949188
functional characterization of eul47 in productive replication, morphogenesis and infectivity of equine herpesvirus 1.eul47 is a major component of the tegument of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1). to determine its function, we used red/et cloning to delete its gene (gene 13) from ehv-1 strain ab4p inserted into a bacterial artificial chromosome (bac), yielding ab4pattbδ13. we also examined the reverted virus (ab4pattb13r). ab4pattbδ13 replicated in rabbit kidney (rk)-13 cells, indicating that orf13 is dispensable for virus replication in cell culture. its intracellular and extracellular titers were about 10- and 1 ...201122056848
Immunological correlates of vaccination and infection for equine herpesvirus type 1.Equine herpesvirus type I (EHV-1) induces a variety of disease manifestations including respiratory disease, abortions and myeloencephalopathy. Several vaccines are commercially available but could not previously be distinguished by serologic testing from infection with EHV-1 (or the closely related EHV-4). Currently available vaccines are not reliably protective from the severe manifestations of the disease, including fatal myeloencephalopathy. We determined immunological parameters that can di ...201122205656
latent equine herpesvirus-1 in trigeminal ganglia and equine idiopathic headshaking.trigeminal neuralgia or neuropathic pain has been regarded as a putative cause of idiopathic headshaking in horses. equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection and resultant postherpetic pain have been suggested as a possible cause of such neuropathic pain.201222211434
genomic study of argentinean equid herpesvirus 1 strains.equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection has a signifcant economic impact on equine production, causing abortion, respiratory disease, neonatal death and neurological disorders. the identifcation of specifc ehv-1 genes related to virulence and pathogenicity has been the aim of several research groups. the purpose of the present study was to analyze different genomic regions of argentinean ehv-1 strains and to determine their possible relationship with virulence or clinical signs. twenty-fve ehv-1 a ...201122274825
two outbreaks of neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type 1 with breed-dependent clinical signs.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is a worldwide spread pathogen of horses. it can cause abortion, respiratory and neurological disease and consequentially significant economic losses in equine industries. during 2009, two outbreaks of ehv-1 were confirmed in two stud farms in eastern croatia. the first outbreak occurred in february following the import of 12 horses from usa, serologically negative to ehv-1 before transport. four mares aborted in the late stage of pregnancy and one perinatal dea ...201222262701
mitigation of pyrexia by a th-1-biased igg subclass response after infection with equine herpesvirus type 1 in horses pre-immunized with inactivated vaccine.the immunoglobulin g (igg) subclass response was investigated in horses with or without pyrexia after natural infection with equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) in the field. all horses were kept at the training centers of the japan racing association and were immunized with an inactivated ehv-1 vaccine before ehv-1 infection. an igg subclass response dominated by igga and iggb was induced in horses without pyrexia after ehv-1 infection. in contrast, horses that developed pyrexia showed increased ...201222230983
first detection of the equine herpesvirus 1 neuropathogenic variant in brazil.this report describes the first detection of an equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) neuropathogenic variant (g2254/d752) in brazil from a case of fatal equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm) in a mare. the results of nucleotide sequencing of the ehv-1 orf30 gene showed that two other brazilian ehv-1 isolates from ehm cases are representatives of the non-neuropathogenic variant (a2254/n752), suggesting that other unidentified factors are probably also involved in the neuropathogenicity of ehv-1 in ...201122435205
multiple molecular detection of respiratory viruses and associated signs of airway inflammation in racehorses.the potential involvement of viruses in inflammatory airway disease (iad) was previously investigated through either serology or pcr from nasopharyngeal swabs (ns). the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and incidence of viral genome detection by qpcr in the equine airways, and their association with respiratory clinical signs.201627899161
high-throughput detection of respiratory pathogens in animal specimens by nanoscale pcr.nanoliter scale real-time pcr uses spatial multiplexing to allow multiple assays to be run in parallel on a single plate without the typical drawbacks of combining reactions together. we designed and evaluated a panel based on this principle to rapidly identify the presence of common disease agents in dogs and horses with acute respiratory illness. this manuscript describes a nanoscale diagnostic pcr workflow for sample preparation, amplification, and analysis of target pathogen sequences, focus ...201627929456
serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the central valley of costa rica.blood samples from 181 equines from the central valley of costa rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. the presence of antibodies against equine infectious anemia virus (eiav), equine herpes virus 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4), west nile virus (wnv), influenza a virus (iav), equine viral arteritis virus (evav), babesia caballi, theileria equi, neospora ca ...201426623349
new real-time pcr assay using allelic discrimination for detection and differentiation of equine herpesvirus-1 strains with a2254 and g2254 polymorphisms.a single-nucleotide polymorphism (a(2254) or g(2254)) in open reading frame 30 (orf30) has been linked to the neuropathogenic phenotype of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1). identification of this polymorphism led to the development of a real-time pcr (rpcr) assay using allelic discrimination (e(2)) to distinguish between potentially neuropathogenic and nonneuropathogenic ehv-1 strains (g. p. allen, j. vet. diagn. invest. 19:69-72, 2007). although this rpcr assay can detect and genotype ehv-1 strains ...201222493339
equid herpesvirus type 1 activates platelets.equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) causes outbreaks of abortion and neurological disease in horses. one of the main causes of these clinical syndromes is thrombosis in placental and spinal cord vessels, however the mechanism for thrombus formation is unknown. platelets form part of the thrombus and amplify and propagate thrombin generation. here, we tested the hypothesis that ehv-1 activates platelets. we found that two ehv-1 strains, racl11 and ab4 at 0.5 or higher plaque forming unit/cell, activ ...201525905776
unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparin and the phosphodiesterase inhibitors, ibmx and cilostazol, block ex vivo equid herpesvirus type-1-induced platelet activation.equid herpes virus type-1 (ehv-1) is a major pathogen of horses, causing abortion storms and outbreaks of herpes virus myeloencephalopathy. these clinical syndromes are partly attributed to ischemic injury from thrombosis in placental and spinal vessels. the mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. we have previously shown that ehv-1 activates platelets through virus-associated tissue factor-initiated thrombin generation. activated platelets participate in thrombus formation by pro ...201627909693
an equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) expressing vp2 and vp5 of serotype 8 bluetongue virus (btv-8) induces protection in a murine infection model.bluetongue virus (btv) can infect most species of domestic and wild ruminants causing substantial morbidity and mortality and, consequently, high economic losses. in 2006, an epizootic of btv serotype 8 (btv-8) started in northern europe that caused significant disease in cattle and sheep before comprehensive vaccination was introduced two years later. here, we evaluate the potential of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), an alphaherpesvirus, as a novel vectored diva (differentiating infected fro ...201222511939
intranasal location and immunohistochemical characterization of the equine olfactory epithelium.the olfactory epithelium (oe) is the only body site where neurons contact directly the environment and are therefore exposed to a broad variation of substances and insults. it can serve as portal of entry for neurotropic viruses which spread via the olfactory pathway to the central nervous system. for horses, it has been proposed and concluded mainly from rodent studies that different viruses, e.g., borna disease virus, equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), hendra virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, v ...201627790096
bovine herpesvirus type-1 glycoprotein k (gk) interacts with ul20 and is required for infectious virus production.we have previously shown that the hsv-1 gk and ul20 proteins interact and function in virion envelopment, membrane fusion, and neuronal entry. alignment of the predicted secondary structures of gks encoded by bohv-1, hsv-1, hsv-2, ehv-1 and vzv indicated a high degree of domain conservation. two bohv-1 gk-null mutant viruses were created by either gk gene deletion or stop codon insertion. in addition, a v5 epitope-tag was inserted at the carboxyl terminus of gk gene to detect gk. the engineered ...201627661734
molecular cloning and characterization of the pseudorabies virus ul31 gene.we amplified a 816-bp sequence of the ul31 gene from the pseudorabies virus (prv) becker strain genome. evidence that this was the ul31 gene was confirmed by cloning and sequencing. the prv ul31 gene encodes a putative protein of 271-amino acid residues, which was designated the ul31 protein. bioinformatic analysis indicated that prv ul31 contains a conserved pha03328 domain, closely related with the herpes virus nuclear egress lamina protein ul31 family and highly conserved among counterparts e ...201424668671
animal herpesviruses and their zoonotic potential for cross-species infection.herpesviruses of humans and animals cause severe diseases that influence not only the health and epidemiological status but are also economically important in the context of food production. the members of herpesviridae are host specific agents that also share many properties that potentially make them capable of crossing the species barriers. the objective of presented review paper was to summarize the relationship between herpesviruses of animals and humans and their zoonotic potential. in hum ...201526094506
antiherpetic drugs in equine medicine.since vaccination may not prevent disease, antiherpetic drugs have been investigated for the therapy of several equine herpesviruses. drug efficacy has been assessed in horses with disease, but most evidence is in vitro, in other species, or empirical. oral valacyclovir is most often administered in the therapy of equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1) to protect adult horses from equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy, while oral acyclovir is frequently administered for ehv-5 infection in the therap ...201728325183
size-dependent inhibition of herpesvirus cellular entry by polyvalent nanoarchitectures.carbon-based architectures, especially graphene and its derivatives, have recently attracted much attention in the field of biomedicine and biotechnology for their use as pathogen inhibitors or biosensors. one of the major problems in the development of novel virus inhibitor systems is the adaption of the inhibitor to the size of virus particles. we here report the synthesis and biological testing of carbon-based inhibitors differing in size for evaluating the potential size effect on the inhibi ...201728266670
ccl2 and ccl5 driven attraction of cd172a(+) monocytic cells during an equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection in equine nasal mucosa and the impact of two migration inhibitors, rosiglitazone (rsg) and quinacrine (qc).equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) causes respiratory disease, abortion and neurological disorders in horses. besides epithelial cells, cd172a(+) monocytic cells become infected with ehv-1 in the respiratory mucosa and transport the virus from the apical side of the epithelium to the lamina propria en route to the lymph and blood circulation. whether cd172a(+) monocytic cells are specifically recruited to the infection sites in order to pick up virus is unknown. in our study, equine nasal mucosa ...201728241864
replication of neurovirulent equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) in cd172a(+) monocytic cells.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is responsible for respiratory disorders, abortion and myeloencephalopathy (ehm) in horses. two pathotypes of ehv-1 strains are circulating in the field: neurovirulent (n) and non-neurovirulent (nn). for both strains, cd172a(+) monocytic cells are one of the main carrier cells of ehv-1 during primary infection, allowing the virus to invade the horse's body. recently, we showed that ehv-1 nn strains showed a restricted and delayed replication in cd172a(+) cells. ...201728131380
detection of equine herpesvirus (ehv) -1, -2, -4 and -5 in ethiopian equids with and without respiratory problems and genetic characterization of ehv-2 and ehv-5 strains.infections with equine herpesviruses (ehvs) are widespread in equine populations worldwide. whereas both ehv-1 and ehv-4 produce well-documented respiratory syndromes in equids, the contribution of ehv-2 and ehv-5 to disease of the respiratory tract is still enigmatic. this study describes the detection and genetic characterization of ehvs from equids with and without clinical respiratory disease. virus-specific pcrs were used to detect ehv-1, -2, -4 and -5. from the total of 160 equids with res ...201728102009
replication kinetics of neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) strains in primary murine neurons and ed cell line.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) causes respiratory infections, abortion and neurological disorders in horses. molecular epidemiology studies have demonstrated that a single-point mutation in dna polymerase gene, resulting in an amino acid variation (n752/d752), is significantly associated with the neuropathogenic potential of ehv-1 strains. the aim of the study was to elucidate if there are any differences between neuropathogenic (ehv-1 26) and non-neuropathogenic (jan-e and rac-h) ehv-1 strai ...201628092604
a serologic and polymerase chain reaction survey of equine herpesvirus in burchell's zebras (equus quagga), hartmann's mountain zebras (equus zebra hartmannae), and thomson's gazelles (eudorcas thomsonii) in a mixed species savannah exhibit.reports of equine herpesvirus (ehv) 1 and ehv-9 causing clinical disease in a wide range of species have been well documented in the literature. it is thought that zebras are the natural hosts of ehv-9 both in the wild and in captive collections. concerns about potential interspecies transmission of ehv-1 and ehv-9 in a mixed species savannah exhibit prompted serologic and polymerase chain reaction surveys. eighteen burchell's zebras ( equus quagga ), 11 hartmann's mountain zebras ( equus zebra ...201628080902
a point mutation in a herpesvirus co-determines neuropathogenicity and viral shedding.a point mutation in the dna polymerase gene in equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is one determinant for the development of neurological disease in horses. three recently conducted infection experiments using domestic horses and ponies failed to detect statistically significant differences in viral shedding between the neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic variants. these results were interpreted as suggesting the absence of a consistent selective advantage of the neuropathogenic variant and th ...201728075374
neonatal immunization with a single il-4/antigen dose induces increased antibody responses after challenge infection with equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) at weanling age.neonatal foals respond poorly to conventional vaccines. these vaccines typically target t-helper (th) cell dependent b-cell activation. however, th2-cell immunity is impaired in foals during the first three months of life. in contrast, neonatal basophils are potent interleukin-4 (il-4) producers. the purpose of this study was to develop a novel vaccine triggering the natural capacity of neonatal basophils to secrete il-4 and to evaluate if vaccination resulted in b-cell activation and antibody p ...201728045974
translation of a laboratory-validated equine herpesvirus-1 specific real-time pcr assay into an insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iipcr) assay for point-of-need diagnosis using pockit™ nucleic acid analyzer.equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm), a major problem for the equine industry in the united states, is caused by equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1). in addition, ehv-1 is associated with upper respiratory disease, abortion, and chorioretinal lesions in horses. here we describe the development and evaluation of an inexpensive, user-friendly insulated isothermal pcr (iipcr) method targeting open reading 30 (orf30) to detect both neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic strains on the field-deploy ...201727993615
function of myosin during entry and egress of equid herpesvirus type 1 in primary murine neurons.equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is a major pathogen of horses with a worldwide distribution, which can cause various clinical signs ranging from mild respiratory disease to neurological disorders. to initiate an effective infection, ehv-1 evolved a broad spectrum of mechanisms exploiting the host cell, including its actin filaments. an actin-myosin-driven transport has been described to precede cellular entry of different viruses. therefore, in the present study we investigated the role of acti ...201727928922
effects of various antiplatelet drugs on ex vivo platelet activation induced by equine herpesvirus type 1.objective to evaluate the effects of treatment of horses with standard platelet inhibitors on ex vivo inhibition of platelet activation by equine herpesvirus type i (ehv-i). animals ii healthy adult horses. procedures in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study, horses were treated orally for 5 days with theophylline (5 mg/kg, q 12 h), pentoxifylline (10 mg/kg, q 12 h), clopidogrel bisulfate (4 mg/kg, q 24 h), acetylsalicylic acid (20 mg/kg, q 24 h), or placebo. horses received all t ...201627901390
microvascular lesions and changes in cell proliferation and death, and cytokine expression in the placentas of mice experimentally infected with equid herpesvirus 1.this study describes the changes observed in the placentas of mice experimentally infected with an abortigenic strain of ehv-1 at mid-pregnancy and euthanized at days 3 and 4 post-infection. we analyzed microscopic vascular alterations, cell proliferation and death by immunohistochemistry, and the expression of ifn-γ, tnf-α and the il-10 by qpcr and flow cytometry. infected mice showed slight respiratory signs and ruffled fur during the first two days post-infection. virus isolation and dna dete ...201627892860
pathogens inactivated by low-energy-electron irradiation maintain antigenic properties and induce protective immune responses.inactivated vaccines are commonly produced by incubating pathogens with chemicals such as formaldehyde or β-propiolactone. this is a time-consuming process, the inactivation efficiency displays high variability and extensive downstream procedures are often required. moreover, application of chemicals alters the antigenic components of the viruses or bacteria, resulting in reduced antibody specificity and therefore stimulation of a less effective immune response. an alternative method for inactiv ...201627886076
anti-inflammatory drugs decrease infection of brain endothelial cells with ehv-1 in vitro.equine herpesvirus-associated myeloencephalopathy is the result of endothelial cell infection of the spinal cord vasculature with equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) during cell-associated viraemia. endothelial cell infection requires contact between infected peripheral blood mononuclear and endothelial cells. inflammation generated during viraemia likely upregulates adhesion molecule expression on both cell types increasing contact and facilitating endothelial cell infection.201627864898
amiata donkey milk chain: animal health evaluation and milk quality.this study presents an investigation of amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. the following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic (brucella spp., leptospira spp.) and donkey abortion agents (brucella spp., leptospira spp., sa ...201627853717
occurrence of primary lymphocytic hypophysitis in two horses and presence of scattered t-lymphocytes in the normal equine pituitary gland.the postmortem examination of a 14-y-old appaloosa gelding with clinically diagnosed pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction showed a unique finding of moderate multifocal lymphocytic hypophysitis (lh). the pituitary glands of 24 horses submitted for postmortem examination were examined grossly and examined histologically for the presence of lymphocytes. of these 23 horses, 1 additional case suffered from moderate lh. the 2 cases with lh tested negative for equid herpesvirus 1 and 4 by polymerase ...201727852816
equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.of surveillance testing, april to june 2016continuing reports of abortion due to equine herpesvirus type 1 infectioninternational disease occurrence in the second quarter of 2016these are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by defra, the animal health trust and the british equine veterinary association.201627789862
the role of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) us3-encoded protein kinase in actin reorganization and nuclear egress.the serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by us3 gene (pus3) of alphaherpesviruses was shown to modulate actin reorganization, cell-to-cell spread, and virus egress in a number of virus species. however, the role of the us3 orthologues of equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) has not yet been studied. here, we show that us3 is not essential for virus replication in vitro. however, growth rates and plaque diameters of a us3-deleted ehv-1 and a mutant in which the catalytic active si ...201627754319
genetic characterization of equine herpesvirus 1 isolates from abortion outbreaks in india.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) is a common pathogen of horses that causes upper respiratory tract disease, abortion, neonatal death and neurological disease. the neurological form of disease is called equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm). during the past decade, the incidence of ehm has been on the rise in europe, north america, australia and asia. some ehv1 isolates causing ehm exhibit a single-nucleotide polymorphism (snp) in the dna polymerase gene (orf30) at position 2254 (a2254 to g225 ...201727699511
zebra alphaherpesviruses (ehv-1 and ehv-9): genetic diversity, latency and co-infections.alphaherpesviruses are highly prevalent in equine populations and co-infections with more than one of these viruses' strains frequently diagnosed. lytic replication and latency with subsequent reactivation, along with new episodes of disease, can be influenced by genetic diversity generated by spontaneous mutation and recombination. latency enhances virus survival by providing an epidemiological strategy for long-term maintenance of divergent strains in animal populations. the alphaherpesviruses ...201627657113
prevention of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy - is heparin a novel option? a case report.equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm) is a severe manifestation of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection. prevention and treatment of ehm during ehv-1 outbreaks is critical, but no reliable and tested specific medication is available. due to the thromboischemic nature of ehm and due to the fact that ehv-1 entry in cells is blocked by heparin, it was hypothesized that this compound may be useful in reduction of ehm incidence and severity. therefore, during an acute ehv-1 outbreak with the ...201627652372
application of scanning cytometry and confocal-microscopy-based image analysis for investigation the role of cytoskeletal elements during equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection of primary murine neurons.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), a member of alphaherpesvirinae, has a broad host range in vitro, allowing for study of the mechanisms of productive viral infection, including intracellular transport in various cell cultures. in the current study, quantitative methods (scanning cytometry and real-time pcr) and confocal-microscopy-based image analysis were used to investigate the contribution of microtubules and neurofilaments in the transport of virus in primary murine neurons separately infec ...201627555479
equine herpesvirus type 1 modulates inflammatory host immune response genes in equine endothelial cells.equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (ehm), a disease caused by equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), is characterized by severe inflammation, thrombosis, and hypoxia in central nervous system (cns) endothelial cells, which can result in a spectrum of clinical signs including urinary incontinence, ataxia, and paralysis. strains of ehv-1 that contain a single point mutation within the viral dna polymerase (nucleotide a2254>g2254: amino acid n752→d752) are isolated from ehm afflicted horses at high ...201627527764
immunization with attenuated equine herpesvirus 1 strain kya induces innate immune responses that protect mice from lethal challenge.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is a major pathogen affecting equines worldwide. the virus causes respiratory disease, abortion, and, in some cases, neurological disease. ehv-1 strain kya is attenuated in the mouse and equine, whereas wild-type strain racl11 induces severe inflammation of the lung, causing infected mice to succumb at 4 to 6 days postinfection. our previous results showed that kya immunization protected cba mice from pathogenic racl11 challenge at 2 and 4 weeks postimmunization and ...201627356904
equid herpesvirus 1 and rhodococcus equi coinfection in a foal with bronchointerstitial pneumonia.a 2-month-old foal with septic shock and severe respiratory distress was referred to the veterinary teaching hospital. due to poor prognosis, the foal was euthanized. histopathology showed lesions suggestive of rhodococcus equi infection associated with a diffuse interstitial infiltrate of foamy macrophages and syncytial cells presenting large acidophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies, fibrin exudates and hyaline membranes. bacteriological examination from lung and respiratory exudates confirmed ...201627264610
equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.multiple reports of equine herpesvirus type 1 in the ukfirst cases of dourine in botswana and equine infectious anaemia in greecesummary of uk surveillance testing, october to december 2015these are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by defra, the animal health trust and the british equine veterinary association.201627179087
equine herpes virus type 1 (ehv-1) and 4 (ehv-4) infections in horses and donkeys in northeastern turkey.the herpesviruses infections in equides are caused by five different serotypes of viruses, belonging to family herpesviridae. the goal of this study was to conduct a seroepidemiological investigation of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and type 4 (ehv-4) in horses and donkeys raised in two provinces and their villages in northeastern turkey. a total of 666 samples from 423 horses and 243 donkeys that were not immunized against these infections were tested with elisa. while 52.48% of tested hors ...201527175200
concurrent vaccination against equine influenza and equine herpesvirus - a practical approach.there is a lack of information concerning concurrent administration of vaccines against equine influenza virus (eiv) and equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 (ehv-1/4).201627169603
polarisation of equine pregnancy outcome associated with a maternal mhc class i allele: preliminary evidence.identification of risk factors which are associated with severe clinical signs can assist in the management of disease outbreaks and indicate future research areas. pregnancy loss during late gestation in the mare compromises welfare, reduces fecundity and has financial implications for horse owners. this retrospective study focussed on the identification of risk factors associated with pregnancy loss among 46 thoroughbred mares on a single british stud farm, with some but not all losses involvi ...201627139027
dual infections of equine herpesvirus 1 and equine arteritis virus in equine respiratory mucosa explants.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and equine arteritis virus (eav) induce respiratory problems and abortion in horses and are considered as two serious threats to equine industry. both ehv-1 and eav misuse patrolling leukocytes in the upper respiratory tract to breach the basement membrane (bm) and to migrate to blood vessels. so far, the behavior and impact of a double infection in the respiratory mucosa of a horse are unknown. in the present study, the outcome of double infections with ehv-1 and th ...201627117322
equine herpesvirus-1 infection disrupts interferon regulatory factor-3 (irf-3) signaling pathways in equine endothelial cells.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is a major respiratory viral pathogen of horses, causing upper respiratory tract disease, abortion, neonatal death, and neurological disease that may lead to paralysis and death. ehv-1 replicates initially in the respiratory epithelium and then spreads systemically to endothelial cells lining the small blood vessels in the uterus and spinal cord leading to abortion and ehm in horses. like other herpesviruses, ehv-1 employs a variety of mechanisms for immune evasion i ...201627090619
seroprevalence and factors associated with equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 in spanish purebred horses in spain.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and type 4 (ehv-4) have a worldwide distribution and cause respiratory disease, abortion, neonatal death and myeloencephalopathy in susceptible horses. given the scarcity of serological ehv-1/ehv-4 data in spain, the objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the seroprevalence of ehv-1/ehv-4 and to identify potential horse-level and stud farm-level factors associated with ehv-1/ehv-4 in the breeding spanish purebred (sp) horse population in central ...201626984900
equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv1) induces alterations in the immunophenotypic profile of equine monocyte-derived dendritic cells.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) is an α-herpesvirus that can infect a variety of different cells in vitro and in vivo, including dendritic cells (dc) which are essential in the immune response against ehv1. infection of equine monocyte-derived dc (mddc) with ehv1 induced down-regulation of major histocompatibility complex i (mhci), cd83, cd86, cd206, cd29 and cd172a, but not of cd11a/cd18 and mhcii. this down-regulation was not mediated by the virion host-shutoff (vhs) protein or pul49.5. interestin ...201626920348
glycoprotein b of equine herpesvirus type 1 has two recognition sites for subtilisin-like proteases that are cleaved by furin.glycoprotein b (gb) of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is predicted to be cleaved by furin in a fashion similar to that of related herpesviruses. to investigate the contribution of furin-mediated gb cleavage to ehv-1 growth, canonical furin cleavage sites were mutated. western blot analysis of mutated ehv-1 gb showed that it was cleaved at two positions, 518rrrr521 and 544rlhk547, and that the 28 aa between the two sites were removed after cleavage. treating infected cells with either converta ...201626843465
application of real-time pcr for evaluation of distribution of equine herpesvirus type 1 in tissues of aborted fetuses.a highly sensitive and specific real-time pcr assay was used for detection and quantitation of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) in the different internal organs of aborted fetuses. tissue samples from 23 aborted fetuses submitted to the department of virology of the national veterinary research institute in pulawy between 2012 and 2013 were used for testing. total dna was extracted using a phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol standard protocol. a real-time pcr with forward and reverse primers enco ...201526812827
the neuropathogenic t953 strain of equine herpesvirus-1 inhibits type-i ifn mediated antiviral activity in equine endothelial cells.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infects equine endothelial cells (eecs) lining the small blood vessels in the central nervous system. however, the effect of type i ifn on ehv-1 replication in the eecs is not well studied. thus, the primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of type-i ifn on the replication of the neuropathogenic t953 strain of ehv-1 in vitro in eecs. the initial data showed that the ehv-1 was partly resistant to the biological effect of exogenously supplied recom ...201626790943
how common is equine herpesvirus type 1 infection? 201626769811
replication characteristics of equine herpesvirus 1 and equine herpesvirus 3: comparative analysis using ex vivo tissue cultures.replication kinetics and invasion characteristics of equine herpesvirus-1 and -3 (ehv-1/-3) in nasal and vaginal mucosae were compared using explants. the explants were cultured during 96 h with little change in viability. the tissues were inoculated with ehv-1 03p37 (neuropathogenic), 97p70 (abortigenic) and ehv-3 04p57, collected at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post inoculation (pi) and stained for viral antigens. both ehv-1 and ehv-3 replicated in a plaquewise manner. the plaques were already observed ...201626768993
evidence of widespread natural recombination among field isolates of equine herpesvirus 4 but not among field isolates of equine herpesvirus 1.recombination in alphaherpesviruses allows evolution to occur in viruses that have an otherwise stable dna genome with a low rate of nucleotide substitution. high-throughput sequencing of complete viral genomes has recently allowed natural (field) recombination to be studied in a number of different alphaherpesviruses, however, such studies have not been applied to equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) or equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4). these two equine alphaherpesviruses are genetically similar, but diffe ...201626691326
entry of equid herpesvirus 1 into cd172a+ monocytic cells.equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) causes respiratory disease, abortion and neurological disorders in horses. cells from the myeloid lineage (cd172a+) are one of the main target cells of ehv-1 during primary infection. recently, we showed that ehv-1 restricts and delays its replication in cd172a+ cells as part of an immune-evasive strategy to disseminate to target organs. here, we hypothesize that a low efficiency of ehv-1 binding to and entry in cd172a+ cells is responsible for this restriction. thus, ...201626684016
prevalence factors associated with equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in equids with upper respiratory tract infection and/or acute onset of neurological signs from 2008 to 2014.the objective of the present case-control study was to determine prevalence factors associated with the detection of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) by quantitative pcr (qpcr) in horses presented to veterinarians with clinical signs related to an upper respiratory tract infection and/or acute onset of neurological disease from march 2008 to december 2014. nasal secretions and whole blood from 4228 equids with acute onset of fever, respiratory signs and/or neurological deficits were tested by q ...201626607427
full trans-activation mediated by the immediate-early protein of equine herpesvirus 1 requires a consensus tata box, but not its cognate binding sequence.the immediate-early protein (iep) of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) has extensive homology to the iep of alphaherpesviruses and possesses domains essential for trans-activation, including an acidic trans-activation domain (tad) and binding domains for dna, tfiib, and tbp. our data showed that the iep directly interacted with transcription factor tfiia, which is known to stabilize the binding of tbp and tfiid to the tata box of core promoters. when the tata box of the eicp0 promoter was mutated to ...201626541315
functional characterization of the serine-rich tract of varicella-zoster virus ie62.the immediate early 62 protein (ie62) of varicella-zoster virus (vzv), a major viral trans-activator, initiates the virus life cycle and is a key component of pathogenesis. the ie62 possesses several domains essential for trans-activation, including an acidic trans-activation domain (tad), a serine-rich tract (srt), and binding domains for usf, tfiib, and tata box binding protein (tbp). transient-transfection assays showed that the vzv ie62 lacking the srt trans-activated the early vzv orf61 pro ...201526537679
effect of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection of nasal mucosa epithelial cells on integrin alpha 6 and on different components of the basement membrane.the respiratory mucosa is the common port of entry of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and several other alphaherpesviruses. an important prerequisite for successful host invasion of the virus is to cross the epithelial cell layer and the underlying basement membrane barrier. in the present study, an analysis was performed to see if an ehv-1 infection of nasal mucosa epithelial cells leads to damage of the underlying extracellular matrix proteins. nasal mucosa explants were inoculated with ehv- ...201626497179
binding of alphaherpesvirus glycoprotein h to surface α4β1-integrins activates calcium-signaling pathways and induces phosphatidylserine exposure on the plasma membrane.intracellular signaling connected to integrin activation is known to induce cytoplasmic ca(2+) release, which in turn mediates a number of downstream signals. the cellular entry pathways of two closely related alphaherpesviruses, equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4), are differentially regulated with respect to the requirement of interaction of glycoprotein h (gh) with α4β1-integrins. we show here that binding of ehv-1, but not ehv-4, to target cells resulted in a rapid and significant ...201526489864
a review of traditional and contemporary assays for direct and indirect detection of equid herpesvirus 1 in clinical samples.equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is one of the most economically important equine viral pathogens. its clinical manifestations in horses vary from acute upper respiratory tract disease, abortion, or neonatal death, to neurological disease termed equine herpesviral myeloencephalopathy, which may lead to paralysis and a fatal outcome. successful identification of ehv-1 infection in horses depends on a variety of factors such as suitable case selection with emphasis on timing of sample collection, selec ...201526472746
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