TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
characterization of the genome of equine herpesvirus 1 subtype 2.the genome structure of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) subtype 2 was shown by electron microscopic studies and restriction endonuclease site mapping to comprise two covalently linked segments (l, 109 kbp; s, 35 kbp). the s segment contains a unique sequence (us) flanked by a substantial inverted repeat (trs/irs). thus, the genome structure of ehv-1 subtype 2 is similar to that published previously for ehv-1 subtype 1, but the two subtypes differ in the occurrences of ecori and bamhi restriction si ...19882839595
the immunological relationship between canine herpesvirus and four other herpesviruses.canine herpesvirus (chv) was compared with four other herpesviruses by several serological techniques. cross-neutralization was demonstrated between chv and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and pseudorabies virus. non-neutralizing cross-reactions were found with these viruses and also with equine abortion virus and bovine mammillitis virus. the data suggest that chv is immunologically more closely related to herpes simplex virus than to the other viruses used in this study.19882839597
adcc and complement-dependent lysis as immune mechanisms against ehv-1 infection in the horse.immunity to equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was evaluated using sera collected from yearling horses involved in a trial of a commercial vaccine. measurement of the ability of these sera to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent lysis revealed that these mechanisms, although potentially important in recovery from ehv-1 infection, do not play a role in protection following vaccination.19882841731
human cytomegalovirus icp22, the product of the hwlf1 reading frame, is an early nuclear protein that is released from cells.we employed a murine monoclonal antibody (ch41) and a lambda gt11 library of human cytomegalovirus (cmv) dna fragments to map the gene for a viral protein, denoted infected cell protein (icp) 22, to the hwlf1 open reading frame in the s component of the cmv genome (0.92 to 0.93 map units). by using antibody ch41 in immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting analyses, icp22 was readily detected as a beta (delayed early) gene product during viral growth. the cellular localization o ...19882844970
analysis of the in vitro translation products of the equine herpesvirus type 1 immediate early mrna.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) gene expression is coordinately regulated in an alpha, beta, gamma fashion. viral alpha gene products include a 6.0-kb immediate early (ie) mrna species (w. l. gray et al., 1987, virology 158, 79-87) and at least four closely related ie polypeptides (ieps) (g.b. caughman et al., 1985, virology 145, 49-61). in this report, we describe results obtained from a series of in vitro translation experiments which were performed in an effort to characterize the ieps and ...19882845657
propagation and quantitation of animal herpesviruses in eight cell culture systems.a comparative study was carried out to determine the relative sensitivities of eight different cell culture systems to six different herpesviruses of animals. the cells used were: ofl (ovine fetal lung), ml (mink lung), fk (ferret kidney), ptk-2 (potoroo kidney), tek (turkey embryo kidney), ed (equine dermal), bt (bovine turbinate), and pk15 (porcine kidney). the viruses tested were: prv (pseudorabies) of swine, cphv (caprine herpesvirus), ibrv (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus), dn-599 s ...19882846231
application of cloned fragments of equine herpesvirus type-1 dna for detection of virus-specific dna in equine tissues.tissue specimens obtained from equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), subtype 1-infected aborted foetuses were analysed for the presence of virus dna by means of southern blot and dot blot hybridisations. the specificity of the methods was confirmed although the sensitivity was inferior to classical techniques such as virus isolation. however, the possibility of detecting the state of the virus dna and the ability to distinguish between subtypes were important features, and the dot blot method was shown ...19882846269
[infection with equine herpesvirus and its manifestation in the central nervous system of the horse].infections with ehv1 can lead to manifestation at the cns of horses followed by encephalomyelitis and "equine stroke". horse experiments could confirm the clinical picture and gave links to the potential pathogenesis of the disease. we also have been in the position to isolate and characterize an ehv4 virus out of the brain of a horse with cns disorders. the two viruses carry different biological properties which obviously dominate the pathogenesis. these properties as well as experimental and f ...19882847358
a radial immunodiffusion enzyme assay for detection of antibody to equine rhinopneumonitis virus (ehv-1) in horse serum.a radial immunodiffusion enzyme assay (ridea) was developed for detection and quantitation of antibodies to equine herpes virus-1 (ehv-1) in horse sera. the detection and quantitation of ehv-1 antibody levels were based on the diameter of the radial diffusion zone of specific antibody in each serum sample reacting with ehv-1 antigen. the circular zone was made visible using peroxidase-conjugated rabbit anti-horse immunoglobulin g and a substrate containing hydrogen peroxide. the results of the r ...19882847396
isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against an attenuated vaccine strain of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1).the production and differentiation of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the rac-h strain of ehv-1 used as an attenuated live vaccine to prevent rhinopneumonitis and abortion is described. seven different antigenic sites were detected by the 15 mabs produced. ehv-1 specific mabs as well as ehv-1 and -4 common mabs could be established, allowing easy typing of ehv isolates. one mab recognized the vaccine strain only. this reaction was used to investigate a possible involvement of the vaccine st ...19882847404
molecular biological characterization of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) isolates from ruminant hosts.isolates of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) originating from affected antelope and cattle were compared with reference ehv-1 and ehv-4 isolates and were characterized. based on cross-neutralization, dna restriction profiles and blot-hybridization data these isolates could be characterized as ehv-1. one isolate (from an antelope) with a different restriction profile showed significant dna homology with ehv-1, partial homology with ehv-4, and little or no homology with ehv-2 and hsv-1 dnas. blot ...19882849252
evolution of the herpes thymidine kinase: identification and comparison of the equine herpesvirus 1 thymidine kinase gene reveals similarity to a cell-encoded thymidylate kinase.we have identified the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) thymidine kinase gene (tk) by dna-mediated transformation and by dna sequencing. alignment of the amino acid sequence of the ehv-1 tk with the tks from 3 other herpesviruses revealed regions of homology, some of which correspond to the previously identified substrate binding sites, while others have as yet, no assigned function. in particular, the strict conservation of an aspartate within the proposed nucleoside binding site suggests a role in ...19882849761
latency of equine herpesvirus 4 (equine rhinopneumonitis virus) 19882849833
[morphological characteristics of lytic plaques produced by the sp1 strain of the equine herpes virus type 1].lytic plaques produced by three different strains of ehv 1 were morphologically compared. the local isolated sp1 strain was compared with the tissue culture adapted kentucky b (ky bcc) strain, and the through hamster passages modified kentucky b (ky ba) strain, both reference strains. ky bcc produced small, irregular in size and shape, lytic plaques of around 1 mm. in the case of ky ba, the plaques were uniform in size and shape, with a diameter of 2 to 3 mm. sp1 strain originated lytic plaques ...19882852823
further biological, serological and biochemical characterization of north american, european and southeast asian strains of bovine herpesvirus 1 compared with other alphaherpesvirinae members.hemagglutination activity, structural protein profiles and neutralization assays were used in a comparative study of bovine herpesvirus 1 strains from the u.s.a., canada, great britain, denmark and malaysia with equine, feline and human herpesviruses in order to further characterize the bovine herpesvirus 1 hemagglutinin. bovine herpesvirus 1 strains of different geographical origins all showed hemagglutinating activity for mouse erythrocytes; furthermore, feline herpesvirus 1 was also shown to ...19882852870
isolation and comparative restriction endonuclease dna fingerprinting of equine herpesvirus-1 from cattle.deoxyribonucleic acid fingerprinting analyses with 4 restriction endonucleases (ecori, bamhi, bglii, and hindiii) and serotest results have definitively indicated that 5 herpesviruses isolated from 1974 to 1986 from aborted bovine fetuses and from bovine tissues and nasal secretions were abortigenic subtypes of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). the herpesviruses, designated bh1247, 3m20-3, g118, h1753, and 9bsv4, were neutralized by ehv-1-specific antiserum and could be propagated in cultures o ...19882854705
the proteins of equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv 1) recognised by equine antisera and their ability to promote antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.equine sera were used to immunoprecipitate radiolabelled virus-infected cell proteins; subsequent resolution with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis identified the ehv-1 polypeptides vp 2, 10a, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 20, 21 and 23a. the humoral support of adcc by these sera was examined in vitro. cytotoxicity could be demonstrated against both subtypes irrespective of the immunising isolate. the implications of these results are discussed.19873035747
use of lambda gt11 and monoclonal antibodies to map the genes for the six major glycoproteins of equine herpesvirus localize the genes for the major glycoproteins of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1), a library of the ehv-1 genome was constructed in the lambda gt11 expression vector. recombinant bacteriophage expressing ehv-1 glycoprotein epitopes as fusion products with beta-galactosidase were detected by immunoscreening with monoclonal antibodies specific for each of six ehv-1 glycoproteins. seventy-four recombinant lambda gt11 clones reactive with ehv-1 monoclonal antibodies were detected among 4 x 10(5) pha ...19873037108
equine herpesvirus type 1 defective-interfering (di) particle dna structure: the central region of the inverted repeat is deleted from di dna.the inverted repeat (irs) component of the genome of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is an important region of structure and function. it is a major constituent of the dna of ehv-1 defective-interfering (di) particles which have been shown to mediate the coestablishment of oncogenic transformation and persistent infection of hamster embryo cells. in addition, the irs encodes the single ehv-1 immediate early gene and the 31.5k very early protein. dna sequences encompassing ehv-1 internal irs an ...19873037774
[equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection in the horse: neurologic symptoms in a standard bred mare with acute fatal course. molecular characterization of the brain isolates and pathologic correlates]. 19873038071
equine herpes myeloencephalopathy.the neurologic form of ehv-1 infection appears to be the result of central nervous system infarction caused by vasculitis, which is initiated in endothelial cells of small blood vessels. the etiologic agent is equine herpesvirus-1, subtype 1. there is some evidence to suggest that the neurologic form of the disease actually results from reactivation of a previous infection. whether the vasculitis that causes the central nervous system injury is the direct result of the infection or an immune res ...19873040197
antiherpesvirus activity of 9-(4-hydroxy-3-hydroxy-methylbut-1-yl)guanine (brl 39123) in cell culture.the activity of 9-(4-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethylbut-1-yl)guanine (brl 39123) against several herpesviruses was compared with that of acyclovir (acv). in plaque reduction tests with clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), and varicella-zoster virus, mean 50% inhibitory concentrations (ic50s) (n = number tested) for brl 39123 were 0.4 (n = 17), 1.5 (n = 13), and 3.1 (n = 5) micrograms/ml, respectively. corresponding ic50s for acv were 0.2, 0.6, an ...19873631945
a suspected case of equine herpesvirus 1 encephalomyelitis. 19872833882
demonstration of equine herpes virus 1 (ehv-1) in histological sections and tissue cultures by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (pap) technique. 19872830744
neuropathogenicity for suckling mice of equine herpesvirus 1 from the lipizzan outbreak 1983 and of selected other ehv 1 strains. 19872830747
[new observations in the diagnosis of ehv (equine herpes virus) abortions].over the last years the percentage of foals lost by ehv at term or close to term seems to be higher than in former years. furthermore, the pathological findings seem to shift from liver to lung. so far there has been no explanation for this phenomenon.19872831640
rapid diagnosis and characterization of equid herpesvirus 1 using monoclonal antibodies.twelve monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced against the attenuated rach subtype 1 strain of equid herpesvirus 1. nine were subtype specific by immunofluorescence or immunoperoxidase, while the other three were against epitopes common to both subtypes. use of these mabs allowed isolates to be rapidly and easily subtyped. immunoblotting indicated that the subtype common mabs were against viral proteins of mw 140 k and 90 k (vp 9 and 14), while the subtype-specific mabs were against the glyco ...19872438808
changes in restriction enzyme pattern of the equine herpes virus type 1 (ehv-1) strain rac h dna during attenuation. 19872823507
serological and virological investigations of an equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) abortion storm on a stud farm in extensive outbreak of ehv-1 abortions occurred on a stud farm in england in 1985. of the 67 pregnant mares present on the stud farm, 31 were challenged with ehv-1, resulting in the loss of 22 fetuses or foals. laboratory investigations revealed that the spread of the virus closely followed movement of apparently healthy mares (during the incubation period of the infection). during the outbreak mares were challenged 1-4 months before the expected foaling date. there was no relationship between ...19872824770
plasma concentrations of progestagens, oestrone sulphate and prolactin in pregnant mares subjected to natural challenge with equid herpesvirus-1.multiparous pregnant mares, on two studfarms, were studied following natural challenge with equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1). they were divided into three groups according to serum complement fixation titres: group a (n = 11) were not challenged and delivered normal foals; group b (n = 13) were challenged but delivered normal foals; group c (n = 23) were challenged and delivered infected foals which were stillborn or lived for less than 31 h. in groups a and b mean (+/- s.d.) gestational age at deliv ...19872824771
characterization and mapping of equine herpesvirus type 1 immediate early, early, and late transcripts.northern blot analysis was used to characterize and map equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) immediate early (ie), early, and late transcripts. genomic ehv-1 dna and cloned ehv-1 restriction endonuclease fragments, representing the entire genome, were 32p-labeled and hybridized to immobilized total cell rna isolated from ehv-1 infected rabbit kidney cells incubated in the presence or absence of metabolic inhibitors. a single 6.0 kilobase (kb) ie transcript mapped to viral inverted repeat sequences. ...19872825444
differential metabolism of (e)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (ivdu) by equine herpesvirus type 1- and herpes simplex virus-infected cells.thymidine kinase (tk) enzymes encoded by herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (hsv-1, hsv-2), and equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) catalyze the phosphorylation of thymidine (dthd) and (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (bvdu). the replication of hsv-1 is sensitive to bvdu, but the replication of hsv-2 and ehv-1 is not. to investigate the differential sensitivity of the viruses to halogenated vinyldeoxyuridine drugs, the phosphorylation of 125i-labeled (e)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (ivdu ...19872825591
genetic restriction of cytolysis during equid herpesvirus 1 subtype 2 infection.six welsh mountain pony foals were experimentally infected with a subtype 2 isolate of equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and subsequently examined for t cell mediated cytotoxicity against both subtypes. cytotoxicity was not observed at 3 or 7 days after primary exposure but virus-specific, and genetically restricted, cytotoxicity of ehv-1-labelled autologous skin fibroblasts could be demonstrated 7 and 21 days after the animals were given a second exposure to live virus. killing of subtype 2 antigen-l ...19872827921
characterization of two equine herpesvirus (ehv) isolates associated with neurological disorders in horses. 19872829471
comparative efficacy of three 2'-fluoropyrimidine nucleosides and 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine (bw b759u) against pseudorabies and equine rhinopneumonitis virus infection in vitro and in laboratory animals.the three 2'-fluoropyrimidine nucleosides 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodocytosine (fiac), 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil (fiau), and 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluracil (fmau), showed high activity in rk13 monolayers against equine rhinopneumonitis virus, (ehv-1, ic50 range 0.02-0.18 microm), aujeszky's disease virus (shv-1, pseudorabies, ic50 range 0.25-7 microm) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (1br, bhv-1, ic50 ...19873026244
phosphorylation of nucleoside analogs by equine herpesvirus type 1 pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside kinase.replication of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was sensitive to 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine(dhpg) but relatively resistant to e-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (bvdu). likewise, plaque formation by ehv-1 was inhibited by dhpg, but not by bvdu. plaque formation by a thymidine kinase-negative (tk-) mutant of ehv-1 was not inhibited by dhpg. in order to investigate biochemical mechanisms determining the differential sensitivity of ehv-1 to these drugs, the ehv-1-encoded thymidine ki ...19873026247
segmental atresia of the transverse colon in a foal with concurrent equine herpes virus-1 infection.segmental atresia of the transverse colon was observed at necropsy in a neonatal foal. the dorsal and ventral components of the large colon were fused, and ended blindly. the small colon was collapsed and completely closed at its cranial end. the right and left dorsal and ventral colons were fused into one blind-ended tube. histologically, eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies demonstrative of equine rhinopneumonitis were present in the thymus.19873032513
[infectious course of equine herpesvirus 1 infection in a riding stable]. 19873032556
regulation of equine herpesvirus type 1 gene expression: characterization of immediate early, early, and late transcription.the regulation of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) transcription was examined in infected rabbit kidney cells using metabolic inhibitors. in order to map ehv-1 immediate early, early, and late transcripts, viral rna was 32p-labeled in vivo and hybridized to ehv-1 dna restriction fragments immobilized on nitrocellulose filters. immediate early viral rna was mapped to one region of the viral genome within the inverted repeat dna sequences (map units 0.78-0.83 and 0.95-1.0). northern blot hybridiz ...19873033896
comparison of stationary and roller cultures for the isolation of herpesviruses affecting livestock.the effect of rotating cultures on the isolation and cultivation of pseudorabies, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and equine rhinopneumonitis viruses was studied. serial ten-fold dilutions of laboratory strains of these viruses and field strains of pseudorabies virus were inoculated in two each of roller and stationary tubes of appropriate cell cultures. all tubes were examined daily for the appearance of cytopathic effects. roller cultures were found to slightly enhance the speed and extent o ...19873035348
[application of the passive hemagglutination test to the study of equine rhinopneumonitis. ii. serologic study in horses]. 19863035677
foetal and neonatal foal losses on equine herpesvirus type 1(ehv-1) infected farms before and after ehv-1 vaccination was introduced.on 6 farms with a history of ehv-1 abortions the overall prevalence of losses due to abortion, stillbirth and neonatal foal mortality during 5 foaling seasons preceding the introduction of vaccination against ehv-1 were compared with corresponding data for 8 subsequent seasons in which all horses were immunized with a modified live ehv-1 vaccine. although both sporadic and epizootic ehv-1 abortions occurred in immunized mares, the numbers of foetal and neonatal foal losses decreased significantl ...19862830601
innate immunity during equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) infection.intrinsic phagocytosis and killing of c. albicans by equine monocytes and polymorphonuclear leucocytes (pmn) was examined during equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) (subtypes 1 or 2) and adenovirus infections. monocyte function increased during ehv-1 subtype 2 and adenovirus infection. conversely, there was an impairment of monocyte ingestion during ehv-1 subtype 1 infection which was ascribed to virus replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. pmn phagocytosis was not decreased in any of the in ...19862431815
abortion and perinatal foal mortality associated with equine herpesvirus type 1 in a herd of grevy's zebra. 19862851577
heat-inactivated frog virus 3 selectively inhibits equine herpesvirus type 1 translation in a temporal class-dependent manner.superinfection of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1)-infected rabbit kidney cells with heat-inactivated frog virus 3 (delta fv3) differentially blocked ehv-1 protein synthesis. the extent of inhibition varied with the specific ehv-1 message, but in general late protein synthesis was inhibited more than early and immediate early translation. since fv3 has been shown to block heterologous rna and protein synthesis, it was necessary to determine whether the observed reduction in herpesvirus protein ...19863727402
genetic relatedness and colinearity of genomes of equine herpesvirus types 1 and 3.the arrangement and location of homologous dna sequences within the genomes of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and ehv-3 were investigated by using southern blot hybridization analyses conducted under stringent conditions. recombinant plasmid libraries comprising 95 and 84% of the ehv-1 and ehv-3 genomes, respectively, were labeled with 32p-deoxynucleotides by nick translation and were used as probes in filter hybridization studies. the dna homology between the ehv-1 and ehv-3 genomes was disp ...19863005628
genomic and antigenic comparison of an equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv 1) isolate from the 1983 lippizan abortion storm with ehv 1 reference ehv 1 isolate from the lippizan stud at piber, which caused the abortion and paresis outbreak in 1983, was investigated using 3 known subtype 1 and 2 subtype 2 strains for comparison. broad-scale restriction enzyme analysis as well as cross-neutralization with hyperimmune sera produced in rabbits were performed, and sds-page of infected cell proteins was conducted on a limited scale. the piber isolate was clearly classified as a subtype 1 strain of ehv 1, and showed closest resemblance in its ...19863012290
specific inhibition of herpesvirus ribonucleotide reductase by synthetic peptides.ribonucleotide reductase is an essential enzyme for dna synthesis in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; it catalyses the reductive conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. several herpesviruses including herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), hsv-2, pseudorabies virus (prv), equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and epstein-barr virus (ebv) have been found to induce novel ribonucleotide reductase activities. there is evidence that the hsv-1 ribonucleotide reductase activity is virus-e ...19863012359
endothelial cell infection and thrombosis in paralysis caused by equid herpesvirus-1: equine stroke.eight mares were infected with equid herpesvirus-1 subtype 1 isolated from a case of equine paresis. in two mares killed at 4 d.p.i. immunofluorescence showed endothelial cell infection together with thrombosis in the rete arteriosus of the nasal mucosa and also in the spinal cord of one of these mares. circulating platelet counts in the other six mares fell as early as 2 d.p.i. and remained depressed for seven days. circulating immune complexes started to appear at 2 d.p.i., reached maximum lev ...19863015074
equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) induced abortions and paralysis in a lipizzaner stud: a contribution to the classification of equine herpesviruses.out of 30 cases of abortion and perinatal deaths in a lipizzaner stud in austria 10 mares died after having shown central nervous system disturbances, ataxias and paralysis. the etiological agent of this "abortion storm" was equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). the restriction enzyme pattern of the dna from 5 isolates recovered from fetuses has been analyzed and compared with the known reference strains of ehv-1, -2, -4 and an austrian vaccine strain. the dna restriction profiles of the lipizzaner ...19863015084
molecular pathogenesis of equine coital exanthema: temperature-sensitive function(s) in cells infected with equine herpesviruses.preliminary experiments have revealed that several laboratory and wild-type strains of the equine herpesvirus (ehv) triad were temperature-sensitive for growth when assayed at 39 degrees c. the efficiencies of plating (eop) observed were 10(-2) for both ehv 1 and 2, and 1 x 10(-6) for ehv 3. the eops were determined by plaque assays which compared titrations at 34 degrees c and 39 degrees c on equine fetal dermal fibroblast cells. growth yield experiments, assayed at 34 degrees c, reflected thos ...19863016974
cloning and fine mapping the dna of equine herpesvirus type one defective interfering particles.equine herpesvirus type one (ehv-1) defective interfering (di) particle dna fragments were inserted into the xbai site of the plasmid vector pacyc184. five di xbai fragments, which ranged in molecular weight from 4.5 to 6.7 mda, were selected for detailed analysis. each di dna clone was labeled with 32p-deoxynucleotides by nick translation and hybridized to genomic digests of ehv-1 standard (std) dna bound to nitrocellulose. all five clones were shown to hybridize to dna sequences derived from t ...19863016989
equine herpesvirus genomes: heterogeneity of naturally occurring type 4 isolates and of a type 1 isolate after heterologous cell passage.the restriction endonuclease dna fingerprints of 20 low passage, epidemiologically unrelated isolates of equine herpesvirus 4 (equine rhinopneumonitis virus) showed considerable heterogeneity in certain fragments, the positions of which were assigned to quite restricted positions on the 141 kilobase (kb) genome. we note that the heterogeneity observed in the restriction endonuclease dna fingerprints of ehv 1 (equine abortion virus) and of pseudorabies virus also tend to map to these same restric ...19863022687
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies to equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). 19863023732
[creation of an avirulent and immunogenic mutant from the rhinopneumonitis virus].an avirulent immunogenic virus strain mutant of the causative agent of rhinopneumonia was found to cause abortions and respiratory diseases in horses. the mutant was obtained with the use of a virulent strain that induced strongly manifested clinical symptoms of the disease, and was cultured in cell media containing 5-iodine-2-desoxiuridine as an antimetabolite, following a definite pattern. it was found that the mutant completely lost its virulence, however, it retained its immunogenicity. it l ...19863024389
rapid method for the identification and screening of herpesviruses by dna fingerprinting combined with blot hybridization.rapid characterization of herpesvirus isolates exemplified by equine herpesviruses is described. total dnas were isolated from virus infected small scale cell cultures. the dna fragments obtained after restriction enzyme digestion were separated on agarose gels, transferred and immobilized on filter membranes. a radioactively labelled probe derived from the purified dna of an ehv-1 reference strain was used for hybridization in order to detect the restriction fragments of different ehv-1 field i ...19863025240
molecular epizootiology, pathogenesis, and prophylaxis of equine herpesvirus-1 infections. 19862856183
equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection and vaccination with an inactivated ehv-1 vaccine. 198616031215
viruses associated with respiratory disease of horses in new zealand: an update.viruses causing or associated with respiratory disease in horses worldwide are reviewed. results are presented from a serological survey of 121 new zealand foals and horses that had been affected by respiratory disease, determining the prevalence of antibodies in this country to the major viruses associated with similar disease overseas. to date there is no evidence of equine influenza virus in new zealand. both equine herpesvirus type 1 and 2 have been frequently isolated and show high serologi ...198616031261
equine herpesvirus type 1 infection--a reply. 198616031308
antibodies against equine herpesvirus 1 in the cerebrospinal fluid in the horse.neutralizing antibodies against equine herpesvirus 1 were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of 16 horses and ponies from a closed herd both before and after vaccination with modified live equine herpesvirus 1. these titers were also measured in 22 neurologically normal and 15 neurologically abnormal horses at a teaching hospital. animals from the closed herd had prevaccination serum titers up to 1:8 and postvaccination serum titers up to 1:128. horses from the teaching hospital had serum ...198517422553
antigenic and biochemical analysis of gb of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 and of cross-reacting glycoproteins induced by bovine mammillitis virus and equine herpesvirus type antiserum was produced to the oligomeric form of glycoprotein b (gb) induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) strain 17. this antiserum gave a single common precipitin line in agar gel immunodiffusion with hsv-1, hsv-2, bovine mammillitis virus (bmv) and equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). it also neutralized hsv-1, hsv-2 and bmv but not ehv-1. absorption of the antiserum with excess hsv-2 or bmv antigen resulted in an hsv-1-specific neutralizing antiserum. in immunoprecipitation, two pr ...19852981966
a new field strain of equine abortion virus (equine herpesvirus-1) among kentucky horses.from restriction endonuclease characterization of the dna of 317 isolates of equine abortion virus (equine herpesvirus-1; ehv-1) from 176 epizootically unrelated outbreaks of equine virus abortion occurring over 24 years in kentucky, an epizootic pattern and variation of the virus have emerged. two electropherotypes of ehv-1 (1p and 1b) accounted for greater than 90% of the nonvaccine-related abortion isolates examined. from 1960 to 1981, ehv-1 1p was the predominant isolate circulating in the c ...19852982294
the effect of 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine on herpes virus growth.the effect of 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (dcfl) on the growth of certain viruses of the herpes type was investigated. it is shown that the compound has considerable anti-viral activity against hsv-i, hsv-ii, pseudorabies virus and equine abortion virus. it has an effect comparable to that of arac and is more efficient than br5dc, but less so than acyclovir. experiments with thymidine kinase-negative strains of hsv-i indicated that dcfl was phosphorylated by the viral kinase, and its km appears t ...19852982405
inclusions in equine cytologic specimens.inclusions and cellular changes were seen in cytologic specimens from 1 healthy horse, 6 horses hospitalized because of respiratory problems, and 1 horse hospitalized because of colic and hepatitis. two bronchial aspirates contained detached ciliated cytoplasmic tufts and cytoplasmic inclusions characteristic of the specific degenerative process called ciliocytophthoria. these changes and inclusions resembled those seen in bronchial aspirates from human beings with parainfluenza virus infection. ...19852982775
[ehv1, to vaccinate or not?]. 19852984805
endoscopic and virological observations on respiratory disease in a group of young thoroughbred horses in training.a group of racehorses in training was examined on several occasions with a fibreoptic endoscope and monitored for viral infection. only equine herpes virus-2 (ehv-2) infection was detected. pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia (plh) was present in all horses and decreased in severity with age. there was no association between plh severity and antibody titres to ehv-1, or with the isolation of ehv-2. finishing position in races was not affected by plh severity. exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage ( ...19852985380
rapid subtyping of equine herpesvirus 1 with monoclonal antibodies.two antigenically similar subtypes of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) cause disease in horses. a procedure for rapid differentiation of the two ehv-1 subtypes with monoclonal antibodies was developed. subtype-specific pools of monoclonal antibodies were constructed, characterized, and used in enzyme immunofiltration and indirect immunofluorescence assays to subtype 50 epizootiologically unrelated field isolates of ehv-1. both assays allowed accurate subtype identification of each ehv-1 isolate with ...19852987299
equine herpesvirus type 1 infected cell polypeptides: evidence for immediate early/early/late regulation of viral gene expression.ehv-1 polypeptide synthesis was examined in productively infected rabbit kidney and hamster embryo cells. sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) analyses of extracts from [35s]methionine- and 3h-amino acid-labeled-infected and mock-infected cultures revealed the presence of 30 infected cell-specific polypeptides (icps) which ranged in apparent molecular weights from 16.5k to 213k. twenty-two of these icps comigrated with virion structural proteins. four icps (203k, ...19852990102
identification of cross-reacting glycoproteins of four herpesviruses by western blotting.monospecific rabbit antisera against purified herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) gb, gc or gd antigens or polyvalent rabbit antiserum against equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1)-infected cells was used in western blotting to identify antigenically related proteins in cells infected with hsv-1, hsv-2, bovine mammillitis virus or ehv-1. monomeric and oligomeric polypeptides related to hsv-1 gb were found in cells infected with each of the four herpesviruses. the gc antiserum was specific for hsv-1 ...19852993488
a comparison of the acid-soluble polypeptides of five herpesviruses.the polypeptides soluble in 0.25 m-hcl were extracted from the nuclei of bhk cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and separated by sds-page. seventeen polypeptides were detectable in each extract of which 10 type 1 and nine type 2 polypeptides were reproducibly effectively extracted. in cells infected with bovine mammillitis virus, pseudorabies virus or equine herpesvirus type 1, at least 12, 13 and eight polypeptides respectively were acid-soluble. in addition to histones, ...19852995559
equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv 1) latency: more questions than answers. 19852996877
experimental reactivation of equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv 1) following the administration of corticosteroids.eight ponies were experimentally infected with equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv 1) (subtype 1). all animals showed clinical and serological evidence of infection and virus was isolated from nasal swabs and leucocytes. these ponies were kept in isolation for a further three months during which time complement fixing antibody decreased at least four-fold. following immunosuppression with dexamethasone and prednisolone subtype 1 virus was recovered from six of the eight animals within 14 days. five of thes ...19852996879
neurologic diseases.the responses of apparently healthy newborn foals to neurologic testing differ significantly from those of adult horses. these responses and the diagnostic techniques pertinent to neurologic problems are reviewed as a basis for evaluation of the compromised neonatal foal. the more frequently encountered neurologic diseases are discussed in a problem-oriented format. these clinical problems include behavioral abnormalities, convulsions, changes in consciousness, blindness, ataxia without loss of ...19853000543
equine herpesvirus type 1 abortion in an onager and suspected herpesvirus myelitis in a zebra. 19853001004
isolation of equine herpesvirus 1 from the brain of a horse affected with paresis. 19853002312
selected animal herpesviruses: new concepts and technologies. 19853004157
[application of the passive hemagglutination test to the study of equine rhinopneumonitis. i. serologic studies in rabbits inoculated with equine herpesvirus type 1]. 19853016853
the antiviral spectrum of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine.the antiviral activity spectrum of (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (bvdu) is not restricted to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and varicella-zoster virus (vzv) but also encompasses several other herpesviruses such as suid herpesvirus type 1 (shv-1), bovid herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), simian varicella virus (svv), herpesvirus saimiri, herpesvirus platyrrhinae, and the baculovirus trichoplusia ni multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus. other herpesviruses such as herpes simplex virus type 2, ...19846092320
vaccination against equine herpesvirus 1 and equine influenza infection. 19846093330
electron microscopy of equine respiratory viruses in organ cultures of equine fetal respiratory tract epithelium.organ cultures of equine fetal tracheal and nasal turbinate epithelium were inoculated with equine influenza virus-a1 (eiv-a1), equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), or equine rhinovirus-1 (erv-1). infected organ cultures were processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopy at various intervals and were compared with noninfected controls. organ cultures inoculated with erv-1 appeared normal with the exception of rare island-like lesions in infected nasal turbinate. virus particles were not s ...19846093639
growth kinetics of equine respiratory tract viruses in cell and organ cultures.growth kinetics of equine influenza virus-a1, equine herpesvirus-1, and equine rhinovirus-1 were determined in susceptible cell monolayers and in organ cultures of equine fetal tracheal and nasal turbinate epithelium. equine influenza virus-a1 was replicated in cell and organ cultures and was released more readily and for longer periods from nasal turbinate epithelium than from tracheal epithelium. equine herpesvirus-1 was also replicated in cell and organ cultures. during the first 24 hours aft ...19846093640
functional and ultrastructural changes in neutrophils from mares and foals experimentally inoculated with a respiratory tract strain of equine herpesvirus-1.neutrophils isolated from venous blood of adult and foal ponies inoculated with equine herpesvirus-1 were evaluated by in vitro function tests and by electron microscopy. foals had fever and severe neutropenia 24 hours after inoculation; increased neutrophil random migration under agarose and decreased antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity were significant at 24 hours, but values had returned to preinoculation levels by 72 hours. mares had fever and leukopenia of less severity, increases ...19846093641
pathogenicity of equine herpesvirus 1 subtype 2 for foals and adult pony mares.three pony mares and 4 pony foals were inoculated with a subtype 2 strain of equine herpesvirus 1. foals had periods of fever 12 h and 2.5 days after inoculation and leukopenia, involving both neutrophils and lymphocytes, followed by leukocytosis. mares had transient fever and leukopenia 24 hours after inoculation that were less severe than in foals. an increase in circulating virus-neutralizing antibody was seen in 2 of 3 inoculated mares, but not in foals. attempts to isolate virus from blood ...19846095515
[neurological disorders caused by equine herpesvirus type 1 and cauda equina neuritis in horses].the differences in aetiology, symptomatology, pathomorphology, diagnosis and therapy between the nervous form (paralytic form) of equine herpes virus, type 1, and neuritis caudae equinae are reviewed. the conclusion is that in most cases it is possible to differentiate between these two clinical syndromes.19846096984
specificity of pseudorabies virus serotests.pigs experimentally inoculated with bovine herpesvirus-1 or equine herpesvirus-1 developed mild clinical disease signs. regression of clinical disease was accompanied by development of specific virus-neutralizing antibodies. these antibodies did not react positively with pseudorabies antigens in the serum-virus neutralization test, an indirect radioimmunoassay, or a microimmunodiffusion test.19846098206
[current virus diseases in horses. diseases in foals and respiratory tract infections].at the moment, horse praxis is confronted by two disease complexes which are difficult to fight against as well in prophylaxis as in therapy, but which get an increasing importance. first they concern virus infections of the foals and second primary virus-caused respiratory diseases. foals get infected during the embryonal/fetal development, in the perinatal or postnatal period. normally the infection is caused by latent infected, clinical healthy mares, or in the postnatal period by ubiquitous, ...19846098971
molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis of some equine herpesvirus type 1 (equine abortion virus) and type 4 (equine rhinopneumonitis virus) isolates.representative strains of ehv isolated from an aborted foetus and from a horse with rhinopneumonitis in new zealand had restriction endonuclease dna fingerprints typical of those usually associated with these syndromes elsewhere and now designated ehv1 and 4 respectively. ehv1 was isolated from the brain and spinal cord of a 4-year-old gelding that died of myeloencephalitis. a mare on the same farm, at about the same time as the gelding developed myeloencephalitis, aborted and ehv1 was isolated ...19846099117
immunologic relationships between equine herpesvirus type 1 (equine abortion virus) and type 4 (equine rhinopneumonitis virus).the specificity of selected immune responses to equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and type 4 (ehv-4) was examined in 3 colostrum-deprived specific-pathogen-free foals. single foals were vaccinated with inactivated ehv-1, inactivated ehv-4, or control cell lysate plus adjuvant followed by successive intranasal challenge exposures with ehv-1 and ehv-4 or with ehv-4 and ehv-1. vaccination with inactivated virus preparations elicited cellular immune responses and antibody which were augmented by sub ...19846208822
structure and genetic complexity of the genomes of herpesvirus defective-interfering particles associated with oncogenic transformation and persistent infection.the complexity and structural organization of defective-interfering (di) particle dna of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) have been elucidated by using restriction enzyme and southern blot hybridization analyses. di particles were generated by serial high-multiplicity passage of ehv-1 in l-m cells, and total viral dna was extracted from virus purified from supernatants of these serial passages. ehv-1 di particle dna was quantitatively separated from standard (std) dna by several cycles of cscl ...19846321784
[the neurological form of evh1 in horses]. 19846322380
coestablishment of persistent infection and oncogenic transformation of hamster embryo cells by equine cytomegalovirus.semipermissive, primary hamster embryo (he) cells were morphologically transformed in vitro by infection with uv-irradiated equine cytomegalovirus (equine herpesvirus type 2; ecmv). cell lines (designated ec-1-3) were established independently from foci and were shown to exhibit growth and biological properties typically associated with transformed cells: altered morphology, loss of contact inhibition, increased saturation density, decreased generation time, immortality in culture, normal growth ...19846322417
structure of the genome of equine herpesvirus type 3.restriction endonuclease mapping studies were performed to determine the molecular structure of the genome of equine herpesvirus type 3 (ehv-3). purified ehv-3 dna, either unlabeled or 32p-labeled, was analyzed using the restriction enzymes bamhi, bcli, bglii, ecori, and hindiii. the findings that four 0.5 m (molar) fragments were present, that two of these were terminal fragments, and that all 0.5 m fragments contained homologous dna sequences as judged by dna hybridization analyses indicated t ...19846322418
equine cytomegalovirus: structural proteins of virions and nucleocapsids.enveloped virions and nucleocapsids of equine cytomegalovirus (ecmv; equine herpesvirus type 2) have been purified from the supernatants and the nuclear extracts of infected rabbit kidney (rk) cells, respectively, and their structural protein compositions have been analyzed. sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that ecmv nucleocapsids were composed of nine proteins (average molecular weights = 148k, 52k, 49.5k, 46k, 43.5k, 38.5k, 27k, 20k, and 18k), which t ...19846324468
trials of an inactivated equid herpesvirus 1 vaccine: challenge with a subtype 1 virus.vaccinated yearlings , two-year-old and in-foal pony mares with appropriate controls were exposed to aerosols of a subtype 1 virus one to two months after two or three vaccinations; all became infected. no obvious differences in the febrile responses, clinical signs and subsequent abortions were found between vaccinated and control mares. all vaccinated yearlings and two-year-old ponies developed a febrile respiratory disease but this was less severe than that suffered by the controls and the am ...19846328728
trials of an inactivated equid herpesvirus 1 vaccine: challenge with a subtype 2 virus.serological responses following two and three doses of an inactivated equid herpesvirus 1 ( ehv -1) vaccine containing a subtype 1 strain were examined in yearling ponies. complement fixing antibody responses were significantly higher against the subtype 1 vaccine strain than against a subtype 2 virus. complement fixing antibody responses declined rapidly after the second dose of vaccine and had returned to almost pre-vaccination levels eight weeks after the second dose of vaccine. complement fi ...19846328729
ulcerative duodenitis in foals aged 18 days to 3 1/2 months had either single or multiple full-circumference segments or long antimesenteric bands of necrotizing duodenitis, sharply delineated from adjacent viable duodenum. perforation of the necrotic wall had occurred in all foals, leading to acute fibrinous peritonitis. on the mucosal surface severe diffuse, acute inflammation and ulceration involved the anterior half of the duodenum. two further foals, aged 28 and 30 days, had lesions that are believed to be a ...19836649336
acute infections in young foals. 19836302008
vaccines for ehv1 abortion. 19836302971
vaccines for equine herpesvirus type 1. 19836304985
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