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expression of the full-length form of gp2 of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) completely restores respiratory virulence to the attenuated ehv-1 strain kya in cba mice.wild-type equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strains express a large (250-kda) glycoprotein, gp2, that is encoded by eus4 (gene 71) located within the unique short region of the genome. dna sequence analysis revealed that eus4 of the pathogenic ehv-1 strain racl11 is an open reading frame of 2,376 bp that encodes a protein of 791 amino acids. the attenuated ehv-1 vaccine strain kya harbors an in-frame deletion of 1,242 bp from bp 222 to 1461 and expresses a truncated gp2 of 383 amino acids. to determi ...200515795295
equine herpesvirus 1 utilizes a novel herpesvirus entry receptor.the well-described herpesvirus entry receptors hvea (tnfrsf14), hveb (nectin 2), and hvec (nectin 1) have been shown to mediate the entry of alphaherpesviruses. our findings showed that the alphaherpesvirus equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) efficiently entered and replicated in cho-k1 cells that lack the entry receptors hvea, hveb, and hvec, demonstrating that ehv-1 utilizes a unique entry receptor. as with other alphaherpesviruses, efficient ehv-1 entry was dependent on glycoprotein d and cell surfa ...200515709036
iododeoxyuridine and herpesviral encephalitis: lack of inhibitory action against low-grade viral replication.equine herpesvirus 1 replicated in the brains of 2-week-old mice but did not produce fatal encephalitis; it thus simulated the majority of cases of herpes simplex encephalitis in man. this replication was not inhibited by iododeoxyuridine, although in tissue cultures the equine and human viruses were equally susceptible. the continued use of iododeoxyuridine for human encephalitis should be seriously questioned.197415825425
growth and virulence alterations of equine herpesvirus 1 by insertion of a green fluorescent protein gene in the intergenic region between orfs 62 and 63.nucleotide sequences of the intergenic region between orf 62 and orf 63 of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) isolates were analyzed. the sequences of this region consisted of variable and conserved domains among ehv-1 isolates. an ehv-1 mutant, ab4-gfp, was constructed by inserting a green fluorescent protein (gfp) expression cassette flanked by lox p at both ends into the intergenic region between orf 62 and orf 63. another mutant, ab4-loxp, which contains one lox p site, was constructed by excision ...200415557741
antibodies against equine herpesviruses and equine arteritis virus in burchell's zebras (equus burchelli ) from the serengeti ecosystem.a total of 51 sera from a migratory population of burchell's zebras (equus burchelli) were collected in the serengeti national park (tanzania) between 1999 and 2001 to assess levels of exposure to equine herpesvirus types 1, 2, 4, 9 (ehv-1, -2, -4, -9), ehv-1 zebra isolate t965, and equine arteritis virus (eav). using virus-specific neutralizing antibody tests, seroprevalence was high for ehv-9 (60% of 45), moderate for eav (24% of 51), and lower for the ehv-1-related zebra isolate (17% of 41), ...200515827213
isolation and partial characterization of equine herpesvirus type 1 in czechia.equine herpesvirus type 1 was determined as the etiological cause of an abortion storm in czechia in 2003 after the virus strain was isolated from aborted fetus and identified by serological means and by pcr technique. cloning and sequencing of the glycoprotein d confirmed the identity of the isolates and showed molecular relationships to known ehv-1 strains. comparison of glycoprotein d sequences with corresponding sequence of ehv-1 reference strains (kentucky-a and ab1) revealed high nucleotid ...200415702554
potential of equine herpesvirus 1 as a vector for immunization.key problems using viral vectors for vaccination and gene therapy are antivector immunity, low transduction efficiencies, acute toxicity, and limited capacity to package foreign genetic information. it could be demonstrated that animal and human cells were efficiently transduced with equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) reconstituted from viral dna maintained and manipulated in escherichia coli. between 13 and 23% of primary human cd3+, cd4+, cd8+, cd11b+, and cd19+ cells and more than 70% of cd4+ mt4 c ...200515827159
equine interferon gamma synthesis in lymphocytes after in vivo infection and in vitro stimulation with ehv-1.equine cytotoxic t lymphocyte (ctl) responses to equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) are well characterised but little is known about the cytokine response after infection or vaccination. ehv-1 is common in horses and infects lymphocytes in vivo. this virus was used as a model to measure the synthesis of interferon gamma (ifn-gamma) by equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) after in vivo infection and/or in vitro stimulation with ehv-1. both flow cytometry and elispot assays were used to quan ...200515913852
equine herpesviruses 1 and 4: creeping to a solution. 200515914048
serum antibody responses to equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein d in horses, pregnant mares and young foals.the envelope glycoprotein d of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1 gd) has been shown in laboratory animal models to elicit protective immune responses against ehv-1 challenge, and hence is a potential vaccine antigen. here we report that intramuscular inoculation of ehv-1 gd produced by a recombinant baculovirus and formulated with the adjuvant iscomatrix elicited virus-neutralizing antibody and gd-specific elisa antibody in the serum of over 90% of adult mixed breed horses. the virus-neutralizing anti ...200515797474
equine herpesviruses 1 (ehv-1) and 4 (ehv-4)--epidemiology, disease and immunoprophylaxis: a brief review.this review concentrates on the epidemiology, latency and pathogenesis of, and the approaches taken to control infection of horses by equine herpesvirus types 1 (ehv-1) and 4 (ehv-4). although both viruses may cause febrile rhinopneumonitis, ehv-1 is the main cause of abortions, paresis and neonatal foal deaths. the lesion central to these three conditions is necrotising vasculitis and thrombosis resulting from lytic infection of endothelial cells lining blood capillaries. the initiation of infe ...200515993786
neurological syndromes among horses in the netherlands. a 5 year retrospective survey (1999-2004).the presence of toxins or infectious agents combined with environmental factors in combination with a susceptible host can be the cause for neurological disease in groups of horses. during a 5 year observational period outbreaks of neurological diseases among horses were evaluated. causes of occurring neurological diseases were equine botulism, lolitrem intoxications, equine herpesvirus type 1-associated myelo(encephalo)pathy, and encephalitis caused by (disseminated) streptococcus equi subspeci ...200515835280
the protein icp0 of herpes simplex virus type 1 is targeted to nucleoli of infected cells. brief report.this study describes the nucleolar localization of the viral protein icp0 of herpes simplex virus type 1. we show that the ring finger domain of icp0 is essential for icp0 to localize in nucleoli of transfected and 4 hour-infected cells. icp0 forms particular intranucleolar domains that do not correspond to any known nucleolar domains. this distribution was confirmed by immunoblots performed on fractionated infected cells. quantitative rt-pcr experiments indicated that icp0 did not increase the ...200515883654
comparison of antibody detection assays for the diagnosis of equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 infections in horses.to compare methods of detecting equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv1)- and ehv4-specific antibodies in horse sera.200515934623
isolation of equine herpesvirus-1 lacking glycoprotein c from a dead neonatal foal in japan.we isolated a variant equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), strain 5089, from the lung of a dead neonatal foal in japan and characterized the biological nature of the virus. the virus spread in cultured cells mainly by cell-to-cell infection, unlike wild-type ehv-1, which spreads efficiently as a cell-free virus. the virus titer in cultured supernatant and the intracellular virus titer were low compared to those of wild-type ehv-1. heparin treatment of the virus had no effect on viral infectivity in cel ...200516012785
equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection and vaccination with an inactivated ehv-1 vaccine. 198616031215
equine herpesvirus type 1 infection--a reply. 198616031308
initial characterization of 17 viruses harboring mutant forms of the immediate-early gene of equine herpesvirus 1.the sole immediate-early (ie) gene of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) encodes a major regulatory protein of 1487 amino acids (aa) capable of modulating gene expression from both early and late promoters and also of trans-repressing its own promoter. using a specially designed recombination system and a library of ie linker-insertion, deletion, point, and nonsense mutant constructs that encode forms of the ie protein (iep) harboring mutations within all five regions, 17 mutant viruses were generated ...200516025249
viruses associated with respiratory disease of horses in new zealand: an update.viruses causing or associated with respiratory disease in horses worldwide are reviewed. results are presented from a serological survey of 121 new zealand foals and horses that had been affected by respiratory disease, determining the prevalence of antibodies in this country to the major viruses associated with similar disease overseas. to date there is no evidence of equine influenza virus in new zealand. both equine herpesvirus type 1 and 2 have been frequently isolated and show high serologi ...198616031261
a comparison of the polymerase chain reaction with standard laboratory methods for the detection of ehv-1 and ehv-4 in archival tissue samples.a detection system incorporating the polymerase chain reaction was compared with the use of histopathology and virus isolation to determine the presence of equid herpesvirus type 1 or equid herpesvirus type 4 in equine tissues submitted to a diagnostic laboratory. when the polymerase chain reaction was performed, these tissues had been stored for up to 3 years. thirty-eight tissues representing 14 cases had been stored embedded in paraffin wax. analysis of these tissues using the pcr gave predic ...199416031754
equine respiratory viruses in foals in new zealand.to identify the respiratory viruses that are present among foals in new zealand and to establish the age at which foals first become infected with these viruses.200216032260
mechanisms of infection in the respiratory tract.related to its potential vulnerability the respiratory tract has a very complex and effective defence apparatus. the interaction between these defence mechanisms and certain characteristics of aetiological agents results in a pattern in which initial infections by these agents tend to occur at specific sites in the tract. infections in which the primary portal of entry is in the upper respiratory tract include bordetella bronchiseptica and haemophilus spp in pigs; pasteurella spp in cattle, shee ...198116030806
a simple and rapid immunoperoxidase test for the identification of equine herpesvirus-1. 199816032023
viruses associated with outbreaks of equine respiratory disease in new zealand.to identify viruses associated with respiratory disease in young horses in new zealand.200216032259
detection of equine herpesvirus type 1 using a real-time polymerase chain reaction.equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) is a major disease of equids worldwide causing considerable losses to the horse industry. a variety of techniques, including pcr have been used to diagnose ehv1. some of these pcrs were used in combination with other techniques such as restriction enzyme analysis (rea) or hybridisation, making them cumbersome for routine diagnostic testing and increasing the chances of cross-contamination. furthermore, they involve the use of suspected carcinogens such as ethidium brom ...200616137772
perinatal exposure to low doses of pcb 153 and pcb 126 affects maternal and neonatal immunity in goat kids.pregnant does (10 goats/group) were dosed orally either with polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) 153 (98 microg/kg body weight/d) or pcb 126 (ng/kg body weight/d) dissolved in corn oil or with corn oil only (control group) from gestation day (gd) 60 until delivery. an additional group (n = 5) of pregnant does received the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (des; 0.4 microg/kg body weight/d) by intramuscular injection using the same treatment schedule as for the pcb groups. blood samples for immune ...200616291567
glycoprotein g deletion mutants of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1; equine abortion virus) and ehv4 (equine rhinopneumonitis virus).glycoprotein g (gg) deletion mutants of ehv1 and ehv4, designated ehv1deltagg and ehv4deltagg, were constructed. the growth characteristics of the ehv1deltagg mutants were similar to the parent virus. all of the ehv4deltagg mutants grew more slowly in cell culture and produced plaques of different morphology including smaller size. the yields of both gg deletion mutant viruses in cell culture were similar to the parent viruses. sequencing of the genes flanking gg, southern blot, pcr and western ...200516052277
differential susceptibility of equine and mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells to equine herpesvirus 1 infection.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) shows endotheliotropism in the central nervous system (cns) of infected horses. however, infection of endothelial cells has not been observed in the cns of infected mice. to explore the basis for this difference in endotheliotropism, we compared the susceptibility of equine brain microvascular endothelial cells (ebmecs) and mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (mbmecs) to ehv-1 infection. the kinetics of viral growth in ebmecs was typical of a fully productive ...200616328147
characterisation of ctl and ifn-gamma synthesis in ponies following vaccination with a nyvac-based construct coding for ehv-1 immediate early gene, followed by challenge infection.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is a ubiquitous pathogen of horses, which continues to cause respiratory and neurological disease and abortion, despite the widespread use of vaccines. cell mediated immunity (cmi) is thought to play a major role in protection against infection with ehv-1. the aim of this study was to characterise the virus-specific cmi response in ponies vaccinated with vp1014, a vaccinia-based construct (nyvac) coding for the immediate early gene (gene 64) of ehv-1. this gene produ ...200616269205
[neurologic form of rhinopneumonia]. 200516276730
detection of equine herpesvirus type 1 by real time pcr.a real-time pcr assay was developed for detection and quantitation of equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). the sensitivity of the assay was compared with an established nested-pcr (n-pcr). the real-time pcr detected 1 copy of target dna, with a sensitivity 1 log higher than gel-based n-pcr. the assay was able to detect specifically ehv-1 dna in equine tissue samples and there was no cross-amplification of other horse herpesviruses. real-time pcr was applied to determine ehv-1 load in tissue samples ...200616309751
absence of viral envelope proteins in equine herpesvirus 1-infected blood mononuclear cells during cell-associated viremia.in vitro studies demonstrated that most equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1)-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) do not expose viral envelope proteins on their surface. this protects them against antibody-dependent lysis. we examined whether viral envelope proteins are also undetectable on infected pbmc during cell-associated viremia. further, surface expression of major histocompatibility complex (mhc)-i was examined, since mhc-i assists in making infected cells recognizable for cytotoxi ...200616387454
new diseases and increased risk of diseases in companion animals and horses due to transport.dogs and horses are transported within the european union for a number of reasons. the transport per se may cause physical problems, exemplified by hyperthermia in dogs and pleuropneumonia in horses, and the stress may reactivate latent infections such as canine herpesvirus-1 and equine herpesvirus-1. preventive treatments are vital to protect dogs from ticks and mosquitoes transmitting their potentially lethal infectious agents, such as leishmania donovani infantum, babesia canis, ehrlichia can ...200316429803
equine herpesvirus type 1 modified live virus vaccines: quo vaditis?infections of horses with equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) have garnered new attention over the last few years. devastating outbreaks occurring worldwide, primarily of the neurologic form of the disease, have resulted in a reassessment of the control strategies, and particularly the prophylactic measures, that are necessary to keep the infection and spread of disease in check. most of the available ehv-1 vaccines are based on preparations of inactivated virus, which are applied monovalently for ...200616451114
detection of equine herpesvirus-specific effector and memory cytotoxic immunity in the equine upper respiratory tract.immunological protection of horses from equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection and disease depends on the cooperation of virus-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. ehv-specific mucosal immunity may be an important component of such immune responses. this study demonstrates the induction of anti-ehv cytotoxic cellular immune responses in various mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues associated with the upper respiratory tract (urt) of the horse. four young horses (1-2 years of age) wer ...200616472871
immune escape of equine herpesvirus 1 and other herpesviruses of veterinary importance.equine herpesvirus (ehv)-1 is a pathogen of horses, well known for its ability to induce abortion and nervous system disorders. clinical signs may occur despite the presence of a virus-specific immune response in the horse. the current review will summarize the research, on how, ehv-1-infected cells can hide from recognition by the immune system. research findings on immune evasion of ehv-1 will be compared with those of other herpesviruses of veterinary importance.200616472872
cytokine responses to ehv-1 infection in immune and non-immune ponies.protecting equids against equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection remains an elusive goal. repeated infection with ehv-1 leads to protective immunity against clinical respiratory disease, and a study was conducted to measure the regulatory cytokine response (ifn-gamma and il-4) in repeatedly infected immune ponies compared to non-immune ponies. two groups of four ponies were established. group 1 ponies had previously been infected on two occasions, and most recently 7 months before this study. gr ...200616473413
equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein d expressed in e. coli provides partial protection against equine herpesvirus infection in mice and elicits virus-neutralizing antibodies in the horse.the envelope glycoprotein d of ehv-1 (ehv-1 gd) is essential for virus infectivity and entry of virus into cells and is a potent inducer of virus-neutralizing antibody. in this study, truncated ehv-1 gd (gdt) was expressed with a c-terminal hexahistidine tag in e. coli using a pet vector. western blot analysis using an anti-gd monoclonal antibody demonstrated the presence of gdt bands at 37.5, 36, 29.5 and 28 kda. the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of partially purified gdt was compared ...200616473414
use of polarised equine endothelial cell cultures and an in vitro thrombosis model for potential characterisation of ehv-1 strain variation.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is responsible for respiratory disease and abortion in pregnant mares. some high virulence isolates of ehv-1 also cause neurological disease. the pathogenesis of both abortion and neurological disease relates in part, to thrombus formation occurring in the pregnant uterus and central nervous system. the differences in disease outcome may relate to differing abilities of high and low virulence ehv-1 isolates to cause cell-associated viraemia, infect endothelial cells ...200616338104
the equine herpesvirus 1 ul20 product interacts with glycoprotein k and promotes egress of mature particles.the aim of the present study was to identify and functionally characterize the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) ul20 protein (ul20p). using a specific antiserum, ul20p was shown to be associated with membranes of infected cells, as well as with envelopes of purified virions. by western blot analysis, ul20p was detected in two main forms exhibiting m(r)s of 25,000 and 75,000. both moieties did not enter the separating gel after heating of protein samples to 99 degrees c. the slower-migrating form of ...200616352534
molecular variability in different indian isolates of equine herpesvirus-1.three abortigenic indian isolates of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) (tohana, hisar and bikaner), along with two exotic abortigenic isolates (ab4 and v592) and another ehv-1 isolate (jind) obtained from a case of perinatal foal mortality, were studied for variability. for this purpose, pcr and restriction endonuclease (re) digestion techniques were used simultaneously as a dna fingerprinting system. nine different regions of ehv-1 virus were amplified by pcr using primer pairs specific for the regi ...200516369886
the alpha-tif (vp16) homologue (etif) of equine herpesvirus 1 is essential for secondary envelopment and virus egress.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) alpha-trans-inducing factor homologue (etif; vp16-e) is a 60-kda virion component encoded by gene 12 (orf12) that transactivates the immediate-early gene promoter. here we report on the function of ehv-1 etif in the context of viral infection. an etif-null mutant from ehv-1 strain racl11 (vl11deltaetif) was constructed and analyzed. after transfection of vl11deltaetif dna into rk13 cells, no infectious virus could be reconstituted, and only single infected cells ...200616501071
the equine immune response to equine herpesvirus-1: the virus and its vaccines.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is an alphaherpesvirus which infects horses, causing respiratory and neurological disease and abortion in pregnant mares. latency is established in trigeminal ganglia and lymphocytes. immunity to ehv-1 lasts between 3 and 6 months. current vaccines, many of which contain inactivated virus, have reduced the incidence of abortion storms in pregnant mares but individual animals, which may be of high commercial value, remain susceptible to infection. the development of e ...200616476492
ehv-1 and ehv-4 infection in vaccinated mares and their foals.a silent cycle of equine herpesvirus 1 infection was described following epidemiological studies of unvaccinated mares and foals on a hunter valley stud farm. following the introduction of routine vaccination with an inactivated whole virus equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) vaccine in 1997, a subsequent study identified excretion of ehv-1 and ehv-4 in nasal swab samples tested by pcr from vaccinated mares and their unweaned, unvaccinated foals. the current sero-epidem ...200616513181
comparison of the efficacy of inactivated combination and modified-live virus vaccines against challenge infection with neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1).equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) is a ubiquitous alphaherpesvirus of horses which causes rhinopneumonitis, abortion and myeloencephalopathy. to test the efficacy of commercial vaccines in protection against neurological ehv-1 challenge, groups of five horses were immunized with modified-live virus or an inactivated vaccine, or received placebo. horses were challenged by aerosol with a recent virus isolate obtained from a case of paralytic ehv-1. the duration of fever decreased significantly in ...200616513225
immune responses to commercial equine vaccines against equine herpesvirus-1, equine influenza virus, eastern equine encephalomyelitis, and tetanus.horses are commonly vaccinated to protect against pathogens which are responsible for diseases which are endemic within the general horse population, such as equine influenza virus (eiv) and equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), and against a variety of diseases which are less common but which lead to greater morbidity and mortality, such as eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eee) and tetanus. this study consisted of two trials which investigated the antigenicity of commercially available vaccines ...200616476488
antibody and cellular immune responses following dna vaccination and ehv-1 infection of ponies.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is the cause of serious disease with high economic impact on the horse industry, as outbreaks of ehv-1 disease occur every year despite the frequent use of vaccines. cytotoxic t-lymphocytes (ctls) are important for protection from primary and reactivating latent ehv-1 infection. dna vaccination is a powerful technique for stimulating ctls, and the aim of this study was to assess antibody and cellular immune responses and protection resulting from dna vaccination of p ...200616549215
analysis of equid herpesvirus 1 strain variation reveals a point mutation of the dna polymerase strongly associated with neuropathogenic versus nonneuropathogenic disease outbreaks.equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) can cause a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from inapparent respiratory infection to the induction of abortion and, in extreme cases, neurological disease resulting in paralysis and ultimately death. it has been suggested that distinct strains of ehv-1 that differ in pathogenic capacity circulate in the field. in order to investigate this hypothesis, it was necessary to identify genetic markers that allow subgroups of related strains to be identified. we have determ ...200616571821
report of the equine herpesvirus-1 havermeyer workshop, san gimignano, tuscany, june 2004.amongst the infectious diseases that threaten equine health, herpesviral infections remain a world wide cause of serious morbidity and mortality. equine herpesvirus-1 infection is the most important pathogen, causing an array of disorders including epidemic respiratory disease abortion, neonatal foal death, myeloencephalopathy and chorioretinopathy. despite intense scientific investigation, extensive use of vaccination, and established codes of practice for control of disease outbreaks, infectio ...200616542736
equine herpes myeloencephalopathy in a 12-year-old american quarter horse. 200616627115
proceedings of the equine herpesvirus-1 havermeyer workshop. san gimignano, tuscany. june 2004. 200616481044
quantification by real-time pcr of the magnitude and duration of leucocyte-associated viraemia in horses infected with neuropathogenic vs. non-neuropathogenic strains of ehv-1.neurological disease in horses caused by infection with certain 'paralytic' strains of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is a potentially devastating condition the pathogenesis of which is poorly understood. preliminary observations in both experimentally induced and naturally occurring cases of the central nervous system disease have revealed a more robust cell-associated viraemia in horses infected with paralytic isolates of ehv-1, relative to horses infected with abortigenic isolates. to investiga ...200616706281
pathogenesis of equine herpesvirus-associated neurological disease: a revised explanation. 200616706288
genetic complexity of ehv-1 defective interfering particles and identification of novel ir4/ul5 hybrid proteins produced during persistent infection.this study examined the genetic complexity of three equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) defective interfering particles (dip) and found the dip genomes to range from 5.9 kbp to 7.3 kbp in total size. each dip contains an identical 5' end ( approximately 1.9 kb) that harbors ul3 and ul4 genes that are 100% identical to those of the infectious virus. dip2 and dip3 contain a previously described unique ir4/ul5 (eicp22/eicp27) hybrid gene (hyb1.0). the dip1 genome, however, appears to be generated from a d ...200616732484
inoculation of mares and very young foals with ehv-1 glycoproteins d and b reduces virus shedding following respiratory challenge with ehv-1.we have previously demonstrated that intramuscular inoculation of ehv-1 glycoprotein d (gd) and glycoprotein b (gb) produced by a recombinant baculovirus and formulated with the adjuvant iscomatrix elicited virus-neutralizing antibody and gd- and gb-specific elisa antibody in adult horses. in this study, 14 mares and their very young foals were inoculated with a combination of baculovirus-expressed ehv-1 gd and ehv-1 gb (ehv-1 gdbr) and challenged with a respiratory strain of ehv-1. following ex ...200616504306
the unique ir2 protein of equine herpesvirus 1 negatively regulates viral gene expression.the ir2 protein (ir2p) is a truncated form of the immediate-early protein (iep) lacking the essential acidic transcriptional activation domain (tad) and serine-rich tract and yet retaining binding domains for dna and tfiib and nuclear localization signal (nls). analysis of the ir2 promoter indicated that the ir2 promoter was upregulated by the eicp0p. the ir2p was first detected in the nucleus at 5 h postinfection in equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1)-infected hela and equine nbl6 cells. transient-tra ...200616641295
use of dna and recombinant canarypox viral (alvac) vectors for equine herpes virus vaccination.in this study, experimental canarypox virus (alvac) and plasmid dna recombinant vaccines expressing the gb, gc and gd glycoproteins of ehv-1 were assessed for their ability to protect conventional ponies against a respiratory challenge with ehv-1. in addition, potential means of enhancing serological responses in horses to alvac and dna vaccination were explored. these included co-administration of the antigen with conventional adjuvants, complexation with dmrie-dope and co-expression of the ant ...200616580075
temporal detection of equine herpesvirus infections of a cohort of mares and their foals.the objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of equine herpesviruses (ehv) 1-5 in the nasal secretions (ns) of a cohort of 12 mares and their foals from birth to 6 months of age, estimate the prevalence of ehv-1-5 infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) of selected foals, and investigate phylogenetic relationships amongst the various strains of ehv-2 and 5. virus-specific pcr assays were used to detect ehv-1-5 in ns and pbmc. a homologous portion of the glycoprotei ...200616774810
cloning, expression, and functional characterization of the equine herpesvirus 1 dna polymerase and its accessory subunit.we report the expression and characterization of the putative catalytic subunit (porf30) and accessory protein (porf18) of equine herpesvirus 1 dna polymerase, which are encoded by open reading frames 30 and 18 and are homologous to herpes simplex virus type 1 ul30 and ul42, respectively. in vitro transcription-translation of open reading frames 30 and 18 generated proteins of 136 and 45 kda, respectively. in vitro-expressed porf30 possessed basal dna polymerase activity that was stimulated by p ...200616775312
frequency and phenotype of ehv-1 specific, ifn-gamma synthesising lymphocytes in ponies: the effects of age, pregnancy and infection.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infects horses, causing acute respiratory disease, neurological signs, and is also a leading cause of abortion. protection from ehv-1 infection and disease depends on both humoral (virus neutralising antibody) and cellular (mainly cytotoxic t lymphocytes, ctl) immune responses. ctl activity after ehv-1 infection has been extensively investigated and is closely associated with an alternative measure of cell mediated immunity (cmi), interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) synthes ...200716824599
application of polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation techniques for the detection of viruses in aborted and newborn foals.the occurrence of two important pathogens, equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) and equine arteritis virus (eav) causing abortions, perinatal foal mortality and respiratory disease, was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and virus isolation to demonstrate the presence of abortigenic viruses in samples from 248 horse fetuses in hungary. we found 26 ehv1- and 4 eav-positive aborted or prematurely born foals from 16 and 4 outbreaks, respectively, proving that despite the widely applied vaccinat ...200616841764
equine herpesvirus type 1-associated myeloencephalopathy in the netherlands: a four-year retrospective study (1999-2003).equine herpesvirus type 1(ehv-1)-associated myeloencephalopathy (ehm) is a rare disease affecting the central nervous system and, in particular, the spinal cord of horses. epidemiologic data are limited, and usually are restricted to the description of a single outbreak. during an observational period of 4 years, we evaluated 9 outbreaks of ehm in the netherlands. a risk factor analysis was done on the data from 6 outbreaks. findings were: regular appearance of ehm outbreaks in the netherlands ( ...200616734096
equine herpesvirus neurologic disease: reflections from across the pond. 200616734076
pharmacokinetics of acyclovir after single intravenous and oral administration to adult horses.the purpose of the study reported here was to describe the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of acyclovir after intravenous and oral administration to horses. six healthy adult horses were used in a randomized cross-over study with a 3 x 3 latin square design. three treatments were administered to each horse: 10 mg of injectable acyclovir/kg of body weight in 1 l of normal saline delivered as an infusion over 15 minutes; 10 mg of acyclovir/kg in tablets by nasogastric intubation; and 20 mg of ...200616734094
in vitro transposon mutagenesis of an equine herpesvirus 1 genome cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome.the 150-kbp genome of the alphaherpesvirus equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) strain hvs25a was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (ehv-1 bac), with mini f plasmid sequences inserted between genes 62 and 63. transfection of ehv-1 bac dna purified from e. coli gave rise to progeny virus that had a similar growth rate and yield in mammalian cell culture to those of parental wild-type ehv-1. using in vitro mutagenesis with a mu transposon, a large library of ehv-1 bac mutants was generated, and ...200616855811
a molecular approach to the identification of cytotoxic t-lymphocyte epitopes within equine herpesvirus 1.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) causes respiratory and neurological disease and abortion in horses. animals with high frequencies of cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) show reduced severity of respiratory disease and frequency of abortion, probably by ctl-mediated control of cell-associated viraemia. this study aimed to identify ctl epitopes restricted by selected major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i alleles expressed in the equine leukocyte antigen (ela) a3 haplotype. effector ctl were induce ...200616894188
antemortem detection of latent infection with neuropathogenic strains of equine herpesvirus-1 in horses.to evaluate a technique for identifying horses latently infected with neuropathogenic strains of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1).200616881853
detection and quantification of equine herpesvirus-1 viremia and nasal shedding by real-time polymerase chain reaction.equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection is common in young horses throughout the world, resulting in respiratory disease, epidemic abortion, sporadic myelitis, or latent infections. to improve on conventional diagnostic tests for ehv-1, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique was developed, using primers and probes specific for the ehv-1 gb gene. amplification efficiencies of 100% +/- 5% were obtained for dna isolated from a plasmid, infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc ...200616921871
characterization of equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) related viruses from captive grevy's zebra and blackbuck.equid herpes virus 1 (ehv-1) related isolates from a captive blackbuck (strain ro-1) and grevy's zebra (strain t965) behaved similarly to ehv-1 and ehv-9 in respect to their host cell range. restriction enzyme analysis and a phylogenetic tree confirmed that ro-1 and t965 were identical and more closely related to ehv-1 than to ehv-9. differences from ehv-1 became obvious firstly, by amino acid alignments revealing two unique substitutions in the gb protein of ro-1 and t965. secondly, an ehv-1 ty ...200616891794
cytokine gene signatures in neural tissue of horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis or equine herpes type 1 myeloencephalopathy.this study was designed to determine the relative levels of gene transcription of selected pathogens and cytokines in the brain and spinal cord of 12 horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (epm), 11 with equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) myeloencephalopathy, and 12 healthy control horses by applying a real time pcr to the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. total rna was extracted from each tissue, transcribed to complementary dna (cdna) and assayed for sarcocystis neurona, neo ...200616963713
herpesvirus latency and therapy--from a veterinary perspective.this short review considers how the human herpesviruses were among the first viruses to be effectively treated by means of antiviral therapy although the ability of alphaherpsviruses to establish neuronal latency with reactivation remains the major obstacle to achieving a cure. laboratory animals played an essential role in the development of herpes antivirals including our understanding of the complexity of the neurological infection in relation to chemotherapy. the existence of natural herpesv ...200616843537
isolation of equine herpesvirus-5 from blood mononuclear cells of a gelding.horses are commonly infected by herpesviruses, but isolation of equine herpesvirus-5 (ehv-5) has only infrequently been reported. we describe the isolation and characterization of a strain of ehv-5 from the blood mononuclear cells of a healthy adult horse in california. the virus was initially identified by ehv-5 specific polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and it caused lytic infection of cultured rabbit kidney cells only after repeated serial passage. virions with characteristic herpesvirus morph ...200617037617
equine disease surveillance, january to march 2006. 200616897893
an argentine equine herpesvirus strain with special restriction patterns protect mice challenged with a pathogenic strain.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) was first isolated in argentina in 1979. this strain spv has special restriction patterns, but a previous study demonstrated that spv did not modify its growth in cell culture. in addition, it showed low virulence in the mouse respiratory model consistently with results found in female balb/c at different state of gestation. this study evaluates in a mouse respiratory model, if primary infection with spv strain protects animals from subsequent challenge with a pathog ...200617062117
association between the presence of serum antibodies against neospora spp. and fetal loss in equines.a study of the association between the presence of serum antibodies against neospora spp. and fetal loss was performed using serum samples of horses submitted to the laboratory for the detection of antibodies to equine herpesvirus-1 and equine infectious anemia virus. the sera submitted for equine infectious anemia testing were from horses declared healthy and those submitted for the detection of antibodies to equine herpesvirus-1 were from mares with late clinical signs of reproductive disorder ...200616962708
pathogenicity and immunogenicity of equine herpesvirus type 1 mutants defective in either gi or ge gene in murine and hamster models.to develop a live vaccine for equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), two ehv-1 mutants containing no heterogeneous dna, deltagi and deltage, were constructed with deletions in the open reading frame of either glycoprotein i (gi) or e (ge), respectively. in equine cell culture, deletion mutants formed smaller plaques than the parental and revertant viruses, but the one-step growth patterns of the deletion mutants and the parental strain were approximately the same. these results suggest that both gi ...200617085880
host cell tropism of equine herpesviruses: glycoprotein d of ehv-1 enables ehv-4 to infect a non-permissive cell line.equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) cause equine respiratory disease worldwide. however, only ehv-1 is a cause of abortion and neurological disease, despite the two viruses having all 76 genes in common. in addition ehv-1 has a broader host range in cell culture than ehv-4, as exemplified by the rabbit kidney (rk) cell line that is permissive for ehv-1, but not for ehv-4. here we describe that when ehv-4 produced in equine cells was inoculated onto rk cells expressing glycoprotein d o ...200717171298
questions applications and conclusions in equine herpesvirus study. 200617078740
fatal herpesvirus encephalitis in a reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).fatal meningoencephalitis caused by equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) was diagnosed in a reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulate). the giraffe died following a history of stumbling, incoordination, and abdominal pain. gross examination of the brain revealed asymmetric edema and red-brown discoloration, predominantly within the telencephalon. microscopically, there was perivascular lymphohistiocytic cuffing, multifocal gliosis, and neuronal necrosis in the cerebrum. necrotic neurons con ...200616966458
live-attenuated recombinant equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) induces a neutralizing antibody response against west nile virus (wnv).the immunogenicity in horses of a recombinant equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) vaccine expressing west nile virus (wnv) prm and e proteins was studied. to construct the recombinant ehv-1, two-step en passant mutagenesis was employed for manipulation of a bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) of vaccine strain rach. recombinant ehv-1 stably expressed the wnv prm and e proteins as demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence and western blotting. in addition, growth properties in vitro of the ehv- ...200717241683
genetic relatedness and pathogenicity of equine herpesvirus 1 isolated from onager, zebra and gazelle.equine herpesvirus 1 was isolated from an onager in 1985, a zebra in 1986 and a thomson's gazelle in 1996 in usa. the genetic relatedness and pathogenicity of these three viruses were investigated based on the nucleotide sequences of the glycoprotein g (gg) gene, experimental infection in hamsters, and comparison with horse isolates. the gg gene sequences of ehv-1 from onager and zebra were identical. the gg gene sequences of the gazelle isolate showed 99.5% identity to those of onager and zebra ...200717051419
in vitro susceptibility of six isolates of equine herpesvirus 1 to acyclovir, ganciclovir, cidofovir, adefovir, pmedap and foscarnet.equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is an important equine pathogen that causes respiratory disease, abortion, neonatal death and paralysis. although vaccines are available, they are not fully protective and outbreaks of disease may occur in vaccinated herds. therefore, there is an urgent need for effective antiviral treatment. for three abortigenic (94p247, 97p70 and 99p96) and three neuropathogenic isolates (97p82, 99p136 and 03p37), the effect of acyclovir, ganciclovir, cidofovir, adefovir, 9-(2-pho ...200717276631
detection of viruses in nasal swab samples from horses with acute, febrile, respiratory disease using virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction and serology.to examine the association of viruses with acute febrile respiratory disease in horses. design nasal swab and serum samples were collected from 20 horses with acute febrile upper respiratory disease that was clinically assessed to have a viral origin.200717300454
the equine herpesvirus-1 ir3 gene that lies antisense to the sole immediate-early (ie) gene is trans-activated by the ie protein, and is poorly expressed to a protein.the unique ir3 gene of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) is expressed as a late 1.0-kb transcript. previous studies confirmed the ir3 transcription initiation site and tentatively identified other cis-acting elements specific to ir3 such as a tata box, a 443 base pair 5'untranslated region (utr), a 285 base pair open reading frame (orf), and a poly adenylation (a) signal [holden, v.r., harty, r.n., yalamanchili, r.r., o'callaghan, d.j., 1992. the ir3 gene of equine herpesvirus type 1: a unique gene r ...200717306852
evaluation of the vaccine potential of an equine herpesvirus type 1 vector expressing bovine viral diarrhea virus structural proteins.bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) is an economically important pathogen of cattle that is maintained in the population by persistently infected animals. virus infection may result in reproductive failure, respiratory disease and diarrhoea in naïve, susceptible bovines. here, the construction and characterization of a novel vectored vaccine, which is based on the incorporation of genes encoding bvdv structural proteins (c, erns, e1, e2) into a bacterial artificial chromosome of the equine herpes ...200717325347
outbreak of neurologic disease caused by equine herpesvirus-1 at a university equestrian center.equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection causes neurologic disease in horses. however, risk factors for the disease and long-term prognosis are poorly characterized.200717338164
survey of the large-animal diplomates of the american college of veterinary internal medicine regarding knowledge and clinical use of polymerase chain reaction: implications for veterinary education.a questionnaire was developed to document the knowledge base of large-animal diplomates of the american college of veterinary internal medicine (acvim) regarding polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technology and to identify the common use of this technology in equine practice. ninety-three of the 278 mailed questionnaires were returned, for an overall response rate of 33.4%. ninety respondents (99%) reported being familiar with the general principles of nucleic acid probe technology; however, only ...200617220506
detection of equine herpesvirus 1 genome 1b in argentina.to determine the genomic variation of equine herpesviruses (ehvs) isolated in argentina between 1979 and the first half of 2004, dna sequences from all 69 strains isolated were analysed. sixty strains were recovered from aborted fetuses, one from leucocyte-rich plasma from a horse with respiratory signs and eight from cases of neonatal disease. the dna was extracted from rabbit kidney epithelial (rk13) cells infected with each strain and digested with three restriction endonucleases (bamhi, bg/i ...200617361771
recombinant single chain fv antibodies specific for glycoprotein d of equid herpesvirus 1.single chain fv (scfv) molecules generated by phage-display technology represent a new and efficient tool in the research and diagnostics of infectious diseases. the recombinant glycoprotein d of equid herpesvirus 1 was successfully expressed in e. coli cells. the protein was produced predominantly in soluble fraction and was then purified on a nickel-agarose column. the scfv antibodies against the glycoprotein were selected and several clones of glycoprotein d-specific scfv-antibodies were iden ...200617176773
molecular characterization of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) isolated from cattle indicating no specific mutations associated with the interspecies transmission.interspecies trasmission of equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) from horse to cattle was shown by crandell et al. (1988). specific mutations related to the transmission were studied by comparison of five ehv-1 isolates in cattle (bh1247, 3m20-3, g118, g1753, and 9bsv4) using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with added sequencing. g118 and 3m20-3 were the genome type ehv-1 p, while g1753 was the genome type ehv-1 b. bh1247 and 9bsv4 might be other genome ty ...200717380051
viral activation and recruitment of metacaspases in the unicellular coccolithophore, emiliania huxleyi.lytic viral infection and programmed cell death (pcd) are thought to represent two distinct death mechanisms in phytoplankton, unicellular photoautotrophs that drift with ocean currents. here, we demonstrate an interaction between autocatalytic pcd and lytic viral infection in the cosmopolitan coccolithophorid, emiliania huxleyi. successful infection of e. huxleyi strain 374 with a lytic virus, ehv1, resulted in rapid internal degradation of cellular components, a dramatic reduction in the photo ...200717392426
antibodies against equine herpesvirus 1 in the cerebrospinal fluid in the horse.neutralizing antibodies against equine herpesvirus 1 were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of 16 horses and ponies from a closed herd both before and after vaccination with modified live equine herpesvirus 1. these titers were also measured in 22 neurologically normal and 15 neurologically abnormal horses at a teaching hospital. animals from the closed herd had prevaccination serum titers up to 1:8 and postvaccination serum titers up to 1:128. horses from the teaching hospital had serum ...198517422553
potential risk of equine herpes virus 1 (ehv-1) transmission by equine embryo transfer.the objective of this study was to determine whether the 10 wash cycles proposed by the international embryo transfer society (iets) for bovine embryos efficiently decontaminated equine embryos exposed to equine herpes virus 1 (ehv-1) in vitro. donor mares and stallions were individually screened and shown to be negative for the virus by pcr detection of ehv-1 dna in blood leukocytes, semen, and uterine lavages in which embryos were recovered. twenty embryos were recovered and randomly assigned ...200717459463
development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid diagnosis of neuropathogenic strains of equine herpesvirus-1.this communication reports the development and performance assessment of a rapid diagnostic test for identifying horses actively infected with the neurovirulent pathotype of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1). the test is a real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based assay that uses ehv-1 pathotype-specific taqman(r) reporter probes for discrimination between neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic strains of ehv-1 in equine blood or nasal swabs. the diagnostic performance of the new technique was ...200717459834
investigation of the molecular detection of vaccine-derived equine herpesvirus type 1 in blood and nasal secretions from horses following intramuscular vaccination.the objective of this study was to investigate whether intramuscular vaccination of healthy adult horses with a killed or a modified live equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) vaccine could induce transient positive pcr results in either blood or secretions collected on a nasopharyngeal swab. four horses in each group received either a single killed or a modified-live vaccine intramuscularly. two local commingled and 2 distant nonvaccinated controls were included for each group. all horses were obse ...200717459860
in vitro and in vivo characterization of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) mutants devoid of the viral chemokine-binding glycoprotein g (gg).glycoprotein g (gg) of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1), a structural component of virions and secreted from virus-infected cells, was shown to bind to a variety of different chemokines and as such might be involved in immune modulation. little is known, however, about its role in the replication cycle and infection of ehv-1 in vivo. here we report on the function of gg in context of virus infection in vitro and in vivo. a gg deletion mutant of pathogenic ehv-1 strain racl11 (vl11deltagg) was c ...200717250864
molecular characterization of the equine herpesvirus 1 strains racl11 and kentucky d.the pathogenicities of racl11 and kentucky d strains of equine herpesvirus 1 in the hamster infection model are different from those of ab4p and the japanese isolates. virus genome restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequence comparison of an intergenic region, glycoproteins and tegument genes showed higher conservation but with some strain-specific differences. these results indicate that point nucleotide differences in racl11 and kentucky d might be responsible for their path ...200717551238
investigation and management of an outbreak of abortion related to equine herpesvirus type 1 in unvaccinated ponies. 200717369481
equine herpesvirus-1-specific interferon gamma (ifngamma) synthesis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in thoroughbred horses.an assay has been developed that measures ehv-1 specific interferon gamma synthesis (ifngamma), a cytokine produced following the activation of memory t lymphocytes and therefore a measure of cell mediated immunity. the method requires validation in the field.200717520969
prevalence of equine herpesvirus-1 infection among thoroughbreds residing on a farm on which the virus was endemic.to determine the incidence of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) infection among thoroughbreds residing on a farm on which the virus was known to be endemic.200717696859
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