the us2 gene product of herpes simplex virus 2 modulates nf-κb activation by targeting tak1.hsv-2 is one of the most common sexually transmitted pathogens worldwide and hsv-2 infection triggers cytokine and chemokine production. however, little is known about which hsv-2 genes engage in the regulation of nf-κb signaling and what mechanisms are involved. in a screen of the unique short (us) regions of hsv-2, we observed that hsv-2 us2 activates nf-κb signaling. we additionally indicated that deficiencies of us2 decrease hsv-2 wt mediated nf-κb activation and cytokine and chemokine produ ...201728827540
seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) among pregnant women who participated in a national hiv surveillance activity in haiti.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), one the most common causes of genital ulcers, appears to increase both the risk of hiv acquisition and hiv transmission. hsv-2/hiv co-infection among pregnant women may increase the risk of perinatal transmission of hiv. this study describes rates of hsv-2 among pregnant women in haiti and hsv-2 test performance in this population.201728821230
interaction between herpesvirus entry mediator and hsv-2 glycoproteins mediates hiv-1 entry of hsv-2-infected epithelial cells.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) increases human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) acquisition and transmission via unclear mechanisms. herpesvirus entry mediator (hvem), an hsv-2 entry receptor, is highly expressed on hiv-1 target cells (cd4+ t cells) and may be incorporated into hiv-1 virions, while hsv-2 glycoproteins can be present on the infected cell surface. since hvem-gd interaction together with gb/gh/gl is essential for hsv-2 entry, hvem-bearing hiv-1 (hiv-1/hvem) may enter hsv- ...201728809154
extracts of equisetum giganteum l and copaifera reticulate ducke show strong antiviral activity against the sexually transmitted pathogen herpes simplex virus type 2.equisetum giganteum l and copaifera reticulate ducke have been traditionally used by women of the tacana tribe in the bolivian amazonas for genital hygiene and for treatment of genital infection/inflammation.201728807852
multipurpose tenofovir disoproxil fumarate electrospun fibers for the prevention of hiv-1 and hsv-2 infections in vitro.sexually transmitted infections affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide. both human immunodeficiency virus (hiv-1 and -2) and herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) remain incurable, urging the development of new prevention strategies. while current prophylactic technologies are dependent on strict user adherence to achieve efficacy, there is a dearth of delivery vehicles that provide discreet and convenient administration, combined with prolonged-delivery of active agents. to address these need ...201728797967
rubella, herpes simplex virus type 2 and preeclampsia.preeclampsia is a major health problem. although, the pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not fully understood, there are recent studies on association between infections and preeclampsia.201728747200
seminal vesicle fluid increases the efficacy of intravaginal hsv-2 vaccination.once considered merely as a vehicle for spermatozoa, it is now clear that seminal plasma (sp) induces a variety of biological actions on the female reproductive tissues able to modulate the immune response against paternal antigens. to our knowledge, the influence of sp on the immune response against sexually transmitted pathogens has not been yet evaluated. we here analyzed whether the seminal vesicle fluid (svf), which contributes almost 60% of the sp volume in mice, could modulate the immune ...201728745327
sting is an essential mediator of the ku70-mediated production of ifn-λ1 in response to exogenous dna.we previously identified ku70, a subunit of a dna repair protein complex, as a cytosolic dna sensor that induces the production of interferon-λ1 (ifn-λ1) by human primary cells and cell lines. ifn-λ1 is a type iii ifn and has similar antiviral activity to that of the type i ifns (ifn-α and ifn-β). we observed that human embryonic kidney (hek) 293t cells, which are deficient in the innate immune adaptor protein sting (stimulator of ifn genes), did not produce ifn-λ1 in response to dna unless they ...201728720717
modelling infectious diseases with relapse: a case study of hsv-2.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. although there is still no licensed vaccine for hsv-2, a theoretical investigation of the potential effects of a vaccine is considered important and has recently been conducted by several researchers. although compartmental mathematical models were considered for each special case in the previous studies, as yet there are few global stability results.201728716140
highly conserved intragenic hsv-2 sequences: results from next-generation sequencing of hsv-2 ul and us regions from genital swabs collected from 3 continents.understanding the variability in circulating herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) genomic sequences is critical to the development of hsv-2 vaccines.201728711653
validation of a membrane touch biosensor for the qualitative detection of igg class antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2.a novel type of biosensor was assessed for application to the qualitative determination of circulating antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). the device utilises a high activity hsv-2 type specific gg2 antigen for antibody capture and commercially available elisa reagents. the study compares the diagnostic performance of a prototype hsv-2 biochip to well-established in vitro tests routinely applied in clinical procedures. a panel of human serum samples (n = 60) previously characteris ...201728708188
nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) study for the detection and quantitation of cholesterol in hsv529 therapeutic vaccine candidate.this study describes the nmr-based method to determine the limit of quantitation (loq) and limit of detection (lod) of cholesterol, a process-related impurity in the replication-deficient herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 candidate vaccine hsv529. three signature peaks from the 1d (1)h nmr of a cholesterol reference spectrum were selected for the identification of cholesterol. the loq for a cholesterol working standard was found to be 1 μg/ml, and the lod was found to be 0.1 μg/ml. the identity ...201728694932
no role of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection on hiv progression in naïve hiv patientsherpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is a common infection in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) patients and may accelerate hiv progression by rising hiv viral load and decreasing cd4 count. however, the available data regarding the influence of hsv-2 seropositivity on hiv progression in hiv individuals are inconclusive. therefore, we aimed to determine hsv-2 seroprevalence in naïve hiv patients and normal controls and also investigate the relation of hiv viral load and cd4 count with hsv-2 sero ...201728688377
comparison of the antiviral potential among soluble forms of herpes simplex virus type-2 glycoprotein d receptors, herpes virus entry mediator a, nectin-1 and nectin-2, in transgenic mice.herpesvirus entry mediator a (hvem), nectin-1 and nectin-2 are cellular receptors of glycoprotein d (gd) of herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2). it has been shown that soluble forms of hsv gd receptors have the antiviral potential in cultured cells and transgenic mice. here, to compare antiviral potential of soluble forms of hvem, nectin-1 and nectin-2 against hsv-2 infections in vivo, transgenic mice expressing fusion proteins consisting of the entire ectodomain of hvem, nectin-1 or nectin-2 an ...201728671524
optimized dna vaccine enhanced by adjuvant il28b induces protective immune responses against herpes simplex virus type 2 in mice.antigen-specific immune responses determine the efficacy of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) vaccines. to optimize the immunogenicity of the antigen gd2, we developed the gd2δul25 dna vaccine encoding hsv-2 glycoprotein d and ul25 gene encoding viral capsid vertex proteins in this study. the gd2 and gd2δul25 dna vaccines were compared with formalin-inactivated hsv-2 (fi-hsv-2), and results showed a greater protective immune response induced by gd2δul25 than by gd2. therefore, gd2δul25 was cho ...201728650722
chronic herpetic retinitis: clinical features and long-term outcomes.chronic uveitis treated with immunosuppressive agents may have unfavorable outcomes due to delays in diagnosis. the aim of this study was to review initial data from clinical and ocular assessments and patient outcomes following specific treatments for atypical herpes virus ocular infections.201728628343
herpes simplex virus-2 transmission following solid organ transplantation: donor-derived infection and transplantation from prior organ recipients.owing to limited availability of donor organs, previous solid organ transplant (sot) recipients are increasingly considered as potential organ donors. we report donor-derived transmission of herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) to two clusters of sot recipients with transmission from the original donor and an hsv-2-infected recipient who subsequently became a donor.201728618165
analysis of cervical lesions for presence of hsv-2 and hpv-16 and hpv-18 in iranian patients by pcr.objective cervical cancer (cc) is one of the leading causes of deaths from cancer among women worldwide. viral infections is now one of the known risk factors for cc. the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), human papilloma virus types 16 (hpv-16) and human papilloma virus types 18 (hpv-18) in iranian patients with cc using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). materials and methods this case-control study was conducted on a total of 45 patient ...201728609291
does maternal hsv-2 coinfection increase mother-to-child transmission of hiv? a systematic review.reducing hiv mother-to-child transmission (mtct) is critical to ending the hiv pandemic. reports suggest that herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2), a common coinfection in hiv-infected individuals, is associated with increased mtct, but results have been conflicting. we conducted a systematic review of observational studies to quantify the magnitude of this relationship (prospero no. crd42016043315).201728600331
prevalence, incidence and correlates of hsv-2 infection in an hiv incidence adolescent and adult cohort study in western kenya.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections are associated with increased risk of hiv transmission. we determined hsv-2 prevalence, incidence and associated risk factors, incidence among persons with indeterminate results, and prevalence of hsv-2/hiv co-infection among young adults (18-34 years) and adolescents (16-17 years) enrolled in an hiv incidence cohort study in western kenya.201728586396
herpes simplex virus type 2 myelitis: case report and review of the literature.non-traumatic myelopathies can result from a wide spectrum of conditions including inflammatory, ischemic, and metabolic disorders. here, we describe the case of a 60-year old immunocompetent woman who developed acute back pain followed by rapidly ascending flaccid tetraparesis, a c6 sensory level, and sphincter dysfunction within 8 h. acyclovir and steroids were started on day 2 and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid. magnetic r ...201728539913
erratum to: precision of the kalon herpes simplex virus type 2 igg elisa: an international inter-laboratory assessment. 201728525965
racial/ethnic disparities at the end of an hiv epidemic: persons who inject drugs in new york city, examine whether racial/ethnic disparities persist at the "end of the hiv epidemic" (prevalence of untreated hiv infection < 5%; hiv incidence < 0.5 per 100 person-years) among persons who inject drugs (pwid) in new york city.201728520494
sexual network drivers of hiv and herpes simplex virus type 2 and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections are sexually transmitted and propagate in sexual networks. using mathematical modeling, we aimed to quantify effects of key network statistics on infection transmission, and extent to which hsv-2 prevalence can be a proxy of hiv prevalence.201728514276
migrating microbes: what pathogens can tell us about population movements and human evolution.the biology of human migration can be observed from the co-evolutionary relationship with infectious diseases. while many pathogens are brief, unpleasant visitors to human bodies, others have the ability to become life-long human passengers. the story of a pathogen's genetic code may, therefore, provide insight into the history of its human host. the evolution and distribution of disease in africa is of particular interest, because of the deep history of human evolution in africa, the presence o ...201728511559
surgical excision for recurrent herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) anogenital infection in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv).recurrent anogenital herpes simplex virus infections are common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), of whom approximately 5% develop resistance to acyclovir. we present a case of a 49-year-old man with hiv who had an 8-year history of recurrent left inguinal herpes simplex virus type 2 ulcerations. he initially responded to oral acyclovir, but developed resistance to acyclovir and eventually foscarnet. the lesion progressed to a large hypertrophic mass that required surgical exc ...201728508238
a trivalent subunit antigen glycoprotein vaccine as immunotherapy for genital herpes in the guinea pig genital infection estimated 417 million people worldwide ages 15 to 49 are infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), the most common cause of genital ulcer disease. some individuals experience frequent recurrences of genital lesions, while others only have subclinical infection, yet all risk transmitting infection to their intimate partners. a vaccine was developed that prevents shingles, which is a recurrent infection caused by varicella-zoster virus (vzv), a closely related member of the herpesvirid ...201728481687
a herpes simplex virus type 2-encoded microrna promotes tumor cell metastasis by targeting suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 in lung cancer.certain viruses use micrornas to regulate the expression of their own genes, host genes, or both. a number of micrornas expressed by herpes simplex virus type 2 have been confirmed by previous studies. however, whether these micrornas play a role in the metastasis of lung cancers and how these viral micrornas precisely regulated the tumor biological process in lung cancer bone metastasis remain obscure. we recently identified the high expression of an acutely and latently expressed viral microrn ...201728468588
herpes simplex virus type 2 acquisition among hiv-1-infected adults treated with tenofovir disoproxyl fumarate as part of combination antiretroviral therapy: results from the actg a5175 pearls study.tenofovir disoproxyl fumarate (tdf) disoproxyl fumarate (tdf) has in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and reduced hsv-2 acquisition as preexposure prophylaxis. whether tdf-containing antiretroviral therapy (art) reduces hsv-2 acquisition is unknown.201728453835
vaccination to reduce reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2. 201728453833
acyclovir resistant acute herpes simplex encephalitis associated with acute retinal necrosis: a case report and review of the literature.a 55-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for investigation of high fever, decreased consciousness and bilateral visual impairment. his cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed pleocytosis of mononuclear cells and an increased protein concentration. flair images revealed multiple high-intensity lesions in the frontal lobe, part of which was enhanced with gadolinium. despite initiating treatment with acyclovir and corticosteroids, his consciousness and visual acuity deteriorated. immunopatholog ...201728450685
correction for mahic et al., "maternal immunoreactivity to herpes simplex virus 2 and risk of autism spectrum disorder in male offspring".[this corrects the article doi: 10.1128/msphere.00016-17.].201728435887
reply to magaret and wald, "autism link to herpes simplex virus 2 antibody in pregnancy likely to be spurious". 201728409568
autism link to herpes simplex virus 2 antibody in pregnancy likely to be spurious. 201728405628
effectiveness of early antiviral therapy in disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) with fulminant hepatic failure.background liver failure in the neonatal population is a life-threatening complication and has a wide array of etiologies, including infectious, immune-mediated, metabolic, or drug-induced. although neonatal herpes simplex virus (hsv) hepatitis only accounts for 1% of all acute liver failures, it has an extremely aggressive clinical course that carries a mortality rate of 85%. case report we report a rare case of disseminated neonatal hsv-2 with late presentation associated with fulminant liver ...201728392553
herpes simplex type 2 encephalitis and methotrexate medication: a fortuitous or causative association in a patient with spondyloarthritis?it is unclear whether immunosuppression is a risk factor for herpes encephalitis. herein, we describe a rare case of herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis in a patient treated with low-dose methotrexate for hla-b27-associated spondyloarthritis. the patient was successfully treated with acyclovir but presented sequelae of encephalitis. here we discuss the possible role of low-dose methotrexate therapy as a risk factor of neurological herpes reactivation and severe disease. the host-related and ...201627879484
fulminant hepatic failure in a patient with crohn's disease on infliximab possibly related to reactivation of herpes simplex virus 2 infection.hsv hepatitis is a rare but often fatal cause of liver failure which tends to affect immunocompromised individuals. early treatment with acyclovir has been shown to reduce mortality in hsv hepatitis making recognition of the condition critically important. here, we present a case of hsv hepatitis in a young woman with crohn's disease on prednisone, azathioprine, and infliximab. we discuss the clinical presentation of hsv hepatitis as well as the possible causes of hepatitis in a patient on these ...201627818806
mathematical modeling of herpes simplex virus-2 suppression with pritelivir predicts trial outcomes.pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models estimate the potency of antiviral agents but do not capture viral and immunologic factors that drive the natural dynamics of infection. we designed a mathematical model that synthesizes pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and viral pathogenesis concepts to simulate the activity of pritelivir, a dna helicase-primase inhibitor that targets herpes simplex virus. our simulations recapitulate detailed viral kinetic shedding features in five dosage arms of a ...201626843190
fulminant hepatic and multiple organ failure following acute viral tonsillitis: a case report.pyogenic tonsillitis may often be observed in the general western population. in severe cases, it may require antibiotic treatment or even hospitalization and often a prompt clinical response will be noted. here we present an unusual case of progressive multiple organ failure including fulminant liver failure following acute tonsillitis initially mistaken for "classic" pyogenic (that is bacterial) tonsillitis.201626785992
herpes simplex virus 2 hepatitis in a lung transplant recipient: a diagnostic challenge.herpes simplex virus (hsv) hepatitis is a rare and serious complication in immunocompromised patients. we report the case of an hsv hepatitis occurring 4 years after lung transplantation in a cystic fibrosis patient. the presentation was nonspecific, mimicking acute cholecystitis; orogenital signs were absent. the diagnosis was made based on viral cultures performed during cholecystectomy and confirmed by blood quantitative polymerase chain reaction. although the diagnosis and treatment were del ...201526370068
identification of ribonucleotide reductase mutation causing temperature-sensitivity of herpes simplex virus isolates from whitlow by deep sequencing.herpes simplex virus 2 caused a genital ulcer, and a secondary herpetic whitlow appeared during acyclovir therapy. the secondary and recurrent whitlow isolates were acyclovir-resistant and temperature-sensitive in contrast to a genital isolate. we identified the ribonucleotide reductase mutation responsible for temperature-sensitivity by deep-sequencing analysis.201526185649
acute retinal necrosis secondary to multidrug-resistant herpes simplex virus 2 in an immunocompetent report the clinical course of a patient with acute retinal necrosis resulting from a multidrug-resistant strain of herpes simplex virus 2.201425372523
a study of 113 cases of genital ulcerative disease and urethral discharge syndrome with validation of syndromic management of sexually transmitted validate syndromic management of cases having genital ulcerative disease (gud) and urethral discharge syndrome (uds).201424958984
herpes simplex virus 2 encephalitis in adults. 201424485138
application and tolerability of herpotherm(®) in the treatment of genital herpes.genital herpes is the manifestation of a herpes simplex virus 2 infection. standard treatment uses both local and systemic approaches. here, we report on the results of a local therapy approach with 31 female patients at a gynecological practice. in the here-described approach, established genital herpes infection was treated with the medical device herpotherm(®), with or without virostatic drugs. herpotherm(®) is a certified medical device operating on the basis of local heat application. param ...201323776340
a vaccine strategy that protects against genital herpes by establishing local memory t cells.most successful existing vaccines rely on neutralizing antibodies, which may not require specific anatomical localization of b cells. however, efficacious vaccines that rely on t cells for protection have been difficult to develop, as robust systemic memory t-cell responses do not necessarily correlate with host protection. in peripheral sites, tissue-resident memory t cells provide superior protection compared to circulating memory t cells. here we describe a simple and non-inflammatory vaccine ...201223075848
an effector phenotype of cd8+ t cells at the junction epithelium during clinical quiescence of herpes simplex virus 2 infection.herpes simplex virus 2 infection is characterized by cycles of viral quiescence and reactivation. cd8(+) t cells persist at the site of viral reactivation, at the genital dermal-epidermal junction contiguous to neuronal endings of sensory neurons, for several months after herpes lesion resolution. to evaluate whether these resident cd8(+) t cells frequently encounter hsv antigen even during times of asymptomatic viral infection, we analyzed the transcriptional output of cd8(+) t cells captured b ...201222811543
mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for vaginal drug delivery protect against herpes simplex virus.incomplete coverage and short duration of action limit the effectiveness of vaginally administered drugs, including microbicides, for preventing sexually transmitted infections. we investigated vaginal distribution, retention, and safety of nanoparticles with surfaces modified to enhance transport through mucus. we show that mucus-penetrating particles (mpps) provide uniform distribution over the vaginal epithelium, whereas conventional nanoparticles (cps) that are mucoadhesive are aggregated by ...201222700955
[elisa test-kit for herpes 2 serodiagnosis].to reveal herpes simplex virus 2 specific igg and to determine their avidity the elisa test-kit was constructed using recombinant protein gg2 (psc spc diaproph-med). using this test-kit the distribution of specific antibodies with different avidity indexes was investigated in practically healthy donor samples. it is possible to use the mentioned elisa test-kit for confirmation of primary infection, and also for differentiation of primary infection, chronic disease and virus reactivation. thus, t ...201522686021
congenital non-central nervous system malformations in cerebral palsy: a distinct subset?the aim of this article was to identify and contrast the subset of children with cerebral palsy (cp) and non-central nervous system (cns) congenital malformations with children with cp but no coexisting non-cns congenital malformations.201222577967
glycoprotein b of herpes simplex virus 2 has more than one intracellular conformation and is altered by low ph.the crystal structure of herpes simplex virus (hsv) gb identifies it as a class iii fusion protein, and comparison with other such proteins suggests this is the postfusion rather than prefusion conformation, although this is not proven. other class iii proteins undergo a ph-dependent switch between pre- and postfusion conformations, and a low ph requirement for hsv entry into some cell types suggests that this may also be true for gb. both gb and gh undergo structural changes at low ph, but ther ...201222514344
the potential of currently unavailable herpes virus vaccines.despite overwhelming experimental work, there are no licensed vaccines against the most frequent alphaherpesviruses, namely herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (hsv1 and 2) nor against the epstein-barr virus (ebv), a member of the subfamily gammaherpesvirus. areas covered: since the dnas of both hsvs reside in the regional sensory ganglia in a latent state (i.e. as circularized episomal molecules), a corresponding vaccine might be useful for immunotherapy rather than prevention of primary infection. he ...201829313728
association between virus exposure and depression in us adults.mood disorders are common mental illnesses. among the factors associated with major depression are exposures to infectious diseases including hepatitis c, influenza, varicella-zoster, and herpes viruses. in this study, we sought to evaluate further associations between viral exposure and depression. from the us center for disease control's national health and nutrition examination survey, we obtained data about depression status, antidepressant use, exposure to hepatitis a, hepatitis b, herpes s ...201729287239
determining the igm and igg antibodies titer against hsv1, hsv2 and cmv in the serum of schizophrenia patients.schizophrenia is a destructive clinical syndrome with diverse mental pathologies. different mechanisms and factors have a role in this disease. a possible mechanism is that teratogenic viruses cause brain changes and results in the disease appearance. the schizophrenia patients were diagnosed by psychologists and with the consent of patients, five cc of venous blood was drawn. than serum samples were isolated and immunoglobulin m (igm) and immunoglobulin g (igg) antibodies against herpes simplex ...201729036805
herpesviruses in etiopathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis: a meta-analysis based on case-control studies.previous studies have found that herpesviruses are associated with aggressive periodontitis (agp). however, these findings are controversial. this meta-analysis was aimed at clarifying the association between herpesviruses and agp.201729036216
molecular evolution of herpes simplex virus 2 complete genomes: comparison between primary and recurrent infections.herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 are large, double-stranded dna viruses that cause lifelong persistent infections characterized by periods of quiescence and recurrent disease. how hsv evolves within an infected individual experiencing multiple episodes of recurrent disease over time is not known. we determined the genome sequences of viruses isolated from two subjects in the herpevac trial for women who experienced primary hsv-2 genital disease and compared them with sequences of viruses ...201728931680
[investigation of bacterial and viral etiology in community acquired central nervous system infections with molecular methods].in this multicenter prospective cohort study, it was aimed to evaluate the bacterial and viral etiology in community-acquired central nervous system infections by standart bacteriological culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) methods. patients hospitalized with central nervous system infections between april 2012 and february 2014 were enrolled in the study. demographic and clinical information of the patients were collected prospectively. cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples of the ...201728929964
association between infection burden and adult height.although highly heritable, adult height is also associated with numerous environmental factors, including exposure to infection. particularly in developing regions of the world, infection burden appears to slow growth during childhood. using a large database representative of the us population, we examined associations between adult height and leg length and an infection-burden index based on past exposure to toxocara species, toxoplasmosis gondii, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis a, hepatitis b, hepa ...201728926748
[herpes simplex virus infection: an overview of the problem, pharmacologic therapy and dietary measures].treatment of infectious diseases remains one of the principal research target for many researchers and healthcare providers worldwide. herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) and herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) are common human pathogens with an estimated 60-95% of the adult population infected by at least one of them. the worldwide disease burden of hsv is substantial, and acyclovir and related nucleoside analogues (viral dna polymerase inhibitors) as therapies have led to significantly increased treatme ...201728914066
performance of commercial enzyme-linked immunoassays for diagnosis of herpes simplex virus-1 and herpes simplex virus-2 infection in a clinical food and drug administration-approved enzyme-linked immunoassays (eia) for determining type-specific herpes simplex virus (hsv) serostatus are widely used in clinical practice. we compared the performance of such assays with the university of washington western blot (uw wb) in patients who sought confirmation of their hsv serology result.201728876290
image gallery: lenalidomide for the treatment of pseudotumoral herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in human immunodeficiency virus infection. 201829357582
high-risk behaviour and hiv infection risk among non-local men who have sex with men with less than a single year's residence in urban centres: a multicentre cross-sectional study from china.traditionally, subjects' migration status has usually been defined on the basis of their registered residency status. we attempted to redefine migration based on the duration of residency in their cities of migration and to explore more precisely the impact of migration on hiv infection risk in men who have sex with men (msm).201829348258
exogenous oestrogen inhibits genital transmission of cell-associated hiv-1 in dmpa-treated humanized affects more women than any other life-threatening infectious agent, and most infections are sexually transmitted. hiv must breach the female genital tract mucosal barrier to establish systemic infection, and clinical studies indicate virus more easily evades this barrier in women using depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (dmpa) and other injectable progestins for contraception. identifying a potential mechanism for this association, we learned dmpa promotes susceptibility of wild-type mice to ...201829334191
invasive obstetric procedures and cesarean sections in women with known herpes simplex virus status during pregnancy.neonatal herpes is a potentially devastating infection that results from acquisition of herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 or 2 from the maternal genital tract at the time of vaginal delivery. current guidelines recommend (1) cesarean delivery if maternal genital hsv lesions are present at the time of labor and (2) antiviral suppressive therapy for women with known genital herpes to decrease hsv shedding from the genital tract at the time of vaginal delivery. however, most neonatal infections occ ...201729308404
associations between friendship characteristics and hiv and hsv-2 status amongst young south african women in hptn-068.prevalence of hiv among young women in south africa remains extremely high. adolescent peer groups have been found to be an important influence on a range of health behaviours. the characteristics of young women's friendships might influence their sexual health and hiv risk via connections to sexual partners, norms around sexual initiation and condom use, or provision of social support. we investigated associations between young women's friendships and their herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) a ...201729285883
dual-strain genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection in the us, peru, and 8 countries in sub-saharan africa: a nested cross-sectional viral genotyping study.quantitative estimation of the extent to which the immune system's protective effect against one herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection protects against infection with additional hsv-2 strains is important for understanding the potential for hsv-2 vaccine development. using viral genotyping, we estimated the prevalence of hsv-2 dual-strain infection and identified risk factors.201729281620
the ticking clock of hsv-2 pathology.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is the causative agent of genital herpes. matsuzawa et al have demonstrated that, in a mouse model, hsv-2 pathology is influenced by the time infection occurs. increased expression of the hsv-2 receptor nectin-1 under the control of clock coincided with an increase in viral titer suggesting that hsv-2 infection is regulated by the host circadian clock.201829273146
low cd4 cells and viral co-infection increase the risk of vain: use of scca1 and ki67 as diagno-prognostic biomarkers.this study evaluated the correlation of scca1, ki67 and cd4 cell expressions and classified vaginal smears in individuals co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv2), epstein barr virus (ebv) and human papilloma virus (hpv). this crossectional study included 173 participants within the age range of 20-70 years. vaginal smears were stained by papanicolaou technique and classified into high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesion (hsil), low-grade squamous ...201729269193
real time pcr to evaluate hsv-2 shedding from anal and genital samples among men who have sex with men, living with hiv.this study shows the relative quantification of hsv-2 by qpcr, using the miqe guidelines. the reaction efficiency was evaluated, and the relative quantification used the r = 2-δcq method. the relative quantification of hsv-2 was conducted with anal and genital samples from men who have sex with men (msm), living with hiv. the presence of a single amplification product was validated with a dissociation curves profile and the determination of the melting temperature. the limit of detection for β-g ...201729236293
modeling hiv disease progression and transmission at population-level: the potential impact of modifying disease progression in hiv treatment programs.mathematical models that incorporate hiv disease progression dynamics can estimate the potential impact of strategies that delay hiv disease progression and reduce infectiousness for persons not on antiretroviral therapy (art). suppressive treatment of hiv-positive persons co-infected with herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) with valacyclovir, an hsv-2 antiviral, can lower hiv viral load, but the impact of partially-suppressive valacyclovir relative to fully-suppressive art on population hiv transmis ...201729223580
anti hsv-2 activity of peganum harmala (l.) and isolation of the active compound.genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). nucleoside analogues such as acyclovir (acv) are the usual therapy for treating hsv infection. however, the overuse of this drug has led to the emergence of resistant strains. therefore, the search for new alternative or complementary molecules to overcome this obstacle is needed. in this objective, peganum harmala was investigated for its hsv-2 activity. the organic extracts of the different plant or ...201729223449
education, early screening and treatment of stis could reduce infertility among women in kenya, sexually transmitted infections (stis) such as chlamydia trachomatis, neisseria gonorrhoea, hiv, herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), syphilis and trichomoniasis tend to be prevalent, especially in women. further, the research shows that women who test positive for stis (other than hiv), have little knowledge of these infections. of particular concern, is that there has been little attention on the part of government to educate the general public about stis, yet these diseases can have ...201729209488
hiv and herpes simplex virus type 2 epidemiological synergy: misguided observational evidence? a modelling investigate whether observational studies of hiv and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections have the capacity to assess the hiv/hsv-2 epidemiological synergy.201729203577
atypical presentation of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection refractory to treatment with acyclovir in 2 hematologic patients.herpesvirus infections are not uncommon in hematologic patients. our first patient, diagnosed with chronic lymphatic leukemia, presented extensive genital herpes infection refractory to treatment with acyclovir and with a partial response to foscarnet, which had to be withdrawn due to systemic adverse effects. the second patient, diagnosed with follicular hodgkin lymphoma, presented hypertrophic herpes infection refractory to treatment with acyclovir but that responded to intralesional cidofovir ...201729203034
us6 gene deletion in herpes simplex virus type 2 enhances dendritic cell function and t cell activation.herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) produce lifelong infections that are associated with frequent asymptomatic or clinically apparent reactivation. importantly, hsv express multiple virulence factors that negatively modulate innate and adaptive immune components. notably, hsv interfere with dendritic cell (dc) viability and function, likely hindering the capacity of the host to mount effective immunity against these viruses. recently, an hsv-2 virus that was deleted in g ...201729176979
prospective cohort study showing persistent hsv-2 shedding in women with genital herpes 2 years after acquisition.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is a prevalent infection with great variability in clinical and virological manifestations among individuals. this prospective cohort study aims to evaluate the natural history of hsv-2 reactivation in the genital area in the same group of women over time.201729175899
pharmacological induction of heme oxygenase-1 impairs nuclear accumulation of herpes simplex virus capsids upon infection.heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1) is an inducible enzyme that is expressed in response to physical and chemical stresses, such as ultraviolet radiation, hyperthermia, hypoxia, reactive oxygen species (ros), as well as cytokines, among others. its activity can be positively modulated by cobalt protoporphyrin (copp) and negatively by tin protoporphirin (snpp). once induced, ho-1 degrades iron-containing heme into ferrous iron (fe2+), carbon monoxide (co) and biliverdin. importantly, numerous products of ho- ...201729163402
a concise synthesis of rhamnan oligosaccharides with alternating α-(1→2)/(1→3)-linkages and repeating α-(1→3)-linkages by iterative α-glycosylation using disaccharide building blocks.a concise synthetic route to rhamnan oligosaccharides with alternating α-(1→2)/(1→3)-linkages and repeating α-(1→3)-linkages is reported. this synthesis was achieved by iterative α-glycosylation using disaccharide building blocks and through orthogonal coupling between thioglycosides of l-rhamnose. to investigate the detailed structure-activity relationship of rhamnan sulfate from monostroma nitidum against herpes simplex virus type 2, the synthesized oligosaccharides, bearing different orthogon ...201829156420
hiv prevalence and associated risk factors among men who have sex with men in dar es salaam, studies and differential risk behaviours among men who have sex with men(msm) in africa calls for population specific studies. we present results from the largest integrated bio-behavioural survey among msm in africa to inform programming.201729140871
seropositivity to herpes simplex virus type 2, but not type 1 is associated with cervical cancer: nhanes (1999-2014).herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv1 and hsv2) are infectious agents, and their association with cancer occurrence in human is a controversial topic for decades. we addressed this subject using all available continuous national health and nutrition examination survey (nhanes) cross-sectional data from 1999 to 2014.201729115946
school support as structural hiv prevention for adolescent orphans in western kenya.using a clustered randomized controlled trial design, we evaluated whether support to keep kenyan orphaned adolescents in school reduces the risk of hiv infection.201829107569
expression and characterization of the soluble form of recombinant mature hsv-2 glycoprotein g for use in anti-hsv-2 igg serodiagnostic immunoassay.herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) specific glycoprotein g (gg-2) is widely used as the antigen of choice for serodiagnosis of hsv-2. in order to develop an elisa for serodetection of hsv-2 igg in patient sera, the soluble form of the mature gg-2 antigen (mgg-2), gg283-649, was expressed using a baculovirus expression system. gg283-649 contains the complete extracellular domain of mgg-2 including the c-terminal region, which despite homology to gg-1, does not cross-react with hsv-1 antibodies p ...201829104048
carbosilane dendrons with fatty acids at the core as a new potential microbicide against hsv-2/hiv-1 co-infection.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) represent the two most frequent sexually transmitted infections (sti) worldwide. epidemiological studies suggest that hsv-2 increases the risk of hiv-1 acquisition approximately 3-fold mainly due to the clinical and immunological manifestations. in the absence of vaccines against both sti, the development of new preventive strategies has become essential for further studies. we performed the screening of six nove ...201729090302
the role of fungi in the etiology of multiple sclerosis.multiple sclerosis (ms) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. infectious triggers of ms are being actively investigated. substantial evidence supports the involvement of the epstein-barr virus (ebv), though other viruses, bacteria, protists, and fungi are also being considered. many links between fungi and diseases involving chronic inflammation have been found recently. evidence linking ms and fungi is reviewed here. the hla-drb1*15 allele group is the most important ...201729085329
intramuscular delivery of replication-defective herpes simplex virus gives antigen expression in muscle syncytia and improved protection against pathogenic hsv-2 strains.herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) is the leading cause of genital herpes and increases the risk of hiv infection, but there is no effective vaccine. a replication-defective hsv-2 mutant virus, dl5-29, is effective in animal models and has been in a phase i trial. previous studies have shown that dl5-29 gives higher antibody responses and better protection when inoculated intramuscularly (im) as compared with subcutaneously (sc). however, the basis for this effect has not been defined. we confirmed ...201829069622
[co-infections of hiv, syphilis and hsv-2 among men who have sex with men at the voluntary hiv counseling and testing clinics in shanghai].objective: to understand the prevalence rates of hiv-syphilis and hiv-herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) co-infections and related factors among men having sex with men (msm) who had visited the voluntary hiv counseling and testing (vct) clinics in shanghai, china. methods: 756 eligible msm who attended the vct clinics of shanghai municipality and putuo district during march to august, 2015 were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional survey with questionnaire interview and blood testing for h ...201729060980
antiviral effects of lactobacillus crispatus against hsv-2 in mammalian cell lines.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infectious disease is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases. as regards, vaginal lactobacilli play an important role in protecting host against the urogenital pathogens; here we assessed the potential antiviral activity of lactobacillus crispatus against hsv-2 infection in vitro.201729037754
optimized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting cytomegalovirus infections during clinical trials of recombinant clinical trials of cytomegalovirus (cmv) glycoprotein b (gb) vaccines, cmv infection is detected by first depleting serum of anti-gb antibodies and then measuring anti-cmv antibodies with a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) kit, with confirmation of positive findings by immunoblot.201729035763
association between male circumcision and women's biomedical health outcomes: a systematic review.male circumcision reduces men's risk of acquiring hiv and some sexually transmitted infections from heterosexual exposure, and is essential for hiv prevention in sub-saharan africa. studies have also investigated associations between male circumcision and risk of acquisition of hiv and sexually transmitted infections in women. we aimed to review all evidence on associations between male circumcision and women's health outcomes to benefit women's health programmes.201729025633
strong associations between national prevalence of various stis suggests sexual network connectivity is a common underpinning risk factor.if national peak human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) prevalence is positively associated with the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (stis) from before or early on in the hiv epidemics this would suggest common underlying drivers.201729025419
network analysis of the hominin origin of herpes simplex virus 2 from fossil data.herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv2) is a human herpesvirus found worldwide that causes genital lesions and more rarely causes encephalitis. this pathogen is most common in africa, and particularly in central and east africa, an area of particular significance for the evolution of modern humans. unlike hsv1, hsv2 has not simply co-speciated with humans from their last common ancestor with primates. hsv2 jumped the species barrier between 1.4 and 3 mya, most likely through intermediate but unknown homin ...201728979799
differences in health-related quality of life between hiv-positive and hiv-negative people in zambia and south africa: a cross-sectional baseline survey of the hptn 071 (popart) trial.the life expectancy of hiv-positive individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (art) is approaching that of hiv-negative people. however, little is known about how these populations compare in terms of health-related quality of life (hrqol). we aimed to compare hrqol between hiv-positive and hiv-negative people in zambia and south africa.201728964756
biologic interactions between hsv-2 and hiv-1 and possible implications for hsv vaccine development.development of a safe and effective vaccine against herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) has the potential to limit the global burden of hsv-2 infection and disease, including genital ulcer disease and neonatal herpes, and is a global sexual and reproductive health priority. another important potential benefit of an hsv-2 vaccine would be to decrease hiv infections, as hsv-2 increases the risk of hiv-1 acquisition several-fold. acute and chronic hsv-2 infection creates ulcerations and draws dendr ...201728958807
novel role for interleukin-17 in enhancing type 1 helper t cell immunity in the female genital tract following mucosal herpes simplex virus 2 is well established that interferon gamma (ifn-γ) production by cd4+ t cells is critical for antiviral immunity against herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) genital infection. however, the role of interleukin-17a (il-17a) production by cd4+ t cells in hsv-2 antiviral immunity is yet to be elucidated. here we demonstrate that il-17a plays an important role in enhancing antiviral t helper type 1 (th1) responses in the female genital tract (fgt) and is essential for effective protection conferred by h ...201728956763
prevalent herpes simplex virus-2 increases the risk of incident bacterial vaginosis in women from south africa.studies have shown that women diagnosed with herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) have a higher risk for bacterial vaginosis (bv) infection. we investigated the presence of hsv-2 infections as a risk factor for incident bv infections in high risk, human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) uninfected women enrolled in a hiv prevention trial in durban, south africa. the vaginal and oral interventions to control the epidemic trial was a multicentre, double blinded, randomized controlled trial which was designed ...201728956191
co-infection of human herpesvirus type 2 (hhv-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) among pregnant women in rio de janeiro, brazil.pregnant women who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) are particularly vulnerable to severe and recurrent infections with human herpesvirus 2 (hhv-2). neonatal transmission of hhv-2 has been associated with malformations and neurological sequelae in infants, which makes it very important to perform antenatal monitoring for genital herpes. in the study, 134 pregnant women infected with hiv were tested for hhv-2 igm and igg using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) a ...201828914079
hiv prevalence and correlated factors of female sex workers and male clients in a border region of yunnan province, china.female sex workers (fsws) and their male clients are vulnerable to hiv infection and serve as a bridge in hiv transmission from the high-risk population to the general, low-risk population. to examine the factors of fsws and male clients that correlate with the prevalence of hiv infection in the chinese-vietnamese border region, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 in the hekou county of the yunnan province of china. we performed a questionnaire survey to collect data on demographics, ...201728901213
heterogeneity of herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence from a national probability survey in mexico, 2012.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) seroprevalence and associated infection risk factors show differences by regions and countries. the aims of the study were to determine the hsv-2 seroprevalence and to evaluate the risk factors for hsv-2 in a national representative survey among adolescents and adults in mexico.201828876288
the effect of school attendance and school dropout on incident hiv and hsv-2 among young women in rural south africa enrolled in hptn estimate the association between school attendance, school dropout, and risk of incident hiv and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection among young women.201728692544
transcriptional analysis of the guinea pig mucosal immune response to intravaginal infection with herpes simplex virus type 2.genital herpes infection in guinea pigs closely models human infection but tools for immune characterization are limited. immunity to hsv infection at the vaginal epithelial surface was characterized in guinea pigs using pcr-based array analysis of vaginal swab samples. ifnγ was one of the most significantly upregulated genes throughout the infection and over 40% of genes with significantly altered expression were linked to ifnγ based on interferome analysis. ifnγ transcripts and biologically ac ...201829604476
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