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detection of a new variant of herpes simplex virus type 2 among hiv-1-infected individuals. 201323567026
hsv-2 specifically down regulates hla-c expression to render hsv-2-infected dcs susceptible to nk cell killing.both nk cells and ctls kill virus-infected and tumor cells. however, the ways by which these killer cells recognize the infected or the tumorigenic cells are different, in fact almost opposite. ctls are activated through the interaction of the tcr with mhc class i proteins. in contrast, nk cells are inhibited by mhc class i molecules. the inhibitory nk receptors recognize mainly mhc class i proteins and in this regard practically all of the hla-c proteins are recognized by inhibitory nk cell rec ...201323555244
griffithsin protects mice from genital herpes by preventing cell-to-cell spread.griffithsin, which binds n-linked glycans on gp120 to prevent hiv entry, has the most potent hiv-1 inhibitory activity described for any antiviral lectin and is being developed for topical preexposure prophylaxis. the current studies were designed to further assess its potential by exploring its activity against herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2), a cofactor for hiv acquisition, in vitro and in a murine model. safety was evaluated by examining its impact on epithelial barrier integrity in polarized ...201323536670
mast cells play a key role in host defense against herpes simplex virus infection through tnf-α and il-6 production.the essential contribution of mast cells (mcs) to bacterial host defense has been well established; however, little is known about their role in viral infections in vivo. here, we found that intradermal injection with herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) into mc-deficient kit(w/wv) mice led to increased clinical severity and mortality with elevated virus titers in hsv-infected skins. ex vivo hsv-specific tetramer staining assay demonstrated that mc deficiency did not affect the frequency of hsv-specif ...201323528820
effect of the potent antiviral 1-cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin on cytokine production by murine macrophages stimulated with hsv-2.the limonoid 1-cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin (cdm) isolated from leaf extracts of melia azedarach l, has potent antiherpetic effect in epithelial cells. since meliacine, the partially purified extract source of cdm, has therapeutic effect on murine genital herpes, the potential use of cdm as microbicide against herpetic infections was studied here. to determine the cytotoxic effect of cdm, the mtt assay and acridine orange staining of living cells were performed. the antiherpetic action of ...201423512754
limited benefit of repeating a sensitive question in a cross-sectional sexual health study.sexual health research relies heavily on self-reported data. we explored whether repeating a key measure - number of lifetime sexual partners - improved the validity of this self-reported response.201323496958
herpes simplex virus 2 meningitis: a retrospective cohort study.herpes simplex virus 2 is a leading cause of viral meningitis and the most commonly recognized infectious cause of benign, recurrent meningitis. we report a retrospective, observational cohort study of patients with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) meningitis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in the cerebrospinal fluid (csf). the terms "herpes simplex," "meningitis," or "encephalitis" were searched in the medical records system of the mayo clinic in rochester, minnesota (1995-2008 ...201323494382
herpes simplex virus type 2 serological testing at a community court: predictors of test acceptance and seropositivity among female defendants.despite the high prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), testing for asymptomatic infections is uncommon. one population for whom targeted interventions may be prioritized include individuals involved with the correctional system. here we describe the acceptability of a novel hsv-2 screening program, implemented in a court setting, as a possible intervention for corrections-involved women. female defendants completed an interviewer administered survey assessing factors associated with ...201323467289
rapid host immune response and viral dynamics in herpes simplex virus-2 infection.herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) is periodically shed throughout the human genital tract. although a high viral load correlates with the development of genital ulcers, shedding also commonly occurs even when ulcers are absent, allowing for silent transmission during coitus and contributing to high seroprevalence of hsv-2 worldwide. frequent viral reactivation occurs within ganglia despite diverse and complementary host and viral mechanisms that predispose toward latency, suggesting that viral repl ...201323467247
an improved system for the evaluation of antiviral compounds against herpes simplex virus type 2.infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) can result in lesions in reproductive organs, along with long-term latency. in this work, a non-lethal strain of hsv-2 which was isolated clinically was used to infect female mice intravaginally. body weight, vulval lesions, histological examination of vaginal tissue, and viral load were monitored and used as indices for evaluating antiviral drugs against hsv-2 infection. the results indicated that mice infected with hsv-2 exhibited significant ...201323454799
regulation of herpes simplex virus gb-induced cell-cell fusion by mutant forms of gh/gl in the absence of gd and cellular receptors.herpesvirus entry requires the viral glycoprotein triad of gb and gh/gl to carry out fusion between the virion envelope and a cellular membrane in order to release the nucleocapsid into the target cell. herpes simplex virus (hsv) also requires glycoprotein gd to initiate the fusion cascade by binding a cell receptor such as nectin 1 or herpesvirus entry mediator (hvem). while the structure of gb is that of a class iii fusion protein, gh/gl has no features that resemble other viral fusion protein ...201323443004
[knowledge about herpes simplex virus type 2 and human papillomavirus, and risk perception to acquire infections among college students].herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and human papillomavirus (hpv) are the most frequent sexually transmitted infections (sti) among college students 18-24 years old. educational interventions for sti prevention can help to decrease viral sti prevalence among students.201423435072
plantar leukocytoclastic vasculitis with detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 by pcr assay. 201323432087
cyclic changes in hiv shedding from the female genital tract during the menstrual cycle.factors increasing genital human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) shedding may increase female-to-male hiv transmission risk. we examined hiv shedding in 67 women with hiv type 1 and herpes simplex virus type 2 coinfection, during 2 menstrual cycles. shedding occurred in 60%, 48%, and 54% of samples during the follicular, periovulatory, and luteal phases, respectively (p = .01). shedding declined after menses until ovulation, with a slope -0.054 log10 copies/swab/day (p < .001), corresponding to a c ...201323417658
an adjuvanted herpes simplex virus 2 subunit vaccine elicits a t cell response in mice and is an effective therapeutic vaccine in guinea pigs.immunotherapeutic herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) vaccine efficacy depends upon the promotion of antigen-specific immune responses that inhibit reactivation or reactivated virus, thus controlling both recurrent lesions and viral shedding. in the present study, a candidate subunit vaccine, gen-003/mm-2, was evaluated for its ability to induce a broad-spectrum immune response in mice and therapeutic efficacy in hsv-2-infected guinea pigs. gen-003 is comprised of hsv-2 glycoprotein d2 (gd2δtmr340-36 ...201323365421
evaluation of antiherpetic activity of crude extract and fractions of avicenna marina, in vitro.this study was carried out to check antiherpetic substances of crude methanol leaf extract of avicenna marina and its column chromatographic fractions.201323333436
antimicrobial peptide ll-37 produced by hsv-2-infected keratinocytes enhances hiv infection of langerhans cells.herpes simplex virus (hsv)-2 shedding is associated with increased risk for sexually acquiring hiv. because langerhans cells (lcs), the mucosal epithelium resident dendritic cells, are suspected to be one of the initial target cell types infected by hiv following sexual exposure, we examined whether and how hsv-2 affects hiv infection of lcs. although relatively few hsv-2/hiv-coinfected lcs were detected, hsv-2 dramatically enhanced the hiv susceptibility of lcs within skin explants. hsv-2 stimu ...201323332157
polyethylenimine combined with liposomes and with decreased numbers of primary amine residues strongly enhanced therapeutic antiviral efficiency against herpes simplex virus type 2 in a mouse model.the development of antiviral agents that have novel mechanisms of action is urgently required in the topical therapy of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections. we reported previously that topical application of branched 3610-da polyethylenimine (pei) exhibited preventative antiviral activity. in this study, to develop therapeutic anti-hsv-2 agents, the most potent pei combined with ~200 nm-sized liposomes with or without oleic acid (liposomes/pei) was selected in vitro and further evalua ...201323298614
the epidemiology of herpes simplex virus type-2 infection among pregnant women in rural mysore taluk, india.objectives. to assess the prevalence and determinants of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections among pregnant women attending mobile antenatal health clinic in rural villages in mysore taluk, india. methods. between january and september 2009, 487 women from 52 villages participated in this study. each participant consented to provide a blood sample for hsv-2 and hiv testing and underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire. results. hsv-2 prevalence was 6.7% (95% confidence inter ...201326316964
[protective activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms against herpes simplex virus type-2 on albino mice model].toxicity and antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms such as lentinula edodes (berk.) pegler (shiitake), pleurotus ostreatus (jacq.) p. kumm. (oyster), inonotus obliquus (ach. ex pers.) pilát (chaga), hydnellum compactum (pers.) p. karst. (compact tooth) were studied. in doses of 0.8 to 4.0 mg (dry weight) per mouse administered orally or intraperitoneally the extracts showed no acute toxicity. when the dose of the chaga extract was increased to 20 mg per mouse, a half of th ...201324738237
cd8+ t lymphocyte epitopes from the herpes simplex virus type 2 icp27, vp22 and vp13/14 proteins to facilitate vaccine design and characterization.cd8+ t cells have the potential to control hsv-2 infection. however, limited information has been available on cd8+ t cell epitopes or the functionality of antigen specific t cells during infection or following immunization with experimental vaccines. peptide panels from hsv-2 proteins icp27, vp22 and vp13/14 were selected from in silico predictions of binding to human hla-a*0201 and mouse h-2kd, ld and dd molecules. nine previously uncharacterized cd8+ t cell epitopes were identified from hsv-2 ...201324709642
serological investigation of the role of selected sexually transmitted infections in the aetiology of ectopic pregnancy.to investigate the association between selected sexually transmitted infections (stis) and the later occurrence of ectopic pregnancy.201323256948
pityriasis lichenoides chronica associated with herpes simplex virus type 2.introduction. pityriasis lichenoides is a rare, acquired spectrum of skin conditions of an unknown etiology. case report. a 28-year-old man presented with recurrent outbreaks of herpes simplex virus associated with the onset of red-to-brown maculopapules located predominantly in trunk in each recurrence. positive serologies to herpes simplex virus type 2 were detected. histopathological examination of one of the lesions was consistent with a diagnosis of pityriasis lichenoides chronica. discussi ...201223243523
topical smip-7.7, a toll-like receptor 7 agonist, protects against genital herpes simplex virus type-2 disease in the guinea pig model of genital herpes.development of more effective therapies for genital herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) infections remains a priority. the toll-like receptors (tlr) are attractive targets for the immunomodulation of primary and recurrent genital herpes infection. the guinea pig model of genital hsv-2 disease was therefore used to evaluate the efficacy of a new tlr-7 agonist, smip-7.7.201423232327
response to 'herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) assay specificity and male circumcision to reduce hsv-2 acquisition. 201323221431
herpes simplex virus type-2 assay specificity and male circumcision to reduce herpes simplex virus type-2 acquisition. 201323221430
in vitro antiviral activity of dermaseptin s(4) and derivatives from amphibian skin against herpes simplex virus type 2.herpes simplex virus (hsv) infections have become a public health problem worldwide. the emergence of acyclovir-resistant viral strains and the failure of vaccination to prevent herpetic infections have prompted the search for new antiviral drugs. accordingly, the present study was undertaken to synthesize chemically and evaluate dermaseptin s(4) (s(4)), an anti-microbial peptide derived from amphibian skin, and its derivatives in terms of anti-herpetic activity. the effects of biochemical modif ...201323161023
association between herpes simplex virus type 2 and hiv-1 in a population of married couples from dakar, senegal.numerous studies suggest that herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) increases the risk of hiv-1 infection but recent clinical trials of hsv-2 suppressive therapy failed to show an effect. we assessed the putative association between hsv-2 and hiv-1 in a population of hiv-concordant-negative, hiv-1-discordant and hiv-1-concordant-positive married couples from dakar, senegal. in agreement with previous studies, we observed a strong overall association between hsv-2 and hiv-1 (odds ratio 4.61; p < 0. ...201223155102
herpes simplex virus type 2 infection as a biomarker for sexual debut among young people in sub-saharan africa: a literature review.biological markers are needed in order to provide objective measures to validate self-reported sexual behaviour and interpret prevention trial data. in this review, we evaluated herpes simplex type 2 virus (hsv-2), one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in sub-saharan africa as a biological marker of sexual debut. based on our findings, we do not recommend using hsv-2 as a biomarker for sexual debut due to its low transmission probabilities and the fact that hsv-2 prevalence i ...201223155093
serologic screening for herpes simplex virus type 2 in persons with human immunodeficiency virus.screening for subclinical herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) may be a useful adjunct in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) care. however, hsv-2 serological tests have been suggested to perform less well in hiv-infected populations. in this study, herpeselect hsv-2 elisa was compared with the sure-vue rapid hsv-2 test for hsv-2 screening of sera from 310 hiv-infected persons receiving care at an hiv-dedicated clinic in the southeastern united states. in the study, assay agreement and whether the ...201323154653
herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) prevents dendritic cell maturation, induces apoptosis, and triggers release of proinflammatory cytokines: potential links to hsv-hiv synergy.herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) may cause frequent recurrences, highlighting its ability to evade host defense. this study tested the hypothesis that hsv-2 interferes with dendritic cell (dc) function as an escape mechanism, which may contribute to enhanced hiv replication in coinfected populations. immature monocyte-derived human dcs were exposed to live or uv-inactivated hsv-2 or lipopolysaccharide. little or no increase in the maturation marker cd83 was observed in response to hsv-2 and hsv-2 ...201323152529
associations between drug use and risk behaviours for hiv and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in yunnan, china.this is a cross-sectional study of 399 subjects conducted to explore the association between drug use and risk behaviour for hiv and sexually transmitted infections (stis) among female sex workers (fsws), and also to study the prevalence of hiv/stis among drug-using fsws (dufsws) and non-dufsws in yunnan province of china. demographic information, mobility, sexual and drug-using behaviours were collected and subjects were tested for hiv/stis. mean age was 27 years (sd = ±7.8) and 94 (23.6%) test ...201223104743
pathogenesis of neonatal herpes simplex 2 disease in a mouse model is dependent on entry receptor expression and route of inoculation.herpes simplex virus (hsv) pathogenesis in mice differs based on availability of the principal entry receptors herpesvirus entry mediator (hvem) and nectin-1 in a manner dependent upon route of inoculation. after intravaginal or intracranial inoculation of adult mice, nectin-1 is a major mediator of neurologic disease, while the absence of either receptor attenuates disease after ocular infection. we tested the importance of receptor availability and route of infection on disease in mouse models ...201323097453
midtrimester fetal herpes simplex-2 diagnosis by serology, culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction.the acquisition of herpes simplex virus (hsv) in utero comprises a minority of neonatal herpes infections. prenatal diagnosis is rare. we describe a midtrimester diagnosis of fetal hsv-2 infection. ultrasound at 20 weeks for elevated maternal serum α-fetoprotein (msafp) showed lagging fetal growth, echogenic bowel, echogenic myocardium, and liver with a mottled pattern of echogenicity. amniocentesis demonstrated normal karyotype, elevated afp and positive acetylcholinesterase. culture isolated h ...201323075531
immunogenicity and efficacy of intramuscular replication-defective and subunit vaccines against herpes simplex virus type 2 in the mouse genital model.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is a sexually transmitted virus that is highly prevalent worldwide, causing a range of symptoms that result in significant healthcare costs and human suffering. acam529 is a replication-defective vaccine candidate prepared by growing the previously described dl5-29 on a cell line appropriate for gmp manufacturing. this vaccine, when administered subcutaneously, was previously shown to protect mice from a lethal vaginal hsv-2 challenge and to afford better prot ...201223071620
predictors of undiagnosed herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositivity among persons attending an hiv care clinic.we evaluated herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) sero- positivity in an hiv clinic- based population with cd4 lymphocytes counts ≥250 cells/μl and no previous knowledge of hsv-2 infection by history of serology. we demonstrate that although the seroprevalence of hsv-2 is higher in this hiv-infected population, predictors of hsv-2 seropositivity are similar to those in the general population.201223064534
h11/hspb8 and its herpes simplex virus type 2 homologue icp10pk share functions that regulate cell life/death decisions and human disease.small heat shock proteins (shsp) also known as hspb are a large family of widely expressed proteins that contain a 90 residues domain known as α-crystallin. here, we focus on the family member h11/hspb8 and its herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) homologue icp10pk, and discuss the possible impact of this relationship on human disease. h11/hspb8 and icp10pk are atypical protein kinases. they share multi-functional activity that encompasses signaling, unfolded protein response (upr) and the regula ...201223056924
herpes simplex virus type 2 mediated acute retinal necrosis in a pediatric population: case series and review.we report 15 eyes with herpes simples virus type 2 (hsv-2) mediated acute retinal necrosis (arn) in order to better characterize pathogenesis, clinical course, diagnosis, and outcomes of the disease.201323052715
prophylactic, therapeutic and neutralizing effects of zinc oxide tetrapod structures against herpes simplex virus type-2 infection.the attachment of herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) to a target cell requires ionic interactions between negatively charged cell surface co-receptor heparan sulfate (hs) and positively charged residues on viral envelop glycoproteins, gb and gc. effective blocking of this first step of hsv-2 pathogenesis demonstrates significant prophylactic effects against the viral disease; any in vitro therapeutic effects of blocking this interaction, however, are not clear. here, we provide new evidence tha ...201223047013
arginine inactivates human herpesvirus 2 and inhibits genital herpesvirus infection.arginine, among the amino acids, has demonstrated unique properties, including suppression of protein-protein interactions and virus inactivation. we investigated the effects of arginine on the infectivity of human herpesvirus 2 (hhv-2) and the potential application of arginine as a chemotherapeutic agent against genital herpes. arginine directly inactivated hhv-2 and characterization of the inactivation demonstrated that 1 m arginine at ph 4.3 inactivated the virus more efficiently compared to ...201223042569
herpes simplex virus and hiv: genital infection synergy and novel approaches to dual prevention.sexual transmission of hiv-1, in the absence of co-factors, is poorly efficient. data support that herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) may increase a woman's susceptibility to hiv-1. potential mechanisms by which hsv-2 serves as an hiv-1 enhancing co-factor include (1) initiation of a clinical or subclinical mucosal inflammatory response, (2) alteration of innate mucosal immunity and (3) weakening or breaching the protective genital epithelia. no clinical trial has examined prevention of primary ...201223033511
estimation of population-size changes and hiv prevalence among female sex workers from 2006 to 2009 in kaiyuan, yunnan, china.this study is to estimate the population size and prevalence of hiv and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections among female sex workers (fsws) in kaiyuan, yunnan province, china.201223026531
[effect and mechanism of saururus chinensis against herpes dimplex virus].to seek effective drugs inhibiting herpes simplex virus (hsv-2) with the signal pathway required by virus replication as the target spot.201222993999
a herpes simplex virus 2 glycoprotein d mutant generated by bacterial artificial chromosome mutagenesis is severely impaired for infecting neuronal cells and infects only vero cells expressing exogenous hvem.we constructed a herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) clone, bhsv2-bac38, which contains full-length hsv-2 inserted into a bac vector. unlike previously reported hsv-2 bac clones, the virus genome inserted into this bac clone has no known gene disruptions. virus derived from the bac clone had a wild-type phenotype for growth in vitro and for acute infection, latency, and reactivation in mice. hvem, expressed on epithelial cells and lymphocytes, and nectin-1, expre ...201222993162
male circumcision programmes in kenya: lessons from the kenya aids indicator survey 2007.to provide guidance for male circumcision programmes in kenya by estimating the population of uncircumcised men and investigating the association between circumcision and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), with particular reference to uncircumcised, hiv-uninfected men.201222984308
inactivated hsv-2 in mpl/alum adjuvant provides nearly complete protection against genital infection and shedding following long term challenge and rechallenge.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection can result in life-long recurrent genital disease, asymptomatic virus shedding, and transmission. no vaccine to date has shown significant protection clinically. here, we used a mouse model of genital hsv-2 infection to test the efficacy of a vaccine consisting of whole, formalin-inactivated hsv-2 (fi-hsv2) formulated with monophosphoryl lipid a (mpl) and alum adjuvants. vaccine components were administered alone or as a prime-boost immunization toge ...201222947141
hiv-1 and herpes simplex virus type-2 genital shedding among co-infected women using self-collected swabs in chiang rai, thailand.we analysed 528 genital self-collected swabs (scs) from 67 hiv-1 and herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) co-infected women collected during the placebo month of a randomized crossover clinical trial of suppressive acyclovir in chiang rai, thailand. in this first longitudinal study of hiv-1 and hsv-2 co-infected women using genital scs specimens, we found frequent mucosal hiv-1 shedding. overall, 372 (70%) swabs had detectable hiv-1 rna with median hiv-1 viral load of 2.61 log(10) copies/swab. we ...201222930292
potential role of tenofovir vaginal gel for reduction of risk of herpes simplex virus in females.a surprising result of the groundbreaking caprisa-004 trial, which demonstrated the efficacy of vaginal tenofovir 1% gel in reducing the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-1 infection by 39% in heterosexual women, was the added benefit of this microbicide in reducing acquisition of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) by 51%. hsv-2 is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide, and is responsible for considerable morbidity among women and neonates. the virus is further impli ...201222927765
polyethyleneimine is a potent mucosal adjuvant for viral glycoprotein antigens.protection against mucosally transmitted infections probably requires immunity at the site of pathogen entry, yet there are no mucosal adjuvant formulations licensed for human use. polyethyleneimine (pei) represents a family of organic polycations used as nucleic acid transfection reagents in vitro and dna vaccine delivery vehicles in vivo. here we show that diverse pei forms have potent mucosal adjuvant activity for viral subunit glycoprotein antigens. a single intranasal administration of infl ...201222922673
costs and effectiveness of neonatal male circumcision.to evaluate the expected change in the prevalence of male circumcision (mc)-reduced infections and resulting health care costs associated with continued decreases in mc rates. during the past 20 years, mc rates have declined from 79% to 55%, alongside reduced insurance coverage.201222911349
deciphering the epidemic synergy of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) infection among women in sub-saharan africa.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is highly prevalent in regions disproportionately affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv-1) epidemic. the objective of our study was to identify the risk factors of hsv-2 and hiv-1 infections and to examine the association between the two infections.201222909236
influence of methamphetamine on genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in a mouse model.use of the stimulant methamphetamine (meth) is increasingly common, with >35 million users worldwide. there is a known association between stimulant use and an increased incidence of hiv and other sexually transmitted infections (stis). meth is known to have immune modulatory properties. however, the impact of meth on normal immune responses and disease pathogenesis with stis has not been fully examined.201222902670
coverage of hiv prevention components among people with long-standing diagnosed hiv infection in el salvador.there is scarce information on prevention coverage and management of sexually transmitted infections (stis) in people with hiv in resource-limited settings.201222902664
severe primary hsv-2 in a perinatal hiv-infected woman with advanced immunosuppression.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is most commonly associated with mucocutaneous manifestations; however, coinfections with hiv may be associated with atypical and more severe presentations of clinical disease. we present a case of a young woman with advanced perinatally acquired aids presenting with severe purulent pharyngitis, fevers, and toxic appearance with a subsequent diagnosis of disseminated primary hsv-2 infection in multiple noncontiguous mucocutaneous sites. this case highlights an ...201222899940
correlation between pill counts and biologic effects in an hiv-1 prevention clinical trial: implications for measuring adherence.clinic-based pill counts of unused study medication are frequently used to measure adherence in hiv-1 prevention trials. monthly pill count adherence data from the partners in prevention hsv/hiv transmission study, a double-blind, placebo controlled trial of twice-daily acyclovir suppression of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in hiv-1 infected persons was used to compare changes between 3,381 placebo and active arm participants in two objective biologic measures of acyclovir's drug activity: ...201322869103
antiviral and immunological effects of tenofovir microbicide in vaginal herpes simplex virus 2 infection.the anti-hiv microbicide, tenofovir (tfv) gel, has been shown to decrease hiv-1 acquisition by 39% and reduce herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) transmission by 51%. we evaluated the effect of a 1% tfv gel on genital hsv-2 infection in a mouse vaginal challenge model. in vitro plaque assays and luminex multiplex bead analysis were used, respectively, to measure postinfection vaginal viral shedding (day 1) and cytokine secretion (day 2). to further investigate the anti-hsv-2 properties, we evaluated ...201222867119
role of adherens junction proteins in differential herpes simplex virus type 2 infectivity in communication-competent and -deficient cell lines.gap junctional intercellular communication decreases with hsv-2 infection. to determine the importance of functional gap junctions for infectivity, we compared hsv-2 growth in communication-competent and -deficient cell lines.201222854229
short communication: t cell activation in hiv-1/herpes simplex virus-2-coinfected kenyan women receiving valacyclovir.herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) suppression with acyclovir or valacyclovir reduces hiv-1 viral rna levels; one hypothesis is that hsv-2 suppression reduces immune activation. we measured t cell immune activation markers among women participating in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of valacyclovir to reduce hiv-1 rna levels among pregnant women. although valacyclovir was associated with lower hiv-1 rna levels, the distribution of both cd4(+) and cd8(+) cd38(+)hla-dr(+) t cells was not differe ...201322852760
reactive benign follicular mucinosis: a report of 2 cases.we report 2 cases of adolescents who developed follicular mucinosis following cutaneous infections. a 17-year-old adolescent boy was evaluated for a 2-week history of erythematous papules and plaques on his face and neck. one month prior to presentation a culture was taken that was positive for methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus-associated impetigo. biopsies from 2 representative lesions demonstrated follicular mucinosis without evidence of folliculotropism or t cell gene rearrangements ...201222838088
serum apoptosis markers in hiv-infected patients with human herpesvirus type 8 and herpes simplex virus type 2 co-infection.this study aimed to examine the influence of human herpesvirus type 8 (hhv-8) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) co-infections on apoptosis serum markers in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected patients. sera from 110 hiv-infected and 59 hiv-uninfected individuals were analyzed for soluble fas (sfas), sfas ligand (sfasl), caspase-8, and bcl-2. the findings of hiv-infected patients with no co-infection (n = 37), hiv-infected patients with hhv-8 co-infection (n = 22), hiv-infected pati ...201222837067
disruption of the p53-p21 pathway inhibits efficiency of the lytic-replication cycle of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2).cellular p53 and its downstream mediator p21, the major cellular growth suppression and dna repair markers, have recently been implicated in viral amplification. here, we show that herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection of both hct116 p53(+/+)and nih3t3 cells resulted in sustained increases of p21. hsv-2 infection did not increase cellular p53 expression, but led to phosphorylation of this protein at ser20. this phosphorylation was accompanied by the increase of p21 protein levels. furthe ...201222820403
prevalence of treponema pallidum seropositivity and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in a cohort of men who have sex with men, bangkok, thailand, 2006-2010.we report prevalence of treponema pallidum (tp) seropositivity and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection and risk factors associated with their prevalence in a cohort of men who have sex with men (msm) in bangkok, thailand. between april 2006 and march 2010 we enrolled thai msm into a cohort study based at the silom community clinic, with baseline behavioural data and laboratory testing for sexually transmitted infections (stis). logistic regression was used to analyse risk factors assoc ...201222807537
the 2010 royal australasian college of physicians' policy statement 'circumcision of infant males' is not evidence based.infant male circumcision (mc) is an important issue guided by royal australasian college of physicians (racp) policy. here we analytically review the racp's 2010 policy statement 'circumcision of infant males'. comprehensive evaluation in the context of published research was used. we find that the statement is not a fair and balanced representation of the literature on mc. it ignores, downplays, obfuscates or misrepresents the considerable evidence attesting to the strong protection mc affords ...201222805686
natural killer cell function in women at high risk for hiv acquisition: insights from a microbicide trial.to assess the role of natural killer (nk) cells in hiv acquisition.201222781225
[construction of a new oncolytic virus ohsv2hgm-csf and its anti-tumor effects].the aim of this study was to construct a new oncolytic virus ohsv2hgm-csf and evaluate its oncolytic activity in vitro and in vivo in parallel with ohsv1hgm-csf.201222780924
disseminated primary hsv-2 infection of the face.we report the case of a 44-year-old, heterosexual, man, who presented for lesions of the face that appeared 3 days earlier; the eruption was associated with a burning sensation. he had sexual intercourse 12 days prior to presentation with a new partner. on clinical examination, there were confluent vesicules and a few pustules localized on the cheeks, forehead, nose, mouth, and ears. a swab for immunofluorescence (if) came back as positive for hsv-2. the patient was treated with oral acyclovir. ...201222747939
stat4 regulates antiviral gamma interferon responses and recurrent disease during herpes simplex virus 2 infection.stat4 is an important transcription factor that contributes to the incidence and severity of different autoimmune diseases and is implicated in the antiviral immune responses in mice. in this study, we evaluated the role of stat4 in human and murine herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) infections. we show that stat4 regulates antiviral gamma interferon (ifn-γ) responses and disease severity during chronic hsv-2 infections in humans and vaccine-induced ifn-γ-mediated protection against hsv-2 infection ...201222718836
delayed but effective induction of mucosal memory immune responses against genital hsv-2 in the absence of secondary lymphoid organs.to examine whether local immunization in the absence of secondary lymphoid organs (slos) could establish effective antiviral memory responses in the female genital tract, we examined immunity in the vaginal tracts of ltα-/- mice, ltα-/- spl (splenectomized), and control c57bl/6 (wt) mice. all three groups of mice were immunized intravaginally (ivag) with attenuated thymidine kinase-negative (tk(-)) herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and challenged 4-6 weeks later with wild-type (wt) hsv-2. both ...201322718264
effects of valacyclovir on markers of disease progression in postpartum women co-infected with hiv-1 and herpes simplex virus-2.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) suppression has been shown to reduce hiv-1 disease progression in non-pregnant women and men, but effects on pregnant and postpartum women have not been described.201222701683
pathological effect of il-17a-producing tcrγδ(+) t cells in mouse genital mucosa against hsv-2 infection.interleukin (il)-17a is a cytokine that plays an important role in infectious, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases. in this study, we found that tcrγδ(+)cd4(-)cd8(-) t cells, but not tcrαβ(+)cd4(+) t cells, are the primary producers of il-17a in the genital tract of female mice in the steady-state condition. high mrna levels of il-17a and rorγt were determined in tcrγδ(+) t cells isolated from mouse genital tract but lacked detectable expression of ifnγ, t-bet, and foxp3. il-17a production by ...201222698680
topical microbicides for prevention of sexually transmitted infections.two decades of research on topical microbicides for prevention of sexually transmitted infections (stis) have had limited success. however, new microbicide randomised controlled trial (rct) data have recently been published; but these have not yet been the subject of a systematic review.201222696373
the risk of mental health disorders among u.s. military personnel infected with human immunodeficiency virus, active component, u.s. armed forces, 2000-2011.mental health disorders (mhd) are reportedly more common among soldiers and airmen with hiv than their seronegative counterparts. this report documents the incidence rates of mhd among hiv-positive members of all service branches and compares the rates to those of two hiv-unexposed control groups: an hsv2-infected group and a group without documented hiv or hsv2 infections. approximately 56 percent of hiv-infected service members received an incident diagnosis of a mhd six months or more after t ...201222694588
hiv delays ifn-α production from human plasmacytoid dendritic cells and is associated with syk phosphorylation.plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pdc) are the major producers of type i interferons (ifns) in humans and rapidly produce ifn-α in response to virus exposure. although hiv infection is associated with pdc activation, it is unclear why the innate immune response is unable to effectively control viral replication. we systematically compared the effect of hiv, influenza, sendai, and hsv-2 at similar target cell multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) on human pdc function. we found that influenza, sendai, h ...201222693567
nasal and skin delivery of ic31(®)-adjuvanted recombinant hsv-2 gd protein confers protection against genital herpes.genital herpes caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) remains the leading cause of genital ulcers worldwide. given the disappointing results of the recent genital herpes vaccine trials in humans, development of novel vaccine strategies capable of eliciting protective mucosal and systemic immune responses to hsv-2 is urgently required. here we tested the ability of the adjuvant ic31(®) in combination with hsv-2 glycoprotein d (gd) used through intranasal (i.n.), intradermal (i.d.), or subc ...201222682292
herpes simplex virus-2 glycoprotein interaction with hvem influences virus-specific recall cellular responses at the mucosa.infection of susceptible cells by herpes simplex virus (hsv) requires the interaction of the hsv gd glycoprotein with one of two principal entry receptors, herpes virus entry mediator (hvem) or nectins. hvem naturally functions in immune signaling, and the gd-hvem interaction alters innate signaling early after mucosal infection. we investigated whether the gd-hvem interaction during priming changes lymphocyte recall responses in the murine intravaginal model. mice were primed with attenuated hs ...201222666282
prediction and identification of potential immunodominant epitopes in glycoproteins b, c, e, g, and i of herpes simplex virus type 2.twenty b candidate epitopes of glycoproteins b (gb2), c (gc2), e (ge2), g (gg2), and i (gi2) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) were predicted using dnastar, biosun, and antheprot methods combined with the polynomial method. subsequently, the biological functions of the peptides were tested via experiments in vitro. among the 20 epitope peptides, 17 could react with the antisera to the corresponding parent proteins in the eia tests. in particular, five peptides, namely, gb2(466-473) (eqdrkpr ...201222649465
herpes simplex virus type 2 infection of human epithelial cells induces cxcl9 expression and cd4+ t cell migration via activation of p38-ccaat/enhancer-binding protein-β pathway.recruitment of cd4(+) t cells to infection areas after hsv-2 infection may be one of the mechanisms that account for increased hiv-1 sexual transmission. lymphocytes recruited by chemokine cxcl9 are known to be important in control of hsv-2 infection in mice, although the underlying mechanism remains to be addressed. based on our observation that cxcl9 expression is augmented in the cervical mucus of hsv-2-positive women, in this study we demonstrate that hsv-2 infection directly induces cxcl9 e ...201222586042
biological basis for the protective effect conferred by male circumcision against hiv infection.here we provide an up-to-date review of research that explains why uncircumcised men are at higher risk of hiv infection. the inner foreskin is a mucosal epithelium deficient in protective keratin, yet rich in hiv target cells. soon after sexual exposure to infected mucosal secretions of a hiv-positive partner, infected t-cells from the latter form viral synapses with keratinocytes and transfer hiv to langerhans cells via dendrites that extend to just under the surface of the inner foreskin. the ...201222581866
the roles of self-efficacy and pretest counseling in type 2 herpes simplex virus screening in asymptomatic adults.to evaluate the role of counseling for patients undergoing screening for type 2 herpes simplex virus (hsv-2). using pre- and post-screening questionnaires, we evaluated correlations between demographic factors, measures of self-efficacy and follow-through with the screening test, and willingness to take antiviral medication and share results with sexual partners.201222551336
prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 in different risk groups: thirty years after the onset of hiv.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv2) is a sexually transmitted disease causing a lifelong persisting infection.201222538395
permissive and protective factors associated with presence, level, and longitudinal pattern of cervicovaginal hiv shedding.cervicovaginal hiv level (cv-vl) influences hiv transmission. plasma viral load (pvl) correlates with cv-vl, but discordance is frequent. we evaluated how pvl, behavioral, immunological, and local factors/conditions individually and collectively correlate with cv-vl.201222517416
impact of asymptomatic herpes simplex virus-2 infection on t cell phenotype and function in the foreskin.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) increases the risk of hiv acquisition in men and overall cd4 t cell density in the foreskin. using tissues obtained during routine male circumcision, we examined the impact of hsv-2 on the function and phenotype of foreskin t cells in ugandan men. hsv-2 infection was predominantly associated with a compartmentalized increase in ccr5 expression by foreskin cd4 t cells, which may contribute to hiv susceptibility.201222516874
case-crossover analysis of condom use and herpes simplex virus type 2 acquisition.although growing evidence suggests that condoms offer moderate protection against herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), inability to control for unknown or unmeasured confounders associated with sexual activity may reduce the accuracy of the estimates. the case-crossover design offers increased control of individual-level confounders, and was thus used with the aim of producing a more accurate estimate of the effect of condom use on hsv-2 acquisition.201222504606
prevalence and risk factors of hsv-2 infection and hsv-2/hiv coinfection in men who have sex with men in china: a multisite cross-sectional study.to determine the prevalence and risk factors of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection and its coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) in men who have sex with men (msm) in china.201222504598
lack of association between herpes simplex virus type 2 infection and cervical cancer--taq man realtime pcr assay findings.about one third of the human population suffer cancer during their lifetime and more than 20% of total morbidity is related to neoplasia. cervical cancer is generally the most common cancer in developing countries and the second most common in women globally. the role of human papilloma viruses viruses in its induction is clear. however, the involvement of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is controversial. therefore a survey was conducted of the prevalence of hsv-2 in patients with cervical c ...201222502697
a 3-o-sulfated heparan sulfate binding peptide preferentially targets herpes simplex virus 2-infected cells.herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) is the primary cause of genital herpes, which is one of the most common sexually transmitted viral infections worldwide and a major cofactor for human immunodeficiency virus infection. the lack of an effective vaccine or treatment and the emergence of drug-resistant strains highlight the need for developing new antivirals for hsv-2. here, we demonstrate that a low-molecular-weight peptide isolated against 3-o-sulfated heparan sulfate (3-os hs) can efficiently block ...201222491462
herpes simplex virus type 2 of the palm as an aids-defining complex.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hhv-2) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the world. in the immunocompromised host, including patients with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), herpes simplex virus is at high risk for reactivation. we present a woman with hiv and a large ulcer of the palm determined to be hhv-2. not only was the location of her ulcer unusual, but her cd4 lymphocyte count continued to drop despite improvement of the palmar ulceration with treatment. as a resul ...201222474730
intravaginal ring delivery of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for prevention of hiv and herpes simplex virus infection.a safe and effective topical prevention strategy will likely require sustained delivery of potent antiviral drugs and a delivery system that simultaneously maximizes drug distribution and overcomes the behavioural challenges related to adherence. activity against hiv and herpes simplex virus (hsv) would be advantageous, given the epidemiological link between the two pathogens. we hypothesize that tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir df), a prodrug of tenofovir, may be more potent than tenofo ...201222467632
value of herpes simplex virus type-specific serology: a case report.genital herpes, usually caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in humans. by contrast, intrauterine hsv-2 infections have been described rarely in the literature. our report describes a case of neonate who was delivered after 30+2 gestational weeks by cesarean section. he presented with a respiratory distress syndrome resulting in broncho-pulmonary dysplasia. at the age of 6 weeks, a chorioretinal scar was detected. during the 4th m ...201222465341
successful treatment of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 2 proctitis with leflunomide in an hiv-infected man.human herpes simplex virus infections are very common and represent significant morbidity in the immunocompromised host. patients with acyclovir resistant strains of hsv based on viral thymidine kinase gene mutations need alternative therapeutic approaches. leflunomide has been shown to possess antiviral activity against several viruses. herein we describe a case of acyclovir resistant hsv-2 proctitis in an hiv patient successfully treated with leflunomide without significant side effects.201222465339
long-term valacyclovir suppressive treatment after herpes simplex virus type 2 meningitis: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is a common cause of acute and recurrent aseptic meningitis. our aim was to determine the impact of antiviral suppression on recurrence of meningitis and to delineate the full spectrum of neurological complications.201222460966
effect of daily aciclovir on hiv disease progression in individuals in rakai, uganda, co-infected with hiv-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.daily suppression of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) reduces plasma hiv-1 concentrations and modestly delayed hiv-1 disease progression in one clinical trial. we investigated the effect of daily suppressive aciclovir on hiv-1 disease progression in rakai, uganda.201222433279
incidence, prevalence, and epidemiology of herpes simplex virus-2 in hiv-1-positive and hiv-1-negative adolescents.several studies have assessed risk factors associated with herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) prevalence in adults; however, few have focused on hsv-2 incidence, particularly in adolescents. the objective of this study was to determine hsv-2 prevalence and incidence and associated risk factors in a hiv-1-positive and at risk hiv-1-negative adolescent population.201222421698
challenges in assessing associations between hormonal contraceptive use and the risks of hiv-1 acquisition and transmission.prior observational studies produced inconsistent findings regarding hormonal contraception (hc) and risks of hiv acquisition and transmission. heffron et al. conducted secondary data analyses on 3790 hiv discordant couples enrolled in two studies (a randomized trial of hsv-2 suppression and a study of immune correlates of hiv-1 protection) to assess hiv-1 acquisition and transmission in relation to hc use in females. hiv incidence among female hc nonusers was 3.8/100 person years (py), compared ...201222393886
drug delivery in multiple indication (multipurpose) prevention technologies: systems to prevent hiv-1 transmission and unintended pregnancies or hsv-2 transmission.the development of multiple indication (multipurpose) prevention technologies (mipts) is driven by overlapping relationships in the area of female reproductive health.201222385316
infectious co-factors in hiv-1 transmission herpes simplex virus type-2 and hiv-1: new insights and interventions.over the last thirty years, epidemiologic and molecular studies indicate a strong and synergist relationship between the dual epidemics of herpes simplex type 2 (hsv-2) and hiv-1 infection. while prospective studies show that hsv-2 infection increases the risk for hiv-1 acquisition by 2- to 3-fold, hsv-2 suppression with standard prophylactic doses of hsv-2 therapy did not prevent hiv-1 acquisition. reconciling these discrepancies requires understanding recent hsv-2 pathogenesis research, which ...201222384842
objective identification of sexual risk behavior among blood donors in croatia: is it reality?the objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of blood donors positive for herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), to identify the patterns of sexual risk behavior responsible for hsv-2 positivity and to assess the reliability of hsv-2 positivity as a marker of sexual risk behavior in the study population.201222372342
an unusual case of herpes simplex viral encephalitis following acute retinal necrosis after administration of a systemic steroid.acute retinal necrosis (arn), a viral retinal disease with poor visual prognosis, following herpes simplex encephalitis (hse) are uncommonly seen, and there has been no case yet reported of the reverse situation. we herein present the reverse situation, an immune-competent patient with hse following arn. a 57-year-old man who had been under steroid therapy for retinal vasculitis the prior two weeks, presented with abrupt confusion and high fever. his cerebrospinal fluid study and brain magnetic ...201224649457
effect of a cash transfer programme for schooling on prevalence of hiv and herpes simplex type 2 in malawi: a cluster randomised trial.lack of education and an economic dependence on men are often suggested as important risk factors for hiv infection in women. we assessed the efficacy of a cash transfer programme to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections in young women.201222341825
acyclovir achieves a lower concentration in african hiv-seronegative, herpes simplex virus 2-seropositive women than in non-african populations.acyclovir pharmacokinetics was evaluated in 68 hiv-seronegative, herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2)-seropositive african women, who received a single oral 400-mg dose of acyclovir, with plasma acyclovir concentrations measured over 8 h. geometric mean peak concentration and area under the concentration-time curve were 0.31 μg/ml and 1.59 h · μg/ml, respectively, 54% and 52% lower than values from non-africans. lower acyclovir concentrations may partly explain the reduced acyclovir suppression of hsv ...201222330926
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