persistence of mucosal t-cell responses to herpes simplex virus type 2 in the female genital tract.relatively little is known about the human t-cell response to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in the female genital tract, a major site of heterosexual hsv-2 acquisition, transmission, and reactivation. in order to understand the role of local mucosal immunity in hsv-2 infection, t-cell lines were expanded from serial cervical cytobrush samples from 30 hsv-2-infected women and examined for reactivity to hsv-2. approximately 3% of the cd3+ t cells isolated from the cervix were hsv-2 specific ...201524917455
antiviral drug-resistance typing reveals compartmentalization and dynamics of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) in a case of neonatal herpes.a neonate suffering from herpes simplex virus type 2 disease with central nervous system involvement developed an early recurrence under acyclovir therapy. isolates from the cerebrospinal fluid and skin lesions were acyclovir resistant, while viruses from blood and trachea were not. acyclovir combined with foscavir followed by long-term suppressive acyclovir therapy supported normal neurological development.201426625375
blocking herpes simplex virus 2 glycoprotein e immune evasion as an approach to enhance efficacy of a trivalent subunit antigen vaccine for genital herpes.herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) subunit antigen vaccines targeting virus entry molecules have failed to prevent genital herpes in human trials. our approach is to include a virus entry molecule and add antigens that block hsv-2 immune evasion. hsv-2 glycoprotein c (gc2) is an immune evasion molecule that inhibits complement. we previously reported that adding gc2 to gd2 improved vaccine efficacy compared to the efficacy of either antigen alone in mice and guinea pigs. here we demonstrate that hsv ...201424829358
correlates of prevalent sexually transmitted infections among participants screened for an hiv incidence cohort study in kisumu, kenya.we determined the prevalence of four sexually transmitted infections and the demographic and behavioural correlates associated with having one or more sexually transmitted infections among participants in an hiv incidence cohort study in kisumu, western kenya. participants were enrolled from a convenience sample and underwent aetiologic sexually transmitted infection investigation. demographic and behavioural information were collected and basic clinical evaluation performed. multiple regression ...201524810218
hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke secondary to herpes simplex virus type 2 meningitis and vasculopathy.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) meningitis dogmatically is benign and self-limited in the immune competent patient. however, we describe how left untreated hsv-2 meningitis can be complicated by vasculitis and both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. we report a 57-year-old woman with lymphocytic meningitis complicated by ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage in the setting of vasculopathy and hsv-2 dna detected in csf successfully treated with acyclovir and corticosteroids. subsequent a ...201424806272
repertoire of epitopes recognized by serum igg from humans vaccinated with herpes simplex virus 2 glycoprotein d.the results of a clinical trial of a subunit vaccine against genital herpes were recently reported (r. b. belshe, p. a. leone, d. i. bernstein, a. wald, m. j. levin, j. t. stapleton, i. gorfinkel, r. l. morrow, m. g. ewell, a. stokes-riner, g. dubin, t. c. heineman, j. m. schulte, c. d. deal, n. engl. j. med. 366: 34-43, 2012, doi:10.1056/nejmoa1103151). the vaccine consisted of a soluble form of herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) glycoprotein d (gd2) with adjuvant. the goal of the current study was ...201424789783
impact of asymptomatic herpes simplex virus type 2 infection on mucosal homing and immune cell subsets in the blood and female genital tract.hsv-2 infection is common and generally asymptomatic, but it is associated with increased hiv susceptibility and disease progression. this may relate to herpes-mediated changes in genital and systemic immunology. cervical cytobrushes and blood were collected from hiv-uninfected african/caribbean women in toronto, and immune cell subsets were enumerated blindly by flow cytometry. immune differences between groups were assessed by univariate analysis and confirmed using a multivariate model. study ...201424760150
efficacy of tenofovir 1% vaginal gel in reducing the risk of hiv-1 and hsv-2 infection.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) is a retrovirus that can result in rare opportunistic infections occurring in humans. the onset of these infections is known as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids). sexual transmission is responsible for the majority of infections 1, resulting in transmission of hiv due to infected semen or vaginal and cervical secretions containing infected lymphocytes. hiv microbicides are formulations of chemical or biological agents that can be applied to the vagina ...201424741339
a potent combination microbicide that targets shiv-rt, hsv-2 and hpv.prevalent infection with human herpes simplex 2 (hsv-2) or human papillomavirus (hpv) is associated with increased human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) acquisition. microbicides that target hiv as well as these sexually transmitted infections (stis) may more effectively limit hiv incidence. previously, we showed that a microbicide gel (mzc) containing miv-150, zinc acetate (za) and carrageenan (cg) protected macaques against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (shiv-rt) infection and that a zc gel ...201424740100
chronic herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis associated with posterior uveitis.we report on a patient with chronic herpes simplex virus-2 encephalitis who was characteristic for concomitantly having chronic or recurrent posterior uveitis. a 66-year-old immunocompetent man suffering from a 6-month refractory posterior uveitis developed a 1-month history of impaired short-term memory and orientation. brain mri demonstrated hyperintense lesions in the right parietal lobe in diffusion and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (flair) sequences. cerebrospinal fluid (csf) examinat ...201424695656
evaluation of the herpeselect express rapid test in the detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies in patients with genital ulcer disease.a rapid point-of-care test with high sensitivity and specificity is required in order to fulfill the need for early detection and screening of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection among patients with genital ulcer disease (gud), for better management and control of virus transmission.201524687953
inhibition effect of silver nanoparticles on herpes simplex virus 2.the herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) is one of the most important sexually transmitted pathogens, and can facilitate the spread of human immunodeficiency virus. the currently available antiviral drugs have certain limitations. nanosilver has received increasing attention recently with respect to its antibacterial and antiviral properties. the purpose of this study was to determine the inhibiting effect and mechanism of silver nanoparticles (ag-nps) on hsv-2. the cytotoxicity of vero cells induced ...201424682984
use of hiv and hsv-2 biomarkers in sub-saharan adolescent prevention research: a comparison of two approaches.self-report of sexual behavior among adolescents is notoriously inconsistent, yet such measures are commonly used as outcomes for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) prevention intervention trials. there has been a growing interest in the use of hiv and other sexually transmitted disease biomarkers as more valid measures of intervention impact in high hiv prevalence areas, particularly in sub-saharan africa. we examine the challenges, benefits, and feasibility of including hiv and herpes simplex ...201424682861
herpes simplex virus-2 transmission probability estimates based on quantity of viral shedding.herpes simplex virus (hsv)-2 is periodically shed in the human genital tract, most often asymptomatically, and most sexual transmissions occur during asymptomatic shedding. it would be helpful to identify a genital viral load threshold necessary for transmission, as clinical interventions that maintain viral quantity below this level would be of high utility. however, because viral expansion, decay and re-expansion kinetics are extremely rapid during shedding episodes, it is impossible to direct ...201424671939
a novel oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 2 has potent anti-tumor activity.oncolytic viruses are promising treatments for many kinds of solid tumors. in this study, we constructed a novel oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 2: ohsv2. we investigated the cytopathic effects of ohsv2 in vitro and tested its antitumor efficacy in a 4t1 breast cancer model. we compared its effect on the cell cycle and its immunologic impact with the traditional chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin. in vitro data showed that ohsv2 infected most of the human and murine tumor cell lines and was ...201424671154
valacyclovir therapy does not reverse herpes-associated alterations in cervical immunology: a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection is associated with a 3-fold increase in the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) acquisition, perhaps through alterations in mucosal hiv-susceptible target cells. we performed a clinical trial to assess the impact of herpes therapy on cervical immunology in hsv-2-infected, hiv-uninfected women from africa or the caribbean who were living in toronto, canada. thirty participants received 1 g of valacyclovir orally each day for 2 months in a rando ...201424664172
[expression of herpes simplex virus type 2 latency associated transcript orf1 and its anti-apoptotic function].to study the expression of herpes simplex virus type 2 latency-associated transcript (lat) open reading frame 1 (orf1) and its anti-apoptosis function induced by actinomycin d in vero cells. the recombinant plasmid pegfp-orf1 was constructed and transfected into vero cells, and the expression of orf1 was identified by rt-pcr. the changes of vero cells morphology induced by actinomycin d were observed by fluorescence microscopy, hochest33258 fluorescence staining. cells viability was evaluated by ...201324660625
early adolescent pregnancy increases risk of incident hiv infection in the eastern cape, south africa: a longitudinal study.adolescents having unprotected heterosexual intercourse are at risk of hiv infection and unwanted pregnancy. however, there is little evidence to indicate whether pregnancy in early adolescence increases the risk of subsequent hiv infection. in this paper, we tested the hypothesis that adolescent pregnancy (aged 15 or younger) increases the risk of incident hiv infection in young south african women.201424650763
herpes simplex virus type 2 or human herpesvirus 8 infection and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis.prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed type of cancer and the sixth leading cause of cancer mortality among males worldwide. the aim of this study was to investigate the association between the infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) or human herpesvirus 8 (hhv-8) and the risk of prostate cancer. a systematic literature search was performed using pubmed, cochrane library, web of science, scopus, cnki and cbm. the association of hsv-2 or hhv-8 infection with the risk of ...201324648964
daily oral emtricitabine/tenofovir preexposure prophylaxis and herpes simplex virus type 2 among men who have sex with addition to protecting against hiv acquisition, antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis (prep) using topical 1% tenofovir gel reduced herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) acquisition by 51% among women in the caprisa 004 study. we examined the effect of daily oral emtricitabine/tenofovir (ftc/tdf) prep on hsv-2 seroincidence and ulcer occurrence among men who have sex with men (msm) in the iprex trial.201424637511
herpes simplex virus type 2-associated recurrent aseptic (mollaret's) meningitis in genitourinary medicine clinic: a case report.cases of idiopathic recurrent benign aseptic meningitis were first described by mollaret. today, herpes simplex virus (hsv) is considered the cause of most cases of mollaret's meningitis.201424623993
prevalence of hiv, sexually transmitted infections, and viral hepatitis by urbanicity, among men who have sex with men, injection drug users, and heterosexuals in the united who have sex with men (msm), injection drug users (idus), and certain subgroups of heterosexuals are disproportionately affected by the syndemics of hiv, other sexually transmitted infections, and viral hepatitis. although understanding the burden of these infections in these populations by urbanicity (the degree to which a geographic area is urban) is critical to targeting prevention programs, few studies have done so.201424622641
prevalence, incidence and determinants of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among hiv-seronegative women at high-risk of hiv infection: a prospective study in beira, estimate the prevalence, incidence and determinants of herpes simplex type 2 (hsv-2) infection, and associations between hsv-2 and incident hiv infection, among women at higher risk for hiv infection in beira, mozambique.201424586973
virologic and immunologic evidence of multifocal genital herpes simplex virus 2 infection.genital herpes simplex virus (hsv) reactivation is thought to be anatomically and temporally localized, coincident with limited ganglionic infection. short, subclinical shedding episodes are the most common form of hsv-2 reactivation, with host clearance mechanisms leading to rapid containment. the anatomic distribution of shedding episodes has not been characterized. to precisely define patterns of anatomic reactivation, we divided the genital tract into a 22-region grid and obtained daily swab ...201424554666
silencing sexually transmitted infections: topical sirna-based interventions for the prevention of hiv and hsv.the global impact of sexually transmitted infections (stis) is significant. the sexual transmission of viruses such as herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) and the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (hiv-1), has been especially difficult to control. to date, no effective vaccines have been developed to prevent the transmission of these stis. although antiretroviral drugs have been remarkably successful in treating the symptoms associated with these viral infections, the feasibility of their wide ...201424526828
evaluation of syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections within the kisumu incidence cohort study.while laboratory aetiological diagnosis is considered the gold standard for diagnosis and management of sexually transmitted infections (stis), syndromic management has been presented as a simplified and affordable approach for sti management in limited resource settings. sti signs and symptoms were collected using staff-administered computer-assisted personal interview and audio computer-assisted self-interview. participants underwent a medical examination and laboratory testing for common stis ...201424516075
genomic sequences of a low passage herpes simplex virus 2 clinical isolate and its plaque-purified derivative strain.herpes simplex virus 2 is an important human pathogen as the causative agent of genital herpes, neonatal herpes, and increased risk of hiv acquisition and transmission. nevertheless, the only genomic sequence that has been completed is the attenuated hsv-2 hg52 laboratory strain. in this study we defined the genomic sequence of the hsv-2 sd90e low passage clinical isolate and a plaque-purified derivative, sd90-3p. we found minimal sequence differences between sd90e and sd90-3p. however, in compa ...201424503076
stability of glycoprotein gene sequences of herpes simplex virus type 2 from primary to recurrent human infection, and diversity of the sequences among patients attending an std clinic.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is sexually transmitted, leading to blisters and ulcers in the genito-anal region. after primary infection the virus is present in a latent state in neurons in sensory ganglia. reactivation and production of new viral particles can cause asymptomatic viral shedding or new lesions. establishment of latency, maintenance and reactivation involve silencing of genes, continuous suppression of gene activities and finally gene activation and synthesis of viral dna. t ...201424502528
a perfect storm: crack cocaine, hsv-2, and hiv among non-injecting drug users in new york city.prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection has reached 16% among non-injecting drug users (nidu) in new york city, an unusually high prevalence for a predominantly heterosexual population that does not inject drugs. using a long-term study (1983-2011, >7,000 subjects) among persons entering the beth israel drug-treatment programs in new york city, we identified factors that contributed to this high prevalence: a preexisting hiv epidemic among injectors, a crack cocaine epidemic, ...201424502371
hsv-2 co-infection as a driver of hiv transmission among heterosexual non-injecting drug users in new york examine herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2)/hiv co-infection as a contributing factor in the increase in hiv infection among non-injecting heroin and cocaine users in new york city.201424498235
herpes simplex virus type-2 stimulates hiv-1 replication in cervical tissues: implications for hiv-1 transmission and efficacy of anti-hiv-1 microbicides.herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) increases the risk of hiv-1 acquisition, yet the mechanism for this viral pathogen to regulate the susceptibility of the cervicovaginal mucosa to hiv-1 is virtually unknown. using ex vivo human ectocervical tissue models, we report greater levels of hiv-1 reverse transcription, dna integration, rna expression, and virions release in hiv-1/hsv-2 co-infected tissues compared with hiv-1 only infected tissues (p<0.05). enhanced hiv-1 replication was associated wit ...201424496317
granulomatous herpes simplex encephalitis in an infant with multicystic encephalopathy: a distinct clinicopathologic entity?herpes simplex virus encephalitis can manifest as a range of clinical presentations including classic adult, neonatal, and biphasic chronic-granulomatous herpes encephalitis.201424485930
herpes simplex virus 2 : a boon to develop other sexually transmitted infections.genital herpes is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. though, mostly asymptomatic, it acts as a potential risk factor for acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections (stis). the present study was undertaken to know sero-prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv2), syphilis and hiv among sti clinic attendees and to detect the diagnostic utility of hsv2 igm antibodies. the study group included 170 individuals attending sti clinic irrespective of their presenting compla ...201324475553
hsv-2 vaccine: current status and insight into factors for developing an efficient vaccine.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), a globally sexually transmitted virus, and also one of the main causes of genital ulcer diseases, increases susceptibility to hiv-1. effective vaccines to prevent hsv-2 infection are not yet available, but are currently being developed. to facilitate this process, the latest progress in development of these vaccines is reviewed in this paper. a summary of the most promising hsv-2 vaccines tested in animals in the last five years is presented, including the ma ...201424469503
vaccination with a hsv-2 ul24 mutant induces a protective immune response in murine and guinea pig vaginal infection models.the rational design and development of genetically attenuated hsv-2 mutant viruses represent an attractive approach for developing both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for genital herpes. previously, hsv-2 ul24 was shown to be a virulence determinant in both murine and guinea pig vaginal infection models. an ul24-βgluc insertion mutant produced syncytial plaques and replicated to nearly wild type levels in tissue culture, but induced little or no pathological effects in recipient mice or g ...201424462481
antiviral activity of genital tract secretions after oral or topical tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis for hiv-1.surrogate markers of hiv-1 pre-exposure prophylaxis and microbicide efficacy are needed. one potential surrogate is the antiviral activity in cervicovaginal lavage (cvl) after exposure to candidate products. we measured cvl antiviral activity in women using oral or vaginal tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis and correlated activity with drug and immune mediator levels.201424457633
in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activity of sulfated polysaccharides from red seaweed nemalion helminthoides.water-soluble sulfated polysaccharides from the red seaweed nemalion helminthoides: two xylomannan fractions (n3 and n4) and a mannan fraction (n6) were investigated to determine their in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities. n3 and n4 induced in vitro proliferation of macrophages of the murine cell line raw 264.7 and significantly stimulated the production of nitric oxide (no) and cytokines (il-6 and tnf-α) in the same cells, whereas this response was not observed with the mannan n6. t ...201424444887
hospital-based hiv/hsv-2 seroprevalence among male patients with anal disease in korea: cross sectional study.this study aimed to identify the characteristics of hiv and herpes simplex virus (hsv)-2 seroprevalence in male patients with anal disease.201424444046
helicase-primase inhibitor pritelivir for hsv-2 infection.pritelivir, an inhibitor of the viral helicase-primase complex, exhibits antiviral activity in vitro and in animal models of herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection. we tested the efficacy and safety of pritelivir in otherwise healthy persons with genital hsv-2 infection.201424428466
herpes simplex virus: prevalence in placental tissue and incidence in neonatal cord blood samples.herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide, with hsv-2 being primarily associated with genital infections. hsv-2 is believed to account for the majority of cases of neonatal herpes, which may cause diverse of complications in infected newborns. the present study sought to estimate the prevalence of hsv-2 in placental tissue samples and the incidence of hsv-2 in the umbilical cord blood of newborn infants. placental tissue samples from 201 wome ...201424375504
neonatal herpes simplex virus presenting with isolated liver failure.disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus infection usually presents with multi-organ involvement. untreated, this disease has a mortality rate of approximately 80%. here, we describe a well-appearing 3-week old infant with isolated compensated hepatic failure caused by hsv-2.201426839769
interleukin-21 receptor signalling is important for innate immune protection against hsv-2 infections.interleukin (il) -21 is produced by natural killer t (nkt) cells and cd4(+) t cells and is produced in response to virus infections, where il-21 has been shown to be essential in adaptive immune responses. cells from the innate immune system such as natural killer (nk) cells and macrophages are also important in immune protection against virus. these cells express the il-21 receptor (il-21r) and respond to il-21 with increased cytotoxicity and cytokine production. currently, however it is not kn ...201324358128
hsv-2 incidence by sex over four age periods to age 38 in a birth examine herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) incidence over four periods to age 38 in a birth cohort, and to compare risks for men and women, taking into account sexual behaviour.201424337730
apparent rarity of asymptomatic herpes cervicitis in a woman with intra-uterine contraceptive device.infection with genital herpes simplex virus (hsv) remains a common viral sexually transmitted disease, often subclinical and a major worldwide problem of women of reproductive age group. herpes cervicitis is an unusual presentation of herpes simplex virus infection in females. the finding of herpes cervicitis on routine pap smear of an asymptomatic woman on intrauterine contraceptive device still further supports the need for increased awareness on the possibility of herpes simplex virus infecti ...201328299103
vaginally delivered tenofovir disoproxil fumarate provides greater protection than tenofovir against genital herpes in a murine model of efficacy and safety.increased susceptibility to genital herpes in medroxyprogesterone-treated mice may provide a surrogate of increased hiv risk and a preclinical biomarker of topical preexposure prophylaxis safety. we evaluated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tdf) in this murine model because an intravaginal ring eluting this drug is being advanced into clinical trials. to avoid the complications of surgically inserting a ring, hydroxyethylcellulose (hec)-stable formulations of tdf were prepared. one week of twice- ...201424323471
classification of incidence and prevalence of certain sexually transmitted infections by world regions.this study sought to assess if there is a meaningful way in which variations in sexually transmitted infection (sti) prevalence can be classified at the level of world regions.201424211229
treg depletion attenuates the severity of skin disease from ganglionic spread after hsv-2 flank infection.regulatory t cells (tregs) attenuate lesion severity and disease after hsv ocular or genital infection, but their role in cutaneous infection remains unclear. treg depletion (anti-cd25 mab in c57bl/6 mice or diphtheria toxin (dt) in dereg mice) prior to tk-deficient hsv-2 flank infection significantly decreased skin lesion severity, granulocyte receptor-1(gr-1(+)) cell number, and chemokine (kc) expression in the secondary skin, but significantly increased immune effectors and chemokine expressi ...201324210095
multipurpose prevention technologies: products in development.multipurpose prevention technologies (mpts) are broadly defined as products capable of simultaneously addressing multiple sexual and reproductive health needs including unintended pregnancy, stis including hiv-1, and other reproductive tract infections. mpts have been discussed for a few decades but little product development has occurred. with the recent proof-of-concept that a topically applied antiretroviral (arv) can effectively reduce sexual transmission of hiv-1 (tenofovir 1% gel) the impe ...201324188708
an indole alkaloid from a tribal folklore inhibits immediate early event in hsv-2 infected cells with therapeutic efficacy in vaginally infected mice.herpes genitalis, caused by hsv-2, is an incurable genital ulcerative disease transmitted by sexual intercourse. the virus establishes life-long latency in sacral root ganglia and reported to have synergistic relationship with hiv-1 transmission. till date no effective vaccine is available, while the existing therapy frequently yielded drug resistance, toxicity and treatment failure. thus, there is a pressing need for non-nucleotide antiviral agent from traditional source. based on ethnomedicina ...201324167591
herpes simplex virus type 2 and hiv disease progression: a systematic review of observational studies.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is a common co-infection among hiv-infected adults that is hypothesized to accelerate hiv disease progression.201324164861
the elusive diagnosis: recurrent benign lymphocytic meningitis.recurrent benign lymphocytic meningitis (rblm) or mollaretmeningitis is a rare disease with a prevalence of 1-2.2/100,000 population. it is characterized by recurrent episodes of aseptic meningitis. the diagnosis is made via history fitting bruyn's criteria, and confirmatory detection of hsv-2 in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) via polymerase chain reaction (pcr).201324156176
whole blood polymerase chain reaction in a neonate with disseminated herpes simplex virus infection and liver failure.a late preterm neonate born by cesarean section with intact membranes presented at 9 days of life with shock and liver failure. surface cultures were negative but whole blood polymerase chain reaction was positive for herpes simplex virus type 2, underscoring the value of this test in early diagnosis of perinatally acquired disseminated herpes simplex virus infection without skin lesions.201324147237
in vitro anti-herpes simplex virus activity of crude extract of the roots of nauclea latifolia smith (rubiaceae).nauclea latifolia smith, a shrub belonging to the family rubiaceae is a very popular medicinal plant in cameroon and neighboring countries where it is used to treat jaundice, yellow fever, rheumatism, abdominal pains, hepatitis, diarrhea, dysentery, hypertension, as well as diabetes. the ethno-medicinal use against yellow fever, jaundice and diarrhea prompted us to investigate on the antiviral activity of the root bark of n. latifolia. in this study, hsv-2 was chosen as a viral model because of ...201324131916
a combination microbicide gel protects macaques against vaginal simian human immunodeficiency virus-reverse transcriptase infection, but only partially reduces herpes simplex virus-2 infection after a single high-dose cochallenge.herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) infection increases hiv susceptibility. we previously established a rhesus macaque model of vaginal hsv-2 preexposure followed by cochallenge with hsv-2 and simian/human immunodeficiency virus-reverse transcriptase (shiv-rt). using this model, we showed that a gel containing the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (nnrti) miv-150 in carrageenan (cg) reduced shiv-rt infection. to evaluate the efficacy of new generation microbicides against both viruses, we ...201424117013
trends in seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 among non-hispanic blacks and non-hispanic whites aged 14 to 49 years--united states, 1988 to 2010.genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in the united states. we sought to assess differences in hsv-2 seroprevalence among non-hispanic blacks and non-hispanic whites and describe trends over time from 1988 to 2010.201324113408
herpes simplex virus 2-induced activation in vaginal cells involves toll-like receptors 2 and 9 and dna sensors dai and ifi16.the pathway by which herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv2) triggers the innate immune system in the urogenital system has not as yet been fully elucidated. in this study, we aimed to determine which pattern recognition receptors (prrs) recognize hsv2 in primary vaginal epithelial cells. once we deciphered the receptors involved, we aimed to target them to immunomodulate innate responses as a prophylactic or therapeutic intervention for early hsv2 infection.201424080302
non-immune hydrops fetalis caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 in the setting of recurrent maternal infection.we report a case of non-immune hydrops fetalis (nihf) caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in an infant whose mother had recurrent hsv-2 infection. in spite of prematurity, severe disseminated infection and hydrops, the infant survived and was neurologically intact. hsv-2-induced nihf is extremely rare, particularly in the setting of recurrent maternal infection, and this case is, to our knowledge, the first report of a surviving infant. hsv-2 should be considered in the differential di ...201324071962
recalcitrant pseudotumoral anogenital herpes simplex virus type 2 in hiv-infected patients: evidence for predominant b-lymphoplasmocytic infiltration and immunomodulators as effective therapeutic patients with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection, genital herpetic lesions may be extensive and tend to persist for longer periods; in addition, atypical hypertrophic, ulcerative, or pseudotumor forms have been reported, frequently showing resistance to acyclovir (acv) treatment.201324065320
individual and partner risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology among women in hiv-discordant relationships.individual and sexual partner characteristics may increase the risk of abnormal cervical cytology among women in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-discordant relationships. papanicolaou smears were obtained in a prospective cohort of kenyan hiv-discordant couples. of 441 women, 283 (64%) were hiv-infected and 158 (36%) were hiv-uninfected with hiv-infected partners. overall, 79 (18%) had low-grade and 25 (6%) high-grade cervical abnormalities. male herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) seropositi ...201424047885
prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 and risk factors associated with this infection in women in southern brazil.the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hvs-2) is the most prevalent infection worldwide. it is a cofactor in the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and the persistence of human papillomavirus (hpv). this study evaluated the prevalence of hsv-2, using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and associated factors in patients treated at the federal university of rio grande (furg) and basic health units (bhu) in rio grande, brazil. the observed prevalence of hsv-2 was 15.6%. among the 302 wom ...201724037285
fas/fasl pathway participates in resolution of mucosal inflammatory response early during hsv-2 infection.apoptotic cell death is critical for maintaining integrity of the epithelia as well as for removal of the virus infected cells. we assessed the role of fas/fasl-dependent pathway in apoptosis of genital epithelium during hsv-2 infection using a murine model of hsv-2 infection applied to c57bl6, mrl-fas(lpr)/j (fas-/-) and c3-fasl(gld)/j (fasl-/-) mice and an in vitro model of hsv-2 infection in monocyte raw 264.7 and keratinocyte 291.03c cell cultures and peritoneal macrophages. in contrast to k ...201424028839
rapid viral expansion and short drug half-life explain the incomplete effectiveness of current herpes simplex virus 2-directed antiviral agents.the nucleoside analogues acyclovir (acv) and famciclovir (fcv) reduce the frequency and severity of herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) genital shedding, yet despite their high potency in vitro and a lack of induced drug resistance, frequent episodes of breakthrough mucosal shedding occur. we tested a published stochastic, spatial mathematical model of hsv-2 replication and spread, in concert with pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic equations, against virologic data from clinical trials of twice-dail ...201324018260
current status and prospects for development of an hsv vaccine.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infects 530million people, is the leading cause of genital ulcer disease, and increases the risk of hiv-1 acquisition. although several candidate vaccines have been promising in animal models, prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines have not been effective in clinical trials thus far. null results from the most recent prophylactic glycoprotein d2 subunit vaccine trial suggest that we must reevaluate our approach to hsv-2 vaccine development. we discuss hsv-2 pat ...201424016811
synthetic analogues of bovine bactenecin dodecapeptide reduce herpes simplex virus type 2 infectivity in mice.we have evaluated the potential of four synthetic peptides (denoted hh-2, 1002, 1006, 1018) with a distant relationship to the host defense peptide bovine bactenecin dodecapeptide for their ability to prevent genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in mice. all four peptides showed antiviral properties in vitro and reduced hsv-2 infection of vero cells in a dose-dependent manner. detailed analysis showed that the peptides were able to interfere with both viral attachment and ...201324012999
seroepidemiology of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv2) in hiv infected patients in kermanshah-iran.hsv2 has an important role in acquiring and transmitting hiv through genital ulcers. this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of this virus in hiv infected subject in kermanshah, iran.201224009932
unusual concurrence of heterotopic glial nodule of the scalp and congenital herpes simplex virus type-2 infection.heterotopic glial nodules are rare congenital cutaneous lesions; only 13 cases of scalp localized lesions of this kind are reported in the english medical literature. herpes simplex virus is a rare cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality and is a rare cause of intrauterine infection. we report the first case of concurrent presence of a heterotopic glial nodule of the scalp and neonatal, in utero-acquired, fatal herpes simplex virus type-2 infection.201323998268
genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in humanized hiv-transgenic mice triggers hiv shedding and is associated with greater neurological disease.epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate synergy between herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1). higher hiv-1 loads are observed in coinfected individuals, and conversely, hiv-1 is associated with more-severe herpetic disease. a small animal model of coinfection would facilitate identification of the biological mechanisms underlying this synergy and provide the opportunity to evaluate interventions.201423990571
herpes simplex virus type 2 incidence and associated risk factors among female sex workers in a high hiv-prevalence area of china.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) can contribute to the spread of hiv. from march 2006 to november 2009, female sex workers (fsws) in yunnan, china were recruited into an open cohort study to determine incidence and risk factors for hsv-2 acquisition. participants were interviewed and tested for hsv-2 and other sexually transmitted infections (stis) every six months. a multivariate cox proportional hazards regression model with time-dependent variables was used to measure associations with hsv ...201323970745
determinants of generalized herpes simplex virus-2 epidemics: the role of sexual partner concurrency.little is known as to why some populations develop generalized herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) epidemics. sexual network-level factors, such as the proportion of partnerships that run concurrently, are plausible explanations. in this ecological analysis, we used spearman's correlation coefficients to assess if there is an association between population prevalence of point-concurrency and hsv-2 in a number of national and subnational populations. we found that there is an association between preva ...201323970705
partner-concurrency associated with herpes simplex virus 2 infection in young south africans.whilst much is known about the individual-level risk factors for herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) infection, little is known about why only some populations develop generalized hsv-2 epidemics. this study aims to assess the extent to which partner-concurrency (a factor which operates at both the partnership- and network-level) may be responsible. we utilized multivariate logistic regression to analyse the relationship between hsv-2 seropositivity and potential risk factors in data from a represent ...201323970590
in peru, reporting male sex partners imparts significant risk of incident hiv/sexually transmitted infection: all men engaging in same-sex behavior need prevention services.detailed information on the sexual behavior of bisexual, non-gay-identified men and the relationship between same-sex behavior and hiv/sexually transmitted infection (sti) incidence is limited. this study provides information on the sexual behavior with male partners of non-gay-identified men in urban, coastal peru and the relationship of this behavior with hiv/sti incidence.201323965772
financial implications of male circumcision scale-up for the prevention of hiv and other sexually transmitted infections in a sub-saharan african community.the financial implications of male circumcision (mc) scale-up in sub-saharan africa associated with reduced hiv have been evaluated. however, no analysis has incorporated the expected reduction of a comprehensive set of other sexually transmitted infections including human papillomavirus, herpes simplex virus type 2, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis.201323965771
a randomized controlled pilot trial of valacyclovir for attenuating inflammation and immune activation in hiv/herpes simplex virus 2-coinfected adults on suppressive antiretroviral therapy.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) is associated with increased systemic inflammation and immune activation that persist despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (art). herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is a common coinfection that may contribute to this inflammation.201323946220
a multi-targeted drug candidate with dual anti-hiv and anti-hsv activity.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection is often accompanied by infection with other pathogens, in particular herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). the resulting coinfection is involved in a vicious circle of mutual facilitations. therefore, an important task is to develop a compound that is highly potent against both viruses to suppress their transmission and replication. here, we report on the discovery of such a compound, designated pmeo-dapym. we compared its properties with those of the ...201323935482
hsv-2 regulates monocyte inflammatory response via the fas/fasl pathway.monocytic cells represent important cellular elements of the innate and adaptive immune responses in viral infections. we assessed the role of fas/fasl in promoting monocyte apoptosis during hsv-2 infection by using an in vitro model based on the murine raw 264.7 monocytic cell line and an in vivo murine model of hsv-2 infection applied to c57bl6, mrl-fas(lpr)/j (fas-/-) and c3-fasl(gld)/j (fasl-/-) mice. hsv-2 infection of the monocytic cell line led to early induction of apoptosis, with no pro ...201323922974
mucosal hsv-2 specific cd8+ t-cells represent containment of prior viral shedding rather than a correlate of future is largely unknown why certain infected hosts shed herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) more frequently and have more severe disease manifestations than others. one idea is that different density or functional capacity of tissue resident effector memory cd8+ t-cells between infected persons may explain phenotypic variability. to generate hypotheses for contrasting shedding patterns in different infected hosts, a spatial mathematical model was employed to evaluate the effects of variability in tissu ...201323908652
daily acyclovir to decrease herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) transmission from hsv-2/hiv-1 coinfected persons: a randomized controlled trial.daily suppressive therapy with valacyclovir reduces risk of sexual transmission of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in hsv-2-serodiscordant heterosexual couples by 48%. whether suppressive therapy reduces hsv-2 transmission from persons coinfected with hsv-2 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) is unknown.201323901094
seropositivity and risk factors for herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among female sex workers in guangxi, determine seropositivity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection and associated risk factors among female sex workers (fsws) in guangxi, china.201323894526
novel deletion in glycoprotein g forms a cluster and causes epidemiologic spread of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) glycoprotein g (gg-2) gene of 106 clinical isolates was analyzed and six isolates were identified with 63 nucleotides comprising 21 amino acids (aa) deleted in the immunodominant region. compared with strain hg52, variations in the gg-2 gene were found at 276 and 27 sites in nucleotide and aa sequences, respectively, in the 106 strains. significant variations in both nucleotides and aa were accumulated in the immunodominant region rather than in the other ...201323861013
acute liver failure caused by herpes simplex virus in a pregnant patient: is there a potential role for therapeutic plasma exchange?a young woman presented with a febrile illness in the third trimester of pregnancy. laboratory investigation revealed severe acute hepatitis with thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. liver injury progressed despite emergent caesarian section and delivery of a healthy infant. therefore, therapeutic plasma exchange (tpe) was performed on three consecutive days post-partum for a presumed diagnosis of acute liver failure (alf) associated with pregnancy due to hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low ...201323857723
incident hsv-2 infections are common among hiv-1-discordant couples.the synergy between herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) is well known, but lack of knowledge about the epidemiology of hsv-2 acquisition in hiv-1-discordant couples hampers development of hsv-2 prevention interventions that could reduce hiv-1 transmission.201323840044
hsv-2 infection as a cause of female/male and racial/ethnic disparities in hiv examine the potential contribution of herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) infection to female/male and racial/ethnic disparities in hiv among non-injecting heroin and cocaine drug users. hsv-2 infection increases susceptibility to hiv infection by a factor of two to three.201323825055
reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2 after initiation of antiretroviral therapy.the association between initiation of antiretroviral therapy (art) for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection and possible herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) shedding and genital ulcer disease (gud) has not been evaluated.201323812240
summary measures of adherence using pill counts in two hiv prevention trials: the need for standardisation in reporting.for trials of user-dependent hiv prevention products, accurate adherence measurements are essential to interpret and compare results across trials. we used pill count data from two recent hiv prevention trials of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) suppression, to show that estimates of adherence vary substantially depending on assumptions that are made in analysing pill count data. we associate calculated adherence with biological markers of anti-hsv-2 activity. in both trials, calculated adher ...201323801018
herpes simplex virus type 2 cross-sectional seroprevalence and the estimated rate of neonatal infections among a cohort of rural malawian female assess herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) seroprevalence among rural malawian adolescent women and estimate the number of neonatal herpes infections among infants of these adolescents.201323794069
the us2 gene product of herpes simplex virus 2 is a membrane-associated ubiquitin-interacting protein.the us2 gene encodes a tegument protein that is conserved in most members of the alphaherpesvirinae. previous studies on the pseudorabies virus (prv) us2 ortholog indicated that it is prenylated, associates with membranes, and spatially regulates the enzymatic activity of the map (mitogen-activated protein) kinase erk (extracellular signal-related kinase) through direct binding and sequestration of erk at the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. here we present an analysis of the herpes simp ...201323785212
an unusual presentation of herpes simplex in an immunocompromised patient.herpes simplex virus (hsv) is a host-adapted human pathogen. hsv-i usually infects non-genital sites at a variety of locations. hsv-2 primarily involves genitalia. both types can cause genital and orofacial infections, which are clinically indistinguishable. initial hsv infection is usually asymptomatic or mild and self-limited, but instead of disappearing from the body during convalescence, the virus establishes a latent infection that persists for life. rarely, there is severe visceral dissemi ...201323767386
purification and characterization of a novel anti-hsv-2 protein with antiproliferative and peroxidase activities from stellaria media.a novel antiviral protein, designated as stellarmedin a, was purified from stellaria media (l.) vill. (caryophyllaceae) by using ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange chromatography system. gel electrophoresis analysis showed that stellarmedin a is a highly basic glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 35.1 kda and an isoelectric point of ∼8.7. the n-terminal 14-amino acid sequence, mgntgvltgerndr, is similar to those of other plant peroxidases. this protein inhibited herpes simplex vi ...201323761431
pan-hsv-2 igg antibody in vaccinated mice and guinea pigs correlates with protection against herpes simplex virus 2.we lack a correlate of immunity to herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) that may be used to differentiate whether a hsv-2 vaccine elicits robust or anemic protection against genital herpes. this gap in knowledge is often attributed to a failure to measure the correct component of the adaptive immune response to hsv-2. however, efforts to identify a correlate of immunity have focused on subunit vaccines that contain less than 3% of hsv-2's 40,000-amino-acid proteome. we were interested to determine if ...201323755244
the utility of a composite biological endpoint in hiv/sti prevention trials.a human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) as a biological endpoint in hiv prevention trials may not be feasible, so investigators have used surrogate biological outcomes. in a multisite trial, the epidemiology of stis may be different across sites and preclude using one sti as the outcome. this study explored using a composite sti outcome to address that problem. the combined biological endpoint was the incidence of any of six new stis (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas (women only), syphilis, herpes ...201323748863
the lantibiotic peptide labyrinthopeptin a1 demonstrates broad anti-hiv and anti-hsv activity with potential for microbicidal applications.lantibiotics are peptides, produced by bacteria, that contain the noncanonical amino acid lanthionine and many of them exhibit antibacterial activities. the labyrinthopeptin a1 (labya1) is a prototype peptide of a novel class of carbacyclic lantibiotics. here, we extensively evaluated its broad-spectrum activity against hiv and hsv in vitro, studied its mechanism of action and evaluated potential microbicidal applications. labya1 exhibited a consistent and broad anti-hiv activity (ec50s: 0.70-3. ...201323724015
neonatal herpes simplex 2 infection presenting with supraglottitis.herpes simplex virus (hsv) is a double stranded dna virus capable of causing primary and recurrent infection. we describe an unusual case of neonatal hsv-2 infection presenting with supraglottitis. despite a 2 month course of intravenous aciclovir followed by 2 months of oral valaciclovir, the infant subsequently developed hsv-2 encephalitis which responded to further antiviral treatment. the subsequent diagnosis of encephalitis highlights the importance of testing csf for hsv to establish the p ...201323709315
a cross-sectional study of sexually transmitted pathogen prevalence and condom use with commercial and noncommercial sex partners among clients of female sex workers in southern india.clients of female sex workers (fsws) are an important bridging population for hiv and other sexually transmitted infections. however, the extent of risk to female noncommercial partners (ncps) of clients has not been explored.201323677022
immune surveillance by cd8αα+ skin-resident t cells in human herpes virus infection.most herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) reactivations in humans are subclinical and associated with rapid expansion and containment of virus. previous studies have shown that cd8(+) t cells persist in genital skin and mucosa at the dermal-epidermal junction (dej)--the portal of neuronal release of reactivating virus--for prolonged time periods after herpes lesions are cleared. the phenotype and function of this persistent cd8(+) t-cell population remain unknown. here, using cell-type-specific laser ...201323657257
public health strategies for prevention and control of hsv-2 in persons who use drugs in the united states.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) affects hiv acquisition, transmission, and disease progression. effective medications for genital herpes and for hiv/aids exist. parenteral transmission of hiv among persons who inject drugs is decreasing. reducing sexual transmission of hiv and hsv-2 among persons who use drugs (pwud; i.e., heroin, cocaine, "speedball", crack, methamphetamine through injection or non-injection) necessitates relevant services.201323647730
use of transcriptional profiling to delineate the initial response of mice to intravaginal herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.intravaginal (ivag) infection of mice with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) causes genital tissue damage, quickly followed by development of fatal encephalopathy. to delineate initial host responses generated by hsv-2 infection, here oligonucleotide microarrays compared gene expression in vaginal tissue from uninfected mice and mice 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 days after ivag infection with 10(4) pfu hsv-2. while comparison of mrna expression in uninfected and hsv-infected vaginal tissue detected ...201323638732
antiviral activity of trappin-2 and elafin in vitro and in vivo against genital herpes.serine protease inhibitor elafin (e) and its precursor, trappin-2 (tr), have been associated with mucosal resistance to hiv-1 infection. we recently showed that tr/e are among principal anti-hiv-1 molecules in cervicovaginal lavage (cvl) fluid, that e is ∼130 times more potent than tr against hiv-1, and that tr/e inhibited hiv-1 attachment and transcytosis across human genital epithelial cells (ecs). since herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) is a major sexually transmitted infection and risk factor f ...201323637403
rapid localized spread and immunologic containment define herpes simplex virus-2 reactivation in the human genital tract.herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) is shed episodically, leading to occasional genital ulcers and efficient transmission. the biology explaining highly variable shedding patterns, in an infected person over time, is poorly understood. we sampled the genital tract for hsv dna at several time intervals and concurrently at multiple sites, and derived a spatial mathematical model to characterize dynamics of hsv-2 reactivation. the model reproduced heterogeneity in shedding episode duration and viral pro ...201323606943
optical coherence tomography for assessment of microbicide safety in a small animal model.sensitive imaging techniques for small animals are needed to assess drug toxicity in preclinical studies. optical coherence tomography (oct) provides a noninvasive tool for high-resolution, depth-resolved visualization of drug-induced changes in tissue morphology. in a mouse model, we utilize oct to assess vaginal tissue integrity following the application of topical microbicides (drugs used to prevent infection). mice are challenged with herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) to determine the correlati ...201323588808
fatal herpes simplex virus type 2 hepatitis in a heart transplant recipient: a case report and review of the literature.herpes simplex virus (hsv) hepatitis is often unrecognized clinically with most untreated cases diagnosed postmortem. hsv hepatitis has been reported in solid organ transplant (sot) recipients, mostly in kidney and liver transplants, and rarely in heart transplant recipients. we describe a fatal case of community-acquired hsv-2 hepatitis in a 24-year-old heart transplant recipient occurring 3 years after transplant. we also review the literature summarizing hsv hepatitis and the potential role o ...201323578273
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