TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
herpes simplex virus infections of the central nervous system.this article summarizes knowledge of herpes simplex virus (hsv) infections of the central nervous system (cns). disease pathogenesis, detection of dna polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for diagnosis and prognosis, and approaches to therapy warrant consideration.201526633784
low prevalences of hiv infection and hsv genital shedding in the general adult female population in senegal.herpes simplex virus (hsv) is the main co-factor for heterosexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) in sub-saharan africa, and could be involved in the dynamics of the hiv epidemic in senegal.201526623637
association of interferon lambda-1 with herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2, epstein-barr virus, and human cytomegalovirus in chronic periodontitis.periodontal tissues facilitate the homing of herpes viruses that elicit the immune-inflammatory response releasing the interferons (ifn). ifn lambda-1 (λ1) can suppress the replication of viruses, and induces the antiviral mechanism. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between ifn-λ1 and periodontal herpes viruses in the immunoregulation of chronic periodontal disease.201526677065
[novel multiplex real-time pcr assay for detection and differentiation of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 dna].herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2 are the cause of world spread multiple infections with different course and severity. the aim of this work was to design and to optimize multiplex real-time pcr assay for simultaneous detection of hsv-1 and hsv-2. the second aim of the project was to check if the designed method is laboratory useful analyzing different clinical specimens.201526591664
herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 mediate species-specific modulations of programmed necrosis through the viral ribonucleotide reductase large subunit r1.receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (rip3) and its substrate mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein (mlkl) are core regulators of programmed necrosis. the elimination of pathogen-infected cells by programmed necrosis acts as an important host defense mechanism. here, we report that human herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 had opposite impacts on programmed necrosis in human cells versus their impacts in mouse cells. similar to hsv-1, hsv-2 infection triggered programmed necrosis in mou ...201526559832
seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus infection in hiv coinfected individuals in eastern india with risk factor analysis.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is the cause of most genital herpes while hsv-1 is responsible for orolabial and facial lesions. in immunocompromised individuals, like hiv patients, impaired immunity leads to more frequent symptomatic and asymptomatic hsv infection. fifty-two blood samples from hiv patients with clinically diagnosed hsv infection were taken as cases, while 45 blood samples each from hiv-infected (hiv control) and noninfected patients without any herpetic lesion (non-hiv cont ...201526557849
characterization of a herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) chimera in which the us3 protein kinase gene is replaced with the hsv-2 us3 gene.us3 protein kinases encoded by herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2) play important roles in viral replication and pathogenicity. to investigate type-specific differences between hsv-1 us3 and hsv-2 us3 in cells infected by viruses with all the same viral gene products except for their us3 kinases, we constructed and characterized a recombinant hsv-1 in which its us3 gene was replaced with the hsv-2 us3 gene. replacement of hsv-1 us3 with hsv-2 us3 had no apparent effect on viral growth i ...201526491159
functional characterization of glycoprotein h chimeras composed of conserved domains of the pseudorabies virus and herpes simplex virus 1 homologs.membrane fusion is indispensable for entry of enveloped viruses into host cells. the conserved core fusion machinery of the herpesviridae consists of glycoprotein b (gb) and the gh/gl complex. recently, crystal structures of gh/gl of herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) and epstein-barr virus and of a core fragment of pseudorabies virus (prv) gh identified four structurally conserved gh domains. to investigate functional conservation, chimeric genes encoding combinations of individual domains of prv a ...201526491153
comparative evaluation of amplivue hsv 1+2 assay with elvis culture for detecting herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 in clinical specimens.the amplivue hsv 1+2 assay was compared to the elvis hsv id and d(3) typing culture system for the qualitative detection and differentiation of herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 dna in 1,351 cutaneous and mucocutaneous specimens. compared to elvis, amplivue had sensitivities of 95.7 and 97.6% for detecting hsv-1 and hsv-2, respectively. following arbitration of discordant results by an independent molecular method, the amplivue assay had a resolved sensitivity and specificity of 99.2 and ...201526468497
testing for herpes simplex virus in low-volume cerebrospinal fluid samples: comparison of three protocols to optimize detection.detection of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) is a medical emergency and requires rapid, sensitive testing. however, the volume of csf received for microbiological studies may be limited, especially from young children. in this study, we compared three testing protocols to our routine real-time pcr method to determine the most sensitive approach for detecting hsv-1 and hsv-2 in low-volume (≤100 μl) csf.201526400783
harmine blocks herpes simplex virus infection through downregulating cellular nf-κb and mapk pathways induced by oxidative stress.herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and -2) are highly prevalent in many populations and therapeutic options are limited. both viruses can establish latency by maintaining viral genomes in neurons of sensory ganglia. primary or recurrent hsv infections may lead to deleterious outcomes: hsv-1 infection may result in corneal blindness and encephalitis and hsv-2 infection leads to herpes genitalis. while no effective vaccine is available, acyclovir is widely used for therapy, which targets an ...201526348003
is herpes simplex a systemic disease?orofacial herpes simplex virus infections are usually caused by herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1), and hsv-2 infections have been accepted as a sexually transmitted disease. hsv establishes a latent infection in the dorsal root ganglia of the host and remains there for the rest of life. hsv affects mainly skin and genitalia, although in immunocompromised patients it may cause local infection with vast skin involvement, chronic herpetic ulcers, or widespread mucous membrane damage, as well as system ...201526321402
carriage of herpes simplex virus and human papillomavirus in oral mucosa is rare in young women: a long-term prospective follow-up.following the primary oral infection, herpes simplex virus (hsv) establishes latency in the ganglia of sensory neurons. episodically induced by stress, hsv is able to cause recurrent infection at the primary infection site, accompanied by virus shedding. the oral shedding of hsv contributes to mother-child-transmission of hsv. human papillomavirus (hpv) is associated with oral malignancies, and its interaction with oral hsv should be studied further.201526305821
clinical evaluation of a helicase-dependant amplification (hda)-based commercial assay for the simultaneous detection of hsv-1 and this study, we evaluate the performance of a commercial assay, the amplivue hsv 1+2 assay (quidel), which employs hda for the detection of both hsv-1 and hsv-2. the assay was tested on 307 clinical specimens (genital, oral, and dermal). when compared to shell vial virus culture and immunofluorescence typing of hsv, the positive percent agreement and negative percent agreement values were 98.2% and 90.9%, respectively. excellent assay performance was demonstrated.201526302856
seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 and coinfection with hiv and syphilis: the first national seroprevalence survey in saudi arabia.herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection is one of the most common viral infections worldwide. genital herpes is associated with other sexually transmitted infections (stis) including hiv. data on prevalence of hsv infections and other stis in the kingdom of saudi arabia are limited.201526267880
additionally sulfated xylomannan sulfates from scinaia hatei and their antiviral activities.herpes simplex viruses (hsvs) display affinity for cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans with biological relevance in virus entry. this study demonstrates the potential of chemically engineered sulfated xylomannans from scinaia hatei as antihsv drug candidate. particularly, a dimethylformamide -so3/pyridine based procedure has been employed for the generation of anionic polysaccharides. this one-step procedure has the power of providing a spectrum of xylomannans with varying molecular masse ...201526256190
seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 in taiwan and risk factor analysis, 2007.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2) are common human pathogens and might cause severe illness. following primary infection, the viruses establish lifelong latent infection and are transmitted by close contact, both sexual and nonsexual. however, the information about the seroprevalence of hsv-1 and hsv-2 across all age groups is limited.201526252011
icacinlactone h and icacintrichantholide from the tuber of icacina trichantha.the 17-norpimarane diterpene is a small group of natural products. a new member, icacinlactone h (1), and a new rearranged 17-norpimarane with an unprecedented carbon skeleton, icacintrichantholide (2), were isolated from icacina trichantha. their structures including the absolute configuration were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, single-crystal x-ray diffraction, and electronic circular dichroism analysis. a plausible biogenetic pathway for 1 and 2 is proposed. both 1 and 2 showed no sign ...201526183449
the telomerase inhibitor mst-312 interferes with multiple steps in the herpes simplex virus life cycle.the life cycle of herpes simplex virus (hsv) has the potential to be further manipulated to yield novel, more effective therapeutic treatments. recent research has demonstrated that hsv-1 can increase telomerase activity and that expression of the catalytic component of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (tert), alters sensitivity to hsv-dependent apoptosis. telomerase is a cellular enzyme that synthesizes nucleotide repeats at the ends of chromosomes (telomeres), which prevents shorte ...201526178994
efficacy of the herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) glycoprotein d/as04 vaccine against genital hsv-2 and hsv-1 infection and disease in the cotton rat sigmodon hispidus model.subunit vaccines based on the herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) glycoprotein d (gd-2) have been the major focus of hsv-2 vaccine development for the past 2 decades. based on the promising data generated in the guinea pig model, a formulation containing truncated gd-2, aluminum salt, and mpl (gd/as04) advanced to clinical trials. the results of these trials, however, were unexpected, as the vaccine protected against hsv-1 infection but not against hsv-2. to address this discrepancy, we developed a d ...201526178984
herpes simplex virus type 2 infection induces ad-like neurodegeneration markers in human neuroblastoma cells.herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 are neurotropic viruses that establish lifelong latent infections in neurons. mounting evidence suggests that hsv-1 infection is involved in the pathogenesis of alzheimer's disease (ad). the relationships between other herpesvirus infections and events associated with neurodegeneration have not, however, been extensively studied. the present work reports that hsv-2 infection leads to the strong accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau and the amyloid-β pep ...201526163986
cellphone-based hand-held microplate reader for point-of-care testing of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.standard microplate based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) are widely utilized for various nanomedicine, molecular sensing, and disease screening applications, and this multiwell plate batched analysis dramatically reduces diagnosis costs per patient compared to nonbatched or nonstandard tests. however, their use in resource-limited and field-settings is inhibited by the necessity for relatively large and expensive readout instruments. to mitigate this problem, we created a hand-held a ...201526159546
antiherpes evaluation of soybean isoflavonoids.the antiviral effects of soybean isoflavonoids have been investigated recently, especially those of genistein. it has been reported that this isoflavone is able to inhibit herpes simplex virus (hsv) replication, which is associated with skin and epithelial mucosa infections. the treatment of these infections with antiherpes drugs has resulted in the emergence of resistant viral strains. based on this evidence, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-hsv effects of soybean isoflavonoids ...201526156104
neonatal herpes simplex virus infection.herpes simplex virus (hsv) 1 and hsv-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. acquisition of hsv by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal hsv disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. diagnost ...201526154662
urinary micrornas of prostate cancer: virus-encoded hsv1-mirh18 and hsv2-mir-h9-5p could be valuable diagnostic markers.micrornas (mirnas) in biological fluids are potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and assessment of urological diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (bph) and prostate cancer (pca). the aim of the study was to identify and validate urinary cell-free mirnas that can segregate patients with pca from those with bph.201526126436
patient-specific neutralizing antibody responses to herpes simplex virus are attributed to epitopes on gd, gb, or both and can be type specific.herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 infect many humans and establish a latent infection in sensory ganglia. although some infected people suffer periodic recurrences, others do not. infected people mount both cell-mediated and humoral responses, including the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies (abs) directed at viral entry glycoproteins. previously, we examined iggs from 10 hsv-seropositive individuals; all neutralized virus and were directed primarily against gd or gd+gb. here, we ...201526109729
laboratory diagnosis and epidemiology of herpes simplex 1 and 2 genital infections.herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 are the main cause of genital ulcers worldwide. although herpes simplex virus type 2 is the major cause of genital lesions, herpes simplex virus type 1 accounts for half of new cases in developed countries. herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence rises with sexual activity from adolescence through adulthood. slovenian data in a high-risk population shows 16% seroprevalence of hsv-2. hsv-1 and hsv-2 dna in genital swabs was detected in 19% and 20.7%, respecti ...201526086165
herpes simplex virus 1 reactivates from autonomic ciliary ganglia independently from sensory trigeminal ganglia to cause recurrent ocular disease.herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 establish latency in sensory and autonomic neurons after ocular or genital infection, but their recurrence patterns differ. hsv-1 reactivates from latency to cause recurrent orofacial disease, and while hsv-1 also causes genital lesions, hsv-2 recurs more efficiently in the genital region and rarely causes ocular disease. the mechanisms regulating these anatomical preferences are unclear. to determine whether differences in latent infection and reactivati ...201526041294
genome sequencing and analysis of geographically diverse clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus 2.herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2), the principal causative agent of recurrent genital herpes, is a highly prevalent viral infection worldwide. limited information is available on the amount of genomic dna variation between hsv-2 strains because only two genomes have been determined, the hg52 laboratory strain and the newly sequenced sd90e low-passage-number clinical isolate strain, each from a different geographical area. in this study, we report the nearly complete genome sequences of 34 hsv-2 low ...201526018166
global diversity within and between human herpesvirus 1 and 2 glycoproteins.human herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) are large-genome dna viruses that establish a persistent infection in sensory neurons and commonly manifest with recurring oral or genital erosions that transmit virus. hsv encodes 12 predicted glycoproteins that serve various functions, including cellular attachment, entry, and egress. glycoprotein g is currently the target of an antibody test to differentiate hsv-1 from hsv-2; however, this test has shown reduced capacity to differentiate ...201526018161
partial and total c-6 oxidation of gelling carrageenans. modulation of the antiviral activity with the anionic character.the optimal conditions for the full c-6 oxidation of κ- and ι-carrageenans using (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl)oxy (tempo) in the presence of sodium hypochlorite and sodium bromide were assessed. the fully oxidized products were characterized by nmr spectroscopy. partially oxidized products were also obtained and analyzed by chemical and spectroscopical methods. the antiviral activity of carrageenans against herpes simplex virus hsv-1 and hsv-2 determined by plaque reduction assay, was not lar ...201526005156
application of mccoy cell line for propagation of herpes simplex virus type 1.herpes simplex virus types 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2) are members of the herpesviridae family. about 40% to 80% of the world populations are infected with hsv and its prevalence is high in iran. the high prevalence of this virus in the community and the ability of the virus in causing fatal diseases among immunocompromised patients, have encouraged studies to be performed on hsv and suitable cell lines which supports the propagation of hsv. the aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of m ...201525999628
obstetric outcomes of human herpes virus-2 infection among pregnant women in benin, nigeria.this study investigated the obstetric outcomes of herpes simplex virus (hsv-2) infection among pregnant women.201525966714
upstream binding factor inhibits herpes simplex virus replication.herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) infection induces changes to the host cell nucleus including relocalization of the cellular protein upstream binding factor (ubf) from the nucleolus to viral replication compartments (vrcs). herein, we tested the hypothesis that ubf is recruited to vrcs to promote viral dna replication. surprisingly, infection of ubf-depleted hela cells with hsv-1 or hsv-2 produced higher viral titers compared to controls. reduced expression of ubf also led to a progressive increas ...201525965800
the immunomodulator, ammonium trichloro[1,2-ethanediolato-o,o']-tellurate, suppresses the propagation of herpes simplex virus 2 by reducing the infectivity of the virus progeny.persistent investigations for the identification of novel anti-herpetic drugs are being conducted worldwide, as current treatment options are sometimes insufficient. the immunomodulator, ammonium trichloro[1,2‑ethanediolato‑o,o']‑tellurate (as101), a non‑toxic tellurium (ⅳ) compound, has been shown to exhibit anti‑viral activity against a variety of viruses in cell cultures and in animal models. in the present study, the anti‑viral activity of as101 against herpes simplex virus (hsv)‑1 and 2 was ...201525936393
evasion of early antiviral responses by herpes simplex viruses.besides overcoming physical constraints, such as extreme temperatures, reduced humidity, elevated pressure, and natural predators, human pathogens further need to overcome an arsenal of antimicrobial components evolved by the host to limit infection, replication and optimally, reinfection. herpes simplex virus-1 (hsv-1) and herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) infect humans at a high frequency and persist within the host for life by establishing latency in neurons. to gain access to these cells, herpe ...201525918478
a spiroketal-enol ether derivative from tanacetum vulgare selectively inhibits hsv-1 and hsv-2 glycoprotein accumulation in vero cells.the inhibitory effects of tanacetum vulgare rhizome extracts on hsv-1 and hsv-2 in vitro replication were assessed. unlike extracts obtained from the aerial parts, adsorption inhibition and virucidal activities seemed not to be relevant for the observed antiviral action of tansy rhizome extracts. instead, the most significant effects were the inhibition of virus penetration and a novel mechanism consisting of the specific arrest of viral gene expression and consequently the decrease of viral pro ...201525882624
synergistic effects of acyclovir and 3, 19-isopropylideneandrographolide on herpes simplex virus wild types and drug-resistant andrographolide analogue, 3, 19-isopropylideneandrographolide (ipad), exerts an inhibitory effect on replication of wild-type herpes simplex virus serotype 1 (hsv-1). in this study, we examined the anti-viral activity of ipad on hsv wild types (hsv-1 strain kos and hsv-2 clinical isolate) and hsv-1 drug-resistant strains (drs). synergistic effects of ipad with acyclovir (acv) were also evaluated.201525879785
seroprevalence and seroincidence of herpes simplex virus (2006-2010), syphilis (2006-2010), and vaccine-preventable human papillomavirus subtypes (2000-2010) among us military personnel.sexually transmitted infections have historically been burdensome in military populations. we describe the seroprevalence and seroincidence of vaccine-preventable human papillomavirus (vp-hpv) subtypes in a sample of 200 servicemen, along with the seroprevalence and seroincidence of herpes simplex virus (hsv-1/2) and syphilis in a sample of 200 men and 200 women.201525868137
reactivation of herpes simplex type 1 in pneumococcal meningitis.acute bacterial meningitis (abm) and herpes simplex type 1 (hsv-1) encephalitis are two rare but serious infections affecting the central nervous system (cns). concurrent bacterial and viral cns infection has occasionally been reported.201525866347
genomic, phylogenetic, and recombinational characterization of herpes simplex virus 2 strains.herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) is a major global pathogen, infecting 16% of people 15 to 49 years old worldwide and causing recurrent genital ulcers. little is known about viral factors contributing to virulence, and there are currently only two genomic sequences available. in this study, we determined nearly complete genomic sequences of six additional hsv-2 isolates, using illumina miseq. we report that hsv-2 has a genomic overall mean distance of 0.2355%, which is less than that of hsv-1. the ...201525855744
genital herpes: oral antiviral treatments.genital herpes is an infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) or type 2 (hsv-2), and is among the most common sexually transmitted diseases.201525853497
immunogenicity, protective efficacy, and non-replicative status of the hsv-2 vaccine candidate hsv529 in mice and guinea pigs.hsv-2 vaccine is needed to prevent genital disease, latent infection, and virus transmission. a replication-deficient mutant virus (dl5-29) has demonstrated promising efficacy in animal models of genital herpes. however, the immunogenicity, protective efficacy, and non-replicative status of the highly purified clinical vaccine candidate (hsv529) derived from dl5-29 have not been evaluated. humoral and cellular immune responses were measured in mice and guinea pigs immunized with hsv529. protecti ...201525837802
interferon lambda 4 genotype is not associated with recurrence of oral or genital herpes.ifnl4-δg/tt (rs368234815) genotype is associated with hepatitis c virus clearance and may play a role in other infections. ifn-λ4 protein is generated only in individuals who carry the ifnl4-δg allele. the ifnl4 rs12979860-t allele, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with ifnl4-δg, was recently reported to be associated with more frequent and severe oral herpes episodes. we investigated the association of ifnl4-δg/tt with herpes simplex virus (hsv)-related outcomes among 2,192 african ame ...201526431156
herpes simplex vaccines: prospects of live-attenuated hsv vaccines to combat genital and ocular infections.herpes simplex virus type-1 (hsv-1) and its closely related type-2 (hsv-2) viruses cause important clinical manifestations in humans including acute ocular disease and genital infections. these viruses establish latency in the trigeminal ganglionic and dorsal root neurons, respectively. both viruses are widespread among humans and can frequently reactivate from latency causing disease. currently, there are no vaccines available against herpes simplex viral infections. however, a number of promis ...201527114893
seropositivity and determinants of immunoglobulin-g (igg) antibodies against herpes simplex virus (hsv) types -1 and -2 in pregnant women in port harcourt, nigeria.this study is the first documented prevalence of igg antibody against hsv-1&-2 in port harcourt, nigeria and thus provides baseline data for future in-depth studies on hsv infection in south-south, nigeria.201526957960
development and evaluation of the quantitative real-time pcr assay in detection and typing of herpes simplex virus in swab specimens from patients with genital herpes.genital herpes (gh), which is caused mainly by herpes simplex virus (hsv)-2 and hsv-1, remains a worldwide problem. laboratory confirmation of gh is important, particularly as there are other conditions which present similarly to gh, while atypical presentations of gh also occur. currently, virus culture is the classical method for diagnosis of gh, but it is time consuming and with low sensitivity. a major advance for diagnosis of gh is to use real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr). in this s ...201526770492
toxicity and antiviral activity of the extracts of submerged mycelium of nematophagous duddingtonia flagrans fungus in vero cell culture.we studied toxicity and antiviral activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of bioactive substances from the biomass of nematophagous fungus duddingtonia flagrans prepared by submerged culturing of the mycelium. it is found that both extracts were characterized by low toxicity for cultured vero cells and inhibited reproduction of dna-viruses in this cell line. ethanol extract of the fungus exhibited higher in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 2, ectromelia virus, and vacc ...201526621278
do viral infections have a role in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo?to investigate the role of viral infection in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (bppv).201526601554
study of the frequency of herpesvirus infections among patients suspected aseptic meningitis in the west of iran.aseptic meningitis is the most common type of meningitis and is characterized by meningeal inflammation that is not linked to identifiable bacterial pathogens in cerebrospinal fluid (csf).201526568804
association of herpes viruses with mild, moderate and severe chronic periodontitis.periodontal disease is an inflammatory condition of the supporting tissues of the teeth. it is a multi-factorial and multi-etiological infectious disease process. recent evidences shows that human herpes viruses could be putative pathogens. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of herpes viruses especially herpes simplex viruses (hsv-1 and 2), epstein-barr virus (ebv) and human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) in patients with chronic periodontitis.201526393126
carbon nanotubes supported tyrosinase in the synthesis of lipophilic hydroxytyrosol and dihydrocaffeoyl catechols with antiviral activity against dna and rna viruses.hydroxytyrosol and dihydrocaffeoyl catechols with lipophilic properties have been synthesized in high yield using tyrosinase immobilized on multi-walled carbon nanotubes by the layer-by-layer technique. all synthesized catechols were evaluated against a large panel of dna and rna viruses, including poliovirus type 1, echovirus type 9, herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), coxsackievirus type b3 (cox b3), adenovirus type 2 and type 5 and cytomegalovirus (cmv). ...201526260341
performance evaluation of puritan® universal transport system (unitranz-rt™) for preservation and transport of clinical viruses.the ability of a non-propagating microbial transport medium to maintain the viability of clinically relevant viruses was compared to a similar commercial medium to establish performance equivalence. two dilutions of stock of test viruses, namely adenovirus (adv), cytomegalovirus (cmv), echovirus type 30 (ev), herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2, influenza a, parainfluenza 3 (piv), respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), and varicella zoster virus (vzv), were spiked into puritan® medical products ...201526243168
lack of association between herpesvirus detection in saliva and gingivitis in hiv‑infected children.the aims of this study were to compare the detection of human herpesviruses (hhvs) in the saliva of hiv-infected and healthy control children, and to evaluate associations between viral infection and gingivitis and immunodeficiency. saliva samples were collected from 48 hiv-infected and 48 healthy control children. clinical and laboratory data were collected during dental visits and from medical records. a trained dentist determined gingival indices and extension of gingivitis. saliva samples we ...201526200962
seminal shedding of cmv and hiv transmission among men who have sex with in many urban areas in the united states, the largest burden of the hiv epidemic in san diego is borne by men who have sex with men (msm). using data from well-characterized hiv transmitting and non-transmitting partner pairs of msm in san diego, we calculated the population attributable risk (par) of hiv transmissions for different co-infections common among msm in this area. we found that over a third of hiv transmissions could be potentially attributed to genital shedding of cytomegaloviru ...201526198239
animal herpesviruses and their zoonotic potential for cross-species infection.herpesviruses of humans and animals cause severe diseases that influence not only the health and epidemiological status but are also economically important in the context of food production. the members of herpesviridae are host specific agents that also share many properties that potentially make them capable of crossing the species barriers. the objective of presented review paper was to summarize the relationship between herpesviruses of animals and humans and their zoonotic potential. in hum ...201526094506
large-scale multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for diagnosis of viral reactivations after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.viral reactivations following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are thought to result from the breakdown of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity. as a result, many viruses could be reactivated individually or simultaneously. using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr), we prospectively examined many kinds of viral dnas at a time in 105 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. in total, 591 whole blood samples were collected weekly from pre- to 42 ...201525946433
rapid detection of active human cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy using loop-mediated isothermal amplification.understanding the association between congenital human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) infection and active maternal hcmv infection during pregnancy is important for maternal and neonatal healthcare. in the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) method was established for the detection of cmv dna from whole blood or amniotic fluid samples, using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. the results of the present study demonstrated that the cmv lamp assay detec ...201525847382
manipulation of apoptosis and necroptosis signaling by apoptosis, necroptosis is an innate immune mechanism that eliminates pathogen-infected cells. receptor-interacting protein kinase (rip)3 (also called ripk3) mediates necrotic death by phosphorylating an executioner protein, mlkl, leading to plasma membrane leakage. the pathway is triggered against viruses that block caspase 8. in murine cmv, the viral inhibitor of caspase 8 activation prevents extrinsic apoptosis but also has the potential to unleash necroptosis. this virus encodes the vira ...201525828583
evaluation of a viral microarray based on simultaneous extraction and amplification of viral nucleotide acid for detecting human herpesviruses and this study, a viral microarray based assay was developed to detect the human herpesviruses and enteroviruses associated with central nervous system infections, including herpes simplex virus type 1, type 2 (hsv1 and hsv2), epstein-barr virus (ebv), cytomegalovirus (cmv), enterovirus 71 (ev71), coxsackievirus a 16 (ca16) and b 5(cb5). the dna polymerase gene of human herpesviruses and 5'-untranslated region of enteroviruses were selected as the targets to design primers and probes. human herpe ...201525774509
vaginal cytomegalovirus shedding before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy in rakai, uganda.vaginal shedding of cytomegalovirus (cmv) dna was determined longitudinally among 96 women coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), herpes simplex virus 2, and cmv starting antiretroviral therapy (art) during a placebo-controlled trial of hsv-2 suppression with acyclovir in rakai, uganda. vaginal cmv was detected in 75 of 96 women (78.0%) and 379 of 1080 individual visits (35.1%). art status, higher hiv rna viral load before art initiation, and younger age were significantly associate ...201525743428
the association between antibodies to neurotropic pathogens and schizophrenia: a case-control study.exposure to neurotropic pathogens has been proposed as an environmental risk factor for schizophrenia and can be evaluated by measuring pathogen-specific immunoglobulin g (igg). seroprevalence of pathogen-specific igg reflects prior exposure, whereas igg levels are associated with reactivity or reinfection. several studies have examined these parameters in schizophrenia. however, results still remain inconclusive, as several previous studies did not correct for important confounding factors.201527336045
unpacking the 'black box' of total pathogen burden: is number or type of pathogens most predictive of all-cause mortality in the united states?a 'black box' paradigm has prevailed in which researchers have focused on the association between the total number of pathogens for which individuals are seropositive (i.e. total pathogen burden) and various chronic diseases, while largely ignoring the role that seropositivity for specific combinations of pathogens may play in the aetiology of such outcomes and consequently mortality. we examined the association between total pathogen burden as well as specific pathogen combinations and all-caus ...201525518978
assessment of igg antibodies against hsv1, hsv2, cmv and ebv in patients with pemphigus vulgaris versus healthy people.regarding the implication of viruses particularly herpes in pemphigus vulgaris, we sought to assess and compare the level of immunoglobulin g (igg) antibodies against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv1 and hsv2), cytomegalovirus (cmv) and epstein-barr virus (ebv) in patients with pemphigus vulgaris and healthy people.201527507994
chemokine-mediated immune responses in the female genital tract mucosa.the genital tract mucosa is the site where sexually transmitted infections gain entry to the host. the immune response at this site is thus critical to provide innate protection against pathogens that are seen for the very first time as well as provide long-term pathogen-specific immunity, which would be required for an effective vaccine against sexually transmitted infection. a finely regulated immune response is therefore required to provide an effective barrier against pathogens without compr ...201525776842
the impact of hormonal contraception and pregnancy on sexually transmitted infections and on cervicovaginal microbiota in african sex workers.the observed association between depo-provera injectable use and increased hiv acquisition may be caused by hormone-induced increased susceptibility to other sexually transmitted infections (stis) or changes in the cervicovaginal microbiota (vmb), accompanied by genital immune activation and/or mucosal remodeling.201525668647
y chromosome dna in cervicovaginal self-collected samples of childbearing age women: implications for epitheliotropic sexually transmitted infections?assuming a possible association between y chromosome (yc)-dna and sexually transmitted infection (sti) transmission rate, could yc-dna be related to an increased prevalence of human papillomavirus (hpv), herpes simplex virus (hsv-1/2) and chlamydia trachomatis (ct)? could yc-dna be used to validate self-reported condom use and sexual behaviors?201526281916
male circumcision and sti acquisition in britain: evidence from a national probability sample is well-established that male circumcision reduces acquisition of hiv, herpes simplex virus 2, chancroid, and syphilis. however, the effect on the acquisition of non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infections (stis) remains unclear. we examined the relationship between circumcision and biological measures of three stis: human papillomavirus (hpv), chlamydia trachomatis and mycoplasma genitalium.201526083250
maternal exposure to sexually transmitted infections and schizophrenia among offspring.animal models and epidemiologic studies suggest that prenatal maternal infection, and sexually transmitted infection (sti) in particular, is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in the offspring. however, findings from prior research studies on common infections, including herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and chlamydia trachomatis (c. trachomatis) have been inconsistent. to investigate these associations, we conducted a case-control study nested in the population-based finnish p ...201526022653
baylisascaris procyonis and herpes simplex virus 2 coinfection presenting as ocular larva migrans with granuloma formation in a child.ocular baylisascaris procyonis infection results from ingestion of infective eggs of b. procyonis, the raccoon ascarid. herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection of the retina is the result of either primary infection or reactivated disease. herein, we report a case of a 12-year-old female resident of the bronx in new york city, who presented with pan-uveitis and vision loss. initial evaluation for etiologic causes was nondiagnostic. serology for anti-baylisascaris procyonis antibodies in se ...201526123955
isoxanthohumol--biologically active hop flavonoid.isoxanthohumol (ixn), apart from xanthohumol (xn) and 8-prenylnaringenin (8pn), is one of the most important prenylflavonoids found in hops. another natural source of this compound is a shrub sophora flavescens, used in traditional chinese medicine. main dietary source of ixn is beer, and the compound is produced from xn during wort boiling. in the human body, the compound is o-demethylated to 8pn, the strongest known phytoestrogen. this process takes place in the liver and in the intestine, whe ...201525771121
the role of antiviral therapy in immunocompromised patients with herpes simplex virus meningitis.herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) are important causes of acute neurologic illness. although the role of acyclovir in treating hsv encephalitis is clear, the role of antiviral therapy in hsv meningitis remains controversial.201525273082
entry mechanisms of herpes simplex virus 1 into murine epidermis: involvement of nectin-1 and herpesvirus entry mediator as cellular keratinocytes represent a primary entry site for herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) in vivo. the cellular proteins nectin-1 and herpesvirus entry mediator (hvem) act as efficient receptors for both serotypes of hsv and are sufficient for disease development mediated by hsv-2 in mice. how hsv-1 enters skin and whether both nectin-1 and hvem are involved are not known. we addressed the impact of nectin-1 during entry of hsv-1 into murine epidermis and investigated the putative contribution of hve ...201525320325
[immune diagnostics of disorders in the ifn-alpha/nk-cell system in patients with frequently recurrent herpes simplex].study of features of nk-cell response to the effect of recombinant ifn-alpha in complex with evaluation of the ability to synthesize inherent ifn-alpha in patients with frequently recurrent herpes simplex (frhs).201525286509
simultaneous detection of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 in the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with seizures and encephalitis.we report a case of a 62-year-old female with seizures and encephalitis. molecular testing of the patient's cerebrospinal fluid was positive for both herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2). to our knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous detection of hsv-1 and hsv-2 in cerebrospinal fluid.201525355765
fungal metabolite myriocin promotes human herpes simplex virus-2 infection.myriocin is a fungal metabolite with antiviral activity, including influenza, hepatitis b, and hepatitis c viruses. we investigated whether myriocin has activity against human hsv-2, one of the most prevalent pathogens of sexually transmitted disease.201525447452
animal models of herpes simplex virus immunity and pathogenesis.herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous human pathogens represented by two distinct serotypes: herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 (hsv-1); and hsv type 2 (hsv-2). in the general population, adult seropositivity rates approach 90% for hsv-1 and 20-25% for hsv-2. these viruses cause significant morbidity, primarily as mucosal membrane lesions in the form of facial cold sores and genital ulcers, with much less common but more severe manifestations causing death from encephalitis. hsv infections in hum ...201525388226
development of a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 igg antibodies.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) specific for anti-hsv glycoprotein g (gg) are most commonly used in the clinical diagnosis of hsv infection. but most of them are qualitative and with narrow detection ranges. a novel time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (trfia) methodology was developed for the quantitative determination of hsv igg in human serum. the assay was based on an indirect immunoassay format, and performed in 96-well microtiter plates. hsv-1 and hsv-2 were used as the coating antig ...201525377426
evaluation of 2 multiplex real-time pcr assays for the detection of hsv-1/2 and varicella zoster virus directly from clinical samples.we compared the performance of 2 multiplex assays (focus simplexa and quidel lyra) to individual real-time pcr for the detection of herpes simplex virus-1 (hsv-1), hsv-2, and varicella zoster virus (vzv) from clinical specimens. results were compared to a consensus standard, defined as the result obtained by at least 2 of the 3 molecular methods. the sensitivity of the quidel assay ranged from 92.0% for hsv-1 to 97.7% for hsv-2, while the specificity for all targets was 100%. the focus assay dem ...201525511233
comparison of the simplexa hsv1 & 2 direct kit and laboratory-developed real-time pcr assays for herpes simplex virus detection.rapid detection and differentiation of herpes simplex viruses (hsv) is important for patient management and treatment, especially in hsv meningoencephalitis.201525464965
herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus: recent advances in therapy.the mainstay of antiviral therapy for the alpha-herpesviruses [herpes simplex virus (hsv)-1, hsv-2, and varicella zoster virus (vzv)] over the past 40 years has been the nucleoside analogues such as aciclovir. although conventional antiviral therapy has reduced mortality in severe disease, novel agents are needed to address the emergence of resistance and toxicity associated with current second-line therapy. treatment and prophylaxis of vzv and hsv reactivations remains a challenge.201526524331
global and regional estimates of prevalent and incident herpes simplex virus type 1 infections in 2012.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) commonly causes orolabial ulcers, while hsv-2 commonly causes genital ulcers. however, hsv-1 is an increasing cause of genital infection. previously, the world health organization estimated the global burden of hsv-2 for 2003 and for 2012. the global burden of hsv-1 has not been estimated.201526510007
premature newborns with fatal intrauterine herpes simplex virus-1 infection: first report of twins and review of the literature.neonates with blistering skin diseases are dermatologic emergencies. the pathologies involved can pose diagnostic difficulties and there exists a variety of potential life-threatening differential diagnoses.201524909064
antibodies are required for complete vaccine-induced protection against herpes simplex virus 2.herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) 0δnls is a live hsv-2 icp0- mutant vaccine strain that is profoundly attenuated in vivo due to its interferon-hypersensitivity. recipients of the hsv-2 0δnls vaccine are resistant to high-dose hsv-2 challenge as evidenced by profound reductions in challenge virus spread, shedding, disease and mortality. in the current study, we investigated the requirements for hsv-2 0δnls vaccine-induced protection. studies using (uv)-inactivated hsv-2 0δnls revealed that self-lim ...201526670699
pericoital application of tenofovir gel reduced risk for herpes simplex virus type 2 in hiv-negative women. 201526666808
differential mechanisms of tenofovir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate cellular transport and implications for topical preexposure prophylaxis.intravaginal rings releasing tenofovir (tfv) or its prodrug, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tdf), are being evaluated for hiv and herpes simplex virus (hsv) prevention. the current studies were designed to determine the mechanisms of drug accumulation in human vaginal and immune cells. the exposure of vaginal epithelial or t cells to equimolar concentrations of radiolabeled tdf resulted in over 10-fold higher intracellular drug levels than exposure to tfv. permeability studies demonstrated that ...201526711762
a herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) gd mutant impaired for neural tropism is superior to an hsv-2 gd subunit vaccine to protect animals from challenge with hsv-2.a recent phase 3 trial with soluble herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) glycoprotein d (gd2t) in adjuvant failed to show protection against genital herpes. we postulated that live attenuated hsv-2 would provide more hsv antigens for induction of virus-specific antibodies and cellular immunity than would gd2t. we previously reported an hsv-2 mutant, hsv2-gd27, in which the nectin-1 binding domain of gd2 is altered so that the virus is impaired for infecting neural cells, but not epithelial cells, in v ...201526559846
gene expression profiles from disease discordant twins suggest shared antiviral pathways and viral exposures among multiple systemic autoimmune diseases.viral agents are of interest as possible autoimmune triggers due to prior reported associations and widely studied molecular mechanisms of antiviral immune responses in autoimmunity. here we examined new viral candidates for the initiation and/or promotion of systemic autoimmune diseases (said), as well as possible related signaling pathways shared in the pathogenesis of those disorders. rna isolated from peripheral blood samples from 33 twins discordant for said and 33 matched, unrelated health ...201526556803
induction of interferon-λ contributes to tlr3 and rig-i activation-mediated inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 2 replication in human cervical epithelial it possible to immunologically activate human cervical epithelial cells to produce antiviral factors that inhibit herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) replication?201526502803
genital infections and risk of premature rupture of membranes in mulago hospital, uganda: a case control study.inflammatory mediators that weaken and cause membrane rupture are released during the course of genital infections among pregnant women. we set out to determine the association of common genital infections (trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis, neisseria gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, group b streptococcus, bacterial vaginosis, herpes simplex virus type 2 and candidiasis) and premature rupture of membranes in mulago hospital, uganda.201526475265
disseminated primary herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in a 22-year-old male.we present a case of primary disseminated herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) cutaneous disease in a 22-year-old male. we discuss the immune response to hsv-2 infection as well as the extragenital manifestations of hsv-2 observed in immune-competent and immune-suppressed persons.201526180838
changes in the contribution of genital tract infections to hiv acquisition among kenyan high-risk women from 1993 to 2012.the objective of this study was to understand temporal trends in the contribution of different genital tract infections to hiv incidence over 20 years of follow-up in a cohort of high-risk women.201526125141
club drugs and hiv/std infection: an exploratory analysis among men who have sex with men in changsha, evaluate current club drug use and its potential association with the transmission of hiv/std among changsha men who have sex with men (msm).201525950912
high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in pregnant adolescent girls in tanzania: a multi-community cross-sectional data document sexually transmitted infections (stis) among pregnant adolescents in sub-saharan africa, where prenatal screening typically includes only hiv and syphilis. given that hiv incidence in this population is among the world's highest, we sought to assess the prevalence and factors associated with stis in a population of rural pregnant adolescents in tanzania.201525834122
multipurpose prevention technologies: the future of hiv and sti protection.every day, more than 1 million people are newly infected with sexually transmitted infections (stis) that can lead to morbidity, mortality, and an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) acquisition. existing prevention and management strategies, including behavior change, condom promotion, and therapy have not reduced the global incidence and prevalence, pointing to the need for novel innovative strategies. this review summarizes important issues raised during a satellite session a ...201525759332
comparable mrna expression of inflammatory markers but lower claudin-1 mrna levels in foreskin tissue of hsv-2 seropositive versus seronegative asymptomatic kenyan young biopsies from local sites of herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2)-induced ulcers can show infiltrates of inflammatory cells several months after macroscopic healing. we hypothesise that foreskin tissue samples of asymptomatic hsv-2 seropositive men had remaining signs of inflammation at the molecular level. even in the absence of clinical lesions, genital inflammation may contribute to increased hiv susceptibility on sexual exposure to the virus.201525694458
population and dyadic-based seroincidence of herpes simplex virus-2 and syphilis in southern india.herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) and syphilis are associated with increased risk of hiv, highlighting the importance of understanding their transmission dynamics. in india, most studies of hsv-2 and syphilis incidence are in high-risk populations and may not accurately reflect infectious activity. in this study, we aim to define hsv-2/syphilis incidence and risk factors in a population sample.201525605970
dynasore disrupts trafficking of herpes simplex virus proteins.dynasore, a small-molecule inhibitor of the gtpase activity of dynamin, inhibits the entry of several viruses, including herpes simplex virus (hsv), but its impact on other steps in the viral life cycle has not been delineated. the current study was designed to test the hypothesis that dynamin is required for viral protein trafficking and thus has pleiotropic inhibitory effects on hsv infection. dynasore inhibited hsv-1 and hsv-2 infection of human epithelial and neuronal cells, including primar ...201525878109
in vitro virology profile of tenofovir alafenamide, a novel oral prodrug of tenofovir with improved antiviral activity compared to that of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.tenofovir alafenamide (taf) is an investigational oral prodrug of the hiv-1 nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir (tfv). tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tdf) is another tfv prodrug, widely used for the treatment of hiv-1 infection. taf is converted mostly intracellularly to tfv and, in comparison to tdf, achieves higher tenofovir diphosphate (tfv-dp) levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. as a result, taf has demonstrated potent anti-hiv-1 activity at lower doses than tdf in ...201526149992
development and validation of a laboratory-developed multiplex real-time pcr assay on the bd max system for detection of herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus dna in various clinical specimens.a multiplex real-time pcr (quantitative pcr [qpcr]) assay detecting herpes simplex virus (hsv) and varicella-zoster virus (vzv) dna together with an internal control was developed on the bd max platform combining automated dna extraction and an open amplification procedure. its performance was compared to those of pcr assays routinely used in the laboratory, namely, a laboratory-developed test for hsv dna on the lightcycler instrument and a test using a commercial master mix for vzv dna on the a ...201525878344
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