hsv-2 meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent young man: what is the pathogenesis and what is the treatment?herpes simplex encephalitis is rarely caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) after the neonatal period. the pathogenesis of hsv-2 encephalitis is not known and its treatment has not been discussed. we report a case of mild meningoencephalitis secondary to hsv-2 primary infection after sexual risk behaviour in a healthy young man. the diagnosis was established upon clinical, biological and electroencephalographic criteria. aciclovir treatment led to rapid clinical improvement. this case hi ...201526209376
alginate microbead-encapsulated silver complexes for selective delivery of broad-spectrum silver-based sub-saharan africa, human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infections are predominantly acquired via heterosexual contact, and women are at greatest risk of being infected. this region also has the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (stis) per capita worldwide; stis are strongly associated with increased hiv transmission. therefore, there is an urgent requirement for microbicides that are active against hiv and stis. silver compounds exhibit broad antimicrobial activity, making them ...201526184337
the vaginal acquisition and dissemination of hiv-1 infection in a novel transgenic mouse model is facilitated by coinfection with herpes simplex virus 2 and is inhibited by microbicide treatment.epidemiological studies have demonstrated that herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) infection significantly increases the risk of hiv-1 acquisition, thereby contributing to the expanding hiv-1 epidemic. to investigate whether hsv-2 infection directly facilitates mucosal hiv-1 acquisition, we used our transgenic hcd4/r5/ct1 mouse model which circumvents major entry and transcription blocks preventing murine hiv-1 infection by targeting transgenic expression of human cd4, ccr5, and cyclin t1 genes to cd ...201526157126
risk of hiv-1 acquisition among women who use diff erent types of injectable progestin contraception in south africa: a prospective cohort study.several observational studies have reported that hiv-1 acquisition seems to be higher in women who use depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (dmpa) than in those who do not use hormonal contraception. we aimed to assess whether two injectable progestin-only contraceptives, dmpa and norethisterone enanthate (net-en), confer different risks of hiv-1 acquisition.201526155597
sr-2p vaginal microbicide gel provides protection against herpes simplex virus 2 when administered as a combined prophylactic and postexposure therapeutic.previously, we demonstrated that a single prophylactic dose of sr-2p, a novel dual-component microbicide gel comprising acyclovir and tenofovir, led to a modest increase in mouse survival following a lethal challenge of herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2). here, we show that a dose of sr-2p administered 24 h prior to infection provides some protection against the virus, but to a lesser degree than sr-2p administered either once a day for 2 days or 1 h prior to infection. none of the prophylactic dose ...201526149989
efficacy of n-methanocarbathymidine against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 shedding and infection in guinea pigs.current approved nucleoside therapies for genital herpes simplex virus (hsv) infections are effective but improved therapies are needed for treatment of both acute and recurrent diseases.201526149263
acyclovir prophylaxis reduces the incidence of herpes zoster among hiv-infected individuals: results of a randomized clinical trial.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected persons have higher rates of herpes zoster than hiv-uninfected individuals. we assessed whether twice daily treatment with 400 mg of oral acyclovir reduces the incidence of herpes zoster in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among 3408 persons coinfected with hiv and herpes simplex virus type 2. during 5175 person-years of follow-up, 26 cases of herpes zoster occurred among those assigned acyclovir, compared with 69 cases among those ...201626142452
disclosure of hsv-2 serological test results in the context of an adolescent hiv prevention trial in kenya.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) biomarkers are often used in adolescent sub-saharan hiv prevention studies, but evaluations of test performance and disclosure outcomes are rare in the published literature. therefore, we investigated the proportion of elisa-positive and indeterminate samples confirmed by western blot (wb), the psychosocial response to disclosure and whether reports of sexual behaviour and hsv-2 symptoms are consistent with wb confirmatory results among adolescent orphans in k ...201526139208
risk factors for incident hsv-2 infections among a prospective cohort of hiv-1-discordant couples in china.identification of risk factors is essential for developing herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) prevention interventions that could also reduce hiv-1 transmission, particularly among hiv-1-discordant couples.201626139205
the low-cost compound lignosulfonic acid (la) exhibits broad-spectrum anti-hiv and anti-hsv activity and has potential for microbicidal applications.lignosulfonic acid (la), a low-cost lignin-derived polyanionic macromolecule, was extensively studied for its anti-hiv and anti-hsv activity in various cellular assays, its mechanism of viral inhibition and safety profile as potential microbicide.201526132818
non-invasive optical sensor based approaches for monitoring virus culture to minimize bsl3 laboratory entry.high titers of infectious viruses for vaccine and diagnostic reference panel development are made by infecting susceptible mammalian cells. laboratory procedures are strictly performed in a bio-safety level-3 (bsl3) laboratory and each entry and exit involves the use of  disposable personnel protective equipment (ppe) to observe cell culture conditions. routine ppe use involves significant recurring costs. alternative non-invasive optical sensor based approaches to remotely monitor cell culture ...201526115456
ionic derivatives of betulinic acid exhibit antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2), but not hiv-1 reverse transcriptase.betulinic acid (1) has been modified to ionic derivatives (2-5) to improve its water solubility and biological activities. the binding properties of these derivatives with respect to human serum albumin (hsa) was examined and found to be similar to current anti-hiv drugs. these compounds did not inhibit hiv reverse transcriptase, however, 1, 2 and 5 inhibited herpes simplex type 2 (hsv-2) replication at concentrations similar to those reported for acyclovir (ic50 ∼ 0.1-10 μm) and with minimal ce ...201526112446
use of injectable hormonal contraception and women's risk of herpes simplex virus type 2 acquisition: a prospective study of couples in rakai, uganda.the injectable hormonal contraceptive depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (dmpa) has been associated with increased risk of hiv acquisition, but findings are inconsistent. whether dmpa increases the risk of other sexually transmitted viral infections is unknown. we assessed the association between dmpa use and incident herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv2) infection in women.201526094162
herpes viral origin of the parsonage-turner syndrome: highlighting of serological immune anti-herpes deficiency cured by anti-herpes 2012, a 50 year-old athletic male presented with weakness, pain and unilateral phrenic paralysis, followed by bilateral phrenic paralysis with deep dyspnea. in 2013, the parsonage-turner syndrome was diagnosed. when the patient was seen in september 2014 for the first time, he was facing phrenic neuromuscular failure, which led to the hypothesis of neurotropic herpes viruses. a control of the global serological anti-herpes immunity to analyze his antibody (ab) levels confirmed herpes immune g ...201726078744
oral and vaginal tenofovir for genital herpes simplex virus type 2 shedding in immunocompetent women: a double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial.tenofovir is a potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) agent that decreased risk of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) acquisition in hiv pre-exposure prophylaxis trials. whether tenofovir has utility in established hsv-2 disease is unclear.201526044291
a dual-modality herpes simplex virus 2 vaccine for preventing genital herpes by using glycoprotein c and d subunit antigens to induce potent antibody responses and adenovirus vectors containing capsid and tegument proteins as t cell immunogens.we evaluated a genital herpes prophylactic vaccine containing herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) glycoproteins c (gc2) and d (gd2) to stimulate humoral immunity and ul19 (capsid protein vp5) and ul47 (tegument protein vp13/14) as t cell immunogens. the hsv-2 gc2 and gd2 proteins were expressed in baculovirus, while the ul19 and ul47 genes were expressed from replication-defective adenovirus vectors. adenovirus vectors containing ul19 and ul47 stimulated human and murine cd4(+) and cd8(+) t cell resp ...201526041292
vaginal douching and association with sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in a prefecture of yunnan province, china.summaryvaginal douching is a common practice and has been hypothesised to increase a woman's risk for human of contracting hiv and sexually transmitted infections (stis). our objective was to assess the prevalence of douching and its association with stis, genital symptoms and hiv/sti knowledge among female sex workers (fsws). we conducted a cross-sectional study of 837 fsws with interviews and laboratory tests for hiv/stis in a prefecture of yunnan province in southern china. vaginal douching w ...201626016725
variability of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in the female genital reservoir during genital reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2.clinical and subclinical genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) reactivations have been associated with increases in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-1 genital shedding. whether hsv-2 shedding contributes to the selection of specific genital hiv-1 variants remains unknown. we evaluated the genetic diversity of genital and blood hiv-1 rna and dna in 14 hiv-1/hsv-2-co-infected women, including seven with hsv-2 genital reactivation, and seven without as controls. hiv-1 dna and hiv-1 rna env ...201526003280
immunization with hsv-2 gb-ccl19 fusion constructs protects mice against lethal vaginal challenge.there is a lack of an hsv-2 vaccine, in part as the result of various factors that limit robust and long-term memory immune responses at the mucosal portals of viral entry. we previously demonstrated that chemokine ccl19 augmented mucosal and systemic immune responses to hiv-1 envelope glycoprotein. whether such enhanced immunity can protect animals against virus infection remains to be addressed. we hypothesized that using ccl19 in a fusion form to direct an immunogen to responsive immunocytes ...201525994965
correction: global estimates of prevalent and incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in 2012. 201525992922
almond skin inhibits hsv-2 replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by modulating the cytokine network.we have investigated the effect of almond skin extracts on the production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs). pbmcs were either infected or not by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), with and without prior treatment with almond skin extracts. production of il-17 induced by hsv-2 was inhibited by natural skins (ns) treatment. ns triggered pbmc in releasing ifn-α, ifn-γ and il-4 in cellular supernatants. these results may explai ...201525988612
contribution of n-linked glycans on hsv-2 gb to cell-cell fusion and viral entry.hsv-2 is the major cause of genital herpes and its infection increases the risk of hiv-1 acquisition and transmission. hsv-2 glycoprotein b together with glycoproteins d, h and l are indispensable for viral entry, of which gb, as a class iii fusogen, plays an essential role. hsv-2 gb has seven potential n-linked glycosylation (n-cho) sites, but their significance has yet to be determined. for the first time, we systematically analyzed the contributions of n-linked glycans on gb to cell-cell fusi ...201525965797
herpes simplex [corrected] virus type 2 shedding from male circumcision wounds in rakai, uganda.a prospective observational study of 176 men coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was conducted to assess whether their sexual partners may be at an increased risk of hsv-2 from male circumcision (mc) wounds. preoperative and weekly penile lavage samples were tested for penile hsv-2 shedding. prevalence risk ratios (prrs) were estimated using poisson regression. detectable penile hsv-2 shedding was present in 9.7% of men (17 of 176) before mc, comp ...201525943201
acute retinal necrosis secondary to herpes simplex virus type 2 in neonates.acute retinal necrosis (arn) should be in the differential diagnosis of a neonate who presents with vitritis. this report includes three cases of neonatal arn at the bascom palmer eye institute from 2004 to 2009. medical treatment with acyclovir helped reduce sequelae of herpes simplex virus (hsv) 2 infection. patients with arn are at risk for retinal detachment and blindness. although mothers are screened during pregnancy, they are at risk of reactivation or primary contraction of hsv. a neonat ...201525932732
risk behaviours and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and hiv in a group of dominican gay men, other men who have sex with men and transgender women.the objectives of this study were to estimate the point prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (sti) and to investigate the sexual practices and behaviours associated with stis in a group of gay men, other men who have sex with men and transgender women (gmt) in the province of la romana, dominican republic.201525926151
evaluating the performance of the focus herpeselect® hsv-2 igg in veterans with chronic hepatitis c infection.epidemiologic links between chronic hepatitis c and herpes simplex type-2 infection have been suggested; however, type-specific tests for hsv-2 infection have not been validated in patients with chronic hepatitis c infection. the focus herpeselect(®) hsv-2 igg (cypress, california) assay and the biokit hsv-2 rapid assay (biokit usa, lexington, ma) were performed on serum samples obtained from 84 veterans with chronic hepatitis c who demonstrated a previously positive hsv-2 serologic test in thei ...201525908332
overexpression and purification of hsv-2 glycoprotein d in suspension cho cells with serum-free medium and immunogenicity analysis.glycoprotein d (gd2) is the most important candidate antigen for herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) vaccine development. establishment of a stable eukaryotic cell line to overexpress gd2 and an efficient purification process to purify is essential for the development of subunit vaccine against hsv-2. the dna sequence of the extracellular epitope-rich fragment of gd2 was optimized, chemically synthesized, and cloned into plasmid pmd902. the recombinant plasmid pmd902-gd was stably transfected in ...201625906680
programming the composition of polymer blend particles for controlled immunity towards individual protein order for a more precise control over the quality and quantity of immune responses stimulated by synthetic particle-based vaccines, it is critical to control the colloidal stability of particles and the release of protein antigens in both extracellular space and intracellular compartments. different proteins exhibit different sizes, charges and solubilities. this study focused on modulating the release and colloidal stability of proteins with varied isoelectric points. a polymer particle deli ...201525902361
relationship between community-level alcohol outlet accessibility and individual-level herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among young women in south africa.exposure to alcohol outlets may influence sexual health outcomes at the individual and community levels. visiting alcohol outlets facilitates alcohol consumption and exposes patrons to a risky environment and network of potential partners, whereas the presence of alcohol outlets in the community may shift social acceptance of riskier behavior. we hypothesize that living in communities with more alcohol outlets is associated with increased sexual risk.201525868138
hiv blocks interferon induction in human dendritic cells and macrophages by dysregulation of tbk1.dendritic cells (dcs) and macrophages are present in the tissues of the anogenital tract, where hiv-1 transmission occurs in almost all cases. these cells are both target cells for hiv-1 and represent the first opportunity for the virus to interfere with innate recognition. previously we have shown that both cell types fail to produce type i interferons (ifns) in response to hiv-1 but that, unlike t cells, the virus does not block ifn induction by targeting ifn regulatory factor 3 (irf3) for cel ...201525855743
herpes simplex virus type 2-infected dendritic cells produce tnf-α, which enhances ccr5 expression and stimulates hiv production from adjacent infected cells.prior hsv-2 infection enhances the acquisition of hiv-1 >3-fold. in genital herpes lesions, the superficial layers of stratified squamous epithelium are disrupted, allowing easier access of hiv-1 to langerhans cells (lc) in the epidermis and perhaps even dendritic cells (dcs) in the outer dermis, as well as to lesion infiltrating activated t lymphocytes and macrophages. therefore, we examined the effects of coinfection with hiv-1 and hsv-2 on monocyte-derived dcs (mddc). with simultaneous coinfe ...201525840914
coping strategies and behavioural changes following a genital herpes diagnosis among an urban sample of underserved midwestern women.this study focused on understanding the coping strategies and related behavioural changes of women who were recently diagnosed with herpes simplex virus type 2. in particular, we were interested in how coping strategies, condom use, and acyclovir uptake evolve over time. twenty-eight women screening positive for herpes simplex virus type 2 were recruited through a public health std clinic and the indianapolis community court. participants completed three semi-structured interviews with a woman r ...201625792549
herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) genital shedding in hsv-2-/hiv-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy.the dynamics of genital shedding of hsv-2 dna was assessed in hiv-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cart). hiv-1 rna, hiv-1 dna and hsv dna loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, pbmc and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 hiv-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cart and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. nineteen (86%) women were hsv-2-seropositive. among hsv-2-/hiv-1-co-inf ...201625769886
ups and downs in the search for a herpes simplex virus vaccine.modified herpes simplex viruses that are unable to produce glycoprotein d may make effective vaccines.201525756748
vaginal lactobacillus gasseri cmul57 can inhibit herpes simplex type 2 but not coxsackievirus b4e2.this study aimed at demonstrating the antiviral activity of lactobacillus gasseri cmul57 (l. gasseri cmul57), l. acidophilus cmul67 and l. plantarum cmul140 against herpes simplex type 2 (hsv-2) and coxsackievirus b4e2 (cvb4e2), which are enveloped and naked viruses, respectively. these lactobacilli were non-cytotoxic and were able to reduce the cytopathic effect induced by hsv-2 in vero cell monolayers. however, lactobacilli were not active against cvb4e2. tested lactobacilli displayed anti-hsv ...201525752765
presumed bilateral acute retinal necrosis 11 years apart, atypical presentation, and early report a case of presumed bilateral acute retinal necrosis with delayed onset caused by herpes simplex virus type 2, medical treatment, and surgical approach.201525743780
valacyclovir decreases plasma hiv-1 rna in hsv-2 seronegative individuals: a randomized placebo-controlled crossover trial.acyclovir (acv), a highly specific anti-herpetic drug, acts as a dna chain terminator for several human herpesviruses (hhvs), including hhv-2 (hsv-2), a common human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-1 co-pathogen. several trials demonstrated that hsv-2 suppressive therapy using acv or its prodrug valacyclovir (valacv) reduced plasma hiv-1 viral load (vl) in hiv-1/hsv-2 coinfected persons, and this was proposed to be due to a decrease in generalized immune activation. recently, however, we found that ...201525740794
incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in africa: a systematic review.the burden of hsv type 2 varies substantially by region, with the highest incidence and prevalence in sub-saharan africa. we undertook a systematic review to identify studies reporting prospective data on incidence rates in men and women in africa. of 18 eligible studies, 7 were conducted in high-risk populations. among women, incidence rates appeared to be higher in those with high-risk sexual behavior, with rates ranging from 3 to 23 per 100 person-years. in contrast, incidence rates in men ap ...201425734115
hsv-2 immediate-early protein us1 inhibits ifn-β production by suppressing association of irf-3 with ifn-β promoter.hsv-2 is the major cause of genital herpes, and its infection increases the risk of hiv-1 acquisition and transmission. after initial infection, hsv-2 can establish latency within the nervous system and thus maintains lifelong infection in humans. it has been suggested that hsv-2 can inhibit type i ifn signaling, but the underlying mechanism has yet to be determined. in this study, we demonstrate that productive hsv-2 infection suppresses sendai virus (sev) or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-ind ...201525712217
characterization of herpes simplex virus 2 primary microrna transcript order to understand factors that may influence latency-associated transcription and latency-associated transcript (lat) phenotypes, we studied the expression of the herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) lat-associated micrornas (mirnas). we mapped the transcription initiation sites of all three primary mirna transcripts and identified the icp4-binding sequences at the transcription initiation sites of both hsv-2 lat (pri-mirna for mir-i and mir-ii, which target icp34.5, and mir-iii, which targets ic ...201525673716
herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) infected cell proteins are among the most dominant antigens of a live-attenuated hsv-2 vaccine.virion glycoproteins such as glycoprotein d (gd) are believed to be the dominant antigens of herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2). we have observed that mice immunized with a live hsv-2 icp0- mutant virus, hsv-2 0δnls, are 10 to 100 times better protected against genital herpes than mice immunized with a hsv-2 gd subunit vaccine (plos one 6:e17748). in light of these results, we sought to determine which viral proteins were the dominant antibody-generators (antigens) of the live hsv-2 0δnls vaccine. w ...201525658852
serological profile of hsv-2 in std patients: evaluation of diagnostic utility of hsv-2 igm and igg detection.the present study was undertaken to determine herpes simplex virus-2 seroprevalence in sexually active adults aged 20-49 and to investigate the correlation with sociodemographic characteristics and to find its association with other sexually transmitted diseases especially hiv and also to assess the proportion of primary and reactivated hsv-2 cases.201425653947
epidemiology and clinical characteristics of infants with human parechovirus or human herpes virus-6 detected in cerebrospinal fluid tested for enterovirus or herpes simplex virus.human parechovirus (hpev) and human herpes virus-6 (hhv-6) are acquired commonly in infancy and associated with central nervous system infection. the prevalence of hpev and hhv-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid (csf) of infants tested for enterovirus (ev) and herpes-simplex virus (hsv) is unknown. all stored csf samples from ev or hsv testing in infants less than 6 months of age at children's hospital colorado between january 1, 2010 and december 31, 2011 were tested for hpev, hhv-6, ev, and hsv by p ...201525650069
nkt cell activation by local α-galactosylceramide administration decreases susceptibility to hsv-2 infection.nkt cells are a subgroup of t cells, which express a restricted tcr repertoire and are critical for the innate immune responses to viral infections. activation of nkt cells depends on the major histocompatibility complex-related molecule cd1d, which presents bioactive lipids to nkt cells. the marine sponge derived lipid αgalcer has recently been demonstrated as a specific agonist for activation of human and murine nkt cells. in the present study we investigated the applicability of αgalcer pre-t ...201525648689
does offering human immunodeficiency virus testing at the time of blood donation reduce transfusion transmission risk and increase disclosure counseling? results of a randomized controlled trial, são paulo, a randomized controlled trial (rct) in a blood bank in são paulo, we tested the hypotheses that offering client-centered human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) counseling and testing to blood donors would: 1) reduce the risk of hiv contamination in the blood supply by diverting higher-risk, test-seeking donors away from donation and 2) increase return for results and referrals to care.201525646883
risk of bacterial vaginosis among women with herpes simplex virus type 2 infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.bacterial vaginosis (bv) is a perturbation of vaginal flora characterized by reduced levels of lactobacilli and concomitant overgrowth of anaerobic bacterial species. bv is highly prevalent and associated with multiple adverse outcomes, including enhanced human immunodeficiency virus transmission. because recent reports reveal that herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection may increase bv risk, we initiated a systematic review and meta-analysis of the link between hsv-2 infection and bv.201525589333
[study on the prevalence and associated risk factors related to hiv, syphilis, herpes simplex virus-2 among female sex workers in jiaozhou, shandong province].to analyze the prevalence rates and associated risk factors on hiv, syphilis, herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) among female sex workers (fsws) in jiaozhou, shandong province.201425567012
the impact of school subsidies on hiv-related outcomes among adolescent female orphans.we examine effects of school support as a structural hiv prevention intervention for adolescent female orphans in zimbabwe after 5 years.201525530603
chronic meningitis in systemic lupus erythematosus: an unusual etiology.chronic aseptic meningitis is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (sle). apart from immunological causes and drugs, the aseptic meningitis group can include some unidentified viral infections that cannot be detected by routine microbiological testing. it is imperative to do complete cerebrospinal fluid (csf) workup before implicating the symptoms to disease activity or drugs, as untreated infections cause significant mortality in sle. we present a case of young female with sle w ...201425506165
correlates of prevalent hiv infection among adults and adolescents in the kisumu incidence cohort study, kisumu, kenya.we estimated hiv prevalence and identified correlates of hiv infection among 1106 men and women aged 16-34 years residing in kisumu, kenya. demographic, sexual, and other behavioural data were collected using audio computer-assisted self-interview in conjunction with a medical examination, real-time parallel rapid hiv testing, and laboratory testing for pregnancy, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus type 2. multivariate logistic regression was used to identify variables ass ...201525505039
the impact of brief messages on hsv-2 screening uptake among female defendants in a court setting: a randomized controlled trial utilizing prospect theory.epidemiologic data demonstrate that women involved with the criminal justice system in the united states are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections, including herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). female defendants were recruited from a misdemeanor court to assess whether brief framed messages utilizing prospect theory could encourage testing for hsv-2. participants were randomly assigned to a message condition (gain, loss, or control), completed an interviewer-administered survey asses ...201525494832
virus-specific immune memory at peripheral sites of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection in guinea pigs.despite its importance in modulating hsv-2 pathogenesis, the nature of tissue-resident immune memory to hsv-2 is not completely understood. we used genital hsv-2 infection of guinea pigs to assess the type and location of hsv-specific memory cells at peripheral sites of hsv-2 infection. hsv-specific antibody-secreting cells were readily detected in the spleen, bone marrow, vagina/cervix, lumbosacral sensory ganglia, and spinal cord of previously-infected animals. memory b cells were detected pri ...201425485971
herpes virus microrna expression and significance in serous ovarian cancer.serous ovarian cancer (seoc) is the deadliest gynecologic malignancy. micrornas (mirnas) are a class of small noncoding rnas which regulate gene expression and protein translation. mirnas are also encoded by viruses with the intent of regulating their own genes and those of the infected cells. this is the first study assessing viral mirnas in seoc. mirnas sequencing data from 487 seoc patients were downloaded from the tcga website and analyzed through in-house sequencing pipeline. to cross-valid ...201425485872
tetherin restricts hsv-2 release and is counteracted by multiple viral glycoproteins.tetherin has been defined as a restriction factor of hiv-1 and several other enveloped viruses. however, the significance of tetherin in viral infection remains to be further addressed. here, we investigated whether tetherin plays a role in hsv-2 infection. our study revealed that overexpression of tetherin restricted the release of hsv-2 into the extracellular medium, while knockdown of tetherin by sirna enhanced its release. we further demonstrated that hsv-2 infection and viral glycoproteins ...201525462350
an hsv-2 based oncolytic virus can function as an attractant to guide migration of adoptively transferred t cells to tumor sites.adoptive t-cell therapy has shown promises for cancer treatment. however, for treating solid tumors, there is a need for improving the ability of the adoptively transferred t cells to home to tumor sites. we explored the possibility of using an oncolytic virus derived from hsv-2, which can actively pull t effector cells to the site of infection, as a local attractant for migration of adoptively transferred t cells. our data show that intratumoral administration of this virus can indeed attract a ...201525460506
[microbicides for preventing sexually transmitted infections: current status and strategies for preclinical evaluation of new candidates].microbicides are a new tool, still under investigation, which could help prevent infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and other sexually transmitted infections (stis). increasing evidence shows that the complexity of sexual transmission of viral pathogens requires the identification of compounds able to block the early events during the cycle of viral infection. in this manuscript we provide a comprehensive review of the different microbicide strategies that have been studied or a ...201425444135
recreational drug use and risks of hiv and sexually transmitted infections among chinese men who have sex with men: mediation through multiple sexual partnerships.recreational drug use (rdu) may result in sexual disinhibition and higher risk for hiv and other sexually transmitted infections (stis) among men who have sex with men (msm) in china. we assessed whether rdu was associated with hiv, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) within the context of multiple sexual partnerships and unprotected sex.201425443542
comparative performance of the kalon and herpeselect enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays to determine the prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 in papua new guinea.background infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is common worldwide and an important risk factor for hiv infection. aetiological diagnosis of hsv-2 is typically determined with the use of commercially available type-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas). this study aimed to determine the prevalence of hsv-2 among people attending sexual health clinics in the highlands of papua new guinea. the study also aimed to compare the performance of two type-specific elisa assa ...201425435194
herpes simplex virus 2 infects human endothelial ecv304 cells and induces cell apoptosis synergistically with ox-ldl.virus infection has been shown to accelerate atherosclerosis. serological studies indicate a link between the herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection and atherosclerosis, which is initiated and progression of which is promoted by such factors as oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-ldl)-induced endothelial dysfunction. in order to recognize the direct role of hsv-2 in endothelial dysfunction, the present study investigated the infection of hsv-2 in endothelial ecv304 cells and the induction of cell ...201425421969
mycoplasma genitalium is associated with increased genital hiv type 1 rna in zimbabwean women.mycoplasma genitalium is a common sexually transmitted infection associated with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection. some studies suggest that m. genitalium may increase the risk of hiv acquisition. however, results have been inconsistent, and this association has never been examined longitudinally.201525404521
herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus is not associated with inflammatory or metabolic markers in antiretroviral therapy-treated hiv.systemic inflammation and immune activation may persist in hiv-infected persons on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cart) and contribute to adverse health outcomes. we compared markers of immune activation, inflammation, and abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in hiv-infected adults according to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) serostatus in a 6-month observational cohort study in toronto, canada. hiv-infected adults on suppressive (viral load <50 copies/ml) cart were categor ...201525399537
anti-glycoprotein g antibodies of herpes simplex virus 2 contribute to complete protection after vaccination in mice and induce antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-mediated cytolysis.we investigated the role of antibodies against the mature portion of glycoprotein g (mgg-2) of herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) in protective immunity after vaccination. mice were immunized intramuscularly with mgg-2 and oligodeoxynucleotides containing two cpg motifs plus alum as adjuvant. all c57bl/6 mice survived and presented no genital or systemic disease. high levels of immunoglobulin g subclass 1 (igg1) and igg2 antibodies were detected and re-stimulated splenic cd4+ t cells proliferated an ...201425398047
analysis of human papillomavirus and herpes simplex virus genus -2 from patients with cervical cancer in isfahan, iran.although cervical uterine cancer is a second form of cancer among women, but it occupies fifth form among all cancer types.201425395883
herpes simplex virus type 2 among mobile pastoralists in northwestern namibia.although herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) epidemiology has been described for many western and/or urban populations, disease burden has not been characterized for remote, non-western, under treated populations, where patterns of risk and vulnerability may be very different.201525387244
antiviral activity of a single-domain antibody immunotoxin binding to glycoprotein d of herpes simplex virus 2.despite years of research dedicated to preventing the sexual transmission of herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2), there is still no protective vaccine or microbicide against one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world. using a phage display library constructed from a llama immunized with recombinant hsv-2 glycoprotein d, we identified a single-domain antibody vhh, r33, which binds to the viral surface glycoprotein d. although r33 does not demonstrate any hsv-2 neutralization a ...201525385102
discordance of hiv and hsv-2 biomarkers and self-reported sexual behaviour among orphan adolescents in western kenya.this paper examines the discordance between biological data of hiv and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections and self-reported questionnaire responses among orphan adolescents in western kenya.201525378660
herpes simplex virus-2 genital tract shedding is not predictable over months or years in infected persons.herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. a minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. however, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. we employed principal components analysis (pca) and singular value decomposition (svd) to interpret hsv-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as ...201425375183
short communication: a repeated simian human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase/herpes simplex virus type 2 cochallenge macaque model for the evaluation of microbicides.epidemiological studies suggest that prevalent herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection increases the risk of hiv acquisition, underscoring the need to develop coinfection models to evaluate promising prevention strategies. we previously established a single high-dose vaginal coinfection model of simian human immunodeficiency virus (shiv)/hsv-2 in depo-provera (dp)-treated macaques. however, this model does not appropriately mimic women's exposure. repeated limiting dose shiv challenge mode ...201425354024
[elsberg syndrome].a syndrome involving acute urinary retention in combination with sacral radiculitis and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis was first described by the american neurosurgeon charles elsberg in 1931. in many instances the aetiology is herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) reactivation from sensory neurons. in this case report we present a 34-year-old pregnant woman with previous undiagnosed sensory lumbosacral symptoms. she was hospitalized with hsv-2 meningitis and lumbosacral radiculitis but no genita ...201325353608
modulation of cd112 by the alphaherpesvirus gd protein suppresses dnam-1-dependent nk cell-mediated lysis of infected cells.natural killer (nk) cells are key players in the innate response to viruses, including herpesviruses. in particular, the variety of viral strategies to modulate the recognition of certain herpesviruses witnesses the importance of nk cells in the control of this group of viruses. still, nk evasion strategies have remained largely elusive for the largest herpesvirus subfamily, the alphaherpesviruses. here, we report that the gd glycoprotein of the alphaherpesviruses pseudorabies virus (prv) and he ...201425352670
topical herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) vaccination with human papillomavirus vectors expressing gb/gd ectodomains induces genital-tissue-resident memory cd8+ t cells and reduces genital disease and viral shedding after hsv-2 herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) vaccine has been licensed for use in humans. hsv-2 glycoproteins b (gb) and d (gd) are targets of neutralizing antibodies and t cells, but clinical trials involving intramuscular (i.m.) injection of hsv-2 gb and gd in adjuvants have not been effective. here we evaluated intravaginal (ivag) genetic immunization of c57bl/6 mice with a replication-defective human papillomavirus pseudovirus (hpv psv) expressing hsv-2 gb (hpv-gb) or gd (hpv-gd) constructs to target d ...201525320297
human herpesviruses-encoded dutpases: a family of proteins that modulate dendritic cell function and innate immunity.we have previously shown that epstein-barr virus (ebv)-encoded dutpase can modulate innate immune responses through the activation of tlr2 and nf-κb signaling. however, whether this novel immune function of the dutpase is specific for ebv or a common property of the herpesviridae family is not known. in this study, we demonstrate that the purified viral dutpases encoded by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), human herpesvirus-6a (hhv-6a), human herpesvirus-8 (hhv-8) and varicella-zoster virus ( ...201425309527
psychological distress, emotional stability, and emotion regulation moderate dynamics of herpes simplex virus type 2 recurrence.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) genital lesion recurrence is modulated by psychological factors, but no such link with viral shedding (and thus asymptomatic transmission) has been observed in humans.201525293405
associations between blood lead level and substance use and sexually transmitted infection risk among adults in the united states.the effects of low-level lead exposure on neuropsychological status in the united states (us) general adult population have been reported, and the relationship between neuropsychiatric dysfunction and health risk behaviors including substance use and sexual risk taking is well established. however, the potential influence of lead exposure on risk-taking behavior has received little attention. using the national health and nutrition examination survey (nhanes) 2005-2010, we estimated multivariabl ...201425261860
disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection between black and white men who have sex with men in atlanta, disproportionately affects black men who have sex with men, and herpes simplex virus type 2 is known to increase acquisition of hiv. however, data on racial disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence and risk factors are limited among men who have sex with men in the united states. involvement was a cohort study of black and white hiv-negative men who have sex with men in atlanta, ga. univariate and multivariate cross-sectional associations with herpes simplex virus type 2 seropre ...201525246424
herpes simplex virus 2 icp34.5 confers neurovirulence by regulating the type i interferon response.the γ34.5 gene of herpes simplex virus (hsv) 2 encodes icp34.5, which enhances hsv-2 neurovirulence by an unknown mechanism. we found that an hsv-2 γ34.5-null mutant (γ34.5(-/-)) replicated less robustly than its rescue virus (γ34.5r) in wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts (mefs), and in cells primed with ifnβ. increased eif2α phosphorylation correlated with γ34.5(-/-) attenuation. however, γ34.5(-/-) achieved titers equivalent to γ34.5r in mefs lacking the type i ifn receptor (ifnα/βr(-/-)) or l ...201425238641
vaginal memory t cells induced by intranasal vaccination are critical for protective t cell recruitment and prevention of genital hsv-2 disease.protective immunity against genital pathogens causing chronic infections, such as herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) or human immunodeficiency virus, requires the induction of cell-mediated immune responses locally in the genital tract. intranasal immunization with a thymidine kinase-deficient (tk(-)) mutant of hsv-2 effectively induces hsv-2-specific gamma interferon (ifn-γ)-secreting memory t cell production and protective immunity against intravaginal challenge with wild-type hsv-2. however, the ...201425231301
sexual partnership characteristics of african american women who have sex with women; impact on sexually transmitted infection risk.african american women who have sex with women (wsw) are emerging as a population at risk for sexually transmitted infections (stis). the objectives of this study were to explore partnership characteristics for a cohort of african american wsw and evaluate those characteristics as potential risk factors for stis. in addition, we aimed to determine sti diagnoses and identify predictors of sti infection.201425211257
herpes simplex virus 2 infection: molecular association with hiv and novel microbicides to prevent disease.infection with herpes simplex viruses is one of the most ancient diseases described to affect humans. infection with these viruses produces vexing effects to the host, which frequently recur. infection with herpes simplex viruses is lifelong, and currently there is no vaccine or drug to prevent or cure infection. prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) infection varies significantly depending on the geographical region and nears 20% worldwide. importantly, hsv-2 is the first cause of genita ...201525209142
comparative performance of the uni-gold™ hsv-2 rapid: a point-of-care hsv-2 diagnostic test in unselected sera from a reference laboratory.hsv-2 diagnosis is typically by viral culture, viral dna amplification of lesion material or by serology in cases of subclinical presentation. these methods can be time consuming and expensive. the uni-gold™ hsv-2 rapid is a fast, point-of-care diagnostic test that can be performed outside a full service laboratory.201425200648
maternal complement c1q and increased odds for psychosis in adult offspring.the presence of maternal antibodies to food and infectious antigens may confer an increased risk of developing schizophrenia and psychosis in adult offspring. complement factor c1q is an immune molecule with multiple functions including clearance of antigen-antibody complexes from circulation and mediation of synaptic pruning during fetal brain development. to determine if maternal c1q was associated with offspring schizophrenia and psychosis, we evaluated 55 matched case-control maternal serum ...201425195065
impact of hiv-1 infection on herpes simplex virus type 2 genetic variability among co-infected individuals.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide. while the contribution of hsv-2 to acquisition and course of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection has been well described, less attention has been paid to the impact of hiv infection on the variability and the pathophysiology of hsv-2 infection. the goal of the present study was to characterize genotypically and phenotypically hsv-2 strains isolated from 12 patients infected by hiv-1 and from ...201525174847
t cell memory. a local macrophage chemokine network sustains protective tissue-resident memory cd4 t cells.cd8 tissue-resident memory t (t(rm)) cells provide efficient local control of viral infection, but the role of cd4 t(rm) is less clear. here, by using parabiotic mice, we show that a preexisting pool of cd4 t(rm) cells in the genital mucosa was required for full protection from a lethal herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) infection. chemokines secreted by a local network of macrophages maintained vaginal cd4 t(rm) in memory lymphocyte clusters (mlcs), independently of circulating memory t cells. cd4 ...201425170048
the effect of valacyclovir on hiv and hsv-2 in hiv-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy with previously unrecognised the absence of antiretroviral therapy, valacyclovir may reduce hiv viral load and increase cd4+ t-lymphocyte count. we sought to evaluate the impact of valacyclovir on hiv and hsv-2 in co-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy with previously unrecognised hsv-2 infection. a prospective, randomised-controlled, 24-week trial of valacyclovir 1000 mg was performed. mean cd4+ t-lymphocyte count at 24 weeks compared to baseline cd4+ t-lymphocyte count was the primary outcome. hiv viral ...201525147236
the herpes simplex virus 2 virion-associated ribonuclease vhs interferes with stress granule a previous study, it was observed that cells infected with herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) failed to accumulate stress granules (sgs) in response to oxidative stress induced by arsenite treatment. as a follow-up to this observation, we demonstrate here that disruption of arsenite-induced sg formation by hsv-2 is mediated by a virion component. through studies on sg formation in cells infected with hsv-2 strains carrying defective forms of ul41, the gene that encodes vhs, we identify vhs as a v ...201425142597
prophylactic treatment with a novel bioadhesive gel formulation containing aciclovir and tenofovir protects from hsv-2 infection.over-the-counter access to an inexpensive, effective topical microbicide could reduce the transmission of hiv and would increase women's control over their health and eliminate the need to obtain their partners' consent for prophylaxis. chronic infection with herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2), also known as human herpes virus 2, has been shown to facilitate hiv infection and speed the progression to immunodeficiency disease. our objective is to develop a drug formulation that protects against both ...201425139839
role of fas/fasl signaling in regulation of anti-viral response during hsv-2 vaginal infection in mice.fas receptor-fas ligand (fasl) signaling is involved in apoptosis of virus-infected cells but increasing evidence accumulates on fas receptor as a mediator of apoptosis-independent processes such as induction of activating and pro-inflammatory signals. in this study, we examined the role of fas/fasl pathway in regulation of anti-viral response to genital hsv-2 infection using a murine model of hsv-2 infection applied to c57bl6/j, b6. mrl-faslpr/j and b6smn.c3-faslgld/j mice. hsv-2 infection of f ...201425129477
tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles show antiviral activity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.the interaction between silver nanoparticles and herpesviruses is attracting great interest due to their antiviral activity and possibility to use as microbicides for oral and anogenital herpes. in this work, we demonstrate that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles sized 13 nm, 33 nm and 46 nm are capable of reducing hsv-2 infectivity both in vitro and in vivo. the antiviral activity of tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles was size-related, required direct interaction and blocked virus ...201425117537
identification of novel virus-specific antigens by cd4⁺ and cd8⁺ t cells from asymptomatic hsv-2 seropositive and seronegative donors.reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) infections can be characterized by episodic recurrent genital lesions and/or viral shedding. we hypothesize that infected (hsv-2(pos)) asymptomatic individuals have acquired t cell responses to specific hsv-2 antigen(s) that may be an important factor in controlling their recurrent disease symptoms. our proteomic screening technology, atlas, was used to characterize the antigenic repertoire of t cell responses in infected (hsv-2(pos)) and vir ...201425108380
sexual transmission of human t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1.human t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (htlv-1) is endemic in many parts of the world and is primarily transmitted through sexual intercourse or from mother to child. sexual transmission occurs more efficiently from men to women than women to men and might be enhanced by sexually transmitted diseases that cause ulcers and result in mucosal ruptures, such as syphilis, herpes simplex type 2 (hsv-2), and chancroid. other sexually transmitted diseases might result in the recruitment of inflammatory ...201425075475
structural and community-level interventions for increasing condom use to prevent the transmission of hiv and other sexually transmitted interventions to promote condom use are considered to be a valuable tool to reduce the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and other sexually transmitted infections (stis). in particular, special emphasis has been placed on implementing such interventions through structural changes, a concept that implies public health actions that aim to improve society's health through modifications in the context wherein health-related risk behavior takes place. this strategy attempts ...201425072817
[prevalence of hiv and sexually transmitted diseases as well as related associated risk factors among middle/low level female sex workers in a city in guangdong province].to explore the prevalence of hiv, sexually transmitted diseases (stds) and associated factors among medium/low level female sex workers (fsws) in an under-developed city in guangdong province.201425059357
prevalence and factors associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in patients attending a baltimore city emergency department.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is a common sexually transmitted disease, but there is limited data on its epidemiology among urban populations. the urban emergency department (ed) is a potential venue for surveillance as it predominantly serves an inner city minority population. we evaluate the seroprevalence and factors associated with hsv-2 infection among patients attending the johns hopkins hospital adult emergency department (jhh ed).201425036862
herpes simplex virus type 2 and the risk of cervical cancer: a meta-analysis of observational assess whether herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection has an effect on the risk of cervical cancer.201425030659
the heterogeneous effects of hiv extensive multi-disciplinary literature examines the effects of learning one's hiv status on subsequent risky sexual behaviors. however, many of these studies rely on non-experimental designs; use self-reported outcome measures; or both. in this study, we investigate the effects of a randomly assigned home based hiv testing and counseling (htc) intervention on risky sexual behaviors and schooling investments among school-age females in malawi. we find no overall effects on hiv, herpes simplex ...201424981505
a herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) glycoprotein d-expressing nonreplicating dominant-negative hsv-2 virus vaccine is superior to a gd2 subunit vaccine against hsv-2 genital infection in guinea pigs.we recently constructed a novel non-replicating dominant-negative hsv-2 recombinant viral vaccine (cj2-gd2) capable of expressing various hsv-2 antigens that are dominant targets of hsv-2-specific cd8 t-cell response. importantly, cj2-gd2 expresses gd2, the hsv-2 major antigen glycoprotein d, as efficiently as wild-type hsv-2 infection and can lead to a nearly 500-fold reduction in wild-type hsv-2 viral replication in cells co-infected with cj2-gd2 and wild-type hsv-2. in this report, we show th ...201424979708
daily oral tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir preexposure prophylaxis reduces herpes simplex virus type 2 acquisition among heterosexual hiv-1-uninfected men and women: a subgroup analysis of a randomized trial.daily oral preexposure prophylaxis (prep) using the antiretroviral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tdf) alone or in combination with emtricitabine (ftc-tdf) reduces the risk for hiv-1 acquisition. tenofovir has in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2).201424979446
a spotty liver of pregnancy.herpes simplex virus (hsv) hepatitis by definition constitutes disseminated herpes simplex infection; it is rare, with only approximately 130 cases reported in the literature. although hsv hepatitis typically occurs in immunocompromised hosts, pregnancy-especially the third trimester, has been identified as a risk factor for its development. this is likely because of the fact that humoral and cell-mediated immunity decrease throughout pregnancy and nadir in the third trimester with decreased t-c ...201726425623
frequent genital hsv-2 shedding among women during labor in soweto, south africa.despite high herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) incidence and prevalence among women in africa, we are unaware of published neonatal herpes reports. to assess neonatal hsv transmission potential in south africa, we investigated the frequency of the strongest risk factors: hsv acquisition in late pregnancy and hsv shedding during labor.201424963269
factors influencing herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among females in enugu, enugu state, nigeria.herpes simplex virus infection is a chronic infection of the sensory ganglia with variable levels of epithelial expression. an important feature of hsv infection is the recurrence of disease as a result of periodic or sporadic activation of viral replication. in addition, asymptomatic shedding of herpes viruses may play a significant role in transmission from person to person. this infection being lifelong manifests only in a small proportion of those infected. it has presented public health con ...201524956686
Displaying items 6901 - 7000 of 7420