stereospecific synthesis and antiviral properties of different enantiomerically pure carbocyclic 2'-deoxyribonucleoside analogues derived from common chiral pools: (+)-(1r,5s)- and (-)-(1s,5r)-2-oxabicyclo[3.3.0]oct-6-en-3-one.enantiomerically pure (+)- and (-)-carbocyclic thymidine, (-)-carbocyclic 3'-epi-thymidine, (+)-carbocyclic 3'-deoxy-3'-azidothymidine, (+)-carbocyclic 2,3'-o-anhydrothymidine, (+)-carbocyclic 3'-o,6'-methylenethymidine, and (+)-(6's)-carbocyclic 6'-methylthymidine were synthesized in a stereospecific manner from common chiral pools of (+)-(1r,5s)- and (-)-(1s,5r)-2-oxabicyclo[3.3.0]oct-6-en-3-one and evaluated for antiviral activity. (+)-carbathymidine and, to a lesser extent, (+)-carbocyclic 2 ...19902158560
(+-)-(1 alpha,2 beta,3 alpha)-9-[2,3-bis(hydroxymethyl)-cyclobutyl] guanine [(+-)-bhcg or sq 33,054]: a potent and selective inhibitor of herpesviruses.(+-)-(1 alpha,2 beta,3 alpha)-9-[2,3-bis(hydroxymethyl)cyclobutyl] guanine [(+-)-bhcg or sq 33,054] is a newly synthesized nucleoside analog with potent and selective antiviral activity against members of the herpesvirus group, including human cytomegalovirus. the activity against a thymidine kinase deficient hsv-2 mutant was 25-fold poorer than against the parent virus, suggesting that phosphorylation is an important prerequisite for antiviral activity against hsv-2. (+-)-bhcg is readily phosph ...19902159261
soluble forms of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d bind to a limited number of cell surface receptors and inhibit virus entry into cells.herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv-2 plaque production was inhibited by treating cells with soluble forms of hsv-1 glycoprotein d (gd-1t) and hsv-2 glycoprotein d (gd-2t). both glycoproteins inhibited entry of hsv-1 and hsv-2 without affecting virus adsorption. in contrast, a soluble form of hsv-2 glycoprotein b had no effect on virus entry into cells. specific binding of gd-1t and gd-2t to cells was saturable, and approximately 4 x 10(5) to 5 x 10(5) molecules bound per cell. binding o ...19902159532
[diagnosis of varicella-zoster virus (vzv) infection by using fitc-labeled monoclonal antibodies].anti-varicella zoster virus (vzv) mouse monoclonal antibodies conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate were evaluated for their usefulness as a practical diagnostic tool in the clinical field by examining cells infected with isolated herpes viruses and 431 clinical samples. the kit stained clearly the cells infected with 14 isolated vzv strains without cross reaction to 15 isolated herpes simplex virus type-1 strains (hsv-1) and 14 type-2 (hsv-2) strains. in clinical specimens, viral antigens ...19902159967
synthesis and antiviral activity of (s)-9-[4-hydroxy-3-(phosphonomethoxy)butyl]guanine.the synthesis of (s)-9-[4-hydroxy-3-(phosphonomethoxy)butyl]guanine (3), starting from (s)-4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane (4), is described. alkylation of trityl derivative 7 with (diethylphosphono)methyl triflate provided phosphonate 8, which was readily converted to mesylate 12 in three steps. nucleophilic substitution of the mesylate group of 12 by 2-amino-6-chloropurine sodium salt led to (s)-2-amino-6-chloro-9-[3-[(diethyl-phosphono)methoxy]-4-(tetrahydro- 2h-pyran-2-yloxy)bu ...19902160539
viral activation of the coagulation cascade: molecular interactions at the surface of infected endothelial cells.herpesviral infection of endothelial cells (ecs) induces arterial injury. we now demonstrate that such infection promoted enhanced monocyte-endothelial adhesion. enhanced adhesion was blocked by monoclonal antibodies to the viral-encoded cell surface glycoprotein gc but not by antibodies to gd or ge. adhesion was also blocked by treating ecs with specific thrombin inhibitors or by growing cells in prothrombin-depleted serum. we found that gc bound and promoted activation of factor x on infected ...19902160855
nucleotide sequences responsible for the inability of a herpes simplex virus type 2 strain to grow in human lymphocytes are identical to those responsible for its inability to grow in mouse tissues following ocular infection.a study was undertaken to determine whether genes associated with herpes simplex virus (hsv) neuroinvasiveness in mice influence the growth of hsv in man, the virus's natural host. hsv-2(186), a nonneuroinvasive hsv strain, was found to replicate poorly (less than 3-fold) in cultures of phytohemagglutinin (pha) stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc). in contrast, seven other hsv strains all multiplied 40- to 100-fold. the paucity of hsv-2(186) growth in pbmc was not due to a ...19902161143
nucleotide sequence of the herpes simplex virus type-2 syn gene that causes cell fusion.the nucleotide (nt) sequence of the entire coding region of the syn gene of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is reported. the amino acid (aa) sequence deduced from the nt sequence has been compared to analogous herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) syn gene that causes cell fusion. the aa sequences are 82.8% homologous and contain a highly conserved region of 90 aa. these results identify some of the conserved regions in the coding sequences between the two types.19902161382
herpes simplex virus-encoded ribonucleotide reductase: evidence for the dissociation/reassociation of the holoenzyme.35s-labeled cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant ts 1222 were used as a source of the large subunit of the viral ribonucleotide reductase (rr) to investigate the binding of the large (rr1) and small (rr2) subunits in the active enzyme. mixing 35s-labeled rr1 from ts 1222 with unlabeled rr1/rr2 complex from wild type (wt) infected cells resulted in the formation of a complex between 35s-labeled rr1 and unlabeled rr2, indicating that the comple ...19902161585
comparative dna sequence analysis of the host shutoff genes of different strains of herpes simplex virus: type 2 strain hg52 encodes a truncated ul41 product.herpes simplex virus (hsv) particles contain a factor which can shut off host protein synthesis during the earliest stages of infection. the efficiency of shutoff varies between different strains of virus, type 2 strains being generally more active than type 1 strains. however, hsv-2 strain hg52 is deficient in host cell shutoff. we have investigated the basis of the different shutoff phenotypes of a strong shutoff strain (hsv-2 strain g), a weak shutoff virus (hsv-1 strain 17 syn+) and hg52 by ...19902161906
the herpes simplex virus us11 open reading frame encodes a sequence-specific rna-binding protein.herpes simplex virus 1- and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2)-infected cell extracts but not uninfected cell extracts contain an rna-binding activity for an in vitro-transcribed sequence from the domains of the hsv-1 us11 and alpha 47 genes. the transcript of this sequence has not been detected in infected cells. the binding is sequence and secondary structure specific and protects approximately 95 nucleotides from rnase digestion. analyses of hsv-1 x hsv-2 recombinants and hsv-1 deletion mutants mapped the f ...19902161949
detection of varicella-zoster virus dna by field-inversion gel electrophoresis.a new method for detection of varicella-zoster virus (vzv) dna using field-inversion gel electrophoresis (fige) was devised. vzv-genomic dna could be differentiated from the host cell dna of human embryonic lung (hel) fibroblasts infected with vzv under electrophoretic conditions allowing resolution of linear and double-stranded dnas in the 49-230 kilobase pairs (kb) range. the detection of vzv-genomic dna from infected hel cells was successful regardless of whether the vzv was a laboratory stra ...19902161996
treatment of primary and recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 induced meningitis with acyclovir.we describe therapy with acyclovir in 1 patient with acute meningitis induced by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and in 1 patient with ascending myelitis in connection with meningitis after a primary genital hsv-2 infection. in addition, intermittent or continuous acyclovir prophylaxis against meningitis was employed in 3 patients with recurrent meningitis of probable hsv-2 etiology. possible beneficial effects of the treatment were seen.19902162558
the frequency of unrecognized type 2 herpes simplex virus infection among women. implications for the control of genital evaluate the prevalence of symptomatic versus asymptomatic or unrecognized type 2 herpes simplex virus (hsv-2) infection, the authors performed physical examination, viral cultures, and type-specific serologic assays in 776 randomly selected women attending an std clinic and 636 female university students. forty-six percent of women attending the std clinic compared with 8.8% of the university students had serologic evidence of hsv-2 infection. clinical or historical evidence of genital herpe ...19902163115
inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 2 growth by phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides.phosphorothioate homo-oligodeoxynucleotides were found to be potent inhibitors of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) but less potent for hsv-1 in cell culture studies. oligomers with longer chain lengths were more active against hsv-2 than those with shorter ones. of all the compounds examined, the 28-mer phosphorothioate homo-oligodeoxynucleotides were the strongest inhibitors of hsv-2. the degree of inhibition was related to the base moiety on the order of deoxycytidine = thymidine greater th ...19902163243
analysis of the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic antibody activity in murine neonatal herpes simplex virus infection with antibodies to synthetic peptides of glycoprotein d and monoclonal antibodies to glycoprotein b.the role of antibody in neonatal herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection remains controversial. a battery of well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to hsv glycoprotein b (gb), and polyclonal antibodies against synthetic peptides of predicted epitopes of hsv glycoprotein d (gd) were used to determine in vitro functional activity and association with protection against lethal infection in a murine model of neonatal hsv disease. antiviral neutralization activity of hsv was not associated with antibo ...19902164044
recurrent male herpes genitalis with two different strains of herpes simplex virus type 2.a case of a 50-year-old man with recurrent herpes genitalis with two different isolated strains of herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 is reported. morphologically, two types of cytopathic effects (cpe) induced by viruses were observed in the vero cell cultures, one being a syncytial giant cell formation and the other a rounded cell formation without cell adhesion resembling the cpe induced by ordinary hsv type 2. in this case, it is clinically interesting that the patient complained of persistent ...19902164052
no association between herpes simplex virus type-2 seropositivity or anogenital lesions and hiv seroconversion among homosexual men.recent reports have suggested that hsv-2 infection and associated anogenital ulcerations represent an important risk factor for acquisition of hiv infection. although this is an appealing biological hypothesis, inferences drawn for homosexual men, as well as other at-risk populations, must be made after careful consideration of methods to control for potential confounding data. this report utilized a nested case-control study in which 49 homosexual hiv seroconverters were compared to 49 homosexu ...19902164082
genomic variation of herpes simplex virus type 2 isolates analysed by hybridization after electroblotting from polyacrylamide gels.genomic variation of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) strains was analysed by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis and subsequent hybridization to cloned hsv-2 sequences. two probes were used, one from the l-segment and one from the s-segment of the hsv-2 genome. the probes did not contain a-repeat sequences. hybridization to the specific sequences in individual dna fragments obtained by use of the frequently cleaving restriction endonuclease alu i revealed variations in the genome not ...19902164145
identification of the cross-reactive antigens between marek's disease virus and pseudorabies virus by monoclonal antibodies.among the 33 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against pseudorabies virus (prv) examined, three mabs (24-17, 74-26, and 8) were found to react with cells infected with marek's disease virus (mdv)-related viruses by immunofluorescence test. two of the mabs (24-17 and 74-26) reacted with the nuclei of cells infected with mdv serotype 1 (mdv1), mdv serotype 2 (mdv2), and herpesvirus of turkeys (hvt), whereas mab 8 reacted with the cytoplasm of mdv2- and hvt-infected cells. however, none of the mabs agai ...19902164393
serologic type conversion of a herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) to an hsv-2 epitope caused by a single amino acid substitution in glycoprotein c.a monoclonal antibody to herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein c (gc-2) did not recognize wild-type herpes simplex virus type 1 gc (gc-1) but did recognize a mutant gc-1 molecule. this conversion from a type 1 to a type 2 epitope was shown to be due to a single amino acid substitution in gc-1.19902164613
serum amyloid a protein-related mrna expression in herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed hamster cells.a nearly full-length cdna very similar to murine serum amyloid a protein was cloned from herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed hamster cells. the expression of mrna was constitutive in these cells and could be superinduced by conditioned medium. higher rates of nuclear runoff transcription in transformed and induced cells indicated some regulation at the transcriptional level.19902164641
a prospective evaluation of primary genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infections acquired during order to study the epidemiology of herpes simplex type 2 (hsv-2) infections during pregnancy, we used an enzyme immunoassay to detect type-specific antibodies to hsv-2 glycoprotein g in serial blood samples obtained from a cohort of 1891 pregnant women. blood samples obtained at about 17 and 32 weeks of gestation and at the time of delivery were assessed for antibody to hsv-2 glycoprotein g in order to evaluate the prevalence of past infections with hsv-2 and the rate of acquisition of hsv-2 ...19902164656
immortalization of rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells after transfection with a fragment of the bglii n region of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna.rabbit arterial smooth muscle cells were transfected with the pbc24neo plasmid dna which consists of a sequence of 790 base pairs from the bglii n fragment of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna linked to the neo resistance gene. selection in g418-containing medium resulted in eleven immortalized clones which showed increased growth rate and saturation densities. one of the eleven clones maintained the transforming dna sequence integrated in the cellular genome and showed continuous resistance to g4 ...19902165042
nucleocapsid, nuclear association, and genome location of the herpes simplex virus type 2 38-kd dna-binding protein.a previously-described herpes simplex virus type 2 dna-binding protein with a molecular size of 38 kd has been further characterized. using purified nucleocapsids, a dnase release assay, and intertypic recombinants, this protein was found to be a component of the nucleocapsid, intimately associated with the nuclear matrix, and encoded between 0.605 and 0.720 on the herpes simplex virus type 2 genome.19902165049
epidemiology of genital herpes in pittsburgh: serologic, sexual, and racial correlates of apparent and inapparent herpes simplex infections.women attending family planning clinics in western pennsylvania were enrolled into a prospective epidemiologic study of herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection. detection of antibodies to hsv-1 and hsv-2 was based on an immunodot assay using type-specific glycoproteins gg-1 and gg-2. serologic and historical data at enrollment were analyzed for 4527 subjects; the seroprevalence of hsv-2 was 21.6%. by multivariate analysis, hsv-2 infection as determined by seroprevalence was significantly and indepe ...19902165102
a cross-sectional study of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in college students: occurrence and determinants of infection.occurrence rates and determinants of infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) were measured in first- and fourth-year undergraduate students at a state university. this cross-sectional multistage probability sample survey included sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior patterns, disease history, and hsv type-specific antibody status. the prevalence of hsv-1 antibody was 37.2% in freshmen and 46.1% in fourth-year students; that for hsv-2 antibody was 0.4% and ...19902165103
primary and recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2-induced 27 patients with a first episode of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-induced meningitis, confirmed by virus isolation from the cerebrospinal fluid (csf) or seroconversion to hsv-2, initial neurologic complications were found in 10 (37%) but subsided before 6 months in all patients. long-term complications were recurrent meningitis in 5 (19%) and periodic headache related to genital hsv recrudescences in 4 (15%). seven additional patients had possible hsv-2-induced recurrent meningitis. in ...19902165105
mucosal and systemic antiviral antibodies in mice inoculated intravaginally with herpes simplex virus type 2.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) causes lethal illness after intravaginal (ivag) inoculation into balb/cj mice. in the present studies, we demonstrated in mice that primary ivag vaccination with an attenuated strain of hsv-2 induced humoral immunity in sera and in vaginal secretions. secondary genital exposure to hsv-2 enhanced this response. however, intraperitoneal exposure to attenuated hsv-2 elicited an antiviral antibody response in sera but not in vaginal secretions. in both sera and va ...19902165134
the jh2604 deletion variant of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hg52) fails to produce necrotizing encephalitis following intracranial inoculation of mice.the pathological changes and distribution of virus antigen in mouse brains were studied following intracranial inoculation of 3 week old balb/c mice with the herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 strain hg52 and its deletion variant jh2604. the variant jh2604 failed to produce necrotizing encephalitis compared to the parental hg52. the morphological changes induced in jh2604-infected brains consisted of localized perivascular cuffing by lymphocytes and infiltration by immune cells. immunohistochemic ...19902165139
alterations in the cellular phenotype induced by herpes simplex viruses.numerous studies have shown that herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1, hsv-2) are able to transform the morphological phenotype of rodent cells. unlike other dna tumor viruses the transformed cells did not consistently retain or express a given set of viral genes. in fact, transformation could be obtained using fragments of viral dna that did not wholly encode viral proteins. of interest within the transforming fragments were sequences which could assume a secondary structure like that of i ...19902165516
from virus to vaccine: recombinant mammalian cell lines as substrates for the production of herpes simplex virus vaccines.the use of mammalian cells as substrates for the production of various vaccines is a time-honored procedure. with the advent of recombinant dna technology, various investigators soon realized that these techniques could be applied to mammalian cells to convert them to reliable, safe producers of a variety of vaccines. while none of these types of recombinant vaccines have, as yet, been widely utilized, many individuals believe that these technologies are the wave of the future in vaccine product ...19902165517
reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus by adenovirus recombinants encoding mutant ie-0 gene products.we have previously shown that adenovirus recombinants expressing functional icp0 reactivate latent herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in an in vitro latency system. this study demonstrated that icp0, independent of other hsv gene products, is sufficient to reactivate latent hsv-2 in this in vitro system. to assess the effects of defined mutations in the sequence encoding icp0 (ie-0) on reactivation, seven in-frame insertion and three in-frame deletion mutants were moved into an adenovirus expre ...19902166826
altered sensitivity to antiviral drugs of herpes simplex virus isolates from a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.acyclovir (acv)-resistant herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was isolated from a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome after long-term but intermittent acv therapy. these thymidine kinase-defective isolates were sensitive in vitro to foscarnet. while combined therapy with acv and interferon produced only partial clinical improvement, the in vitro effect of this combination against an acv-resistant isolate from the patient was strongly synergistic. a short course (10-12 days) of intrav ...19902167340
glycoprotein c-dependent attachment of herpes simplex virus to susceptible cells leading to productive infection.herpes simplex viruses encode several glycoproteins dispensable for infection and replication in cell culture. evidence is presented that there exist at least two pathways for viral attachment to cells, i.e., one mediated by the dispensable glycoprotein c (gc) and one independent of that glycoprotein. thus, whereas the polycations neomycin and polylysine inhibit attachment but not entry of already attached herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) into baby hamster kidney (bhk) cell line, they have no effe ...19902167550
high level expression in 293 cells of the herpes simplex virus type 2 ribonucleotide reductase subunit 2 using an adenovirus vector.the herpes simplex viruses (hsv-1 and hsv-2) encode a ribonucleotide reductase consisting of two non-identical subunits (rr1 and rr2) which associate to form the active holoenzyme. to facilitate the purification and subsequent biochemical characterization of this enzyme, we have cloned the small subunit 2 of the hsv-2 ribonucleotide reductase (rr2hsv-2) in a helper-independent adenovirus type 5 vector under the control of the adenovirus type 2 major late promoter. after infection of 293 cells wi ...19902167932
papillomavirus trans-activator protein e2 activates expression from the promoter for the ribonucleotide reductase large subunit from herpes simplex virus type 2.activation of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) large subunit of the ribonucleotide reductase (icp10) gene by papillomavirus dna encoding the e2 or e7 proteins was studied directly by immunofluorescence or by chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) analysis with hybrid icp10 or ie175 and 38k promoter constructions. cotransfection with bovine papillomavirus type 1 or human papillomavirus type 16 (hpv-16) e2 dna enhanced cat expression from constructions in which cat is regulated by the icp1 ...19902167936
rapid detection of herpes simplex virus in clinical samples by flow cytometry after amplification in tissue culture.murine monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and -2, respectively) nuclear antigens were used to identify cells infected with hsv-1 or -2 by indirect immunofluorescence in conjunction with flow cytometry after virus amplification of mrc-5 cell monolayers. the results indicate that mabs q1, q2, and h-640 detect hsv-1- and hsv-2-infected cells, mab sd-1 detects hsv-2- but not hsv-1-infected cells, and mab 58-s detects hsv-1- but not hsv-2-infected cells. mab ...19902168440
[epidemiologic analysis of dna's of herpes simplex virus, type 1 and type 2 isolates obtained from family members and from different lesions of individuals].we analyzed herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) or type 2 (hsv-2) infections in 6 families, to see whether or not a single strain had infected members of each family, analyzing dna's of viral isolates with restriction endonucleases. we also analyzed 29 isolates from 13 patients to examine if herpetic lesions on different sites of each patient's body had been caused by a single strain. in 4 cases of family infection and 10 cases of individual infection with multiple site manifestations, electroph ...19902169506
escherichia coli-derived envelope protein gd but not gc antigens of herpes simplex virus protect mice against a lethal challenge with hsv-1 and hsv-2.immunization studies with hsv-1 and hsv-2 envelope proteins expressed in escherichia coli were performed. after active immunization of mice with a gd-1 antigen (leu53-ala312) expressed as a fusion protein, the animals were protected from a lethal challenge with hsv-1 and hsv-2. in addition, antisera from rabbits immunized with the same gd-1 antigen also conferred passive immunity to mice against a challenge infection with either hsv-1 or hsv-2. in contrast to these successful gd-1 protection exp ...19902169577
infection of vascular endothelial cells with herpes simplex virus enhances tissue factor activity and reduces thrombomodulin expression.latent infection of vascular cells with herpes-viruses may play a pathogenic role in the development of human atherosclerosis. in a previous study, we found that cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (huvecs) infected with herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) became procoagulant, exemplified both by their enhanced assembly of the prothrombinase complex and by their inability to reduce adhesion of platelets. we now report two further procoagulant consequences of endothelial hsv infection: los ...19902169619
[detection of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus and cytomegalovirus in aphthous stomatitis].attempts were made to demonstrate herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 and type 2, varicella zoster virus (vzv) and cytomegalovirus (cmv) in specimens obtained from aphthous ulceration lesions by the immunofluorescent method using fluorescein-labeled monoclonal antibodies. hsv-1 and vzv were detected in 2 and 4 out of 30 patients, respectively. although almost all viruses that can infect the oral cavity could occasionally cause stomatitis, neither hsv-2 nor cmv was not found in this study. vzv was ...19902170607
characterization of herpes simplex virus type 2 transcription during latent infection of mouse trigeminal ganglia.using a cornea trigeminal ganglion model, we have investigated transcription by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) during latency in mice. latency was verified 2 months postinoculation by reactivation of hsv-2 after explant cocultivation of trigeminal ganglia from the majority of mice (83%). transcription during latent hsv-2 infection was limited to the repeat regions of the viral genome as determined by in situ hybridization using restriction fragment probes representing 100% of the hsv-2 geno ...19902170675
[guidelines for management of genital herpes infection in the experience of a health care center for sexually transmitted diseases in buenos aires (argentina)].during two years all clinical genital lesions compatible with herpes simplex virus (hsv) etiology were studied systematically through intent of virus isolation in bhk cells. isolation of virus was confirmed in 85% of the 206 cases studied. all seems to indicate that around the 20% of the isolations belong to the type hsv1 and the rest to the type hsv2. viral antigen demonstration, by direct and/or indirect technics with antibodies poly or monoclonals shows to be less sensitive than the virus iso ...19902170786
myristylation and polylysine-mediated activation of the protein kinase domain of the large subunit of herpes simplex virus type 2 ribonucleotide reductase (icp10).the amino-terminal domain of the large subunit of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) ribonucleotide reductase (icp10) was previously shown to possess protein kinase (pk) activity that localizes to the cytosolic, cytoskeletal, and plasma membrane fractions. further studies of the pk domain using computer-assisted sequence analysis have identified a single transmembrane segment and fatty acid incorporation findings indicate that icp10 is myristylated. myristylation does not depend on a viral enzy ...19902171204
the nucleotide sequence of the equine herpesvirus 4 gc gene homologue.the genomic position of an equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) gene homologue of the herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) gc gene was determined by southern analysis and dna sequencing. the gene lies within a 2-kbp bg/ii-ecori fragment mapping between 0.15 and 0.17 within the long unique component of the ehv-4 genome and is transcribed from right to left. putative promoter elements were identified upstream of the 1455-bp open reading frame which encodes a 485-amino-acid protein of unglycosylated molecular we ...19902171212
herpes simplex virus genes controlling reactivation from latency in rabbit eye model.using the rabbit eye model of latency, herpes simplex virus type 1 strain mckrae invariably reactivated after epinephrine iontophoresis, whereas type 2(hsv-2) virus strain hg 52 failed to reactivate. both strains established a latent infection with the same frequency. to identify the viral genes involved in this reactivation difference, intertypic recombinants were selected following cotransfection of intact mckrae dna and xba i or hpa i cleaved hg52 dna. eleven separately obtained recombinants ...19902172160
use of polymerase chain reaction for successful identification of asymptomatic genital infection with herpes simplex virus in pregnant women at delivery.the polymerase chain reaction was adapted to the amplification of a herpes simplex virus (hsv) dna sequence, common to hsv types 1 and 2 (hsv-1, hsv-2). the amplified product was detectable by ethidium-bromide staining or southern hybridization of gels and by dot hybridization. the hsv polymerase chain reaction detected hsv dna in samples obtained from eight patients with genital lesions from which hsv-2 was isolated in tissue culture and from four patients with labial lesions from which hsv-1 w ...19902172392
[the possibility of viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis].oncogenic potential of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and human papillomavirus (hpv) which are both associated with occurrence of cervical cancer and the mechanism of oncogenesis by these viruses were investigated by transformation experiments in vitro. the results were obtained as follows. 1) hsv-2 induced neoplastic transformation of normal diploid cells is a multistep process. cervical cancer associated antigen ag-4 is encoded within the specific region of hsv-2 dna which converts immort ...19902172417
evolutionary relationships of virion glycoprotein genes in the s regions of alphaherpesvirus genomes.the short region in the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1 contains a contiguous array of five genes (us4, us5, us6, us7 and us8) which encode known or proposed virion-surface glycoprotein species. counterparts for certain of these have been described in the genomes of other alphaherpesviruses, namely herpes simplex virus type 2, pseudorabies virus and varicella-zoster virus. within each of the us4-, us6- and us7-related sets, the amino acid sequences are most conserved in a region containing ...19902172448
herpes simplex virus type 2 meningitis without genital lesions: an immunoblot study.two sexually active female patients presented with acute meningitis. the csf abnormalities were severe and persistent. in spite of the absence of genital lesions, serological studies revealed a primary infection by herpes simplex virus type 2. an immunoblot study revealed intrathecal synthesis of anti-herpes antibodies early in the course of the disease.19902172470
viral etiology of chronic cervicitis and its therapeutic response to a recombinant interferon.chronic cervicitis was shown to be related to papillomavirus type 16(hpv-16), herpes simplex virus type 2 and cytomegalovirus (cmv) infections as demonstrated by dna hybridization technique and virus isolation method from samples taken from erosive and normal cervices. after one course of treatment with recombinant interferon alpha 1 (rifn-alpha 1), 93.8% of cases showed clinical improvement and 60% marked improvement. the hpv-16 and hsv detection rates dropped down significantly after rifn-alph ...19902173655
mechanisms of inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 2 growth by 28-mer phosphorothioate oligodeoxycytidine.the 28-mer phosphorothioate oligodeoxycytidine (s-(dc)28) has been reported previously to be a strong inhibitor of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) dna polymerase and hsv-2 growth in cell culture. in this study, the mechanism of action of s-(dc)28 was studied. s-(dc)28 was found to interfere with the adsorption of hsv-1 and hsv-2 to hela cells. hsv-2 infection, but not hsv-1, was found to potentiate the uptake of s-(dc)28 into hela cells. the enhanced uptake reached a plateau at 6-9 h postinf ...19902173699
adenovirus infection in patients with kawasaki disease.two outbreaks of kawasaki disease at different times and areas (kyoto in 1982 and sapporo in 1985) of japan were studied retrospectively for the presence of antibodies to adenoviruses and herpesviruses. only 2 of 12 (16.7%) consecutive acute phase sera of patients from the outbreak in 1982 and 1 of 10 (10.0%) sera from 1985 showed positive antibodies for the common adenovirus antigen by a complement fixation (cf) test, whereas 10 of 16 (62.5%) age- and sex-matched controls during the outbreak of ...19902173738
effect of hexamethylene bisacetamide and cyclosporin a on recovery of herpes simplex virus type 2 from the in vitro model of latency in a human neuroblastoma cell line.the goal of the present work was to examine whether hexamethylene bisacetamide (hmba) and cyclosporin a affect the recovery of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) from an in vitro model of hsv-2 latency in human neuroblastoma cell line imr-32. imr-32 cells were infected with hsv-2 at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1 plaque-forming units/cell and were cultured at 40 degrees c for 14 days, resulting in the establishment of a model of hsv-2 latency in imr-32 cells. when the cultivation temperatur ...19902174735
arabinofuranosylpyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as potential agents for human cytomegalovirus of the 3'- and 5'-hydroxyl groups of the nucleoside antibiotic toyocamycin (1) with 1,3-dichloro-1,1,3,3-tetraisopropyldisiloxane was followed by (trifluoromethyl)sulfonylation of the 2'-hydroxyl group. a displacement of the resulting triflate ester moiety with lithium chloride, lithium bromide, sodium iodide, and lithium azide in hexamethylphosphoramide was followed by a removal of the disilyl moiety with tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride to afford the appropriate (2'-deoxy-2'-substitut ...19902175356
neurovirulence of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 isolates in diseases of the central nervous system.herpes simplex virus (hsv) isolates derived from the central nervous system of ten patients with hsv-1-induced encephalitis, one patient with multiple sclerosis, and 14 patients with hsv-2-induced meningitis were investigated for neurovirulence by assaying the ld50 after nose and intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation of mice. hsv-1 encephalitis strains were significantly more virulent after nose inoculation (i.e. neuroinvasive) when compared with hsv-1 isolates from patients with oral lesions only, w ...19902175706
sero-epidemiological and -sociological patterns of herpes simplex virus infection in the world.a newly developed herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 and type 2 enzyme immunoassay has been applied to over 40,000 sera from different populations in the us and 17 other countries on all 5 continents. the hsv-1 antibody patterns found permit the current and past socioeconomic status, as well as the extent of oral-genital sexual contact, to be deduced for various populations. the hsv-2 antibody results provide an objective measure of various aspects of sexual behavior: extent of polypartnerism in ...19902175939
use of the pbs2 uracil-dna glycosylase inhibitor to differentiate the uracil-dna glycosylase activities encoded by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.the bacteriophage pbs2 encoded uracil-dna glycosylase (ung) inhibitor was examined for its effect upon the nuclear ung activities of kb, hela, and vero cells infected with herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 or 2 and mock-infected cells. ung activity from hsv-1 infected cells exhibited the greatest sensitivity to inhibition by the inhibitor, while ung activity from cells infected with hsv-2 exhibited the greatest resistance. this differential effect was dependent upon the virus, cell line, and buf ...19902176221
cytopathogenicity, drug susceptibility, and thymidine kinase activity of a retinovirulent herpes simplex virus type 2.we investigated some of the biological and biochemical characteristics of a neuroinvasive, retinovirulent herpes simplex virus type 2 strain sl (hsv-2[sl]) and compared them with those of a neurovirulent, nonretinovirulent hsv-2 (186). hsv-2(sl) was shown to spread rapidly and produce large syncytium in vitro. hsv-2(sl) and hsv-2(186) were equally susceptible to acyclovir (acv) and thymine arabinoside (ara-t). however, hsv-2(sl) was fourfold and 44-fold more susceptible than hsv-2(186) to iodode ...19902176674
inactivation of the shutoff gene (ul41) of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.gene ul41 of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and the corresponding gene of hsv-2, which control the virion-mediated early suppression of cellular protein synthesis, have been inactivated by inserting a beta-galactosidase expression cassette into their coding regions. the resulting recombinants grew well in tissue culture, although with the type 2 recombinant viral protein synthesis was slightly delayed. as a result of inactivation of ul41 host protein synthesis was not suppressed in the pres ...19902177088
antiviral activity and pharmacokinetics of hoe 602, an acyclic nucleoside, in animal models.the acyclic nucleoside derivative hoe 602 (2-amino-9-[1,3-bis(isopropoxy)-2-propoxymethyl]purine) was evaluated for its antiviral activity in cell culture and for its therapeutic efficacy in mice infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) or with murine cytomegalovirus (mcmv). hoe 602 was inactive in vitro against a variety of dna- and rna-viruses. however it prevented symptoms and mortality in mice systemically infected with hsv-1, hsv-2 or mcmv when administered intra ...19902177317
[infections caused by viruses and chlamydia trachomatis on uterine cervix].a study on the infections caused by hpv-16, hsv-2, cmv and chlamydia trachomatis (ct) on the uterine cervices were carried out among 188 normal cases and 544 patients with chronic cervicitis using elisa, virus isolation and/or dna hybridization methods. the detection rates of these four pathogens in erosive cervices were 23.9% (64/268), 26.5% (99/374), 14.0% (22/157) and 13.4% (18/134), respectively, which were significantly higher than that in normal cervices. the total detection rate of four p ...19902178079
search for herpes simplex virus 2 and human papillomavirus genetic expression in vulvar neoplasia.specimens from vulvar carcinomas and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (vin) of various degrees were analyzed for the presence of herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv 2) and human papillomavirus (hpv) genetic information. a search for the hpv 16 e6 protein as well as the hsv 2 antigenic determinant la1 and icsp 11/12 protein was carried out with an immunoperoxidase assay on 12 vulvar carcinomas and 6 vins. seven invasive cancers and four vins were screened for the presence of homology to hpv 16 dna and hs ...19902178189
double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein vaccine in persons at high risk for genital herpes determine the efficacy of a herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) glycoprotein subunit vaccine, vaccine (50 micrograms) or placebo was administered intramuscularly at weeks 0, 4, and 22 to 161 persons who lacked hsv-2 antibodies and were sex partners of persons with recurrent genital herpes. the annual rate of acquisition of hsv infection was similar among vaccine and placebo recipients (10.7% and 8%, respectively) but was higher in initially seronegative subjects (15.5%) than in those with hsv ...19902181031
cervical cancer: aetiology, earlier diagnosis and treatment.cervical cancer which is one of the commonest genital malignancies in women worldwide including singapore is reviewed. there is a decreased incidence and mortality rate from cervical cancer with well organised population-based screening programmes using cervical smears. strong evidence exists for a sexually transmitted etiologic agent in cervical cancer. the evidence of an association between herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and certain human papillomavirus (hpv) infections especially hpv 16 ...19902189347
herpes simplex virus type 2 and other genital ulcerative infections as a risk factor for hiv-1 acquisition.we studied the role of genital ulcerative infections for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) infection in a cohort of 989 homosexual men in amsterdam between october 1984 and december 1988. among 53 hiv-1 seroconverters serological and anamnestic data were gathered regarding herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and syphilis in the 6 months before seroconversion. for statistical analysis a control who remained seronegative during the same interval was selected at random for ...19902245979
genital herpes simplex virus infections.there has been a dramatic increase in patient visits to physicians for evaluation and treatment of genital herpes infections. this has resulted in part from an increase in genital herpes infections, particularly severe, first-episode genital herpes infections in adults without prior hsv-1 infection. virus culture remains the most sensitive and specific method for diagnosis, and use of viral cultures is encouraged. type-specific antibody tests have been employed in studies documenting the role of ...19902246948
ulcerative lesions and herpes simplex virus type 2 in a patient with evan's syndrome.we have described a case of herpes genitalis in a patient with evans's syndrome who had violaceous macules leading to deep ulcerations. this case serves as a reminder that hsv infection may be atypical and have an unusual course in immunocompromised patients. with the availability of specific therapy for this infection, it is important to consider hsv in the differential diagnosis of all ulcerative skin lesions.19902251541
anesthesia for cesarean delivery in patients with herpes simplex virus type-2 infections.some concerns exist regarding the use of regional anesthesia for patients with active genital herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv) infections undergoing cesarean delivery. previous studies have reported the safe use of epidural anesthesia in these patients; there are no reports of the use of spinal anesthesia in this setting. we performed a 6-year retrospective survey of 169 patients delivered by cesarean delivery because of hsv infection. one hundred sixty-four of these patients had the diagnosis ...19902271471
viral infections and recurrences of febrile determine whether complicated febrile seizures occur more often in children with a proven viral infection, we performed viral examinations on 144 children with febrile convulsions, of whom 112 had simple and 32 had complicated seizures. a diagnosis of virus infection was verified in 46% of the former patients and 53% of the latter. three adenoviruses, one parainfluenza virus type 2 and one type 3, one respiratory syncytial virus, one echovirus type 11, one herpes simplex virus type 2, and one ...19902299489
treatment of resistant herpes simplex virus with continuous-infusion acyclovir.two patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who developed severe ulcerative proctitis caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 that was resistant to acyclovir were successfully treated with 6 weeks of high-dose, continuous-infusion acyclovir sodium (1.5 to 2.0 mg/kg per hour). viruses cultured from the lesions were resistant to acyclovir in vitro after the patients had received prolonged therapy with oral and intravenous acyclovir in traditional divided doses. investigation into the mechan ...19902308204
is there an association between fetal viral infection and fetal malformation? i. detection of specific igm antibodies in the serum of malformed fetuses.determinations of igg and igm antibodies specific for cytomegalovirus (cmv), herpes simplex virus (hsv1), herpes simplex virus (hsv2), varicella-zoster virus (vzv), rubella, echo, coxsackie and morbilli viruses were performed in 20 sera from malformed fetuses. demonstration of a fetal infection by increased fetal serum igm permits linkage to a detected fetal malformation. in parallel, 14 maternal sera and 17 amniotic fluid samples were examined. laser nephelometry (a quantitative method) was use ...19902366130
seroepidemiology of chlamydia in costa rica.a population-based study of the sero-epidemiology of chlamydia was performed among a nationally representative sample of 760 costa rican women aged 25 to 59 years. interviews and sera collection were completed between september 1984 and february 1985. the overall seroprevalence of chlamydial antibodies among these women was 56.1%. women 25 to 39 years of age had a seroprevalence of 51.1%, while women 40 to 59 years of age had a seroprevalence of 64.2%. women who reported no prior sexual activity ...19902370061
physical and biological characterization of antigen presenting liposome formulations: relative efficacy for the treatment of recurrent genital hsv-2 in guinea pigs.antigen presenting liposomes (apls) containing both liposome encapsulated (44%) and free (56%) recombinant glycoprotein d of herpes simplex virus type-2 (rgd-2) were characterized with respect to the interaction of the antigen with the lipid bilayer and the biological activities provided by each form of rgd-2. we found that free rgd-2 added externally to empty liposomes exhibited some biological activities both in vitro and in vivo, although we could not detect any significant adsorption and/or ...19902383000
daily stress and recurrence of genital herpes is widely believed that emotional stress triggers recurrences of both oral and genital herpes simplex virus. on a daily basis, we studied 64 subjects prospectively for 1 to 3 months; all subjects had at least one culture-proved recurrence of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 before or during the study. all subjects filled out a questionnaire that measured psychological/emotional stress in six areas: physical health, relations with friends, relations with family, relations with sex partner(s ...19902393320
herpes simplex virus infection of the hand.the first episode of herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection of the hand can occur in association with infection at another site, such as primary hsv-1 gingivostomatitis. autoinoculation is the likely route of transmission. the attacks are usually solitary and last about 14 days. a first episode that results from exogenous inoculation may be severely inflammatory and may last up to 28 days. the majority of cases are recurrent infections and most often occur in adults with hsv-2 infection.19902405025
production of lymphokines and interferon by immune cells involved in recovery of mice from herpes simplex virus type 2 hepatitis.adoptive transfer of spleen cells from mice 4 days after infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) reduced the virus titer in the liver of recipient mice infected 24 h before transfer. macrophage chemotactic factor (cf) and macrophage migration inhibition factor (mif) were produced by day 3 of infection in spleen cell cultures stimulated with hsv-2, but not with control antigen, i.e. 1 day before the cells are active in adoptive transfer. interferon was produced in cultures established ...19852408997
immunity to herpes simplex virus: virus reactivation modulates lymphokine activity.cell-mediated immunity to herpes simplex virus (hsv) was studied in patients with recurrent disease and in seropositive controls. supernatants from cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbls) obtained during recrudescence (zero to three days after onset of lesions), convalescence (four to 14 days), and quiescence (greater than 14 days) were assayed for their ability to augment natural killer activity of normal pbls against k562 target cells. supernatants obtained during recrudescence, ...19852411825
immunoblotting and elisa analysis of hsv-1 and hsv-2-specified polypeptides by using an immunoblocking method.herpes simplex virus (hsv) specified polypeptide antigens were analyzed by immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) methods. in general, the virus specified proteins showed marked cross-reactivity. however, the hsv-1 specified glycoprotein c could be detected by hsv-1 infected rabbit antiserum only. two low molecular weight polypeptides showed considerable reactivity with hsv-2 induced immune sera as revealed by an immunoblocking modification of the immunoblotting method. the ...19852412480
enhancement of non-specific resistance to viral infection by muramyldipeptide and its analogs.antiviral activity of muramyldipeptide (mdp) and its lipophilic derivatives, b30-mdp and mdp-lys(l18), was investigated in mice infected with vaccinia virus (vv) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). mice administered these compounds subcutaneously or orally were protected against vv in tail lesion tests and against hsv-2 in skin lesion tests, respectively. since in vitro antiviral activity was not demonstrated with these compounds in cultured mammalian cells infected with either vv or hsv-2, ...19852412489
expression in bacteria of gb-glycoprotein-coding sequences of herpes simplex virus type 2.a plasmid with an insert that encodes the glycoprotein b(gb) gene of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) has been isolated. dna sequences coding for a portion of the hsv-2 gb peptide were cloned into a bacterial lacz alpha expression vector and used to transform escherichia coli. upon induction of laczpo-promoted transcription, some of the bacteria became filamentous and produced inclusion bodies containing a large amount of a 65-kdal peptide that was shown to be precipitated by broad-spectrum a ...19852412940
study of interferon production during pregnancy in mice and antiviral activity in the placenta.although the mortality rate after herpes simplex virus type 2 inoculation was not significantly different between pregnant mice and nonpregnant mice, systemic interferon production was very high during late pregnancy compared with that in nonpregnant mice. antiviral activity was detected in placentas from all noninfected pregnant mice (80 to 320 u/ml in 20% suspension). the antiviral activity had a broad spectrum and was also effective in the cells of other species; an antiviral effect was shown ...19852413760
antimicrobial activity of various immunomodulators: independence from normal levels of circulating monocytes and natural killer cells.the effects of 89sr treatment on the natural host resistance of cd-1 mice and the enhancement of resistance by immunomodulators to infection with listeria monocytogenes or herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) were determined. in the cd-1 mouse, single-dose treatment with 89sr caused a profound decrease in the number of circulating monocytes (mo), lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmn) within 1 week. there was also marked functional impairment of the mo inflammatory response, as well ...19862416693
the antiviral activity of tetrazole phosphonic acids and their analogues.5-(phosphonomethyl)-1h-tetrazole and a number of related tetrazoles have been prepared and their effects on the replication of herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2 have been investigated as well as their abilities to inhibit the dna polymerases induced by these viruses and the rna transcriptase activity of influenza virus a. contrary to an earlier report, 5-(phosphonomethyl)-1h-tetrazole was not an efficient inhibitor of the replication of hsv-1 and hsv-2 in tissue culture. analogues of 5-(phosphonom ...19852417198
metabolism and mode of action of (r)-9-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)guanine in herpes simplex virus-infected vero cells.the metabolism and mode of action of the anti-herpes compound buciclovir [r)-9-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-guanine, bcv) has been studied in herpes simplex virus-infected and uninfected vero cells. in uninfected cells, a low and constant concentration of intracellular bcv was found, while in herpes simplex virus-infected cells, an increasing concentration of bcv phosphates was found due to metabolic trapping. the major phosphorylation product was bcv triphosphate (bcvtp) which was 92% of the total amou ...19862418021
induction of neutralizing antibody against varicella-zoster virus (vzv) by vzv gp3 and cross-reactivity between vzv gp3 and herpes simplex viruses gb.glycoprotein gp3 (64k) is one of the major proteins specified by varicella-zoster virus (vzv). this glycoprotein was purified on an immunoadsorbent consisting of monoclonal antibody (clone 8) against gp3 linked to protein a-sepharose. rabbits were then immunized with the purified antigen to obtain monospecific antisera against gp3. the monospecific antisera and monoclonal antibody immunoprecipitated polypeptides with the same molecular weights of approximately 64,000 (64k), 106k, and 116k from a ...19862418583
synthesis of dihydrofolate reductase and metabolism of related rna in a methotrexate resistant human cell line infected with herpes simplex virus type 2.using a human cell line with amplified gene copy for dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and permissive for herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), the effect of hsv-2 on dhfr synthesis and on the steady-state level of total cellular and nuclear dhfr rna was examined. there was a reduction in dhfr synthesis accompanied by a proportional decrease in the levels of dhfr messenger rna (mrna) 1 hr after infection. both effects could be induced by hsv pretreated with ultraviolet light and this early virus ind ...19862418585
comparative activities of combinations of acyclovir, vidarabine or its 5'-monophosphate, and cloned human interferons against herpes simplex virus type 2 in human and mouse fibroblast cultures.human interferon-alpha a/d (bgl), an alpha-hybrid cloned interferon, displays activity in both human and mouse cell lines. we measured the effects of this interferon in double and triple combinations with acyclovir, vidarabine or its 5'-monophosphate against herpes simplex virus type 2 in mouse and human fibroblasts. a 75% cytopathic effect reduction assay employing a modified checkerboard technique was used. results in human fibroblasts were compared with those obtained when recombinant human i ...19852418779
herpes simplex virus specifies two subunits of ribonucleotide reductase encoded by 3'-coterminal transcripts.we have previously described a transcription unit located between map coordinates 0.558 and 0.595 on the herpes simplex virus type 2 strain 333 genome which encodes two mrnas of 5.0 and 1.2 kilobases that share a common 3' terminus, and we have determined the nucleotide sequence of a 38,000-dalton protein specified by the smaller rna (d. a. galloway and m. a. swain, j. virol. 49:724-730, 1984). the entire nucleotide sequence of the 140,000-dalton protein specified by a 3,432-base-pair open readi ...19862419588
human antibody response to herpes simplex virus-specific polypeptides after primary and recurrent infection.human antibody responses to specific polypeptides of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2, respectively) were assessed in serial serum specimens from 18 infected patients by immunoblot technology. nine patients had hsv-1 infections (six genital and three oral) and nine had hsv-2 genital infections. antibodies to homologous and heterologous hsv antigens were studied and correlated with total microneutralization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibodies as well as correlated ...19862422204
human cytotoxic t cell clones directed against herpes simplex virus-infected cells. iv. recognition and activation by cloned glycoproteins gb and gd.results of studies in mice and clinical observations in man indicate that t cell-mediated immunity is important in resistance to herpes simplex virus (hsv) infections. this study was undertaken to elucidate the viral antigen specificity of human hsv-immune t cells. purified hsv-1 glycoproteins gb-1 and gd-1, cloned and expressed in mammalian cells, were found to stimulate proliferation of, and interleukin 2 (il 2) production by, peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) of hsv seropositive individuals, ...19862423598
an analysis of the biological properties of monoclonal antibodies against glycoprotein d of herpes simplex virus and identification of amino acid substitutions that confer resistance to neutralization.four monoclonal antibodies to glycoprotein d (gd) of herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 neutralized virus in the presence of complement but exhibited diverse activities in its absence. amino acid substitutions that conferred resistance to neutralization by each antibody were identified by deriving the nucleotide sequence of the gd gene from resistant mutants. each antibody selected a substitution from different parts of the molecule and mutants resistant to a single antibody always arose f ...19862423636
detection of herpesvirus cervicovaginitis by a sequential papanicolaou--immunoperoxidase technique.herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection constitutes an immediate threat to the neonate of pregnant women who deliver vaginally, and thus requires a rapid, specific means of diagnosis that is easily applicable to cervicovaginal smears. we applied the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique to variously fixed, previously stained papanicolaou smears from 60 women with hsv and 18 negative controls using an hsv-2 antibody and either diaminobenzidine (dab) or aminoethylcarbazol (aec) as the chromogen and may ...19852424682
acyclovir treatment of disseminated herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in weanling mice: alteration of mortality and pathogenesis.intranasal inoculation of weanling mice with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) provides an experimental infection that closely resembles disseminated and central nervous system hsv infections of human neonates. intraperitoneal treatment with acyclovir (acv) successfully reduced mortality even when therapy was begun as late as 2 days and oral therapy as late as 4 days after viral challenge. treatment with acv beginning on day 1 completely inhibited hsv-2 replication in lung, spleen, kidney, olf ...19862427021
antiviral effect of two aryl-oligopeptides, fr41565 and fr48217.macrophages from mice pretreated with two chemically synthesized immunostimulating aryl-oligopeptides, fr41565 and fr48217, inhibited the multiplication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) in monkey vero cells, and that of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) in murine l929 cells. in addition, the aryl-oligopeptides protected mice against a lethal hsv-1 infection. in particular, when treated with fr48217 at 6 mg/kg, all mice survived, whereas all control mice died from the hsv- ...19862427022
localization of discontinuous epitopes of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d: use of a nondenaturing ("native" gel) system of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with western blotting.previously, a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mcab) was used to define specific epitopes of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d (gd) (r. j. eisenberg et al., j. virol. 53:634-644, 1985). three groups of antibodies recognized continuous epitopes; group vii reacted with residues 11 to 19 of the mature protein (residues 36 to 44 of the predicted sequence), group ii reacted with residues 272 to 279, and group v reacted with residues 340 to 356. four additional antibody groups recognized discontinuou ...19862427745
detection of herpes simplex virus type-2 antigen(s) in biopsies from carcinoma of the uterine cervix.indirect immunofluorescence technique was employed to detect herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) antigens in tumor biopsies from 215 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. a total of 169 samples (79%) revealed brilliant nuclear fluorescence. inflammatory cells infiltrating the tumor mass were positive to 60 of the 215 patients (28%). samples showed no significant variation in the degree of fluorescence or proportion of cells binding hsv antibody with advancement in the clinical stage of ...19852431113
the effect of food dye and other environmental substances on the host defense reaction in mice in relation to virus infection.environmental substances were examined for their effect on interferon induction and delayed type hypersensitivity (dth) responses in mice. amaranth, safrole, phenacetin and nicotine suppressed the dth response, and suppressed the serum interferon titers induced by virus infection. however, they did not affect the interferon titers which were induced by tilorone, a chemical inducer. the peak of interferon titer was 12 hours after infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). therefore, amar ...19862432279
enhancement of host resistance against virus infections by mtp-pe, a synthetic lipophilic muramyl peptide--i. increased survival in mice and guinea pigs after single drug administration prior to infection, and the effect of mtp-pe on interferon levels in sera and lungs.muramyl tripeptide-phosphatidylethanolamine (mtp-pe, cgp 19835) displays prophylactic antiviral activity in mice infected with influenza viruses a and b, parainfluenza 1 virus or herpes simplex type 1 viruses (hsv/1) and in guinea pigs infected with herpes simplex type 2 viruses (hsv/2). mtp-pe is effective when given in a single intranasal dose as early as 1-4 weeks before infection. in the case of hsv/2 infections, prophylactic effectiveness can be demonstrated after a single topical applicati ...19862433236
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