protective effect of an oral infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 against subsequent genital infection with herpes simplex virus type 2.the problem of whether oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) infection provides protection against subsequent genital infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was investigated. mice were used as models. following conditions in man, both the oral and genital infections applied were noninjurious. mice infected orally with hsv-1 were weakly protected against virus 'take' following vaginal challenge with hsv-2. genital 'takes' were found in 67% of the immunized mice, as compared with 83% ...1978209295
[herpes simplex virus type 2 and cervix cancer]. 1978209356
conditions required for induction of murine p30 by herpes simplex virus.mouse cells (line n cia cl10) contain 1.2-2.5 ng murine leukaemia virus (mulv) p30 antigen/mg of protein; this amount of antigen is measurable by competition radioimmunoassay (ria) but is not detectable by indirect immunofluorescence (if). infection of n cia cl10 cells with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) induces expression of mulv p30. induction by hsv-2 does not require either cell or virus dna synthesis and is optimal 8 h post infection when cells at 50-70% confluence are infected at a mu ...1978210128
a nonlytic transforming mutant of herpes simplex virus type 2.a small-plaque mutant (no.69) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) strain 333 has been previously isolated and characterized in this laboratory. this mutant was shown to produce a high ratio of noninfectious to infectious particles when grown at the nonpermissive temperature in hamster embryo fibroblasts [westmoreland d. and rapp f. (1976). journal of virology [8:92--102]. in this study, we have demonstrated that it is possible to obtain noninfectious stocks of this virus which retain transfor ...1978210252
effect of immunization on the development of latent ganglionic infection in mice challenged intravaginally with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.immunization of balb/c mice with virulent and avirulent strains of hsv-1 resulted in high levels of neutralizing antibody and protected against both the lethal effect of the virus and the development of a latent ganglionic infection when animals were challenged by the intravaginal route. in animals immunized with avirulent strain of hsv-2 and challenged with a high virulent strain of hsv-2, substantial protection against death was observed despite low levels of neutralizing antibody. nineteen pe ...1978210669
herpes simplex virus type 2 infection of neonatal mice.we have demonstrated that newborn mice can be infected orally with herpes simplex virus type 2. transplacental and transvaginal transmission of herpes simplex virus type 2 did not occur in our mice. failure to produce natural transvaginal infection in mice may be explained by the relatively short period of exposure to the virus during parturition. these experiments demonstrate that high oral doses of herpes simplex virus type 2 can produce disseminate herpes neonatal infection in mice and theref ...1978211091
the fine structure of cells infected with temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2.the fine structure of cells infected with the hg 52 strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 and 13 temperature-sensitive mutants derived from it was investigated. in cells infected with the wild-type virus, development of virions appeared to be similar to that described in previous reports. however there were two exceptions to this: (1) capsid envelopment apparently occurred de novo in the nucleus; (2) densely staining vacuolar accumulations were seen, frequently surrounding virus capsids. the 13 ...1978211178
complement-mediated cytolysis of hsv-1 and hsv-2 infected cells: plasma membrane antigens reactive with type-specific and cross-reactive antibody.surface antigens of bhk-21 cells infected with hsv-1 or hsv-2 were radioiodinated (125i) with lactoperoxidase, immune precipitated and analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). experiments using antiserum to hsv-1 or hsv-2, absorbed with appropriate hemotypic or heterotypic antigens, revealed that both type-specific (homotypic) and cross-reactive antibody combined with surface glycoproteins to form a single large radioactive peak. this peak, which constituted the major glycoprotein ...1978211189
herpes simplex virus necleic acid synthesis following infection of non-permissive xc cells.dna hybridization kinetic analysis of cellular dna following high multiplicity infection of non-permissive xc cells by herpes simplex virus type i showed that hsv dna penetrates to the nucleus of the cell but that the number of virus dna copies present in each cell quickly begins to decline. there did not appear to be any net virus dna synthesis and the loss of virus dna copies continued until there was approximately one per haploid genome equivalent. hsv-2 likewise did not show any detectable v ...1978211197
herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in organotypic cultures of mouse central and peripheral nervous system. i. light microscopic observations of myelin degeneration.mature mouse spinal cord-ganglion cultures, which contain both peripheral and central nervous system as one unit, were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv 1) or type 2 (hsv 2) and observed by bright field microscopy for up to 72 hours. there was degeneration of both central and peripheral myelin in cultures infected with either virus, but the pattern of peripheral myelin degeneration associated with hsv 1-infected cultures was differrnt from that in hsv 2-infected cultures. type 1 was ...1978211204
evidence for a herpes simplex virus-specific factor controlling the transcription of deoxypyrimidine kinase.a cistron-specific, enzyme-forming-capacity method was used to study the control of herpes simplex virus (hsv)-specific deoxypyrimidine kinase (dpyk) mrna synthesis. a virus-specific factor was formed by a primary infecting virus, and this factor effected the transcription of dpyk mrna of a superinfecting virus in the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting that the factor acted in "trans" and was a diffusible one. after the addition of actinomycin d to prevent further transcription and upon remov ...1978211259
cellular immune response in genital herpes simplex virus infection.we studied the relations between the cellular immune response, pre-existing complement-fixing antibody and virus type with duration of virus excretion in genital herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection. thirty-six patients (seven with hsv-1 and 29 with hsv-2) with genital herpes underwent serologic testing, sequential viral cultures and weekly determination of lymphocyte-transformation stimulation index with inactivated hsv antic n. the duration of virus excretion was shortest in those with pre-exi ...1978211414
molecular genetics of herpes simplex virus: demonstration of regions of obligatory and nonobligatory identity within diploid regions of the genome by sequence replacement and insertion.the dnas of herpes simplex virus (hsv) 1 and 2 consist of two components, l and s, each composed of unique sequences bracketed by inverted repeats. in this study we have probed the structure of the reiterated regions of the s component in marker rescue experiments involving transfection of cells with mixtures of intact hsv-1 mutant viral dna and individual dna fragments generated by restriction endonuclease digestion of wild-type hsv-1 or hsv-2 dnas. the results were as follows: (i) hsv is diplo ...1978211508
optical diffraction analysis of electron microscope images of tubular structures found in cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2.optical diffraction analysis was done on the electron micrographs of tubular structures found in cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2. by this method, the helical arrangement of subunits forming a tubular structure was demonstrated.1978212515
suppression of the synthesis of cellular macromolecules by herpes simplex virus.synthesis of cellular protein was substantially inhibited within 1 h of infection with herpes simplex virus, type 2, strain g (hsv-2). the inhibition also occurred, although no virus-specific protein synthesis was detected, after infection with u.v. irradiated virus and in cytoplasts that had been enucleated before infection. the inhibitory activity could not be distinguished from infectivity by dilution, sedimentation or reaction with gamma-globulin. hsv-2 also suppresssed the synthesis of send ...1978212520
collaborative complementation study of temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.twenty-three complementation groups of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and 20 of hsv-2 were identified by qualitative and quantitative complementation analysis from among 43 temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of hsv-1 and 29 ts mutants of hsv-2 which had been isolated independently in 10 laboratories.1978212578
a rational approach to the development of antiviral chemotherapy: alternative substrates of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) thymidine kinase (tk). 1977212988
antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of uterine cervix in india.antibody activity to herpes simplex virus type-1 (hsv-1) and type-2 (hsv-2) was measured by the indirect hemagglutination (iha) test in sera from 124 women with squamous-cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, 46 women with non-cervical cancer and 116 matched normal women. the type-specific antibodies were assayed by iha inhibition test. the proportion of cervical cancer cases positive for hsv-2 infection was significantly greater than that of non-cervical cancer cases and matched control women. n ...1978214407
recombinants between herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2: analyses of genome structures and expression of immediate early polypeptides.recombinants between temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus types 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2) were constructed. using restriction endonucleases, we analyzed the genome composition of 17 intertypic recombinants and detected crossovers in every region of the genome. the virion dna of one recombinant appeared to be largely "frozen" in two of the four possible genome arrangements of hsv. knowledge of the genome structures of recombinants enabled us to physically map immediate early polype ...1978214575
colposcopic examination of the cervix of cebus monkeys.a total of 410 colposcopic examinations were performed on 188 female cebus monkeys that were under study to determine the oncogenic potential of herpes simplex virus type 2 in this genus. a split-cone vaginal speculum was developed that permitted good observation of the vaginal cervix in the cebus monkey. the cervical anatomy of cebus monkeys was found to differ from that of humans in that the surface of the animal cervix was more papilliform, with thinner squamous epithelium, and the squamocolu ...1978214730
effect of treatment with 5-ethyl-2'-deoxyuridine on herpes simplex virus encephalitis in normal and immunosuppressed mice.5-ethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (5-ethyl-durd), an analog of thymidine, was evaluated for its capacity to inhibit herpes simplex virus (hsv) replication in vitro and in vivo. the 50% effective dose concentration of 5-ethyl-durd for hsv types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and -2) cultured in vero cells was 6 and 9 mug/ml, respectively. levels of 5-ethyl-durd 14-fold in excess of the 50% effective dose for hsv-1 did not inhibit the formation of confluent monolayers by vero cells, suggesting that the compound was not cyt ...1978215081
relationship of herpes simplex virus type-2 antibodies and squamous dysplasia to cervical carcinoma in situ.serum specimens from 75 women with cervical carcinoma in situ, 84 with squamous dysplasia, and 132 controls, who had previously been interviewed and tested for complement fixing antibodies against a number of organisms, were analyzed for hsv-2 antibodies. carcinoma in situ and severe dysplasia were associated with hsv-2 antibodies. mild dysplasia was related to evidence of prior infection by trichomonas vaginalis, adenoviruses, and mycoplasma pneumoniae, plus a history of vaginal discharge. seve ...1978215294
comparison of various macrophage-inhibitory agents on vaginal and systemic herpes simplex virus type 2 infections.pretreatment of mice intraperitoneally with silica, trypan blue, or dextran sulfate to inhibit macrophage function markedly increased the lethality of a systemic intravenous infection with herpes simplex virus type 2, but did not affect the lethality or local virus growth after vaginal infection of mice with herpes simplex virus type 2. agents which inhibit macrophage function by different mechanisms decreased host resistance to herpes simplex virus type 2, but the effects of macrophage-inhibito ...1978215548
characterization of human tk- cell lines transformed to a tk+ phenotype by herpes simplex virus type 2 dna.human tk- cells carrying the hsv-2 tk gene as a result of transformation with virus dna express a tk activity of virus origin and maintain the tk+ phenotype when grown in hat medium. under non-selective conditions, however, reversion to a tk- phenotype occurs with a significant frequency characteristic of each transformed line. once reversion has occurred the tk- phenotype appears to be stable, since only very rare instances of tk- to tk+ reversion have been observed. tk- revertants were suscept ...1979215706
reduction of herpes simplex virus-type 2 plaque formation by urea.the effect of urea on plaque formation by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was examined in two systems at concentrations within or approximating the range found in human urine. approximately 7--10 mg urea/ml, added 2, 4, or 8 hours after infection, reduced plaque formation by 50% in african green monkey kidney cells. the growth of this system was affected slightly by continuous treatment with urea at 7--10 mg/ml. plaque formation was reduced in the monkey kidney system, albeit diminishingly, ...1978215721
unusual membranous structures found in cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 maintained in media containing 2-deoxy-d-glucose. 1978215884
reversible inhibition of the induction of dna polymerase of herpes simplex virus type 2 in hela cells.the induction of dna polymerase of herpes simplex virus type 2 in hela cells was inhibited by 2-mercapto-1-(beta-4-pyridethyl)benzimidazole added at an early time after infection. however, the inhibitory effect was easily released by removal of the inhibitor. since the drug disorganizes nucleolar structure and prevents its function in hela cells in a reversible manner, it is possible that nucleoli are involved in the induction of dna polymerase of this virus.1978216336
lymphocyte stimulation by herpes simplex virus (hsv) antigens. 1. culture conditions, cell fractionation and presentation of hsv antigens.optimal culture conditions for rabbit lymphocytes were established. inclusion of 2-mercaptoethanol in the medium greatly enhanced responses. lymphocytes from the blood of hsv-immunized rabbits responded specifically in vitro to heat-killed (56 degree, 60 min) or uv-inactivated hsv preparations. a uv dose of 13,392 ergs/mm2 was the most suitable inactivating dose. oral intramucosal injection was the most effective way of generating blood lymphocyte responses to hsv, but animals immunized in trade ...1977216529
partial characterization of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-specific poly(a)+ rna by hybridization to ecori-generated hsv-2 dna fragments. 1979218358
extreme sensitivity of enveloped viruses, including herpes simplex, to long-chain unsaturated monoglycerides and alcohols.unsaturated monoglycerides and alcohols of chain lengths of 16 or 18 carbons were found to be extremely potent inactivators of two enveloped viruses, herpes simplex virus type 2 and bacteriophage phi6. the lipid-containing bacteriophage pm2 was also inactivated by some of these amphiphilic molecules. treatment of herpes simplex virus type 2 with these compounds at concentrations as low as 0.2 mum reduced virus survival to 50% in 30 min, making these agents the most potent inactivators of herpes ...1979218499
herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in organotypic cultures of mouse central and peripheral nervous system. 2. electron microscopic observations of myelin degeneration.organotypic cultures of mouse spinal cord with attached dorsal root ganglia, which contain both central and peripheral myelin in the one unit of tissue, were infected with hsv 1 or hsv 2 and studied using electron microscopy. intranuclear viral nucleocapsids and intracytoplasmic enveloped particles were found in the schwann cells associated with peripheral myelin and in oligodendroglia associated with central myelin. degeneration of peripheral myelin most commonly involved an asymmetrical swelli ...1979219153
effect of actinomycin d on the expression of herpes simplex virus-common surface antigen in cells transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2.using rabbit antiserum hyperimmune to herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1, the expression of hsv-common surface antigen(s) was studied by indirect immunofluorescence tests in cells transformed by hsv type 2 and in derived tumor cells. the following results were obtained. (i) antiserum to hsv type 1 reacted specifically with surface antigen present on the plasma membrane of both hsv type 2-infected and hsv type 2-transformed hamster cells. (ii) the expression of this antigen was enhanced in the abs ...1979219215
herpes simplex virus type 2 functions expressed during stimulation of human cell dna synthesis.experiments were designed to identify herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-specific functions expressed during stimulation of human embryo fibroblast dna synthesis. cultures were partially arrested in dna synthesis by pretreatment with 5-fluorouracil and maintenance in low-serum (0.2%) medium during virus infection. results showed that continuous [methyl-(3)h]thymidine uptake into cellular dna was ninefold greater in hsv-2-infected than in mock-infected cultures measured after 24 h of incubation ...1979219236
molecular genetics of herpes simplex virus. ii. mapping of the major viral glycoproteins and of the genetic loci specifying the social behavior of infected cells.we have mapped the location in herpes simplex virus (hsv) dna of (i) three mutations at different loci (syn loci) which alter the social behavior of infected cells from clumping of rounded cells to polykaryocytosis, (ii) a mutation which determines the accumulation of one major glycoprotein [vp8.0(c(2))], and (iii) the sequences encoding four major virus glycoproteins [vp8.0(c(2)), vp7(b(2)), vp8.5(a), and vp19e(d(2))]. the experimental design and results were as follows. (i) analysis of hsv-1 x ...1979219254
anatomy of herpes simplex virus dna. xi. apparent clustering of functions effecting rapid inhibition of host dna and protein synthesis.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) strains inhibit the synthesis of both dna and protein of the host cell more rapidly than hsv-1 strains. several intertypic hsv-1 x hsv-2 recombinants and parental strains were examined for their ability to inhibit rapidly the synthesis of host protein and dna. the two functions cosegregated in all of eight recombinants tested and are therefore controlled by the same gene or by different genes in the same region of the viral dna.1979219262
reactivation of herpes simplex virus (type 2) infection in trigeminal ganglia and oral lips with cyclophosphamide treatment.age-dependent resistance in trigeminal nerve against type 2 herpes simplex virus infection through oral lips and reactivation of the latent virus infection with cyclophosphamide in the ganglion in correlation to theprimary infected part were studied in mice with immunofluorescent and histopathological methods. the mice acquired resistance in the nervous tissue after 8 weeks of age. the viral antigen appeared in all trigeminal ganglia immediately after infection, but not found at 4 weeks later. r ...1978219274
[comparative study of the effectiveness of the purification and concentration of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2].the results of comparative studies on concentration and purification of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) by ficol density gradient centrifugation are presented. a two-phase distribution of extracellular hsv was established in phycol density gradient centrifugation: in zones with density of 1.110-1.114 and 1.088-1.085 g/ml. the effectiveness of purification of hsv preparations recovered from the corresponding gradient zones was determined by electron microscopy and quantit ...1979219611
persistence of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in infected individuals.during a 23-month period, 18 patients with facial or genital herpetic lesions were examined; culture specimens from each patient were obtained three times per week for virologic studies. the isolated viruses were identified, and the average duration of herpesvirus in lesions was determined. herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) was isolated from facial lesions for a mean duration of 3 1/2 days. in contrast, herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was isolated from genital lesions for a mean duration o ...1979219784
application of antisera to interferon in studying oncogenic viruses.susceptibility of balb/c mice to infection with moloney sarcoma virus (msv) and to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was considerably increased by administration of sheep anti-mouse interferon (anti-if) serum. the regression of the msv-induced tumors was inhibited when the weanling (three-to-four-week-old) mice were injected with the anti-if serum. using the anti-if serum it has been found that the antagonism between hsv-2 and rauscher leukemia virus in the mouse is not mediated by interferon. ...1978219809
herpes simplex virus isolation from pyoderma gangrenosum lesions in a patient with chronic lymphatic leukemia.herpes simplex virus type 2 was isolated and identified from the vesicular border of pyoderma gangrenosum lesions on the genital region of a patient with chronic lymphatic leukemia. dramatic relief of pain as well as quick disappearance of the vesicular margin of the lesions and of the inflammatory halo around them occurred as a result of local treatment with a solution of zinc acetate. a careful search for a viral agent should be done in every case of pyoderma gangrenosum occurring in a patient ...1979220109
evaluation of indirect hemagglutination and its inhibition in the differentiation between antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 for seroepidemiologic studies: use of a ii/i index threshold of 85 and an assay of type-specific antibodies.two parameters, a ii/i index threshold value of 85 and an assay of type-specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2), were assessed, for seroepidemiologic purposes, for their efficacy in the establishment of past infections with hsv-1 and hsv-2 as indicated by the results of tests for indirect hemagglutination and its inhibition. neither criterion alone established past infection with either hsv-1 or hsv-2. however, by combination of the two parameters, antibodie ...1979220339
replication of herpes simplex virus type 2 in normal dysplastic and neoplastic human cervical epithelia. 1979221223
physical mapping of herpes simplex virus-coded functions and polypeptides by marker rescue and analysis of hsv-1/hsv-2 intertypic recombinants.a number of temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants and one pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside kinase-deficient mutant of herpes simplex virus (hsv), have been located on the physical map of the genome by means of marker rescue experiments and by the analysis of the crossover points in intertypic recombinants between hsv types 1 and 2. the physical map is compared to the genetic map and certain anomalies identified. analysis of infected-cell polypeptides specified by intertypic recombinants has allowed t ...1978221322
analysis of herpes simplex virus low molecular-weight native proteins by polyacrylamide gel electrofocusing.this communication has demonstrated the potential application of gel electrofocusing for the isolation and further characterization of hsv-2 native proteins. at least eight major hsv-2 specific proteins with characteristic isoelectric points could be reproducibly resolved by gel isoelectric focusing. their isoelectric points ranged from 5.0 to 7.5 and analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis on sds gels indicated that their molecular weights range from 11,000 to 49,000.1978221328
the use of intertypic recombinants for analysis of gene organization in herpes simplex virus.analysis of the dna sequence arrangement and polypeptides specified by 28 hsv-1 x hsv-2 recombinants show the following: (i) recombinants with heterogeneous l and s components or with heterogenous inverted repeats are viable. (ii) hsv-1 and hsv-2 genes appear to be functionally equivalent and with few exceptions co-linearly arranged. co-linear dna maps have been established. (iii) at most two arrangements of hsv dna are capable of replication. this is consistant with current studies suggesting t ...1978221347
repair of single-stranded breaks in host dna when rabbit kidney cells are infected with herpes simplex virus type 2. 1978221348
mapping of the herpes simplex virus dna sequences in three herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase-transformed cell lines.we have made use of a novel filter hybridization approach in order to map the herpes simplex virus (hsv) dna sequences which are present in three hsv thymidine kinase (tk)-transformed cell lines. the cell line 33a+ which was produced by infection of 3t3 tk- cells with uv-irradiated hsv-2 (333) was found to contain one contiguous stretch of viral dna sequences which maps between 0.15 and 0.57 on the hsv-2 genome. the sequences mapping from 0.31 to 0.37 were present in 3--4-fold higher abundance t ...1978221351
dna-mediated transfer of herpes simplex virus tk gene to human tk- cells: properties of the transformed lines.human tk- cells carrying the hsv-2 tk gene express a tk activity of viral origin and maintain the tk+ phenotype when grown in hat medium. under non-selective or counterselective conditions, however, reversion to a tk- phenotype occurs with a significant frequency characteristic of each transformed line. the tk- phenotype appears to be stable since no instances of tk- to tk+ reversion have been observed.1978221353
enhanced efficiency of transfection of hsv dna in hsv-1 dna-transformed hamster cells.the efficiency of transfection, i.e., the number of plaques per microgram of dna, was compared for herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 and type 2, and herpesvirus eidolon (antigenically unrelated to hsv) dnas in hsv dna-transformed cells (eh/a44) and control hamster cells (eht). the efficiency of transfection of hsv-1 and hsv-2 dnas was significantly higher in eh/a44 cells than in eht cells, showing that an early step in hsv infection was involved in the partial resistance of hsv dna-transformed c ...1978221357
interferon in the replication of herpes simplex virus in normal and pathological nerve cells.previous results obtained in experimental and clinical trials have demonstrated that topical combined thrapy with human interferon (hi) and human colostral secretory immunoglobulin a (s-iga) is effective against herpetic corneal infection. this therapy prevented encephalitis in rabbits but could not completely prevent recurrences either in rabbits or in patients. a number of in vitro studies were designed to elucidate the role of these factors in herpes simplex virus replication in the nervous s ...1978221373
immune responses to vaginal or systemic infection of mice with herpes simplex virus type 2.relationships among cell-mediated immune (cmi) responses, neutralizing antibody, and macrophages in host resistance to vaginal or systemic infection with hsv-2 were defined in balb/c mice. the importance of t-lymphocytes in resistance to either systemic or vaginal infection was demonstrated by increased susceptibility of mice depleted of t-lymphocytes. a role for non-specific resistance against the systemic, but not vaginal, infection was demonstrated by increased susceptibility of mice depleted ...1978221400
detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 mrna in human cervical biopsies by in situ cytological hybridization. 1978221414
life-threatening pharyngitis caused by herpes simplex virus, type 2.a 21-year-old man who had pharyngitis needed hospitalization for observation of airway patency and for parenteral fluid therapy. infection with herpes simplex virus, type 2 (hsv-2), was diagnosed on the basis of the finding of significantly increased igm indirect hemagglutination antibody titers. the pharyngitis appeared to have been contracted by heterosexual orogenital contact (cunnilingus). the results of this case study indicate that hsv-2 infection should be considered in the differential d ...1979221994
identification of disulfide-linked protein complexes in the nucleocapsids of herpes simplex virus type 2. 1979222065
persistence, reactivation, and cell transformation by human herpeviruses: herpes simplex 1, 2 (hsv-1, hsv-2), cytomegalovirus (cmv), varicella-zoster (vzv), epstein-barr virus (ebv). 1979222414
analysis of chromosomes, nucleic acids, and polypeptides in hamster cells transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2.syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts were oncogenically transformed by uv-inactivated herpes simplex type 2. eighteen clones were isolated shortly after transformation occurred. two clones and their tumor derivatives were studied using several techniques. the karyotype analysis revealed different chromosome patterns in the two clones and a tendency toward hypodiploidy in the tumor derivatives. all of these cell lines were shown by molecular hybridization to contain 40% of the hsv-genome in several ...1979222446
experimental encephalitis in the newborn rat due to herpes simplex virus type 2. 1979222606
thin-layer immunoassay for determination of antibodies to herpes simplex virus.thin-layer immunoassay (tia) is a simple serological technique suitable for analysis of large numbers of samples. in this study, tia was evaluated for determination of antibodies to herpes simplex virus. herpes simplex virus antigen used in tia was purified from material released from virus-infected cells. the results obtained by tia were compared with those obtained by neutralization and complement fixation tests. tia was found to be as sensitive as the neutralization test for demonstration of ...1979222798
herpes virus infection as a cofactor in carcinogenesis: supernatants of herpes virus type 1- and type 2-infected cell cultures contain a cell growth-stimulating factor.some cell cultures synthesize a mitogenic factor (dnasf) following their lytic infection with either hsv-1 or hsv-2 which is shed into the medium. of six cell lines permissive to hsv infection tested, three produce dnasf (cv1, hf, mca) and a significantly higher (3h)-tdr incorporation was obtained with indicator cells growing in supernatants of virus-infected cells (supv+) than in the corresponding supernatants of sham-treated cells (supv-). sometimes the values obtained with supv+ exceed those ...1979223098
some aspects of the role of viruses in cancer.the cells of tumours induced by many oncogenic dna viruses, or cells transformed in vitro, contain virus-specific t and transplantation antigens; these have been described for sv40 virus, polyoma virus and adenoviruses. the investigation of viruses as causes of malignant disease in man has sought to establish whether tumour cells possess these virus-specific proteins; however, to date and with the limitations of present techniques, this enquiry has not demonstrated the above viruses as causal of ...1979223141
stimulation of human cellular thymidine kinase activity during abortive infection with herpes simplex virus type 2. 1979223308
association of herpes simplex virus (hsv) with cervical cancer by lymphocyte reactivity with hsv-1 and hsv-2 antigens.twenty-six women with invasive cervical cancer were examined for lymphocyte responsiveness to phytohemagglutinin (pha) herpes simplex virus (hsv). blood specimens were obtained from each patient before radiation therapy and separated into subpopulations by ficoll-hypaque centrifugation. lymphocytes were cultured in rpmi-1640 containing autologous plasma and exposed to pha, hsv-1, hsv-2, and control antigens. the results compared with those of women having negative papanicolaou smears and matched ...1979223438
sites of integration of herpes simplex virus type-2 thymidine kinase gene in human chromosomes. 1979223994
[changes in the cellular surface, related to herpes simplex virus type 2, in cells derived from human cervical cancer]. 1978224426
preliminary studies of the mode of action of arildone, a novel antiviral agent.arildone (also known as win 38020), a novel aryl diketone, inhibited replication of herpes simplex virus type 2 in tissue culture by interfering with an event that occurs prior to 6 h postinfection. the inhibition could be partially reversed by washing. although the exact mechanism of action is unknown, neither viral deoxyribonucleic acid nor viral proteins were synthesized in the presence of arildone.1979224808
presence of herpes simplex virus type 2 dna in hamster cells oncogenically transformed by ultraviolet-inactivated virus.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) dna has been detected by molecular hybridization in hamster fibroblast cells oncogenically transformed by ultraviolet-irradiated virus. at early passages after cloning in soft agar, about 40% of the hsv-2 genome was present in all the transformed cell lines at one to six copies per cell. in cell lines derived from tumors induced by these cells, the same percentage of the hsv-2 genome was also found with more uniform number of copies (between two and three). th ...1979224988
lymphocyte transformation for the detection of herpesvirus-induced tumor-associated antigens.cell-mediated immunity to fibroblasts transformed by herpes simplex virus type 2 was investigated with a lymphocyte assay system. the assay system was first standardized with phytohemagglutinin, a nonspecific stimulator of blastogenesis. hamster splenic and blood lymphocytes reacted to phytohemagglutinin with a dose-response curve similar to that reported for other rodent species. splenic lymphocytes from hamsters bearing isografts, induced by herpes simplex virus type 2, were transformed by cel ...1979225013
phosphorylation of arabinofuranosylthymine in non-infected and herpesvirus (tk+ and tk-)-infected cells.the phosphorylation of arabinofuranosylthymine (arathd) has been studied both in non-infected cells and in those infected with herpes simplex virus (hsv-1, lennette; hsv-1, ies and hsv-2, d-316). in these experiments, hsv strains were used which either contain (lennette, tk+ and d-316 tk+) or lack (ies, tk-) the capacity to induce pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside kinase. it was found that extracellularly administered arathd is phosphorylated to ara ttp via aratmp and aratdp in both non-infected an ...1979225422
neoplastic transformation of cultured syrian hamster embryo cells by dna of herpes simplex virus type 2.syrian hamster embryo cells were transformed to a neoplastic phenotype after exposure to herpes simplex virus type 2 (s-1) dna at concentrations (less than or equal to 0.01 microgram per 60-mm dish) at which infectivity was no longer demonstrable. transformed cells manifested in vitro phenotypic properties characteristic of the neoplastic state, expressed herpes simplex virus-specific antigens, and induced invasive tumors in vivo. transfection and transformation of syrian hamster embryo cells wi ...1979225525
physical mapping of paar mutations of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 by intertypic marker rescue.mutations (paar) in herpes simplex virus (hsv) which confer resistance to phosphonoacetic acid involve genes associated with virus-induced dna polymerase activity. two mutants of hsv (hsv-1 tsh and hsv-2 ts6) produce a thermolabile dna polymerase activity. in this study, the ts lesions present in these mutants and those present in two independent phosphonoacetic acid-resistant mutants of hsv-1 and hsv-2 (paar-1 and paar-2) have been physically mapped by restriction endonuclease analysis of recom ...1979225553
antibody to herpes simplex virus type 2-induced early antigens and its radioimmunoassay with sera of cervical carcinoma patients. 1978225600
herpes simplex type 2 encephalitis concurrent with known cerebral metastases.a 62-year-old woman developed neurologic deficits 7 months after pulmonary lobectomy for alveolar cell carcinoma of the lung. ct scan of the head demonstrated two metastases with marked peritumoral edema. administration of decadron, chemotherapy and 3,000 rad cranial radiation resulted in dramatic improvement of dysphasia and right hand paresis. almost 2 months later, rhythmic, involuntary movements of the left hand developed. there was progression to multifocal seizures, grand mal seizures, pos ...1979225922
immunotherapy and drugs in neonatal disseminated herpes simplex virus type 2 infections: a mouse model. 1979226512
differential and selective inhibition of cellular and herpes simplex virus dna synthesis by arabinofuranosyladenine.the influence of 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyladenine (beta araado) and of its anomer 9-alpha-d-arabinofuranosyladenine (alpha araado) was studied in non-infected cells and cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and hsv type 2 (hsv-2). alpha araado is a strong inhibitor of proliferation of non-infected cells. multiplication of hsv-1 and hsv-2 is not affected at all by alpha araado, while their growth is strongly inhibited by beta araado. alpha araado exerts no effect on the incorpor ...1979227462
demonstration of exogenous genital reinfection with herpes simplex virus type 2 by restriction endonuclease fingerprinting of viral dna. 1979227967
production of tubular structures in vero cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2; effects of ultraviolet light irradiation and order to investigate the nature of tubular structures specifically found in herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-infected cells, the multiplication of hsv-2 was studied in vero cells cultured in the presence of varying concentrations of cytosine arabinoside (ara-c) and cycloheximide (ch), inhibitors of dna synthesis and protein synthesis respectively. ara-c, at a concentration of 60 micrograms/ml, inhibited the multiplication of hsv-2 by more than 99% and also prevented the appearance of tubul ...1979228001
dnase induced after infection of kb cells by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2. ii. characterization of an associated endonuclease activity.purified preparations of the "exonuclease" specified by herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) possess an endonuclease activity. the exonuclease and endonuclease activities copurify and cosediment in a sucrose density gradient. endonuclease activity is only observed in the presence of a divalent cation, and mg(2+) or mn(2+) is equally effective as a cofactor with an optimal concentration of 2 mm. a slight amount of endonuclease activity is observed in the presence of ca(2+), wher ...1979228069
stimulation of human cell dna synthesis by defective herpes simplex virus type 2. 1979228477
[herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies in the husbans of women with cervical cancer]. 1979228506
virucidal activity of retinal.herpes simplex virus type 2 and simian virus 40 were rapidly inactivated by retinal at micromolar concentrations. other fat-soluble vitamins, particularly vitamin a derivatives, were also active against herpes simplex virus type 2 and several lipid-containing bacteriophages.1979228596
the influence of cell type on the production of filaments by herpes simplex virus type 2. 1979228892
regulation of persistent infection with herpes simplex virus in vitro by hydrocortisone.about 1% of raji cells showed sensitivity to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection when tested by infectious center assays or immunofluorescence tests, and the percentage did not change during cell passage. the addition of hydrocortisone to raji cells persistently infected with hsv-2 caused a marked increase in virus production and in the number of hsv-producing cells. in the case of hsv-1, it was shown that the addition of hydrocortisone was required to maintain persistent infection. th ...1979229255
alterations in glycosphingolipid patterns in a line of african green monkey kidney cells infected with herpesvirus.the major glycosphingolipids (gsls) of a line of african green monkey kidney cells (bgm) were characterized as glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide, galactosyl-galactosyl-glucosylceramide, and n-acetylgalactosaminyl-galactosyl-galactosyl-glucosylceramide. neutral gsls accounted for approximately 80% of the total gsls isolated. the predominant gangliosides were n-acetylneuraminyl-galactosyl-glucosylceramide, n-acetylgalactosaminyl-n-acetylneuraminyl-galactosyl- glucosylceramide, and galactosyl-n-ac ...1979229262
storage and transport of cultures for herpes simplex virus, type 2.tryptic soy broth and brain-heart infusion broth maintained herpes simplex virus within +/- 1 serial dilution of the original titer in all of 51 samples held for one to three days at 4 c. in contrast, holding temperatures of -20 c or 22 c resulted in losses of titer of 10(2) or more. holding periods as long as five days prior to inoculation did not delay the appearance of the cytopathic effect following inoculation. unmodified tryptic soy broth or brain-heart infusion broth and holding periods a ...1979229726
effects of antimetabolites on the production of tubular structures in vero cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2.treatment of vero cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 with the proper concentrations of hydroxyurea (hu) reduced the production of infectious virus and markedly increased the accumulation of tubular structures in the nuclei when the drug was added within 6 hours after infection. similar accumulation of tubular structures in the infected nuclei was also observed when infected cells were treated with phosphonoacetic acid at proper concentrations. the release of hu-treated, herpes simpl ...1979229802
isolation of the major herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1)-specific glycoprotein by hydroxylapatite chromatography and its use in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for titration of human hsv-1-specific antibodies.a 131,000 molecular weight herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) glycoprotein designated antigen number 6 (ag-6) was previously shown to possess almost exclusively hsv-1-specific antigenic sites. fused rocket and crossed immunoelectrophoresis of fractions obtained from hydroxylapatite chromatography of crude hsv-1 antigen (triton x-100-solubilized, infected tissue culture cells) showed that a subfraction of ag-6 could be separated from the other hsv antigens. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with ...1979230199
reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2 from a quiescent state by human cytomegalovirus.the ability of human cytomegalovirus to stimulate replication of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was examined. the system used involved hsv-2-infected human embryonic lung cells under conditions (39.5-40 degrees c) in which hsv-2 remains undetectable. reactivation of hsv-2 was maximal and persisted for the longest duration when cultures were superinfected with 0.02 plaque-forming unit of human cytomegalovirus per cell. infectious hsv-2 appeared 2 days after superinfection with human cytomega ...1979230494
growth inhibition by acycloguanosine of herpesviruses isolated from human infections.inhibition by acycloguanosine (acg) of plaque formation by harpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2), varicella-zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus was studied. seventeen clinical isolates of hsv-1 were inhibited by acg at a mean 50% inhibitory dose (id(50)) of 0.15 +/- 0.09 mum. the mean id(50) for 10 isolates of hsv-2 was 1.62 +/- 0.76 mum, and for four isolates of varicella-zoster virus it was 3.75 +/- 1.30 mum. the id(50)'s for two cytomegalovirus isolates were 100 and 160 mum, and ...1979230783
[epidemiology of carcinoma of the cervix (author's transl)].in order to explain why modes of sexual life influence the incidence of cervical carcinoma, several factors have been claimed to be involved. there is no solid basis for the hypothesis that sperm may be mutagenic. by contrast, epidemiological studies showed that partners whose life is not sedentary bring back home to their wives an increased risk of cervical carcinoma. the infectious factor does not seem to be associated with syphilis but may well be represented by herpes genitalis virus (herpes ...1979230875
host-cell response to herpes virus infection in central and peripheral nervous tissue in an organotypic nerve cell culture system, all cells in both the central and the peripheral nervous system (cns, pns) components supported replication of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv 1, hsv 2). in hsv 1 infection, cellular response was particularly characterized by the formation of small syncytia (which involved neurons) and by the presence of bundles of interwoven fine filaments within the nuclei of infected cells. in hsv 2 infection, groups of parallel tubules characteristically f ...1979231090
blocking of acid-fixed nuclear binding of epstein-barr virus nuclear antigen (ebna) by different dna species.treatment of epstein-barr virus-determined nuclear antigen (ebna) with dna resulted in blocking of its ability to convert acid-fixed ebna-negative cell nuclei to an ebna-positive form. epstein-barr virus (ebv) dna, herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) dna and dna isolated from three lymphoblastoid cell lines differed in their potency to block this reaction. ebv dna was found to be about three times more effective than cellular dnas in abolishing the ability of dna-cellulose-purified ebna to conve ...1979231093
the presence of herpes simplex virus dna in hamster embryo cells transformed by a temperature sensitive mutant, ts-4.hamster embryo cells transformed with a temperature sensitive mutant of hsv-2, ts-4t, were examined for the presence of viral genomes. dna-dna reassociation kinetics showed that only a small portion (11 +/- 4%) of hsv-2 was present in the transformed cells.1979231439
comparative study of herpes group virus-induced dna polymerases.a comparative biochemical study of virus-induced dna polymerases was made among the herpes group viruses: namely, herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 and type 2, human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) and varicella-zoster virus (vzv). although these virus-induced enzymes shared some biochemical properties, they differed in several important aspects. all these virus-induced dna polymerases could efficiently use poly(dc) . oligo(dg)12--18 and poly(da) . oligo(dt)12--18 as template-primers. however, in phospho ...1979231586
tumorgenicity of herpesvirus hominis type 2-transformed cells (line 333-8-9) in adult hamsters.inoculation of adult hamsters with greater than 1.5 x 10(2) herpesvirus type 2 (hsv-2) transformed hamster embryo fibroblasts induced rapidly growing tumours at the site of inoculation, in more than 50 per cent of animals. the tumours were examined by light and electron microscopy, and were histologically anaplastic fibrosarcomas. lung metastases were frequently found in tumour-bearing animals; these were usually only seen microscopically, and were cytologically similar to the primary tumours. t ...1979231649
serological studies on the antigenic relationship between herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus.if crossreacting antibodies between varicella-zoster virus (vzv) and herpes simplex virus (hsv) exist, one would expect more positive reactions with vzv in a group of hsv positive patients than in a group of hsv negative patients. this statement can only apply to a group of individuals where positive and negative reactions with respect to hsv and vzv are evenly distributed. such a distribution can only be found among children. therefore, the relationship between hsv-1 and vzv was the only one wh ...1979232073
phosphorylation of a ribosomal protein and of virus-specific proteins in cells infected with herpes simplex cells infected with herpes simplex virus a protein associated with the small subunit of ribosomes became phosphorylated. it was not detectably labelled with 14c-amino acids added after infection and is therefore probably a cellular protein. the phosphorylated ribosomal proteins from hsv-1- and hsv-2-infected cells were indistinguishable electrophoretically and had an apparent mol. wt. of about 48 000. phosphorylation of the 48k protein was detected 2 to 3 h after infection and reached a maxim ...1979232130
virus-specific dna sequences present in cells which carry the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene.two independently derived cell lines which carry the herpes simplex type 2 thymidine kinase gene have been examined for the presence of hsv-2-specific dna sequences. both cell lines contained 1 to 3 copies per cell of a sequence lying within map co-ordinates 0.2 to 0.4 of the hsv-2 genome. revertant cells, which contained no detectable thymidine kinase, did not contain this dna sequence. the failure of ecor1-restricted hsv-2 dna to act as a donor of the thymidine kinase gene in transformation ex ...1979232133
mutant of herpes simplex virus type 2 with temperature-sensitive lesions affecting virion thermostability and dnase activity: identification of the lethal mutation and physical mapping of the nuc-lesion.we had previously shown that a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of herpes simplex virus type 2 strain hg52, ts13, induced a heat-labile dnase activity in infected cells (b. francke, h. moss, m. c. timbury, and j. hay, j. virol. 26:209-213, 1978). earlier work indicated that the mutant also possessed temperature-sensitive infectivity (i. w. halliburton and m. c. timbury, j. gen. virol. 30:207-221, 1976). in this study temperature-stable revertants of ts13 have been isolated; examination of them ...1979232166
[seroepidemiological study of herpes simplex virus type 2 in adult women of costa rica].the frequency of genital herpes simplex type 2 infections in a group of twenty adult costa rican women was studied by isolation of the virus and the measurement of neutralizing antibody activity in sera. the virus could not be isolated in any of the vaginal secretions. neutralizing antibody activity to herpes virus types 1 and 2 was found in sera from sixteen subjects. an antibody ii/i index equal to or larger than 87, indicative of infection with herpes simplex type 2 was found in fifty per cen ...1979233038
new treatment for herpes simplex virus type 2 [ultrasound and zinc, urea, and tannic acid ointment]. part i--male patients.twenty-three male patients with herpes simplex virus type 2 blisters on the prepuce, glans penis, and penile shaft were divided into two groups. ten patients served as controls, and thirteen patients were treated with ultrasound (1 watt/cm2 for 60 seconds) and herpigon on three consecutive days. results showed a negative virus culture after three days of treatment and significant reduction of recurrent infection in the treated group while the control group experienced recurrent infection within ...1978283170
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