differentiation of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with hsv encephalitis and meningitis by stringent hybridization of pcr-amplified dnas.differentiation of herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 in cerebrospinal fluid of 17 patients with serologically diagnosed hsv encephalitis and meningitis or acute limbic encephalitis was determined by stringent hybridization of polymerase chain reaction--amplified dnas. ten of 17 patients were positive; six with hsv 1 isolates and four with hsv 2 isolates. we detected hsv type 1 in two cases of meningitis, although meningitis is generally thought to be caused by type 2. additionally, hsv ty ...19947799000
expression of the herpes simplex virus type 2 latency-associated transcript enhances spontaneous reactivation of genital herpes in latently infected guinea pigs.the latency-associated transcript (lat) is the only herpes simplex virus (hsv) gene product detectable in latently infected humans and animals. in this report, we show that a 624-bp deletion in the promoter of the hsv-2 lat had no discernable effect on viral growth in tissue culture or in acute genital infection of guinea pigs, but impaired lat accumulation and led to a marked decrease in spontaneous genital recurrences when compared with the behavior of wild-type and rescuant strains. differenc ...19957807009
posttherapy suppression of genital herpes simplex virus (hsv) recurrences and enhancement of hsv-specific t-cell memory by imiquimod in guinea pigs.imiquimod, an immunomodulator with no direct in vitro antiviral activity, has in vivo anti-herpesvirus activity by inducing interferon and enhancing other only partially defined immune responses. imiquimod treatment of primary genital herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection in guinea pigs reduces the level of genital disease by 90%. we further investigated its utility as suppressive therapy of recurrent disease in animals that had recently recovered from primary genital hsv-2 disease. imiquimod adm ...19947811019
simultaneous measurement of antibodies to epstein-barr virus, human herpesvirus 6, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, and 14 enteroviruses in chronic fatigue syndrome: is there evidence of activation of a nonspecific polyclonal immune response?as a test of the hypothesis that elevated titers of viral antibodies in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (cfs) are due to a nonspecific polyclonal immune response, antibodies to epstein-barr virus (ebv), human herpesvirus 6 (hhv-6), and 14 enteroviruses in 20 patients with cfs and 20 age- and gender-matched controls were simultaneously measured. similarly, titers of igg to herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 were measured in 18 of these cases and in the respective controls. igg to ebv ...19947811864
seroprevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in a rural ugandan population.the aim of the study was to determine in a rural population the age- and sex-specific prevalence and incidence rates of serological reactivity of 5 common sexually transmitted diseases (stds) and their association with hiv-1 antibody status. of the adult population of two villages (529 adults aged 15 years or more) 294 provided an adequate blood specimen both on enrollment and at 12 months. the sera were tested at 3 collaborating laboratories for antibodies against hiv-1, treponema pallidum, hae ...19947819350
comparison of various transport media for viability maintenance of herpes simplex virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and viral transport media (vtm) were compared for effectiveness in preserving the infectivity of herpes simplex virus (hsv), respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), and adenovirus. the media tested were richards viral transport, sucrose-phosphate-glutamate (spg), virocult, hh medium, tryptose phosphate broth, cell culture medium, and bartel's viral transport. two laboratory strains of hsv (mcintyre and 333) and two clinical isolates (a0301 and a0386), comprising two hsv-1 types and two hsv-2 types, ...19947820992
a sensitive assay system screening antiviral compounds against herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2.a highly sensitive and accurate assay system was developed for in vitro evaluation of anti-herpes simplex virus (anti-hsv) agents using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (mtt) and human embryonic lung fibroblast (mrc-5) cells. this assay system was found to be highly sensitive for both hsv-1 and -2. confluent mrc-5 cells were infected with either hsv-1 kos strain or hsv-2 g strain of 25 tcid50 in the presence of various concentrations of test compounds. the optical den ...19947822458
direct immunofluorescence vs. culture for detecting hsv in oral ulcers: a comparison.diagnostic tests may be necessary to determine the cause of oral ulcers. direct immunofluorescence staining of oral smears supplies results much more quickly than viral culture, the "gold standard" for diagnosing hsv lesions. this study compares the sensitivity and specificity of direct immunofluorescence staining vs. viral culture and evaluates the usefulness of the two techniques for the general dental practitioner.19957822648
chronic encephalitis and epilepsy (rasmussen's encephalitis): detection of cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus 1 by the polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization.we made a pathologic diagnosis of chronic encephalitis on surgical resections or autopsy material in 10 patients with intractable seizures and studied the specimens by immunohistochemistry for herpes simplex virus (hsv) 1 and 2 and cytomegalovirus (cmv) as well as by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for viral dna sequences (hsv1, hsv2, and cmv). we also assessed eight patients (nonepileptic) with pathologically documented or clinically suspected encephalitis and five resections from epileptic ...19957824098
[4'-branched nucleosides. ii. synthesis of 4'-hydroxymethyl derivatives of 2',3'-anhydronucleosides of the ribo- and lyxo-series].a general synthetic method for 4'-hydroxymethyl-2',3'-anhydronucleosides from 1,2-o-isopropylidene-4-hydroxymethyl-alpha-d-xylofuranose is described. the condensation of 1,2-di-o-acetyl-3-o-methanesulphonyl-4-benzoyloxymethyl-5-o- benzoyl-d-xylofuranose with trimethylsilyl derivatives of n6-benzoyladenine and n2-palmitoylguanine in the presence of stannic chloride resulted in the corresponding nucleosides. after their treatment with nh4oh-etoh, corresponding 2',3'-riboanhydronucleosides were iso ...19947826408
cervical cancer and herpes simplex virus type 2: case-control studies in spain and colombia, with special reference to immunoglobulin-g sub-classes.two case-control studies, including 449 histologically confirmed cases of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (cin) iii and 425 controls, and 2 studies on invasive cervical cancer, involving 316 histologically confirmed cases and 330 population controls, were conducted in colombia and spain to assess the role of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in cervical neoplasia. antibodies to this virus were also measured in the sera of 931 husbands of cases and controls. a serological assay using type-s ...19957829255
generation of humoral immune responses against herpes simplex virus type 2 in the murine female genital tract.a murine model of genital infection with a thymidine kinase-deficient (tk-) strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was utilized to examine the local urogenital antibody response to hsv-2. vaginal inoculation with hsv-2 tk- protected against a subsequent genital challenge with a lethal dose of virulent hsv-2. after primary vaginal infection, predominantly hsv-specific igg antibodies were detected in serum and vaginal secretions. hsv-specific igg antibody-secreting cells (asc) were detected ...19957831778
teenage obstetric and gynaecological problems in an african measure the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (std), pelvic inflammatory disease (pid), cervical cancer, pregnancy and use of contraception in teenagers, and to determine socioeconomic factors associated with these conditions to aid planners of medical services and promotion of sexual health.19947834712
p53 expression and genetic evidence for viral infection in intraepithelial neoplasia of the uterine cervix.infections with high-risk strains of human papillomaviruses (hpvs) and with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2), as well as inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, are important cofactors in cervical carcinogenesis. we analyzed 41 paraffin-embedded cervical intraepithelial lesions, including 25 cases of low-grade cervical intraepithelia neoplasia (cin), and 16 cases of high-grade cin for the presence of hpv 16/18 and hsv 2 genomic sequences and for the nuclear accumulation of the p53 prot ...19947835772
synthesis, properties, and pharmacokinetic studies of n2-phenylguanine derivatives as inhibitors of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinases.two series of selective inhibitors of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv1,2) thymidine kinases (tk) have been developed as potential treatment of recurrent virus infections. among compounds related to the potent base analog n2-[m-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]guanine (mcf3-pg), none was a more potent inhibitor than mcf3pg itself. compounds related to the nucleoside n2-phenyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (phdg), but with alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, and related substituents at the 9-position in place of the glycosyl ...19957837239
1-[((s)-2-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,4,2-dioxaphosphorinan-5-yl)methyl] cytosine, an intracellular prodrug for (s)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine with improved therapeutic index in vivo.1-[((s)-2-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,4,2-dioxaphosphorinan-5-yl)methyl]cytosi ne (cyclic [chpmpc]) was evaluated as a novel antiviral agent in comparison with (s)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine (hpmpc). evaluation for in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 in ma-104 and mrc-5 cells showed that both chpmpc and hpmpc have comparable activities and cytotoxicities. chpmpc was found to be stable on incubation in human plasma and human liver homogenates. intracellular metabolism s ...19947840575
disseminated acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 2 treated successfully with foscarnet. 19957844404
expanded spectrum of herpes simplex encephalitis in childhood.we designed a polymerase chain reaction method to detect herpes simplex virus (hsv) dna in spinal fluid from patients with encephalitis. the polymerase chain reaction amplified a 211 base-pair segment of the hsv dna polymerase gene. applying this method, we diagnosed hsv type 1 infection in three young children, aged 7 to 13 months, who had atypical forms of the illness. on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging, their disease was diffuse or multifocal in two cases and, in all three, lacked the ...19957844669
herpes simplex virus type 2 meningitis and associated genital lesions in a three-year-old child. 19947845725
cosalane analogues with enhanced potencies as inhibitors of hiv-1 protease and integrase.several new analogues of the novel anti-hiv agent cosalane have been synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of hiv-1 integrase and protease, hiv-1 replication, hiv-1 and hiv-2 cytopathicity, hiv-1- and hiv-2-mediated syncytium formation, and cytopathicity of a variety of human pathogenic viruses. the congeners displayed enhanced potencies relative to cosalane itself as inhibitors of hiv-1 integrase and protease. the two most potent analogues against hiv-1 integrase displayed ic50 values of 2.2 ...19957853337
the herpes simplex virus type 2 gene which encodes the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase has unusual regulatory properties.expression of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) encoded ribonucleotide reductase (rr) is required for growth of the virus in non-dividing cells. the functional enzyme is composed of a large (rra) and small (rrb) subunit and the enzyme is expressed as a delayed early activity. the promoter of rra contains a cis-acting motif (taatgarat) which resembles those found in immediate early (ie) genes suggesting rra is an ie gene. when primate cells were infected with hsv-2, low levels of rra transcript ...19947856314
urban rape survivors: characteristics and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections. multicenter crack cocaine and hiv infection study determine the prevalence of recent rape, the characteristics or recent rape survivors, and the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), syphilis, and genital herpes (hsv-2) among recent rape survivors.19957862367
antibody to herpes simplex virus type 2 as serological marker of sexual lifestyle in examine the epidemiology of antibody to herpes simplex virus type 2 and to assess its suitability as a serological marker of sexual behaviour in populations with high and low prevalences.19947866079
[distribution of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 genomes in the human spinal ganglia].herpes simplex virus (hsv) is well known for its propensity to cause recurrent oral or genital mucosal infections in humans. hsv-1 is involved primarily in oral lesions, whereas hsv-2 is more frequently involved in genital lesions. based on this, it is thought that hsv-1 may produce latent infections in trigeminal ganglia, and hsv-2 in the sacral ganglia. however the distribution pattern of latent hsv-1 and hsv-2 infections in spinal ganglia remains unknown. using the polymerase chain reaction w ...19947868053
frequency and reactivation of nongenital lesions among patients with genital herpes simplex determine the frequency, recurrence patterns, and host factors associated with nongenital herpes simplex virus lesions.19957872339
encapsidation defectiveness of herpes simplex virus type 2 during replication at acid ph condition.the maximal yield of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) grown at ph 6.5 decreased 10(2)-10(3) fold compared to that recovered at ph 7.5. electron microscopic observation of the infected cells maintained at these 2 ph conditions indicated that approximately equal amounts of immature virions were synthesized 6 hours after infection. however, at 18 hours post infection the majority of viruses present in the nucleus of infected cells maintained at ph 6.5 were empty or partially cored capsids with s ...19947872993
multicystic encephalopathy: review of eight cases with etiologic considerations.multicystic encephalomalacia (mce) is a rare lesion that arises during the perinatal period. although hypoxic-ischemic insults may be responsible for this lesion, recent evidence suggests that herpesviruses may represent another etiologic agent. to elucidate the pathogenesis of mce, eight cases collected over a 34-year period were evaluated for destructive lesions in gray and white matter. immunocytochemical methods, in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) methodology were empl ...19957876894
synthesis, biological evaluation, and structure analysis of a series of new 1,5-anhydrohexitol view of the selective anti-hsv activity of 1,5-anhydro-2,3-dideoxy-2- (5-iodouracil-1-yl)-d-arabino-hexitol, a series of novel 1,5-anhydrohexitol nucleosides were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against several viruses. the 5-iodouracil 3 and the 5-ethyluracil 4 derivatives are highly selective tk-dependent inhibitors of hsv-1 and hsv-2. broad anti-herpes virus activity was noticed for 5-fluorocytosine 6 and 2,6-diaminopurine 10 analogues. from a transport study of 3, ...19957877148
chemiluminescent and colorimetric detection of a fluorescein-labelled probe and a digoxigenin-labelled probe after a single hybridization step.the objective of the simple and fast method we describe is the simultaneous hybridization of two non-radioactive probes and their detection from the same blot, using two different systems. these two probes are synthesized by pcr: one is labelled with fluorescein and the other with digoxigenin. the former is detected by chemiluminescence and the latter by colorimetry. we applied this rapid and simple method to the specific detection of multiplex polymerase chain reaction products. we used the hum ...19947877636
seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus infections in a family medicine determine the prevalence of herpes simplex virus (hsv) antibody in a general medical practice setting and to assess the frequency of subclinical infection.19957881604
the 140-kda rr1 protein from both hsv-1 and hsv-2 contains an intrinsic protein kinase activity capable of autophosphorylation but it is transphosphorylation defective.the 140-kda rr1 protein from both herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) functions as the large subunit of viral ribonucleotide reductase (rr) and contains an intrinsic serine/threonine protein kinase (pk) activity at the unique nh2-terminal domain. this pk activity is capable of autophosphorylation and reported to transphosphorylate histone and calmodulin by some groups but not by others. it has been suggested that the lack of consensus in the finding of transphosphorylation a ...19957886945
antiviral activity and metabolism of the castanospermine derivative mdl 28,574, in cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2.the 6-o-butanoyl derivative of castanospermine (mdl 28,574: bucast), an inhibitor of glycoprotein processing, blocked the growth of herpes simplex virus type-2 with the effect markedly enhanced by exposure of cells to the compound pre- as well as post-infection. the effectiveness of the derivative corresponded to an increased uptake with greatest accumulation after virus infection. gas chromatography/mass spectrometry identified the predominant component in mdl 28,574 treated cells as castanospe ...19957887939
synthesis and antiviral activity of 3'-fluorocarbocyclic oxetanocin a.a new procedure for the synthesis of 3'-fluorocarbocyclic oxetanocin a (1b) was developed. addition of iodine fluoride to o-cyclohexylidene-cis-2-hydroxymethyl-3-methylene-1-cyclobutanol (4) afforded o-cyclohexylidene-(1s*,2s*,3r*)-3-fluoro-3-iodomethyl-2- hydroxymethyl-1-cyclobutanol (5) and the undesired (1s*,2s*,3s*)-isomer (6) in 6.2% and 38% yields, respectively. when fluorine was introduced into the carbocycle after condensation of 6-chloropurine, 6-chloro-9-[(1r*,2s*,3r*)-3-fluoro-3-iodom ...19957895312
placebo-controlled trial of vaccination with recombinant glycoprotein d of herpes simplex virus type 2 for immunotherapy of genital herpes.immunotherapy of chronic viral diseases with vaccines is an important but unproven concept. we investigated the effect of a vaccine containing recombinant glycoprotein d (gd2) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) on the frequency of symptomatic outbreaks in patients with genital herpes. 98 patients with documented genital herpes who reported 4-14 recurrences per year were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. subjects received injections of either 100 micrograms gd2 in alum or ...19947911177
purification of the integral membrane glycoproteins d of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, produced in the recombinant baculovirus expression system, by ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography.selective elution of sendai virus integral membrane proteins by ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (hpiec) using different detergent concentrations was reported before [s. welling-wester, m. freijlbrief, d.g.a.m. koedijk, m.a. braaksma, b.r.k. douma and g.w. welling, j. chromatogr., 646 (1993) 37]. in the present study this novel approach was applied to the purification of the integral membrane glycoprotein d of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2. the glycoproteins d of types 1 ( ...19947921180
[epidemiological study on risk factors of cervical cancer].the relationship between cervical cancer and risk factors including virus infection of cervix was studied with methods of molecular and serological epidemiology. dna extracted from cervical biopsies taken from 57 cases and 51 controls were tested for hpv6/11, hpv16/18 by dot-blot hybridization and for hsv-2 by pcr. sera were detected for hcmv-igm by elisa. the results and risk factors were analyzed by logistic regression model. the multiple logistic regression model results showed that hpv16/18 ...19947923330
[chronic fatigue and herpes virus antibodies]. 19947924923
activity of two synthetic amphiphilic peptides and magainin-2 against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.the in vitro antiviral activity of two amphiphilic synthetic peptides, modelin-1 (mod-1) and modelin-5 (mod-5), and of the natural antibacterial peptide magainin-2 (mag-2) against herpes simplex viruses type 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2) were evaluated. the peptides were incubated with the virus, i.e. direct inactivation, and their effects examined by means of plaque reduction assay and/or reduction in virus yield. only mod-1 displayed a strong antiviral effect against hsv-1 and hsv-2, with 50% effect ...19947928088
a thymidine kinase deficient hsv-2 strain causes acute keratitis and establishes trigeminal ganglionic latency, but poorly reactivates in vivo.the incidence of herpetic keratitis following intranasal or direct ocular infection with thymidine kinase-negative (tk-) strains of herpes simplex virus (hsv)-2 has not been well studied, and the role of the tk gene in the establishment of latency and virus reactivation is controversial. to determine whether a tk- strain of hsv-2 could establish trigeminal ganglionic latency and be reactivated in vivo to produce recurrent keratitis or nervous system infection, an animal model of acute and recurr ...19947931192
herpes simplex virus-induced expression of 70 kda heat shock protein (hsp70) requires early protein synthesis but not viral dna replication.the major 70 kda heat shock protein (hsp70), which is scarcely expressed in unstressed rodent cells, was apparently induced by infection with herpes simplex virus (hsv). infection with hsv types 1 and 2 elevated hsp70 mrna levels within 4 hr post-infection. hsp70 synthesis and accumulation increased in hsv-infected cells. irradiation of hsv with uv-light abolished the ability to induce hsp70 mrna. inhibitors of viral dna synthesis did not affect the induction of hsp70 in infected cells. protein ...19947935054
a vaccinia virus--herpes simplex virus (hsv) glycoprotein b1 recombinant or an hsv vaccine overcome the hsv type 2 induced humoral immunosuppression and protect against vaginal challenge in balb/c mice.primary infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) suppress the antibody response to secondary hsv-1 and -2 infections in the balb/c mouse. in contrast, a challenge by the i.p. route using a vaccinia virus-hsv-1 glycoprotein b (vv gb1) recombinant induces a significant enhancement of the antibody response. this booster reaction is also observed if a challenge with a formalin-inactivated hsv-1 vaccine is performed. although no or low humoral and vaginal antibodies are detectable after a ...19947935163
herpes simplex myelitis as a cause of acute necrotizing myelitis syndrome.we report a patient with herpes simplex virus (hsv) myelitis with a clinical history of rapidly progressive spinal cord dysfunction and extensive necrosis of the lumbosacral spinal cord at autopsy. the etiologic agent was hsv type 2. the close resemblance of the clinical features of this case to the syndrome of acute necrotizing myelitis emphasizes the need to recognize hsv myelitis as a cause of this syndrome, since it is diagnosable during life by culturing the csf and is treatable.19947936255
demonstration of herpes simplex type 2 in the cerebrospinal fluid of two patients with recurrent lymphocytic investigate the aetiology of recurrent lymphocytic meningitis in two patients with a past history of recurrent genital herpes simplex infection.19947936462
transinhibition of herpes simplex virus replication by an inducible cell-resident gene encoding a dysfunctional vp19c capsid protein.this study demonstrates that cells expressing a dysfunctional analog of a herpes simplex virus (hsv) capsid protein inhibits hsv replication. vero cell lines expressing hsv-1 capsid protein vp19c/beta-galactosidase fusion proteins were constructed and tested for their kinetics of expression, intracellular location, and ability to interfere with hsv replication. two chimeric genes were constructed for these studies. the larger chimeric gene encodes the amino terminal 327 amino acids (aa) of vp19c ...19947941701
rapid diagnosis of cutaneous herpes simplex infections using specific monoclonal hundred children with suspected herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection and 20 controls were studied to compare a rapid immunofluorescence (rif) test for detection and typing of hsv from smears of lesions with standard viral culture. the rif test was evaluated for ease of use and speed of diagnosis. rif and/or culture were positive in 64% of patients. all infections diagnosed by rif and culture were hsv type 1. in 92% of patients rif and culture results were in concordance. in 57 cases, rif and ...19947955468
determinants of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 infections in the lower female genital tract in an italian population.the prevalences of human papillomavirus (hpv) types 16 and 18 infection were determined by a non isotopic molecular hybridization assay on cervical scrapes from 738 women affected by gynaecological lesions different from malignancies. the correlation with known epidemiological risk factors for cervical neoplasia, such as sexual habits, smoking and pill use, was investigated. the overall hpv prevalence rate was 29.8% (220/738). viral dna sequences were detected in 26.9% (122/452) of morphological ...19947957325
standardisation of a microplate in situ elisa (mise-test) for the susceptibility testing of herpes simplex virus to acyclovir.viral susceptibility testing has been traditionally performed by plaque reduction assay (pra) which is labour intensive, time consuming and requires subjective input by the reader. an in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) method has been developed with the potential to overcome many of the limitations of pra, and has been applied to a variety of viruses. previous reports of elisa susceptibility assays have shown little standardisation between these methods, or any significant analysi ...19947962265
alteration of intracerebral cytokine production in mice infected with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.previously we reported that a lethal strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infects the brain following ocular inoculation of mice. we now demonstrate that hsv-2 mediates an unusual intracellular sequestering of class ii major histocompatibility complex (mhc) antigens. with use of an rnase protection assay, we observed a selective inhibition of ifn-gamma and il-6 gene transcription in brains of mice infected with hsv-2. it is likely that the inhibition of cytokine gene expression was medi ...19947962482
protective vaccination against primary and recurrent disease caused by herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 using a genetically disabled hsv-1.the vaccine potential of a mutant herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1, with a deletion in the glycoprotein h (gh) gene, was evaluated. the virus requires a gh-expressing cell line for multi-cycle growth but can complete a single cycle of infection in noncomplementing cells. such viruses, termed disc (disabled infectious single cycle) viruses, should be safe, yet still able to stimulate humoral and cell-mediated responses against a broad range of virus antigens in vaccinated hosts. prophylactic vac ...19947963701
the influence of adjuvant on the therapeutic efficacy of a recombinant genital herpes vaccine.the potential use of vaccines for treatment of chronic or persistent virus infections is an area of great interest and controversy. previous experiments have shown that the incidence and severity of spontaneous recurrent genital herpes in latently infected guinea pigs could be significantly reduced by vaccination with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein subunit vaccines. the current study shows the critical role of adjuvant in an effective formulation. immunization of previously infected guinea pi ...19947963702
case records of the massachusetts general hospital. weekly clinicopathological exercises. case 45-1994. a 47-year-old man with inguinal lymphadenopathy and fever during preparation for a bone marrow transplant. 19947969363
isolation of herpes simplex virus from sexually transmitted disease patients in ibadan, nigeria.despite the public health importance of herpes simplex virus infection in nigeria, attempts have not been made to isolate and identify the virus.19947974067
hsv-2 increases the mitochondrial aspartate amino transaminase characteristic of tumor cells.a set of polypeptides has previously been described as being immunoprecipitated from tumor cell lysates by the sera of tumor-bearing animals (tbs) or by antisera raised to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2)-infected cells. these polypeptides were not immunoprecipitated from control cells. the principal polypeptides detected of mw 200, 90 (u90 and l90), 40, and 32 kda were increased by hsv-2 infection. this communication describes the purification of the 40-kda protein and its identification by ...19947975243
affinity of synthetic peptides for the hsv-2 ribonucleotide reductase r1 subunit measured with an iodinated photoaffinity peptide.the herpes simplex virus (hsv) ribonucleotide reductase comprises two nonidentical subunits, r1 and r2, which associate to form the active holoenzyme. a sensitive binding assay was developed to measure the affinity of inhibitory peptides for the hsv r1 subunit. the assay involved the use of a photoreactive radioligand [4'-azido-phe328,3',5'-125i-tyr329] hsv r2-(328-337), an analogue of the decapeptide ser-tyr-ala-gly-ala-val-val-asn-asp-leu which corresponds to the c-terminal sequence (328-337) ...19947978273
recurrence rates in genital herpes after symptomatic first-episode evaluate the frequency of reactivation of genital herpes infection and to identify predictors for recurrence.19947978697
kinetic analysis of the interaction between the diphosphate of (s)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine, ddctp, azttp, and fiautp with human dna polymerases beta and gamma.the inhibitory effects of the diphosphate of (s)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxy-propyl)cytosine (hpmpcpp) toward human dna polymerases beta and gamma were studied. the ki values of hpmpcpp were compared with the ki values of the triphosphates of 3'-azidothymidine (azttp), 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddctp) and 5-iodo-2'-fluoroarabinosyluridine (fiautp). the ki values toward dna polymerase beta in increasing order were 1.32, 1.43, 140, and 520 microm for ddctp, fiautp, azttp and hpmpcpp, respectivel ...19947986213
a potent peptidomimetic inhibitor of hsv ribonucleotide reductase with antiviral activity in vivo.herpes simplex viruses (hsv) types 1 and 2 encode their own ribonucleotide reductases (rnrs) (ec to convert ribonucleoside diphosphates into the corresponding deoxyribonucleotides. like other iron-dependent rnrs, the viral enzyme is formed by the reversible association of two distinct homodimeric subunits. the carboxy terminus of the rnr small subunit (r2) is critical for subunit association and synthetic peptides containing these amino-acid sequences selectively inhibit the viral enzy ...19947990963
[studies on antiviral agents: synthesis of tai-ding-an analogs].tai-ding-an (3-phthalimido-2-oxo-n-butyraldehyde bisthiosemicarbazone, tda) is a synthetic antiviral drug developed by our institute. because of its low water/lipid solubility. tai-ding-an is limited to topical treatment of herpes viruses infected skin diseases and of condylomata acuminata (ginital warts), one of sexual transmitted diseases (std), caused by human papilloma virus (hpv). ten tda derivatives iiib-e, va, vb, viia-e have been synthesized in order to search for compounds with higher a ...19947992623
male circumcision and common sexually transmissible diseases in a developed nation determine whether the circumcision status of men affected their likelihood of acquiring sexually transmissible diseases (stds).19948001942
evidence for a multistep mechanism for cell-cell fusion by herpes simplex virus with mutations in the syn 3 locus using heparin derivatives during fusion from within.addition of heparin-na+ as well as related substances of high and intermediate mw (arteparon and polyanion sp54) 3 h after infection inhibit fusion from within (ffwi) induced by hsv strains with mutations in the syn 3 locus only. the concentration of heparin-na+ required to inhibit ffwi is 10-fold higher (1 mg/ml) than that needed to inhibit adsorption. instead of fusion, cell rounding is observed. the effect is readily reversible. a low mw heparin disaccharide is ineffective. neomycin, at a con ...19948002784
[antiviral activity of mangiferin against herpes simplex virus type 2 in vitro].the effect of mangiferin, a tetrahydroxy pyrrolidone saponin extracted from the leaves of mango (mangifera indica), against herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in vitro was studied. the 50% effective concentration (ec50) of it against hsv-2 plaque formation in hela cells was 111.7, and the concentrations of 33 and 80 reduced the virus replicative yields by 90% (ec90) and 99% (ec99), respectively. the therapeutic index (ic50/ec50) was 8.1. mangiferin did not direct ...19938010041
analysis of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus (hsv) infections in pregnant women and infants using the hsv-2 glycoprotein g antibody assay. 19938012738
protein-specific cervical antibody responses to primary genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infections.antibodies to herpes simplex virus (hsv) have been demonstrated in cervicovaginal secretions but have not been analyzed for their viral protein targets, prevalence, isotype, or kinetics of development. a method was devised to collect cervical secretions from women with primary genital hsv-2. by western blot, cervical igg and iga responses to hsv-2 proteins vp5, gb, and gd were detected in most patients within 2 weeks of onset and to gc/ge within 3 weeks. cervical igm and igg responses to gg, vp1 ...19948014499
analysis of the thymidine kinase of a herpes simplex virus type 1 isolate that exhibits resistance to (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine.the mechanism responsible for the decreased sensitivity of a clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) isolate, hsv-145, to (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (bvdu) was examined. measurements of 50% inhibitory doses of several drugs demonstrated that although hsv-145 was sensitive to phosphonoacetic acid, adenine arabinoside and acyclovir, its sensitivity to bvdu and 5-(2-chloroethyl)-2'-deoxyuridine was significantly less than that normally observed for hsv-1. analysis of the thymidylate ...19948021603
herpes simplex virus type 2 ascending myeloradiculitis: mri findings and rapid diagnosis by the polymerase chain method. 19948021686
comparative cytostatic activity of different antiherpetic drugs against herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene-transfected tumor cells.a series of selective antiherpetic compounds were found to exert pronounced cytostatic activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) thymidine kinase (tk) gene-transfected mammary carcinoma fm3a cells. based on their potency and mechanism of cytostatic action, the antiherpetic compounds could be divided into two different classes. the first class encompasses (e)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine and structurally related analogues thereof [i.e., the cytosine derivative (e ...19948022417
stochastic curtailing and conditional power in matched case-control methodology for early stopping of observational epidemiologic studies is developed. to indicate the likelihood of a positive result at the end of a study, the conditional power (cp) is calculated using an approach similar to that of halperin et al. given the current result, the conditional probability of a positive result for the entire study is determined. an expression relating the new approach to an approach given by lan and wittes is derived. as an example, the cp is calculated based on ...19948023041
effects of the angiotensin ii receptor antagonist losartan on herpes simplex virus-type 2 infection of cultured vero and cardiac neonatal myocytes.previous studies indicate that captopril, an angiotensin ii converting enzyme inhibitor, attenuates cardiomyopathy in a murine viral myocarditis model. accordingly, we investigated the ability of captopril as well as angiotensin ii (aii) and losartan, a nonpeptide aii receptor antagonist, to alter infection or replication of herpes simplex virus- type 2 (hsv-2) in cultured cardiac and vero cells. neither captopril nor aii influenced the ability of hsv-2 to replicate in either cell type. losartan ...19948028446
antiviral activity of a sulphated polysaccharide from the red seaweed nothogenia fastigiata.the antiviral activity of polysaccharide fractions obtained from water extracts of the red seaweed nothogenia fastigiata was investigated. fraction f6, corresponding to a sulphated xylomannan, was found to inhibit efficiently the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1). furthermore, f6 selectively inhibited the replication of several other enveloped viruses including herpes simplex virus type 2, human cytomegalovirus (hcmv), respiratory syncytial virus, influenza a and b virus, junin ...19948031312
prevalence of antibodies to herpes simplex virus in pregnant women in stockholm in 1969, 1983 and 1989: implications for std epidemiology.prevalence of antibody to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 was assessed in consecutive serum samples from a total of 3700 women pregnant in 1969, 1983, or 1989 from the same catchment area in stockholm. there was little change in seroprevalence of antibody to herpes simplex type 1 in the 3 groups, but age-adjusted herpes simplex virus type 2 antibody prevalence was 19, 33, and 33% respectively. increase in type 2 seropositivity with age was slight and similar in 1969 and 1989, but steep in 198 ...19948031912
selected epidemiological features of herpes genitalis in israel based on laboratory data.the incidence in israel of genital infection with herpes simplex virus (hsv) has been increasing steadily over the last two decades. during the years 1973-91, 1,508 patients had an hsv infection confirmed by viral culturing. the yearly incidence of new cases rose from sporadic cases in the seventies to 32.4 cases per 1,000 patients in 1990. the age distribution pattern did not change since 1980 and showed a peak incidence in subjects aged 20-40 years. the increase of hsv type 2 (hsv-2) infection ...19948034486
a seroprevalence study of herpes virus type 2 infection in israeli women: implications for routine screening.the aim of the study was to obtain data on the prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in selected populations of women and to identify groups that might benefit from routine prenatal screening. the prospective seroprevalence study was performed in 1,921 women in israel during the period 1986-90. four different population groups of women 17-60 years old were included. groups 1 and 2 comprised 1,214 healthy female government employees and kibbutz and moshav residents, and groups 3 and 4 ...19948034487
the inter-relationship of herpes virus, papilloma 16/18 virus infection and pap smear pathology in israeli women.a previous survey of the seroprevalence of the herpes virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection in israel provided us with an opportunity to study a) the prevalence of human papillomavirus (hpv) 16/18 in selected groups of women; b) the correlation between the infection with hsv-2, hpv-16/18 and papanicolaou (pap) pathology; and c) to identify groups of women who might benefit from routine pap screening. four different population groups of women aged 17-60 years were studied: groups 1 and 2 comprised healt ...19948034488
vaccine therapy for ocular herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection: periocular vaccination reduces spontaneous ocular hsv type 1 shedding in latently infected rabbits.periocular vaccination of rabbits with preexisting herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) latent infection with recombinant hsv-2 glycoproteins b and d (gb2 and gd2) plus adjuvant significantly reduced ocular viral shedding. rabbits were infected in both eyes with hsv-1 strain mckrae. following hsv-1 infection and the establishment of latency (28 days postinfection), rabbits were given a periocular subconjunctival vaccination three times at 3-week intervals. beginning 3 weeks after the final vaccin ...19948035508
cervical antibodies in patients with oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) infection: local anamnestic responses after genital hsv-2 infection.herpes simplex virus (hsv)-specific immunoglobulin a, immunoglobulin g, and secretory-component-containing immunoglobulins were identified in cervical and salivary secretions from six subjects with oral hsv type 1 (hsv-1) infections. anamnestic cervical and salivary antibody responses were detected in two hsv-1-seropositive women with newly acquired genital hsv-2 infections. these data implicate the common mucosal immune system in antibody responses to hsv.19948035526
interferon-gamma in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with viral and bacterial meningitis.interferon (ifn)-gamma was analysed immunologically in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) sampled in the acute phase from 27 patients (15-66 years) with viral meningitis and from 18 patients (0.5-90 years) with bacterial meningitis. increased csf concentrations were observed in 19/27 viral and in 13/18 bacterial cases. csf-ifn-gamma did not distinguish between viral and bacterial meningitis. five of 8 patients with meningitis due to herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) had csf-ifn-gamma levels above the h ...19948036469
successful treatment of progressive mucocutaneous infection due to acyclovir- and foscarnet-resistant herpes simplex virus with (s)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine (hpmpc).the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate (s)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine (hpmpc) was used topically for the treatment of persistent mucocutaneous infections in two cases. one patient with aids suffered from a perineal lesion due to infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and did not respond to acyclovir and was intolerant of foscarnet. a bone marrow transplant recipient developed orofacial lesions due to infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) that failed to r ...19948038312
apparent increase in the prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 genital infections among women. 19948039792
the current trend in genital herpes. progress in prevention.recent serosurveys indicate that the prevalence of genital herpes has continued to increase even during the decade of hiv. much of this continued transmission is due to the difficulty of identifying the subclinical carrier of hsv-2. the development of serologic assays that accurately distinguish hsv-1 from hsv-2 infection now allow such persons to be identified, and recent studies indicate almost all hsv-2 seropositives have symptoms and signs of reactivation hsv-2. moreover, over 50% will shed ...19948042114
cyclocreatine (1-carboxymethyl-2-iminoimidazolidine) inhibits the replication of human herpes viruses.the creatine kinase/creatine phosphate (ck/crp) system plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. ck isoenzymes, which reversibly generate atp from crp, are compartmentalized at cellular sites where energy is produced or utilized. it has been noted that the expression of ck is induced in cells infected by several dna viruses, implicating a role for cellular energy modulation as an important step for efficient viral replication. a ck substrate analog, 1-carboxymethyl-2-iminoimidazoli ...19948042860
identification of a target protein of us3 protein kinase of herpes simplex virus type 2.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) gene us3 has been shown to encode a serine-threonine protein kinase. in this study, we have tried to identify target proteins of the us3 protein kinase using a us3 lacz insertion mutant of hsv-2. when permeabilized cells were labelled with [gamma-32p]atp under the optimum conditions for the us3 enzyme, the most striking difference between wild-type hsv-2 strain 186- and mutant-infected cells was observed in the phosphorylation of proteins ranging in m(r) value ...19948046410
the interaction of glycoprotein c of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 with the alternative complement pathway.glycoprotein c (gc) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) or type 2 (hsv-2) binds the human complement fragment c3b, but the two proteins differ in their ability to bind c3b on infected cell surfaces. in addition, gc-1, but not gc-2, accelerates the decay of the alternative pathway c3 convertase, thereby affecting later steps of the complement cascade. previously, we constructed linker insertion and deletion mutants of gc-1 and gc-2 and used transient transfection to express mutant proteins in ...19948053154
acute retinal necrosis caused by reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2.acute retinal necrosis is a severe form of necrotizing retinitis. acute retinal necrosis has been demonstrated to be caused by varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus type 1. we treated three patients with acute retinal necrosis apparently caused by recrudescence of latent herpes simplex virus type 2. primary viral infection was probably congenital, with documented perinatal herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in two patients. bilateral chorioretinal scars were present in two patients, ...19948053466
synthesis and antiviral activity of three pyrazole analogues of distamycin a.the synthesis of three new monopyrazole analogues of the antiviral compound distamycin a is reported. suitably protected 4-amino-1-methylpyrrole-2-carboxylic acid and 3-amino-1-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid derivatives were chosen as starting materials. the construction of the trimeric polyamide framework was accomplished by assembly of the monomeric precursors under condensing conditions by analogy with our previous methodology, although with significant improvements in some pivotal steps. a ...19948060726
epidemiology of genital serological methods, based on the detection of type-specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus (hsv) glycoproteins, have allowed a reappraisal of the prevalence of genital herpes. during the 1980s, genital herpes continued to be an infection of epidemic proportions in many developed countries. in the usa, although there was evidence of a decline in the age-specific prevalence of hsv type 1 (hsv-1) infection, the seroprevalence of hsv type 2 (hsv-2) has continued to increase. among those att ...19948063020
undocumented history of maternal genital herpes followed by neonatal herpes meningitis. 19948064427
synthesis of some acylphosphonate thiosemicarbazones and evaluation of their antiviral activity.reaction of dimethyl acylphosphonates (1) with thiosemicarbazide afforded the corresponding dimethyl acylphosphonate thiosemicarbazones (4). lithium methyl acylphosphonate thiosemicarbazones (5) could be prepared either by monodealkylating compounds 4 by lithium bromide or by reacting lithium methyl acylphosphonates with thiosemicarbazide. dihydrogen acylphosphonate thiosemicarbazones (6) could be obtained by reacting acylphosphonic acids (3) with thiosemicarbazide. the alternative approach to 6 ...19948068818
epithelial interleukin-11. regulation by cytokines, respiratory syncytial virus, and retinoic acid.interleukin-11 (il-11) is a pleiotropic cytokine with effects that overlap with il-6. to determine if il-11 is produced by epithelial cells, we determined whether human alveolar a549 cells and airway 9hte cells produce il-11. we also determined whether retinoic acid (ra) altered this il-11 production. unstimulated cells produced low levels of il-11, while il-1, transforming growth factor (tgf-beta 1), and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) stimulated il-11 protein production and mrna accumulation ...19948071352
synthesis and antiviral activity evaluation of some aminoadamantane derivatives.the synthesis of some spiro[cyclopropane-1,2'-adamantan]-2-amines and methanamines and some spiro[pyrrolidine-2,2'-adamantanes] is described. the title compounds were evaluated against a wide range of viruses (influenza a, influenza b, parainfluenza 3, rsv, hsv-1, tk- hsv-1, hsv-2, vaccinia, vesicular stomatitis, polio 1, coxsackie b4, sindbis, semliki forest, reo 1, hiv-1, and hiv-2), and some of them (compounds 6b, 6c, 9a, 16a, 16b, and 17) inhibited the cytopathicity of influenza a virus at a ...19948071937
[acute benign lymphocytic meningitis caused by type 2 herpes simplex virus]. 19948072966
detection of human alpha-herpesvirus dna using consensus primers and specific probes.a simple and rapid diagnostic assay system was developed for detecting and identifying human alpha-herpesviruses, such as herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and varicella-zoster virus, by polymerase chain reaction. this system was based on an amplification step, using primers that bind the dna polymerase consensus sequence of alpha-human herpesviruses, and a detection step, using non-radioactive virus-specific probes. this method could be used to amplify any human alpha-herpesviruses, and each v ...19948073876
cell type and cell state determine differential in vitro growth of non-neurovirulent icp34.5-negative herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.the herpes simplex virus (hsv) gene rl1 encodes the protein icp34.5, which is a specific neurovirulence factor. null mutants in rl1 fail to replicate in the central nervous system of mice and are therefore totally non-neurovirulent. additionally, they fail to replicate in neurons of the peripheral nervous system, although they are capable of establishing and reactivating from a latent infection. as the precise function of icp34.5 in hsv-neuronal interactions is unknown, we have studied the role ...19948077935
[the primary immune response and virus-specific and -nonspecific immune complexes in neonatal cytomegalovirus and herpetic infection]. 19938079522
herpes simplex virus type 2 induced retinal necrosis in balb/c mice.we injected herpes simplex virus type 2 of ms- or g-strain into the anterior chamber of balb/c mice. in the contralateral eye inflammatory cell infiltration began in the ciliary body; focal retinitis, detected by day 8, led to total destruction of the retina by day 10. contralateral disease was observed in 75% of mice inoculated with 8 x 10(3) pfu herpes simplex virus type 2, but in only 20% of mice receiving 80 pfu herpes simplex virus type 2. still this low concentration, however, produced a s ...19948079627
biological response of recombinant interleukin-7 on herpes simplex virus infection in guinea-pigs.we investigated the biological activity of human recombinant interleukin-7 (rhil-7) on guinea-pig cells in vitro and in vivo. rhil-7 can stimulate plastic non-adherent cells of guinea-pigs to proliferate in vitro at a degree comparable to that of human cells. administration of rhil-7 to guinea-pigs significantly increased their white blood cell concentration, specifically the lymphocyte population. the effect of rhil-7 on circulating blood cells was dose dependent, in that 14 doses of twice dail ...19948085384
herpes simplex virus and oral mucositis in children with cancer.the relationship between herpes simplex virus (hsv) and oral mucositis was investigated in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. hsv culture was performed in 20 children with stomatitis developing after antineoplastic chemotherapy. viral isolates were typed and susceptibility to acyclovir was investigated. the virus was isolated from oral lesions in 10 of 20 children with severe oral mucositis. viral reactivation was the most likely explanation in most cases, since hsv was isolated in ...19948087447
sexually transmitted diseases in hiv-infected appears incontestable that there is a link between genital ulcer disease and hiv infection. on the one hand the natural history and response to therapy of syphilis, hsv-2, and chancroid are all modified by the immunosuppressive effects of hiv infection. on the other hand, hiv transmission is probably facilitated by the disruption of the normal epithelial barriers of the genital organs caused by these ulcerative infections. information is somewhat less convincing that a similar association exi ...19948089470
[the production of recombinant polypeptides from the herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2].the genes ie175, ie63, ie68, ie12, ul29 and ul19 of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 were cloned. fragments of these genes were cloned into open reading frame expression vector pex1-3. recombinant proteins containing amino acid sequences of icp4, icp27, icp22, icp47, major dna-binding protein and major capsid protein were expressed in e. coli cells by fusion with cro-beta-galactosidase proteins.19948091748
epidemiology of genital herpes infections.much has been learned in the last decade about the epidemiology of genital herpes infections, including new information about seroprevalence and the risk of transmission of genital herpes to sex partners and at delivery. unfortunately, the type-specific serologic assays now routinely used in these studies are not widely available, and commercially available assays that claim to be type-specific are not. thus, most clinicians still do not have access to reliable type-specific assays. in cross-sec ...19938106731
new compounds related to podophyllotoxin and congeners: synthesis, structure elucidation and biological testing.4-azido, 4-amino, 4-amido and 4-alkoxy compounds related to the lignans podophyllotoxin and 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin have been synthesized, and their structures elucidated. the ritter reaction was shown to be useful in the preparation of the 4-amido compounds with the required stereochemistry. a preparative method for 4-chloro-4-deoxypicrophyllotoxin, for which all earlier synthetic attempts resulted in the two dehydrated compounds, alpha- and beta-apopicropodophyllotoxin, was developed. su ...19938110531
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