effect of mercuric chloride on macrophage-mediated resistance mechanisms against infection with herpes simplex virus type 2.macrophages play an important role in the early, nonspecific resistance to infection with herpes simplex virus. mercuric chloride (hgcl2) accumulates in macrophages and has in certain concentrations a marked influence on the functional capacity of these cells. therefore the influence of hgcl2 on resistance to generalized infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) in mice and its effect on the hsv-2-induced activation of macrophages in vitro was examined. mice injected intraperitoneally w ...19947526487
polymorphism within the herpes simplex virus (hsv) ribonucleotide reductase large subunit (icp6) confers type specificity for recognition by hsv type 1-specific cytotoxic t lymphocytes.a panel of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1)-specific, cd8+, major histocompatibility complex class i (h-2kb)-restricted cytotoxic t-lymphocyte (ctl) clones was derived from hsv-1-immunized c57bl/6 (h-2b) mice in order to identify the hsv-1 ctl recognition epitope(s) which confers type specificity. hsv-1 x hsv-2 intertypic recombinants were used to narrow the region encoding potential ctl recognition epitopes to within 0.51 to 0.58 map units of the hsv-1 genome. using an inhibitor of viral dna ...19957529328
common antigenic epitopes are present on heat-labile oligomers of mdv glycoprotein b and on hsv glycoprotein b.the antigenic cross-reactivity between the marek's disease virus glycoprotein b (mdv gb) and glycoprotein b (gb) of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (hsv1 and hsv2) was analysed by the immunoblotting method. we studied cell lysates in both denatured and in undenatured form (i.e., unheated) and reacted them with convalescent sera from chickens infected with the rbib mdv strain and with human anti-hsv1 gb. both sera detected the heat-labile mdv gb and the hsv gb oligomers. in addition, monospecif ...19957540344
risk factor exposure among hepatitis c virus rna positive swedish blood donors--the role of parenteral and sexual transmission.the potential modes of transmission for hepatitis c virus (hcv) infections were studied using a multivariate analysis of risk factor exposure among 51 2nd generation anti-hcv and hcv-rna positive and matched anti-hcv negative blood donors. the following variables were found to be independently associated with anti-hcv and hcv-rna positivity: intravenous drug use (ivdu) (p < 0.001), blood transfusion (p < 0.01), tattoos (p < 0.001), previous hospitalization (p < 0.05), history of sexually transmi ...19957544914
pathologic studies and comparison of the virulence of herpes simplex virus type 2 from okinawa, japan and chiang mai, thailand.the virulence of four herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2) strains (k1-k4) isolated in okinawa, japan was investigated, and compared with four strains (c1-c4) from chiang mai, thailand and a standard laboratory strain sav. virulence was tested on balb/c and c57/black mice. after viral inoculation intraperitoneally, the distribution with the passage of time of the virus in the brain and other organs was also studied using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method and immunohistochemistry. general ...19957547439
sexual behavior, sexually transmitted diseases, and risk of cervical explore sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behavior as risk factors for cervical cancer, we analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of breast and cervical cancer in costa rica. data from 415 cases of cervical carcinoma in situ, 149 cases of invasive cervical cancer, and 764 controls were included in the analysis. multivariate analysis showed that lifetime number of sex partners, first intercourse before age 15 years, number of livebirths, herpes simplex virus type 2 ser ...19957548350
acyclovir-induced neutropenia in an infant with herpes simplex encephalitis: case report.a newborn infant whose condition was diagnosed as herpes simplex encephalitis and who had subsequent recurrences of skin disease had repeated episodes of neutropenia while receiving therapy with intravenous (30 mg/[kg.d]) or oral (30 mg/]kg.d]) acyclovir. the neutropenia did not recur when the dosage of oral acyclovir was reduced to 10 mg/(kg.d). this case represents the first well-documented report of acyclovir-induced neutropenia.19957548511
search for evidence of three viral agents in radicular (periapical) cysts with immunohistochemistry.sections from 20 paraffin-embedded radicular cysts and positive-control subjects were subjected to immunostaining procedures after treatment of the sections with polyclonal antibodies was performed to search for evidence of human papilloma virus and herpes viruses 1 and 2 in the lining epithelium. all 20 specimens examined were negative for the presence of all three viruses.19957552869
[necrotizing herpes simplex encephalitis as the cause of a progressive dementia syndrome].history and findings: a 65-year-old woman was twice hospitalized because of disorientation and insomnia with depression. in the course of antidepressive treatment the symptoms regressed each time so that the diagnosis was made of pseudo-dementia during depression. about a year after the first admission the symptoms recurred, despite continued antidepressive treatment. clinical criteria now suggested alzheimer-type dementia as the diagnosis. course and treatment: the symptoms of dementia increase ...19957555630
detection of herpesvirus dna by nested polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid of human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons with neurologic disease: a prospective evaluation.a nested polymerase chain reaction-based method was used prospectively to detect herpesvirus dna in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) from 111 patients with aids, 39 of whom had a suspected diagnosis of cytomegalovirus (cmv)-associated neurologic disease (patients with encephalopathy, polyradiculopathy, or peripheral neuropathy) and 72 who had alternative diagnoses. csf from 24 (62%) of the patients with suspected cmv-associated disease had detectable cmv dna compared with only 8 (11%) of the patients w ...19957561185
igg subtype is correlated with efficiency of passive protection and effector function of anti-herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d monoclonal antibodies.igg subclasses differ in their effector functions in a variety of in vitro assays. to assess the effect of antibody subclass differences on in vivo protective efficacy against herpes simplex virus (hsv), a series of subclass switch mutants was made from an anti-hsv glycoprotein d monoclonal antibody. purified antibody was examined for the ability to protect against hsv-2 challenge in mice. igg2a was found to be more effective than igg1. this correlated both with activity in antibody-dependent ce ...19957561190
[type-specificity of serum antibodies from genital herpes patients as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using hsv-infected cells as antigens].type-specificity of serum antibodies from genital herpes patients was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using antigens extracted from herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1- and 2-infected cells. sixty-three of hsv type-known panel sera, which had been typed by hsv glycoprotein g-specific immunodot analysis, consisted of 3 groups; group i (25 sera; gg-1 antibody- and hsv-1 isolation-positive), group ii (19 sera; gg-2 antibody- and hsv-2 isolation-positive) and group iii (19 s ...19957561249
complete nucleotide sequence of the herpesvirus simiae glycoprotein g gene and its expression as an immunogenic fusion protein in bacteria.the nucleotide sequence of a 2384 bp portion within the unique short (us) region of the herpesvirus simiae (simian herpes b virus; shbv) genome is presented. a partial and a complete open reading frame (orf) were found within this nucleotide sequence. the partial orf encodes the c terminus (147 amino acids) of a protein kinase which is highly conserved in the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) and simian agent 8 (sa8) us regions. the complete orf is located 3' to the partial ...19957561753
defective entry of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 into porcine cells and lack of infection in infant pigs indicate species tropism.we have determined if a defect at entry of the human pathogen herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) into cultured porcine cells extends to hsv-2 and if the poor susceptibility of porcine cells for these viruses is indicative of in vivo species tropism. hsv-1 replicates poorly in swine testis (st) and other porcine cells which lack a functional non-heparan sulphate receptor(s) required for virus entry. by several criteria, st cells resist infection by either hsv-1 or hsv-2. infection can be restore ...19957561780
detection of herpes simplex virus dna in spontaneous abortions from hiv-positive women using non-isotopic in situ hybridization.the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of herpes simplex virus (hsv) endometritis in spontaneous abortions in hiv-positive women using non-isotopic in situ hybridization (nish). post-abortal endometrial curettings from 18 hiv-positive women were investigated for the presence of hsv-1 and hsv-2 dna with nish. in addition, 18 unselected post-abortal endometrial curettings in hiv-negative women were used as controls, together with samples of normal proliferative and secretory end ...19957562255
optimization of in vitro flux through hairless mouse skin of cidofovir, a potent nucleotide analog.the in vitro flux (4-8 h) of cidofovir (1-[(s)-3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine) was measured across full-thickness hairless mouse skin to evaluate potential formulations for local treatment of herpes virus infections. the effects of propylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, oleic acid, ph, and cidofovir concentration were examined. in addition, several prototype aqueous gel formulations were studied. flux values (4-8 h) increased linearly with cidofovir concentration in both solution an ...19957562417
analysis of herpes simplex virus-specific t cells in the murine female genital tract following genital infection with herpes simplex virus type 2.a murine model of genital infection with a thymidine kinase-deficient (tk-) strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) was utilized to examine the development of the local t cell response in the genital mucosa and draining genital lymph nodes (gln). hsv-specific cytokine-secreting t cells were detected in the gln 4 days postintravaginal inoculation but not in the urogenital tract or spleen until 5 days postinoculation, suggesting the cellular immune response originates in the gln. more cd4+ t ...19957571418
detection of herpes simplex virus dna by polymerase chain reaction in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with viral meningoencephalitis using primers for the glycoprotein d gene.a novel set of primers for polymerase chain reaction (pcr) which amplified the portion of us6 sequence coding for the main type-common neutralizing epitope of glycoprotein d (gd) was used for detection of herpes simplex virus (hsv) dna in 44 cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples from 29 patients with clinical symptoms of viral meningitis or meningoencephalitis. the primers in question amplified the dna of 9 out of 10 low-passage hsv-1 isolates and of 5 out of 10 hsv-2 low-passage isolates as well as ...19957572464
different transmission rates of herpesvirus thymidine kinase reporter transgenes from founder male parents and male parents of subsequent generations.previously we demonstrated that lines of transgenic mice carrying the herpes simplex type 1 virus thymidine kinase (hsv1-tk) reporter gene are male-sterile. ectopic transcription of the hsv1-tk reporter in the testis was initiated downstream of the normal translation initiation codon and truncated proteins consistent with translational initiation at the second and third atg codons were synthesized. here we describe the effects on fertility 1) of converting the second and third atg codons of the ...19957576610
herpes simplex virus infections in the review the experience of the camperdown children's hospital with neonatal herpes simplex viral (hsv) infections between 1960 and 1992.19957576893
inhibition of herpes simplex virus replication by antisense oligo-2'-o-methylribonucleoside methylphosphonates.antisense oligonucleoside methylphosphonates complementary to the 12 nucleotides found at the intron/exon junction of the splice acceptor site of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) immediate early mrnas 4 and 5 were synthesized. the methylphosphonate oligomers contained either 2'-deoxyribose nucleosides, d-omps, or 2'o-methylribose nucleosides, mr-omps. at 37 degrees c, the affinity of the mr-omp for a complementary 12-mer rna target was approximately four times higher than that of the correspo ...19957578069
[varying sensitivity to acyclovir of different years' clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus].the population of types i and 2 herpes simplex viruses (hsv) to be studied consisted mainly of acyclovir-sensitive strains. in some cases acyclovir-resistant hsv strains were detected. the phenotypic profile of the acyclovir-resistant strains were shown to have low reproduction rates in tissue cultures. their antigenic character was similar to that of reference strains. several phenotypic variants concurrently isolated from the same patient differ in their reproductive properties, antigenic char ...19957580404
[study on the relationship between uterine bleeding with intrauterine device and viral infection].to study the relationship between uterine bleeding with intrauterine device (iud) and virus infection.19957587578
the cytostatic activity of 5-(1-azidovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (azvdu) against herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene-transfected fm3a cells is due to inhibition of thymidylate synthase and enhanced by uv light (lambda = 254 nm) exposure.5-(1-azidovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (azvdu) and a series of 5-[1-azido-2-halogenoethyl]-derivatives of beta-d-arabinofuranosyluracil (au) proved markedly inhibitory to the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and varicella zoster virus (vzv), but not thymidine kinase (tk)-deficient hsv-1 and vzv strains. none of the compounds were cytostatic. however, azvdu, but not the 5-[1-azido-2-halogenoethyl]-au derivatives became highly cytostatic against hsv-1 and hsv-2 tk gene-transfected fm3a ...19957589430
reduction of the tyrosyl radical and the iron center in protein r2 of ribonucleotide reductase from mouse, herpes simplex virus and e. coli by p-alkoxyphenols.the rate of reduction of the tyrosyl radical in the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (protein r2) from e. coli, mouse, and herpes simplex virus (hsv-2) by a series of p-alkoxyphenols with different alkyl chains, have been studied by stopped-flow uv-vis and stopped-flow epr spectroscopy. the reduction and release of iron in r2 by the inhibitors was followed using bathophenanthroline as chelator of fe2+. p-alkoxyphenols reduce the mouse r2 tyrosyl radical 1-2 orders of magnitude faster th ...19957589521
herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis and concomitant cytomegalovirus infection in a patient with aids: detection of virus-specific dna in csf by nested polymerase chain reaction.a caucasian homosexual man with aids and cytomegalovirus retinitis presented with facial pain and episodic confusion, had several seizures and became obtunded. an electroencephalogram was suggestive of herpes simplex encephalitis. the diagnosis was confirmed by detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv 2), but not type 1, dna in cell-free cerebrospinal fluid (csf) after amplification by nested polymerase chain reaction. the patient also had evidence of concomitant cytomegalovirus (cmv) infec ...19957590723
rapid detection and distinction of cutaneous herpesvirus infections by direct immunofluorescence.optimal management of cutaneous herpes simplex virus (hsv) and varicellazoster virus (vzv) infections requires rapid, accurate distinction between these pathogens.19957593769
demonstration of either endogenous recurrence or exogenous reinfection by restriction endonuclease cleavage analysis of herpes simplex virus from patients with recrudescent genital using restriction endonuclease (re) cleavage analysis, either endogenous recurrence or exogenous reinfection of herpes simplex virus (hsv) was clarified in 45 male and 20 female subjects with recrudescent genital herpes. all of the plural (two to ten) isolates from 63 (205 isolates) out of 65 subjects (97%) were hsv-2. two isolates from only one of 65 subjects (1.5%) were hsv-1, and they showed the same re profile. in addition, an hsv-1 and five hsv-2 isolates were obtained from the remaining ...19957595418
transcriptional analyses of the unique short segment of ehv-1 strain kentucky a.the unique short (us) segment of the genome of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) strain kya is comprised of six open reading frames (orfs) that encode: a) a homolog of the us2 protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1); b) a serine threonine protein kinase that is a homolog of the hsv-1 us3 protein; c) a homolog of pseudorabies virus glycoprotein gx and hsv-2 gg; d) a novel glycoprotein, eus4, not encoded by other herpesviruses sequenced to date; e) a homolog of hsv-1 gd; and f) a homolog of ...19957597804
cloning and characterization of human recombinant antibody fab fragments specific for types 1 and 2 herpes simplex virus.twenty-six bacterial clones producing human recombinant fab fragments specific for herpes simplex virus (hsv) antigens were obtained from an igg1k human antibody combinatorial library displayed on filamentous phage, following panning against an hsv lysate. all the fabs reacted against the hsv lysate in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and were able to recognize both type 1 and type 2 hsv in an indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa). dna sequencing of the heavy chain variable regions showed tha ...19957603340
directed selection of recombinant human monoclonal antibodies to herpes simplex virus glycoproteins from phage display libraries.human monoclonal antibodies have considerable potential in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral disease. however, only a few such antibodies suitable for clinical use have been produced to date. we have previously shown that large panels of human recombinant monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of infectious agents, including herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, can be established from phage display libraries. here we demonstrate that facile cloning of recombinant fab fragments against spec ...19957604009
[zinc sulfate and heparin for local therapy of herpes. antiherpetic drugs, not leading to selection of hsv variants].the massive widespread use of a substance to treat hsv could lead to the spread of resistant hsv strains and hence to a failure of treatment in a vital indication. in germany, three defined substances suitable for treating hsv are available over the counter: zinc sulfate, heparin and acyclovir. experiments show that heparin retains its activity even after 20 passages whereas acyclovir produces a completely resistant virus after only a single passage. the inactivation of free hsv by zinc sulfate ...19957607598
vaccination with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing icp27 induces protective immunity against herpes simplex virus through cd4+ th1+ t cells.this study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and mechanisms of protection mediated by recombinant vaccinia viruses encoding immediate-early (ie) proteins of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). three mouse strains were immunized against the ie proteins icp27, icp0, and icp4, and mice were challenged intracutaneously in the zosteriform model with hsv-2 strain ms. protection was observed only following immunization with the icp27 construct and then only in the balb/c mouse strain. protection i ...19957609036
characterization of the novel protein kinase activity present in the r1 subunit of herpes simplex virus ribonucleotide reductase.we have compared the protein kinase activities of the r1 subunits from herpes simplex virus types 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2) ribonucleotide reductase following expression in escherichia coli. autophosphorylation activity was observed when kinase assays were performed with immunoprecipitated r1 or proteins purified to homogeneity, and the activity was stimulated by the basic protein protamine. transphosphorylation of histones or calmodulin by purified or immunoprecipitated hsv-1 and hsv-2 r1 was not ...19957609068
characterization of recombinant polioviruses expressing regions of rotavirus vp4, hepatitis b surface antigen, and herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein d.recombinant polioviruses expressing antigens from rotavirus, herpes simplex virus type 2, and hepatitis b virus were generated. fusion of the heterologous polypeptides to the amino terminus of the poliovirus polyprotein did not prevent myristylation of vp0, suggesting a novel mechanism of myristylation for these recombinant viruses. the effects of the parental genetic background, different foreign sequences, and different insert sizes on growth characteristics were compared. both the size and th ...19957609083
viral determinants of the variable sensitivity of herpes simplex virus strains to gd-mediated interference.cells that express glycoprotein d (gd) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) resist infection by hsv-1 and hsv-2 because of interference with viral penetration. the results presented here show that both hsv-1 and hsv-2 gd can mediate interference and that various hsv-1 and hsv-2 strains differ in sensitivity to this interference. the relative degree of sensitivity was not necessarily dependent on whether the cell expressed the heterologous or homologous form of gd but rather on the properties o ...19957609090
[herpes simplex virus type ii infection as an exophytic endobronchial tumor].we report the case of a 52 year-old homosexual aids patients suffering from herpes simplex virus type ii infection of the esophagus and the bronchial system. the chest radiograph revealed a homogeneous, well-defined consolidation of the right upper lobe. gastroscopy showed an ulcer of the esophagus and gastritis of the antrum. bronchoscopically, marked necrotizing tracheobronchitis and an exophytic tumour causing complete blockage of the apical segment of the right upper lobe were demonstrated. ...19957610661
the antiviral spectrum of listerine antiseptic.the mechanism of activity and the antiviral spectrum of listerine antiseptic have not been examined thoroughly. we therefore tested its effect on laboratory strains of herpes simplex type 1 and type 2 (enveloped dna viruses), influenza a virus (enveloped rna virus), rotavirus (nonenveloped rna virus), and adenovirus type 5 (nonenveloped dna virus). each virus was mixed with an equal volume of listerine for 30 seconds to 5 minutes, and the residual infectivity of the virus was assessed. an antivi ...19957614202
comparison of a direct antigen enzyme immunoassay, herpchek, with cell culture for detection of herpes simplex virus from clinical enzyme immunoassay (herpchek) was compared with culture on 21,522 specimens mainly from asymptomatic women for herpes simplex virus detection. sensitivity and specificity were 73.8 and 97.7%, respectively. the 33% detection rate by enzyme immunoassay in 5 h increased to 43% when the enzyme immunoassay was combined with culture. herpchek alone was not sensitive enough, but in combination with culture, maximum detection was achieved.19957615760
intracellular internalization and signaling pathways triggered by the large subunit of hsv-2 ribonucleotide reductase (icp10).the large subunit of the hsv-2 ribonucleotide reductase (rr) (icp10) is a chimera consisting of a serine threonine (ser/thr) protein kinase domain at the amino terminus and the rr domain at the carboxy terminus. transformed human cells that constitutively express icp10 (jhla1) were stained with anti-la-1 antibody (recognizes icp10 amino acids 13-26) and immunogold-conjugated goat anti-rabbit igg and were examined by electron microscopy. icp10-associated gold particles were observed on the cell s ...19957618272
patients with meniére's disease possess ige reacting with herpes family determine if patients with meniere's disease possess serum ige specific for herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1, hsv type 2, epstein-barr virus, and/or cytomegalovirus.19957619410
lifetime number of partners as the only independent risk factor for human papillomavirus infection: a population-based study.previous studies of relationships between genital human papillomavirus infection and tentative risk factors have yielded conflicting results, possibly because of inaccuracy of the viral detection methods used and differences in selection criteria.19957624813
cyclic variations of 3-quinolinecarboxamides and effects on antiherpetic activity.supported by the antiherpetic properties of 3-quinolinecarboxamides and the importance of the planar intramolecular h-bonded beta-keto amide pharmacophore, a series of novel conformationally rigid analogues that contain a heterocyclic bridge between the 3- and 4-positions of the quinoline ring have been evaluated. two isoxazolo-fused derivatives 17 and 23 displayed good in vitro antiherpetic potency that was similar to that of 1, the 3-quinolinecarboxamide that served as the comparison structure ...19957629793
restriction endonuclease cleavage analysis of herpes simplex virus type 2 from chiang mai, thailand and okinawa, japan.genomic variations of herpes simplex viruses type 2 (hsv 2) isolated from chiang mai, thailand and okinawa, southernmost part of japan were studied. the genomic polymorphism of 40 hsv 2 chiang mai strains and 10 hsv 2 okinawan strains was analyzed by means of the variations of cleavage sites and electrophoretic mobilities of dna fragments after digestion with 4 restriction endonucleases (re (bamh i, kpn i, ecor i, and bgl ii)). using the main 6 variable re cleavage sites, hsv 2 strains were clas ...19957631121
urticarial manifestations associated with herpes simplex virus type 2. 19957635500
differential in situ hybridization for herpes simplex virus typing in routine skin biopsies.a herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 2 specific recombinant plasmid probe designated ph2s3 was constructed from non-hsv-1 crossreactive regions of the hsv-2 genome. dna in situ hybridization on in vitro reconstructed tissue samples of sheep collagen matrix impregnated with herpes virus-infected human cells was used to demonstrate absence of crossreactivity of the ph2s3 probe with hsv-1 and varicella zoster virus under stringent posthybridization washing conditions. it was demonstrated that dna in s ...19957635926
synthesis of toddacoumaquinone, a coumarin-naphthoquinone dimer, and its antiviral activities.toddacoumaquinone (1), a coumarin-naphthoquinone dimer, was synthesized through diels-alder reaction between 8-(1-acetoxy-3-methyl-1,3-butadienyl)-5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (15) and 2-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (5). the activities of 1 against several viruses were examined. a weak activity (ec50 = 10 micrograms/ml) was observed against hsv-1 and hsv-2, but no activity was seen against hiv-1.19957641303
altered cholesterol trafficking in herpesvirus-infected arterial cells. evidence for viral protein kinase-mediated cholesterol accumulation.herpesvirus infection of arterial smooth muscle cells has been shown to cause cholesteryl ester (ce) accumulation. however, the effects of human herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) infection on cholesterol binding and internalization, intracellular metabolism, and efflux have not been evaluated. in addition, the effects of viral infection on signal transduction pathways that impact upon cholesterol metabolism have not been studied. we show in studies reported herein that hsv-1 infection of arter ...19957642651
virologic characteristics of subclinical and symptomatic genital herpes infections.the frequency, pattern, and anatomical sites of subclinical shedding of herpes simplex virus (hsv) in the genital tract, along with factors that predict such shedding, have not been well characterized.19957643884
effect of polyanionic compounds on intracutaneous and intravaginal herpesvirus infection in mice: impact on the search for vaginal microbicides with anti-hiv activity.several polyanionic compounds were found to suppress intracutaneous infection of hairless mice with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) only when present at the time of inoculation. because (a) sexual intercourse is a major route of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv); (b) due to the species-specificity of hiv, there is no small animal model to study intra-vaginal hiv infection; (c) hiv is equally or even more sensitive than hsv-2 to several polyanions; and (d) sulfated polymers ma ...19957648289
peptidomimetic inhibitors of herpes simplex virus ribonucleotide reductase: a new class of antiviral agents.we have been investigating a new class of antiviral compounds effective against herpes simplex virus (hsv) in vitro and in vivo. antiviral activity results from inhibition of hsv ribonucleotide reductase (rr). the inhibitors are designed as mimics of the rr small subunit c-terminus, a region essential for rr subunit association and consequently enzymatic activity. inhibition results from specific binding of the inhibitor to the hsv rr large subunit thereby preventing subunit association. this re ...19957658449
role of histamine in natural killer cell-dependent protection against herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in mice.depletion of natural killer (nk) cells in vivo with anti-nk1.1 monoclonal antibody or anti-asialo-gm1 antiserum drastically reduced survival time in swiss albino mice infected intravenously (i.v.) with herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). in contrast, depletion of nk cells did not affect the survival time of mice inoculated with hsv-2 by the intraperitoneal route. a single dose of histamine prolonged survival time in animals inoculated with hsv-2 i.v. but not in animals infected intraperitoneall ...19957664171
inhibition of herpes simplex virus infection by negatively charged and neutral carbohydrate polymers.different natural and semisynthetic polysaccharides were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on in vitro replication of herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2. some neutral and negatively charged carbohydrates were able to inhibit viral infection by interfering mainly with the adsorption process showing a dose-dependent relationship. their effect was shown within the concentration range of 200-0.8 micrograms/ml, and the inhibiting compounds were in order of action: dextran sulfate = sclerogl ...19957666126
novel (e)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine derivatives as potential cytostatic agents against herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene transfected tumors.(e)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (ivdu), its 2'-fluoro-substituted derivatives ivfru (with fluorine in the ribo configuration), ivfau (with fluorine in the ara configuration), and the corresponding 3'-chemical delivery system (cds), or 3'-o-(1-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridyl-3-carbonyl)- substituted derivatives ivdu-cds, ivfru-cds and ivfau-cds were evaluated for their cytostatic activity against wild-type (fm3a/o), thymidine kinase (tk)-deficient (fm3a/tk-), and herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) ...19957671107
combined use of complement and anti-immunoglobulin in an enhanced neutralization assay for antibodies to varicella-zoster enhanced neutralization assay was developed to permit the sensitive, specific, and reproducible measurement of antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (vzv). optimal neutralization was achieved using a combination of guinea pig complement (c') and rabbit anti-human igg. this provided 625-, 160- and 13- to 64-fold increases in dilution endpoints of human post-zoster serum, varicella-zoster immune globulin and representative sera from recipients of live attenuated varicella vaccine, respectively, ...19957673386
kaposi sarcoma presenting as a vulvar mass.kaposi sarcoma has become a common manifestation in people with aids, especially men. a few reports of kaposi sarcoma in women with aids have involved nongenital areas. however, of the few patients with genital kaposi sarcoma reported in the united states, none was believed to be human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-positive. genital kaposi sarcoma associated with hiv has been reported in other parts of the world.19957675418
ms strain of type 2 herpes simplex virus produces necrotizing retinitis in mice.intracerebral inoculation of mice with the ms strain of type 2 herpes simplex virus (hsv-2) causes a brief encephalitis associated with multifocal central nervous system demyelination. many of the mice develop unilateral or bilateral impairment of the pupillary light reflex. we have examined the development of ocular disease in inbred nih mice inoculated intracerebrally with a low dose (10 pfu) of hsv-2 (ms). the resulting acute encephalitis was fatal in 30-50% of the mice. by 1 month after inoc ...19937683330
biological response modifier-mediated resistance to herpesvirus infections requires induction of alpha/beta interferon.the role of interferon alpha/beta (ifn) induction by the immunomodulators piclc and cl246,738 was investigated in cd-1 mice infected with murine cytomegalovirus (mcmv) or herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2). mice were treated with either normal sheep serum or anti-alpha/beta ifn antiserum, inoculated with the immunomodulators, and infected with virus. because anti-ifn treatment also decreased natural resistance to hsv-2 and mcmv, two viral challenge doses were used to ensure that the mice with c ...19937687839
antibodies to epitopes of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein b (gb) in human sera: analysis of functional gb epitopes defined by inhibition of murine monoclonal antibodies.the epitopes on herpes simplex virus (hsv) glycoprotein b (gb) recognized by sera of 23 patients with well-characterized hsv infection were studied. twelve epitope-specific monoclonal antibodies with neutralization (nt) or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (adcc) activities were used in competitive elisa binding inhibition studies. the sera were additionally analyzed for homologous viral type nt, adcc activity, and gb-reactive antibody by elisa. seroconversion was observed in each assay d ...19937690824
the inhibitory effect of spermicidal agents on replication of hsv-2 and hiv-1 in-vitro.five spermicides including nonoxynol-9 were assessed under in-vitro conditions, for their inhibitory activity against two viruses capable of spread by sexual intercourse, herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) and the human immunodeficiency virus type-1. a further eight commercially-available spermicidal preparations containing varying concentrations of either nonoxynol-9 or nonoxynol-11 were also assessed for activity against hsv-2. all spermicides and spermicidal preparations tested showed inhibi ...19937693643
identification of renal sympathetic preganglionic neurons in hamsters using transsynaptic transport of herpes simplex type 1 virus.herpes viruses have been used as retrograde transsynaptic tracers to identify pathways from the cns to specific target tissues. we used herpes simplex virus to identify central nervous system neurons responsible for control of the kidney. herpes simplex type 1 or herpes simplex type 2 was injected into rat kidneys and herpes simplex type 1 was microinjected into hamster and guinea pig kidneys. after three to seven days, ganglia, spinal cords and brains were examined using immunohistochemistry to ...19937694186
the n-7-substituted acyclic nucleoside analog 2-amino-7-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]purine is a potent and selective inhibitor of herpesvirus replication.2-amino-7-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]purine (compound s2242) represents the first antivirally active nucleoside analog with the side chain attached to the n-7 position of the purine ring. compound s2242 strongly inhibits the in vitro replication of both herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) (50% effective concentration [ec50], 0.1 to 0.2 microgram/ml), varicella-zoster virus (ec50, 0.01 to 0.02 microgram/ml) and thymidine kinase (tk)-deficient strains of hsv (ec50, 0.4 mic ...19947695251
in vivo antiherpesvirus activity of n-7-substituted acyclic nucleoside analog 2-amino-7-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]purine.the efficacy of 2-amino-7-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]purine (s2242) was evaluated in several animal models for herpesvirus infections. compound s2242 was more effective than acyclovir (i) when administered subcutaneously in a model for herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1)-induced mortality in immunocompetent mice and (ii) when applied topically to hairless (hr/hr) mice that had been infected intracutaneously with hsv-2. in scid (severe combined immune deficient) mice that had been infected ...19957695329
detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 bgl ii n fragment in paraffin-embedded cervical tissue sections using nested polymerase chain study the presence of transforming sequence bgl ii n of hsv-2 in cervical cancer tissues, we developed the nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for detecting such a sequence in paraffin-embedded cervical tissue sections. samples derived from 46 patients with premalignant and malignant lesions were tested. the sequence was found in 20-25% of total cases tested but not observed in any of the normal healthy controls. this study also indicates that for the detection of hsv-2 bgl ii n sequence i ...19947700264
[genital herpes simplex virus infection among men screened for genital papillomavirus].our aim was to assess the frequency of herpetic genital infection (hsv) among men attending a human papillomavirus (hpv) screening centre. clinical screening of a herpetic lesion was completed with biological detection of hsv by cell culture and by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). we also evaluated the role of the male viral factor on the female partners.19947702261
comparative studies of types 1 and 2 herpes simplex virus infection of cultured normal investigate the differences in biological properties, multiplication patterns, and cytopathic effects between type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex virus (hsv) through the replication of hsv in cultured normal human keratinocytes.19957706526
a controlled seroprevalence survey of primate handlers for evidence of asymptomatic herpes b virus infection.herpes b virus (bv) is a common cause of recurring mucocutaneous infections in monkeys of the genus macaca. like its human counterpart, herpes simplex virus (hsv), bv establishes lifelong latency and can be reactivated from infected monkeys symptomatically or asymptomatically. incidental infection of humans handling bv-shedding monkeys can result in fatal meningoencephalitis. to determine whether humans exposed to infected monkeys can acquire asymptomatic bv infections, 480 subjects were evaluat ...19957706783
analysis of the promoter and cis-acting elements regulating expression of herpes simplex virus type 2 latency-associated latently infected neurons, herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) expresses one abundant family of transcripts, the latency-associated transcripts (lats). we demonstrate here that the sequence lying about 700 bp upstream of the 5' end of the hsv-2 major lat acts as a very strong promoter in transient expression assays in both neuronal and nonneuronal cells. transcription starts about 27 to 32 bp downstream of a functional tata box. the proximal fragment from -102 to +34 includes the basal promot ...19957707511
treatment of acyclovir-unresponsive cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection with topically applied sp-303.the naturally occurring polyphenolic biopolymer sp-303 has in vitro activity against both hsv-1 and hsv-2, including strains that are resistant to acyclovir. nine aids patients with acyclovir-unresponsive mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection were treated with thrice daily topical sp-303t ointment in an open-label pilot study. although a transient decrease in lesion size was observed in 4 patients during study drug therapy, and 3 patients sustained a quantitative decrease in virus burden, ...19947710268
a bk virus episomal vector for constitutive high expression of exogenous cdnas in human cells.a bk virus (bkv) episomal vector (prpneocmv) was constructed for expression of cdnas under control of the cytomegalovirus (cmv) immediate-early promoter. transfection of prpneocmv for expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene in several human cell lines showed that the cmv promoter is more efficient than the hiv-1 and rsv ltrs in directing gene expression from episomal vectors. in 293 human cells prpneocmv/cat is twenty times more active in cat expression than the well known ...19957710358
[activation of viral reproduction in a mixed infection with human immunodeficiency virus and herpes viruses].mutual activation of reproduction of type 1 hiv and herpes simplex types 1 and 2 viruses (hsv) was observed in simultaneous infection of continuous t-cellular lymphoblastoid lines (cem, 119, hut-78, mt-4, jurkat-tat) and u-937 monocytic line. syncytium formation and cytodestructive pattern of reproduction of viruses of both families in these cell lines necessitated the use of enzyme immunoassay (eia) to detect the antigens of these viruses in order to assess the level of reproduction. the concen ...19947716908
[selection of primers and their use in the polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing infections caused by herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus].the authors present the results of studies on the construction of highly sensitive primers for rapid diagnosis of infections caused by herpes simplex virus (hsv) and cytomegalovirus. an oligonucleotide primer to hsv-1 is described, which permits detection of hsv-1 dna in infected cultures and in clinical material in dilution 10(-7), whereas the "universal" primer constructed on the basis of published data detects both hsv-1 and hsv-2 only in dilution 10(-4). study of the clinical material in pol ...19947716914
[laboratory criteria for assessing the safety of candidate strains for live vaccines against tick-borne encephalitis].the authors present the results of studies on the construction of highly sensitive primers for rapid diagnosis of infections caused by herpes simplex virus (hsv) and cytomegalovirus. an oligonucleotide primer to hsv-1 is described, which permits detection of hsv-1 dna in infected cultures and in clinical material in dilution 10(-7), whereas the "universal" primer constructed on the basis of published data detects both hsv-1 and hsv-2 only in dilution 10(-4). study of the clinical material in pol ...19947716915
immunotherapy with low-dose interleukin-2 and anti-transforming growth factor-beta antibody in a murine tumor model.the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose interleukin-2 (il-2) alone or together with antibody against transforming growth factor-beta (tgf-beta) in a herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed (h238) fibrosarcoma model. balb/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.) with 5 x 10(5) h238 tumor cells in one or both hind thighs and treated with il-2, anti-tgf-beta, or a combination of both agents. nontreated tumor-bearing and normal animals served as cont ...19947719379
are human herpes viruses or measles virus associated with esophageal achalasia?in order to test the hypothesis that esophageal achalasia may be due to neurotropic viral damage to the esophageal myenteric plexus, esophageal tissue with or without achalasia was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of human herpes virus dna or measles virus rna. the dna and rna were extracted from the esophageal muscle of 12 patients with achalasia and six patients with upper esophageal carcinoma. peripheral blood mononuclear cells from eight adult volunteers and two samples ...19957720482
correlation of cervical cancer mortality with reproductive and dietary factors, and serum markers in china.cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among chinese women. within china, a considerable geographical variation in mortality rates has been observed, but the reasons are not well understood.19947721512
cytokine-mediated survival from lethal herpes simplex virus infection: role of programmed neuronal death.the mechanisms responsible for cytokine-mediated antiviral effects are not fully understood. we approached this problem by studying the outcome of intraocular herpes simplex (hsv) infection in transgenic mice that express interferon gamma in the photoreceptor cells of the retina. these transgenic mice showed selective survival from lethal hsv-2 infection manifested in both eyes, the optic nerve, and the brain. although transgenic mice developed greater inflammatory responses to the virus in the ...19957724576
a comparison between detailed and simple histories in the diagnosis of genital herpes complicating pregnancy.all women seropositive for herpes simplex virus-2 are at risk for asymptomatic viral shedding at the onset of labor and neonatal transmission of the virus. unfortunately, only 20% to 35% of seropositive adults give a history consistent with genital herpes. we evaluated whether more detailed questioning during pregnancy might elucidate symptoms predictive of seropositivity and therefore better identify women at risk for herpes simplex virus shedding at delivery.19957726273
chronic recurrent acyclovir-resistant genital herpes in an immunocompetent patient. 19957727847
typing and strain differentiation of clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 isolates by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism the present study, different combinations of primers were investigated for pcr amplification and typing of clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) (n = 22) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) (n = 12) isolates. intratypic strain differentiation was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of different pcr amplified hsv genome regions. enzymatic amplification of hsv dna from all the clinical isolates could be achieved using primer combinations dnap5/dnap3- ...19947727898
herpesvirus papio 2, an sa8-like alpha-herpesvirus of baboons.several sa8 isolates obtained from baboons were compared to the prototype sa8 herpesvirus of african green monkeys. sds-page and restriction enzyme analyses revealed definite differences between green monkey and baboon isolates. dna and amino acid sequences of the gb, gd and gj glycoprotein genes exhibited substantial differences in variable regions. for the gb and gd, the amount of amino acid substitutions between sa8 and the baboon viruses was comparable to levels observed between analogous ge ...19957733825
[molecular differential diagnosis of herpes virus using common primer pairs: detection of hsv-1, hsv-2, vzv and cmv by the pcr].differential diagnosis of herpes virus species is often required in various clinical courses, such as transplantation and immunocompromised patients. pairs of common primers which enabled sufficient amplifying and differential diagnosis of herpes virus species were designed and nested pcr using the common primer pairs was conducted to evaluate for its clinical application. the pcr was shown to provide amplification and differential diagnosis of hsv-1, hsv-2, vzv and cmv. the results of the pcr w ...19957739118
recurrence rates of genital herpes. 19957741383
inhibition of herpes simplex virus in culture by oligonucleotides composed entirely of deoxyguanosine and thymidine.oligodeoxynucleotides (odns) composed entirely of deoxyguanosine and thymidine, but not specifically designed to act as antisense agents, were able to significantly inhibit herpes simplex virus growth in acute infection assay systems. the guanosine/thymidine (gt) odns which demonstrated this antiviral activity contained either natural phosphodiester (po) or phosphorothioate (ps) modified internucleoside linkages. in all experiments, the antiviral activity of the odns was enhanced when the backbo ...19957741520
a recombinant glycoprotein vaccine for herpes simplex virus type 2: safety and immunogenicity [corrected].to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant glycoprotein vaccine for herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), which contains glycoproteins gd2 and gb2 combined with the novel mf59 adjuvant emulsion, in hsv-2-seronegative persons.19957755223
neonatal herpes simplex type 2 encephalitis: its appearances on ultrasound and ct.we report the ultrasound findings in a 28-day-old infant with encephalitis due to herpes simplex type 2. to date less than ten such cases have appeared in the world literature. asymmetric ventricular dilatation was seen sonographically with widespread parenchymal hyperechoic areas which corresponded to areas of low attenuation on ct. cranial ultrasound has a distinctive appearance which, if recognised, and suggested, can lead to an early definitive diagnosis.19957761173
neonatal herpes simplex virus infection presenting as fulminant liver failure. 19957761194
effect of imiquimod as an adjuvant for immunotherapy of genital hsv in guinea-pigs.imiquimod, an immunomodulator which upregulates cell-mediated immune responses, was evaluated as an adjuvant for immunotherapy of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection in guinea-pigs. in two experiments at separate research centres, animals were immunized with hsv glycoprotein and either placebo, 1 or 5 days of imiquimod, or complete freund's adjuvant, 14 and 35 days after genital hsv-2 infection. recurrent lesion days were then evaluated from days 15-91. in both experiments, im ...19957762282
comparative study of the genetic variability in thymidine kinase and glycoprotein b genes of herpes simplex viruses by the rnase a mismatch cleavage method.the variability of herpes simplex viruses has been measured using the rnase a mismatch cleavage method in two genes: thymidine kinase and glycoprotein b of both hsv-1 and hsv-2. this technique permitted us to study the variability of the virus with a greater level of resolution than restriction endonuclease analysis. the phylogenetic trees obtained for the different genes allowed us to identify consistent clusters of viruses circulating in the same geographical area. our results showed that thym ...19957762293
[immune system in women with genital inflammatory diseases caused by chlamydia and virus infection].immunologic studies were carried out in 29 women with clinical manifestations of chronic inflammations of the internal genitals. dot-hybridization with biotin-labeled dna probes revealed chlamydial dna in the cervical cells of 14 women, herpes simplex type 2 and/or cytomegaloviral dna in 15 women. cell-mediated immunity was assessed using monoclonal antibodies cd3, cd4, cd8, and cd19 and by facscan flow cytofluorometer (becton dickinson). immunoglobulins were measured by nephelometry with abbott ...19957762752
approaches to maximizing stable expression of alpha 1-antitrypsin in transformed cho cells.a variety of approaches to maximizing the production of recombinant human alpha 1-antitrypsin (aat) in chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells have been investigated. the highly active and inducible human cytomegalovirus immediate early (ie) promoter/enhancer was used to drive transcription of a recombinant aat gene in transiently transfected and stably transformed cho cells. the aat gene was modified to incorporate highly efficient 3'rna processing signals from the herpes simplex virus type 2 ie gene ...19947764427
prevalence of antibodies to rubella, herpes simplex 2 and cytomegalovirus in pregnant women and in neonates at ga-rankuwa.blood samples were collected from 917 women attending the obstetrics and gynaecology department at ga-rankuwa hospital during a one year period. each woman presented with an unfavourable outcome to pregnancy. blood was also obtained from 99 newborn babies who were jaundiced, or who died within a few days of birth or who showed gross congenital abnormalities. igm antibodies to cytomegalovirus (cmv), herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and rubella virus were determined by commercial elisa. cmv was ...19957767930
analysis of genomic polymorphism among herpes simplex virus type 2 isolates from four areas of japan and three other countries.genomic polymorphism of 307 epidemiologically unrelated strains of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) from four areas of japan and three other countries (korea, sweden and the u.s.a.) was analysed by using 16 variable markers selected from 97 restriction endonuclease (re) sites with five res. in addition to the 16 markers, 26 rare variable re sites were found in 307 isolates. five and four of 16 markers (re sites) were found to differ in the frequency of isolates with the markers between isolat ...19957775947
[recurrent cutaneous herpes in the newborn and acyclovir].the authors report two cases of cutaneous recurrent herpes occurring after a neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv2) infection and comment on the role of acute or suppressive therapy by aciclovir (acv). the two infants were not treated by acv after the neonatal period. none of the recurrent cutaneous herpes episodes was followed by viral widespread. one case reported by bergström et al on a relapse of hsv2 encephalitis occurring after a cutaneous herpes in a child argues for the use of acv i ...19937777392
herpes simplex type ii infection in monozygotic twins.the unusual occurrence of herpes simplex virus (hsv) type ii infection in a set of monozygotic premature twins is described. the cases highlight the difficulty of early diagnosis of hsv disease in the absence of a positive maternal history and cutaneous lesions. risk factors for mortality and morbidity are discussed.19957779199
comparison of neuroinvasive abilities of hsv-1 and hsv-2 in mice.we compared neuroinvasive properties of hsv-1 macintyre strain and hsv-2 g strain, after inoculation of mice by intraperitoneal, intranasal and intracaudal route, by scoring for encephalitis and death. hsv-2 was more neuroinvasive than hsv-1 by any route, since mice inoculated intranasally or intracaudally with hsv-2 required 100 fold lower dose than hsv-1 to induce encephalitis and death, which occurred earlier than in hsv-1 infected mice. hsv-2 was found in brain tissues at a lower concentrati ...19957784734
detection of the bc 24 transforming fragment of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) dna in cervical carcinoma tissue by polymerase chain reaction (pcr).the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to investigate samples from indonesian and swedish patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade iii (cin iii), squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma of the cervix for the presence of a transforming fragment (bc 24) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) dna. the pcr test for hsv-2 dna was more sensitive than the infectivity endpoint titer in a cell culture system and no cross reactivity was found with either varicella-zoster virus, cytom ...19947794306
herpes simplex virus type 2 meningitis in the absence of genital lesions: improved recognition with use of the polymerase chain reaction.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is known to cause aseptic meningitis, which can be recurrent. the diagnosis of hsv-2 infection is suggested when meningitis occurs simultaneously with genital lesions but may be obscure if genital lesions are not present or are not appreciated. viral culture of the csf is sometimes positive, but it may also be negative, especially in cases of recurrent disease. we report three cases of hsv meningitis in young women who did not have a history of genital herpeti ...19957795083
bilateral herpes simplex virus type 2 keratitis: a clinicopathologic report with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural observations.this report describes the clinical, histopathologic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical findings in two corneal buttons from a 13-year-old girl who developed bilateral progressive corneal stromal opacification during childhood. as determined by light microscopy, both corneal buttons were edematous with a chronic inflammatory infiltrate confined to the deep layers of the stroma. we detected intranuclear eosinophilic inclusions in some epithelial cells. we detected herpesvirus particles in s ...19957795510
antiherpetic activities of n-alpha-acetyl-nona-d-arginine amide acetate.n-alpha-acetyl-nona-d-arginine amide acetate (alx40-4c) was developed as a competitive inhibitor of the binding of the hiv tat protein to its rna target tar, which is an intracellular interaction dependent on a short, arginine-rich sequence in tat. alx40-4c is a simple mimic of that domain, which is stabilised against enzymatic degradation through inclusion of d-amino acids and terminal protection. the drug inhibits hiv-1 in vitro and is currently being assessed in vivo. in the work reported her ...19957796707
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