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herpes simplex virus type 2 acute retinal necrosis in an immunocompetent patient.to report a case of acute retinal necrosis caused by herpes simplex virus 2 in an otherwise healthy patient.201728252688
a randomized safety and pharmacokinetic trial of daily tenofovir 1% gel in term and near-term pregnancy.vaginal tenofovir (tfv) 1% gel may reduce incident hiv-1 and herpes simplex virus 2 infection. pregnancy may increase risk of hiv acquisition, and incident hiv in pregnancy potentiates perinatal hiv transmission. our objective was to investigate the safety and pharmacokinetics of seven days of tfv 1% vaginal gel in term and near-term pregnancy.201727658440
dna vaccine encoding hpv16 oncogenes e6 and e7 induces potent cell-mediated and humoral immunity which protects in tumor challenge and drives e7-expressing skin graft rejection.we have previously shown that a novel dna vaccine technology of codon optimization and the addition of ubiquitin sequences enhanced immunogenicity of a herpes simplex virus 2 polynucleotide vaccine in mice, and induced cell-mediated immunity when administered in humans at relatively low doses of naked dna. we here show that a new polynucleotide vaccine using the same technology and encoding a fusion protein of the e6 and e7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 (hpv16) is immunogen ...201728166181
pregnancy outcomes in association with stds including genital hsv-2 shedding in a south african cohort study.genital herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) shedding in pregnant women in association with neonatal herpes infection has been widely studied but there is limited evidence of its association with pregnancy outcomes.201728396556
an intravaginal ring that releases three antiviral agents and a contraceptive blocks shiv-rt infection, reduces hsv-2 shedding, and suppresses hormonal cycling in rhesus macaques.women globally need access to multipurpose prevention technologies (mpts) that prevent human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), sexually transmitted infections that increase hiv acquisition/transmission risk, and unintended pregnancy. seeking an mpt with activity against hiv, herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2), and human papillomavirus (hpv), we developed a prototype intravaginal ring (ivr), the mzcl ivr, which released the antiviral agents miv-150, zinc acetate, and carrageenan (mzc for short) and the c ...201728600625
hsv-1/hsv-2 infection-related cancers in bantu populations driving hiv-1 prevalence in africa: tracking the origin of aids at the onset of the 20th century.at the onset of the 20th century, ancient clinical observations of cancer epidemics in bantu populations of sub-saharan africa were discovered. they were reported from 1914 to 1960, but remained unexplained. in 1983, in san francisco, calif., usa, cancer epidemics were related to infections by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) known as aids disease. yet since 1996, it is known that hiv-1 strains are not the only ones involved. in sub-saharan africa, recurrent orobuccal herpes simpl ...201728413399
patterns of prevalent hpv and sti co-infections and associated factors among hiv-negative young western cape, south african women: the evri trial.to estimate the prevalence and describe the patterns of concurrent human papillomavirus (hpv) and stis and associated factors among hiv-negative young western cape, south african women participating in the efficacy of hpv vaccine to reduce hiv infection (evri) trial.201728490581
results of real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay in renal transplant recipients with sterile pyuria.urinary tract infections are a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization after renal transplantation. patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs suffer not only from common uropathogens but also from opportunistic infections caused by unusual uropathogens. sterile pyuria is associated with numerous infectious agents including viruses, fungi, and atypical or fastidious organisms. the objective of this study was to investigate the pathogens using real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction ...201728735999
distinct effects of the cervicovaginal microbiota and herpes simplex type 2 infection on female genital tract immunology.genital inflammation is a key determinant of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) transmission, and may increase hiv-susceptible target cells and alter epithelial integrity. several genital conditions that increase hiv risk are more prevalent in african, caribbean, and other black (acb) women, including bacterial vaginosis and herpes simplex virus type-2 (hsv-2) infection. therefore, we assessed the impact of the genital microbiota on mucosal immunology in acb women and microbiome-hsv-2 interactio ...201728201724
human infectious diseases and risk of preeclampsia: an updated review of the literature.preeclampsia (pe) is one of the major causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, especially in low- and middle-income countries. in recent years, a growing body of literatures suggests that infections by bacteria, viruses, and parasites and their related inflammations play an important role in the pathogenesis of pe.201728577241
the efficacy of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (green tea) in the treatment of alzheimer's disease: an overview of pre-clinical studies and translational perspectives in clinical practice.alzheimer's disease (ad) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia characterized by cognitive and memory impairment. one of the mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of ad, is the oxidative stress being involved in ad's development and progression. in addition, several studies proved that chronic viral infections, mainly induced by human herpesvirus 1 (hhv-1), cytomegalovirus (cmv), human herpesvirus 2 (hhv-2), and hepatitis c virus (hcv) could be responsible for ad's ...201728642806
acute recurrent lymphocytic meningitis in an immunocompetent hiv-positive african woman: is it a mollaret's meningitis or not?we report a case of acute recurrent meningitis in an hiv-positive immunocompetent woman. in this case, a 34-year-old african woman with a known hiv infection presented with symptoms of acute meningitis. she was on combination antiretroviral therapy with abacavir, lamivudine, and nevirapine. her hiv rna level was <70 iu/ml, and cd4 counts were 640 cells/mm(3). this indicates that she was not immunocompromised. she was febrile on examination, with marked neck stiffness. her cerebrospinal fluid rev ...201728835824
herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 educational assessment of young adults in rural southwest virginia.herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) causes genital herpes, one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (stis) in the u.s. hsv-1, commonly associated with cold sores, is increasing as a cause of genital herpes. abstinence-only sexual health classes, commonly taught in virginia, generate young adults who are under-educated in sexual health, increasing sti risks. college students in southwest virginia were surveyed to assess comprehensiveness of high school health education regarding hsv-1 an ...201728654651
latent virus reactivation in astronauts on the international space station.reactivation of latent herpes viruses was measured in 23 astronauts (18 male and 5 female) before, during, and after long-duration (up to 180 days) spaceflight onboard the international space station . twenty age-matched and sex-matched healthy ground-based subjects were included as a control group. blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected before, during, and after spaceflight. saliva was analyzed for epstein-barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and herpes simplex virus type 1. urine was a ...201728649633
[evaluation of viral etiology in central nervous system infections from a university hospital point of view in izmir based on seven years data].the serious diseases of the central nervous system (cns); encephalitis and meningitis, have high mortality and morbidity rate especially not diagnosed and treated in time. nucleic acid testing (nat) is the tool of choice for viral diagnosis in cns infections. in this study, viral etiological agents found in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples sent to our university hospital virology laboratory for laboratory diagnosis of cns infections were retrospectively evaluated and results were compared with ...201728566076
capacitive dna sensor for rapid and sensitive detection of whole genome human herpesvirus-1 dsdna in serum.this work presents a rapid, highly sensitive, low-cost, and specific capacitive dna sensor for detection of whole genome human herpesvirus-1 dna. this sensor is capable of direct dna detection with a response time of 30 s, and it can be used to test standard buffer or serum samples. the sensing approach for dna detection is based on alternating current (ac) electrokinetics. by applying an inhomogeneous ac electric field on sensor electrodes, positive dielectrophoresis is induced to accelerate dn ...201728328089
hiv prevalence and correlated factors of female sex workers and male clients in a border region of yunnan province, china.female sex workers (fsws) and their male clients are vulnerable to hiv infection and serve as a bridge in hiv transmission from the high-risk population to the general, low-risk population. to examine the factors of fsws and male clients that correlate with the prevalence of hiv infection in the chinese-vietnamese border region, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 in the hekou county of the yunnan province of china. we performed a questionnaire survey to collect data on demographics, ...201728901213
hiv prevalence and associated risk factors among men who have sex with men in dar es salaam, tanzania.limited studies and differential risk behaviours among men who have sex with men(msm) in africa calls for population specific studies. we present results from the largest integrated bio-behavioural survey among msm in africa to inform programming.201729140871
seropositivity to herpes simplex virus type 2, but not type 1 is associated with cervical cancer: nhanes (1999-2014).herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv1 and hsv2) are infectious agents, and their association with cancer occurrence in human is a controversial topic for decades. we addressed this subject using all available continuous national health and nutrition examination survey (nhanes) cross-sectional data from 1999 to 2014.201729115946
carbosilane dendrons with fatty acids at the core as a new potential microbicide against hsv-2/hiv-1 co-infection.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) represent the two most frequent sexually transmitted infections (sti) worldwide. epidemiological studies suggest that hsv-2 increases the risk of hiv-1 acquisition approximately 3-fold mainly due to the clinical and immunological manifestations. in the absence of vaccines against both sti, the development of new preventive strategies has become essential for further studies. we performed the screening of six nove ...201729090302
the role of fungi in the etiology of multiple sclerosis.multiple sclerosis (ms) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. infectious triggers of ms are being actively investigated. substantial evidence supports the involvement of the epstein-barr virus (ebv), though other viruses, bacteria, protists, and fungi are also being considered. many links between fungi and diseases involving chronic inflammation have been found recently. evidence linking ms and fungi is reviewed here. the hla-drb1*15 allele group is the most important ...201729085329
the effect of school attendance and school dropout on incident hiv and hsv-2 among young women in rural south africa enrolled in hptn 068.to estimate the association between school attendance, school dropout, and risk of incident hiv and herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection among young women.201728692544
mzc gel inhibits shiv-rt and hsv-2 in macaque vaginal mucosa and shiv-rt in rectal mucosa.the population council's microbicide gel mzc (also known as pc-1005) containing miv-150 and zinc acetate dihydrate (za) in carrageenan (cg) has shown promise as a broad-spectrum microbicide against hiv, herpes simplex virus (hsv), and human papillomavirus. previous data show antiviral activity against these viruses in cell-based assays, prevention of vaginal and rectal simian-human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (shiv-rt) infection, and reduction of vaginal hsv shedding in rhesus m ...201727552154
herpes viral origin of the parsonage-turner syndrome: highlighting of serological immune anti-herpes deficiency cured by anti-herpes therapy.in 2012, a 50 year-old athletic male presented with weakness, pain and unilateral phrenic paralysis, followed by bilateral phrenic paralysis with deep dyspnea. in 2013, the parsonage-turner syndrome was diagnosed. when the patient was seen in september 2014 for the first time, he was facing phrenic neuromuscular failure, which led to the hypothesis of neurotropic herpes viruses. a control of the global serological anti-herpes immunity to analyze his antibody (ab) levels confirmed herpes immune g ...201726078744
a spotty liver of pregnancy.herpes simplex virus (hsv) hepatitis by definition constitutes disseminated herpes simplex infection; it is rare, with only approximately 130 cases reported in the literature. although hsv hepatitis typically occurs in immunocompromised hosts, pregnancy-especially the third trimester, has been identified as a risk factor for its development. this is likely because of the fact that humoral and cell-mediated immunity decrease throughout pregnancy and nadir in the third trimester with decreased t-c ...201726425623
prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 and risk factors associated with this infection in women in southern brazil.the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hvs-2) is the most prevalent infection worldwide. it is a cofactor in the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and the persistence of human papillomavirus (hpv). this study evaluated the prevalence of hsv-2, using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and associated factors in patients treated at the federal university of rio grande (furg) and basic health units (bhu) in rio grande, brazil. the observed prevalence of hsv-2 was 15.6%. among the 302 wom ...201724037285
diclofenac-based hydrazones and spirothiazolidinones: synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial properties.we report here the synthesis, structural characterization, and biological evaluation of novel diclofenac-based hydrazone (4a-f) and spirothiazolidinone (5a-f, 6a-f) derivatives designed as potential antimicrobial agents. the compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antiviral activity against a wide spectrum of dna and rna viruses. they were further screened in vitro against different strains of bacteria and fungi. the hydrazone derivatives, 4a and 4c-f, were found to be active against herpesv ...201728370198
establishment of multiplex solid-phase strip pcr test for detection of 24 ocular infectious disease pathogens.to establish and evaluate a new multiplex solid-phase strip polymerase chain reaction (strip pcr) for concurrent detection of common ocular infectious disease pathogens.201728282487
sexually transmitted infection risk among women is not fully explained by partner numbers.increased sexual partner numbers may contribute to sexually transmitted infection (sti) risk for some but not all women. this study compared women reporting having four or more partners during the preceding year (multiple partnership group) with those reporting having one partner (single partnership group) with regard to sexually risky behaviors and other modifiable predictors of sti risk. we also compared the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, her ...201728257539
costing of national sti program implementation for the global sti control strategy for the health sector, 2016-2021.in 2016 the world health assembly adopted the global strategy on sexually transmitted infections (sti) 2016-2021 aiming to reduce curable stis by 90% by 2030. we costed scaling-up priority interventions to coverage targets.201728129372
future prospects for new vaccines against sexually transmitted infections.this review provides an update on the need, development status, and important next steps for advancing development of vaccines against sexually transmitted infections (stis), including herpes simplex virus (hsv), neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea), chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia), and treponema pallidum (syphilis).201727922851
the infectious etiology of alzheimer's disease.inflammation is a part of the first line of defense of the body against invasive pathogens, and plays a crucial role in tissue regeneration and repair. a proper inflammatory response ensures the suitable resolution of inflammation and elimination of harmful stimuli, but when the inflammatory reactions are inappropriate it can lead to damage of the surrounding normal cells. the relationship between infections and alzheimer's disease (ad) etiology, especially late-onset ad (load) has been continuo ...201728294067
investigation on the association between thyroid tumorigeneses and herpesviruses.herpesviruses have been associated with various human malignancies and with thyroid autoimmunity. aiming to investigate the presence of these viruses in thyroid nodules, we analyzed serum and thyroid tissue from 183 patients (83 benign and 100 malignant thyroid nodules). we also obtained 104 normal thyroid tissues extracted from the contralateral lobe of these patients. we used elisa to screen the serology of all patients and a real-time quantitative pcr to analyze thyroid tissue viral load in a ...201728276007
effect of mycoplasma hominis and cytomegalovirus infection on pregnancy outcome: a prospective study of 200 mongolian women and their newborns.in mongolia, diagnostic tests for the detection of the sexually transmitted mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, herpes simplex virus (hsv), and cytomegalovirus (cmv) are currently not routinely used in clinical settings and the frequency of these stis are enigmatic. the prevalence of these sti pathogens were prospectively evaluated among 200 mongolian pregnant women and their newborns and correlated with pregnancy outcome. taqman pcrs were used to detect bacterial and viral sti pathogens in pre-birth vagi ...201728257513
maternal immunoreactivity to herpes simplex virus 2 and risk of autism spectrum disorder in male offspring.maternal infections during pregnancy are associated with risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (asds). proposed pathogenetic mechanisms include fetal infection, placental inflammation, and maternal cytokines or antibodies that cross the placenta. the autism birth cohort comprises mothers, fathers, and offspring recruited in norway in 1999 to 2008. through questionnaire screening, referrals, and linkages to a national patient registry, 442 mothers of children w ...201728251181
effects of cumulative herpesviridae and toxoplasma gondii infections on cognitive function in healthy, bipolar, and schizophrenia subjects.schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with cognitive impairment leading to social disruption. while previous studies have focused on the effect of individual infectious exposure, namely, herpesviridae viruses or toxoplasma gondii (t gondii), on cognitive functioning, the objective of the present study was to examine the effect of multiple infections on cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and in healthy controls.201727929612
infection and inflammation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.the present study investigated the relationship between exposure to infectious agents and inflammation markers in individuals with schizophrenia (sz), bipolar disorder (bp), and controls without a psychiatric disorder. we measured plasma levels of antibodies and innate immune markers and correlated them with clinical symptoms and cognitive function. in both sz and bp, we found an increase in soluble cd14, and in bp an increase in c-reactive protein, igm class antibodies against cytomegalovirus ( ...201727856235
virus reactivations after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation detected by multiplex pcr assay.several studies have indicated that viral reactivations following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-hsct) are frequent, but viral reactivations after autologous hsct (auto-hsct) have not been investigated in detail. we performed multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay to examine multiple viral reactivations simultaneously in 24 patients undergoing auto-hsct between september 2010 and december 2012. weekly whole blood samples were collected from pre- to 42 days post ...201727364410
temporal cognitive decline associated with exposure to infectious agents in a population-based, aging cohort.numerous cross-sectional studies have related exposure to neurotropic infectious agents with cognitive dysfunction in older adults, however, the temporal sequence is uncertain.201726710257
hiv and sti s among men who have sex with men in dodoma municipality, tanzania: a cross-sectional study.to determine the seroprevalence of hiv, sti and related risks among men who have sex with men (msm) in dodoma municipality, tanzania.201728202736
neurotrophic factors ngf, gdnf and ntn selectively modulate hsv1 and hsv2 lytic infection and reactivation in primary adult sensory and autonomic neurons.herpes simplex viruses (hsv1 and hsv2) establish latency in peripheral ganglia after ocular or genital infection, and can reactivate to produce different patterns and frequencies of recurrent disease. previous studies showed that nerve growth factor (ngf) maintains hsv1 latency in embryonic sympathetic and sensory neurons. however, adult sensory neurons are no longer dependent on ngf for survival, some populations cease expression of ngf receptors postnatally, and the viruses preferentially esta ...201728178213
first estimates of the global and regional incidence of neonatal herpes infection.neonatal herpes is a rare but potentially devastating condition with an estimated 60% fatality rate without treatment. transmission usually occurs during delivery from mothers with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) or type 2 (hsv-2) genital infection. however, the global burden has never been quantified to our knowledge. we developed a novel methodology for burden estimation and present first who global and regional estimates of the annual number of neonatal herpes cases during 2010-15.201728153513
bizarre cell dysplasia of the cervix.the aim of this study was the characterization of a new subtype of high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (hsil) with enlarged cells containing bizarre nuclei: so-called bizarre cell dysplasia (bcd).201728150409
bx-795 inhibits hsv-1 and hsv-2 replication by blocking the jnk/p38 pathways without interfering with pdk1 activity in host cells.bx-795 is an inhibitor of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (pdk1), but also a potent inhibitor of the ikk-related kinase, tankbinding kinase 1 (tbk1) and ikkɛ. in this study we attempted to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the inhibition of bx-795 on herpes simplex virus (hsv) replication. hec-1-a or vero cells were treated with bx-795 and infected with hsv-1 or hsv-2 for different periods. bx-795 (3.125-25 μmol/l) dose-dependently suppressed hsv-2 replication, and displayed ...201728112176
association between herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 with cardiac myxoma.most cases of atrial myxoma are sporadic, and the exact etiology is unknown. we examined if herpes simplex virus (hsv)-1 and hsv-2 antigens and/or dna could be detected in a cohort of iranian patients with cardiac myxomas. from july 2004 to june 2014, among a total of 36,703 patients undergoing open heart surgeries, consecutive patients with cardiac myxoma who were treated by surgical excision at our center included in this study. of 73 patients studied, 56% were female with a mean age of 54 yea ...201728081512
clinical characteristics of herpes simplex virus urethritis compared with chlamydial urethritis among men.the aim of this study was to ascertain the clinical characteristics associated with herpes simplex virus (hsv) urethritis in men and to compare those with chlamydial urethritis.201728079748
atypical herpetic whitlow: a diagnosis to consider.herpetic whitlow is caused by herpes virus (type1 or 2) during primary infection or as result of autoinoculation. commonly, it is caused by hsv-2 in adults with positive history for genital infection. we report a rare case of herpetic whitlow that should be kept in mind by physicians in recurrent cases of fingers infection. advanced diagnostic techniques as pcr are required to help clinicians to achieve a definite diagnosis and to choose the right treatment.201728376707
leflunomide in the treatment of a pseudotumoral genital herpes simplex virus infection in an hiv patient.the patient is a 52-year-old african american man with a past medical history of hiv infection (on antiretroviral therapy, cd4 count 399 cells/µl, and undetectable hiv viral load) and recurrent genital herpes. while on valacyclovir, the patient presented with four tumorous lesions on the perineum and scrotum. a biopsy specimen stained positively with hsv-1 and hsv-2 immunostains and displayed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. the patient received foscarnet and imiquimod for two weeks with minimal ...201728373917
ancient recombination events between human herpes simplex viruses.herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2) are seen as close relatives but also unambiguously considered as evolutionary independent units. here, we sequenced the genomes of 18 hsv-2 isolates characterized by divergent ul30 gene sequences to further elucidate the evolutionary history of this virus. surprisingly, genome-wide recombination analyses showed that all hsv-2 genomes sequenced to date contain hsv-1 fragments. using phylogenomic analyses, we could also show that two main hsv-2 line ...201728369565
prevalence of neurotropic viruses in malignant glioma and their onco-modulatory potential.the association between infectious agents and tumour aetiology is relevant in about 20% of cases.201728358704
comparison of commercial methods of immunoblot, elisa, and chemiluminescent immunoassay for detecting type-specific herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2 igg.serology for type-specific herpes simplex virus (hsv) is based on the use of the respective glycoprotein g (gg).201728332725
peptides derived from glycoproteins h and b of herpes simplex virus type 1 and herpes simplex virus type 2 are capable of blocking herpetic infection in vitro.the aim of this study was to design peptides derived from glycoproteins h (gh) and b (gb) of herpes simplex viruses type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) with the potential to block herpetic infection and to evaluate their ability to inhibit hsv-1 and hsv-2 infection in vitro.201728329739
antiviral activity of pha767491 against human herpes simplex virus in vitro and in vivo.herpes simplex virus (hsv) is a common human pathogen that causes a variety of diseases, including oral-labial, genital lesions and life-threatening encephalitis. the antiviral nucleoside analogues such as acyclovir are currently used in anti-hsv therapies; however, clinical overuse of these drugs has led to the emergence of drug-resistant viral strains. hence, there is an urgent need to develop new anti-hsv agents.201728320320
worldwide circulation of hsv-2 × hsv-1 recombinant strains.homo sapiens harbor two distinct, medically significant species of simplexviruses, herpes simplex virus (hsv)-1 and hsv-2, with estimated divergence 6-8 million years ago (mya). unexpectedly, we found that circulating hsv-2 strains can contain hsv-1 dna segments in three distinct genes. using over 150 genital swabs from north and south america and africa, we detected recombinants worldwide. common, widely distributed gene ul39 genotypes are parsimoniously explained by an initial >457 basepair (b ...201728287142
the product of the herpes simplex virus type 2 ul16 gene is critical for the egress of capsids from the nuclei of infected cells.the herpes simplex virus (hsv) ul16 gene is conserved throughout the herpesviridae and encodes a poorly understood tegument protein. the hsv-1 ul16 protein forms complexes with several viral proteins including ul11, ge, vp22 and ul21. we previously demonstrated that hsv-2 ul21 was essential for virus propagation due to the failure of dna-containing capsids to exit the nucleus. we hypothesized that if a ul16/ul21 complex were required for nuclear egress then hsv-2 lacking ul16 would have a simila ...201728275195
linear multiepitope (glyco)peptides for type-specific serology of herpes simplex virus (hsv) infections.detection of type-specific antibodies is an important and essential part of accurate diagnosis, even in silent carriers of herpes simplex virus (hsv)-1 (oral) and hsv-2 (genital) infections. serologic assays that identify hsv-1 and hsv-2 type-specific antibodies have been commercially available for more than a decade but often face problems related to cross-reactivity and similar issues. attempts to identify type-specific peptide epitopes for use in serology for both hsv-1 and hsv-2 have been li ...201728238255
automated processing, extraction and detection of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2: a comparative evaluation of three commercial platforms using clinical specimens.recently, automated platforms have been developed that can perform processing, extraction and testing for herpes simplex virus (hsv) nucleic acid on a single instrument.201728226272
acute hiv-1 infection presenting with fulminant encephalopathy.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-1 directly affects the nervous system, causes distinct neurological symptoms, and indirectly results in opportunistic infections, which include herpes virus simplex (hsv)-1, hsv-2, varicella zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus encephalitis caused by immunodeficiency. early hiv-1 invasion of the central nervous system is also possible, and acute encephalopathy is a potentially lethal complication. we encountered a case of fulminant encephalopathy as a primary pres ...201728201953
occurrence of viral dna in paired samples of corneal rim and cornea preservation fluid.corneal transplants have one of the highest success rates among all transplantological procedures. corneas intended for transplantation are stored in a preservation fluid, which is then tested for bacterial and fungal infections. among all analyses of infectious complications following corneal transplants, infections caused by bacteria or fungi are the most prominent. surprisingly, however, apart from a few publications, there is a lack of data regarding the occurrence of viruses in donor cornea ...201727588373
prevalence of herpesviruses in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: relationship to clinical parameters and effect of treatment.assess the prevalence of herpesviruses in healthy subjects, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis patients, to assess the relationship between the prevalence of herpesviruses and periodontal clinical parameters, and to evaluate the effect of phase-i therapy on the level of viral detection.201727563201
role of type-specific herpes simplex virus-1 and 2 serology as a diagnostic modality in patients with clinically suspected genital herpes: a comparative study in indian population from a tertiary care hospital.type-specific serology (tss) test for herpes simplex virus (hsv) have been used as a research tool in seroepidemiological studies for some years. however, tss as a diagnostic modality for diagnosis of current episode of genital herpes is not well documented.201727510668
absent anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate receptor nr1a antibodies in herpes simplex virus encephalitis and varicella zoster virus infections.a 2012 report and subsequent case series described anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (nmdar) antibodies in patients during the acute phase and relapse of herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv1) encephalitis (hsv1e). however, the prevalence of this phenomenon is unknown and systematic studies on other viral infections of the nervous system are missing.201726887329
human herpesviruses as copathogens of hiv infection, their role in hiv transmission, and disease progression.of eight human herpesviruses (hhvs), often, only herpes simplex virus types 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2) find mention in medical literature as both of these viruses are commonly associated with genital lesions and oral ulcers, commonly known as cold sores. however, role of human herpesviruses as copathogens and in aggravation and in the transmission of other human diseases, especially the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (hiv/aids) has only very recently been recognized. therefore, screening and tr ...201727013807
generation of “lymph node derived antibody libraries” (lyndal) for selecting fully human antibody fragments with therapeutic potential.the development of efficient strategies for generating fully human monoclonal antibodies with unique functional properties that are exploitable for tailored therapeutic interventions remains a major challenge in the antibody technology field. here, we present a methodology for recovering such antibodies from antigen-encountered human b cell repertoires. as the source for variable antibody genes, we cloned immunoglobulin g (igg)-derived b cell repertoires from lymph nodes of 20 individuals underg ...201724256717
therapeutic vaccine for genital herpes simplex virus-2 infection: findings from a randomized trial.genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection causes recurrent lesions and frequent viral shedding. gen-003 is a candidate therapeutic vaccine containing hsv-2 gd2δtmr and icp4.2, and matrix-m2 adjuvant.201728329211
inflammatory monocytes require type i interferon receptor signaling to activate nk cells via il-18 during a mucosal viral infection.the requirement of type i interferon (ifn) for natural killer (nk) cell activation in response to viral infection is known, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. here, we demonstrate that type i ifn signaling in inflammatory monocytes, but not in dendritic cells (dcs) or nk cells, is essential for nk cell function in response to a mucosal herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection. mice deficient in type i ifn signaling, ifnar(-/-) and irf9(-/-) mice, had significantly lower levels of ...201728264883
recalcitrant hypertrophic herpes genitalis in hiv-infected patient successfully treated with topical imiquimod.herpes simplex virus type 2 is the primary cause of genital ulceration worldwide. the presence of atypical features like deep ulcerations, hypertrophic, or pseudotumoural lesions or unusual location can be a marker for co-infection with hiv. these immunocompromised patients are usually resistant to the conventional antiviral treatment. we present a case of an hiv-infected patient with hypertrophic herpes genitalis, refractory to conventional oral antiviral therapy, who was successfully treated w ...201728261899
lambda-interferons inhibit herpes simplex virus type 2 replication in human cervical epithelial cells through activation of jak/stat pathway.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) is associated with a variety of diseases, resulting in world-wide health problems. our early study showed that lambda-interferons (ifn-λs) induced by activation of the toll-like receptors 3/ retinoic acid-inducible protein i (tlr3/rig-i) signaling pathways contribute to inhibition of hsv-2 replication in the human cervical epithelial cells. however, anti-hsv-2 mechanisms and specific differences in signaling transduction by different ifn-λs in human cervical e ...201728250263
prophylactic herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) vaccines adjuvanted with stable emulsion and toll-like receptor 9 agonist induce a robust hsv-2-specific cell-mediated immune response, protect against symptomatic disease, and reduce the latent viral reservoir.several prophylactic vaccines targeting hsv-2 have failed in the clinic to demonstrate a sustained depression in viral shedding or protection from recurrences. although these vaccines have generated high titers of neutralizing antibodies, their induction of robust cd8 t cells has largely been unreported, even though evidence for the importance of hsv-2 antigen-specific cd8 t cells is mounting in animal models and in translational studies involving subjects with active hsv-2-specific immune respo ...201728228587
antitumor effects of oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 2 against colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo.the incidence of colorectal cancer (crc) is on the rise. furthermore, late-stage diagnoses and limited efficacious treatment options make crc a complex clinical challenge. therefore, a new therapeutic regimen with a completely novel therapeutic mechanism is necessary for crc. in the present study, the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 2 (ohsv2) in crc was assessed in vitro and in vivo. ohsv2 is an oncolytic agent derived from herpes simplex virus type 2 that encodes gra ...201728223815
in vitro anti-herpes simplex virus-2 activity of salvia desoleana atzei & v. picci essential oil.salvia desoleana atzei & v. picci is an indigenous species in sardinia island used in folk medicine to treat menstrual, digestive and central nervous system diseases. nowadays, it is widely cultivated for the pleasant smell of its essential oil (eo), whose antimicrobial and antifungal activities have already been screened. this study evaluated the in vitro anti-herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) activity of s. desoleana eo, fractions and main components: linalyl acetate, alpha terpinyl acetate, and ...201728207861
anti-hsv-2 activity of terminalia chebula retz extract and its constituents, chebulagic and chebulinic acids.development of new and effective therapeutics for sexually transmitted herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) infection is important from public health perspective. with an aim to identify natural products from medicinal plants, in the present study, the potential of terminalia chebula retz was investigated for its activity against hsv-2.201728196487
delayed temporal lobe hemorrhage after initiation of acyclovir in an immunocompetent patient with herpes simplex virus-2 encephalitis: a case report.herpes simplex virus (hsv) is the most common cause of non-epidemic, sporadic, acute focal encephalitis in the united states. inflammation of the vasculature makes them friable and susceptible to hemorrhage. massive hemorrhage, though rare, can present in a delayed fashion after initiation of acyclovir and often requires surgical intervention. we report a unique case of delayed temporal lobe hemorrhage after initiation of acyclovir in an immunocompetent patient, specifically for its presentation ...201728191384
ex vivo 2d and 3d hsv-2 infection model using human normal vaginal epithelial cells.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infects human genital mucosa and establishes life-long latent infection. it is unmet need to establish a human cell-based microphysiological system for virus biology and anti-viral drug discovery. one of barriers is lacking of culture system of normal epithelial cells in vitro over decades. in this study, we established human normal vaginal epithelial cell (hnvec) culture using co-culture system. hnvec cells were then propagated rapidly and stably in a defined ...201728146426
an hsv-2 trivalent vaccine is immunogenic in rhesus macaques and highly efficacious in guinea pigs.a genital herpes vaccine is urgently needed to prevent pain and suffering, reduce the incidence of neonatal herpes, and decrease the risk of hiv acquisition and transmission that accompanies genital infection. we evaluated a trivalent hsv-2 subunit antigen vaccine administered with cpg and alum in rhesus macaques and guinea pigs. the vaccine contains glycoproteins c, d and e (gc2, gd2, ge2) to block virus entry by gd2 and immune evasion by gc2 and ge2. in rhesus macaques, the trivalent vaccine i ...201728103319
treatment-seeking behaviour and barriers to service access for sexually transmitted diseases among men who have sex with men in china: a multicentre cross-sectional survey.delayed or inappropriate treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (stds) increases the risk of hiv acquisition and may cause other harmful outcomes. however, studies on std treatment-seeking behaviour and correlated factors in men who have sex with men (msm) are scarce. this information is crucial for the promotion of std treatment-seeking behaviour and reduction of hiv transmission among chinese msm.201728095879
a direct quantitative pcr-based measurement of herpes simplex virus susceptibility to antiviral drugs and neutralizing antibodies.herpes simplex viruses (hsv) are common human pathogens that can cause painful but benign manifestations and recurrent complaints, but can also cause significant morbidity and mortality on infection of the eye or brain and with disseminated infection of an immunosuppressed patient or a neonate. hsv growth inhibition measurement by plaque or yield reduction is a key task in the development of novel antiviral compounds but the manual methods are very labour intensive. the sensitive and specific pc ...201728093274
an interleukin 12 adjuvanted herpes simplex virus 2 dna vaccine is more protective than a glycoprotein d subunit vaccine in a high-dose murine challenge model.vaccination is a proven intervention against human viral diseases; however, success against herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) remains elusive. most hsv-2 vaccines tested in humans to date contained just one or two immunogens, such as the virion attachment receptor glycoprotein d (gd) and/or the envelope fusion protein, glycoprotein b (gb). at least three factors may have contributed to the failures of subunit-based hsv-2 vaccines. first, immune responses directed against one or two viral antigens m ...201728085634
evaluation of herpes simplex virus type 2 serological tests for use with dried blood spots in kenya.we evaluated 2 assays to detect antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 in dried blood spots prepared from blood specimens submitted to a reference laboratory in kenya. dried blood spots did not perform well with the kalon herpes simplex virus type 2 assay. focus herpeselect 2 was 98.8% sensitive and 98.9% specific with dried blood spots.201728081046
reciprocal physical intimate partner violence is associated with prevalent sti/hiv among male tanzanian migrant workers: a cross-sectional study.physical intimate partner violence (ipv) and stis, including hiv, are highly prevalent in east africa. while we have some evidence about women's experience with physical ipv, little is known about men's experience with physical ipv, particularly in sub-saharan africa. our objective was to examine, in tanzanian male migrant plantation residents, the prevalence of, and associations among, experience and enactment of physical ipv and prevalent sti/hiv.201728052976
enrichment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) reactive mucosal t cells in the human female genital tract.local mucosal cellular immunity is critical in providing protection from hsv-2. to characterize and quantify hsv-2-reactive mucosal t cells, lymphocytes were isolated from endocervical cytobrush and biopsy specimens from 17 hsv-2-infected women and examined ex vivo for the expression of markers associated with maturation and tissue residency and for functional t-cell responses to hsv-2. compared with their circulating counterparts, cervix-derived cd4+ and cd8+ t cells were predominantly effector ...201728051084
evaluation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and poly(dl-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) electrospun fibers for the treatment of hsv-2 infection.more diverse multipurpose prevention technologies are urgently needed to provide localized, topical pre-exposure prophylaxis against sexually transmitted infections (stis). in this work, we established the foundation for a multipurpose platform, in the form of polymeric electrospun fibers (efs), to physicochemically treat herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) infection. to initiate this study, we fabricated different formulations of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (plga) and poly(dl-lactide-co-ε-caprolac ...201728024582
combining different types of multifunctional liposomes loaded with ammonium bicarbonate to fabricate microneedle arrays as a vaginal mucosal vaccine adjuvant-dual delivery system (vadds).to develop effective mucosal vaccines, two types of multifunctional liposomes, the mannosylated lipid a-liposomes (mlls) with a size of 200nm and the stealth lipid a-liposomes (slls) of 50nm, both loaded with a model antigen and nh4hco3, were fabricated together into microneedles, forming the prosll/mll-constituted microneedle array (prosmma), which upon rehydration dissolved rapidly recovering the initial mlls and slls. mice vaccinated with prosmmas by vaginal mucosa patching other than convent ...201727986552
prevalence and predictors of human immunodeficiency virus and selected sexually transmitted infections among people who inject drugs in dar es salaam, tanzania: a new focus to get to zero.previous studies in tanzania indicated that human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) prevalence among people who inject drugs (pwids) could be as high as 40%. we aim to provide data on the prevalence of hiv and sexually transmitted infection among pwids to inform national plans to get to zero.201727984553
nk cells require antigen-specific memory cd4(+) t cells to mediate superior effector functions during hsv-2 recall responses in vitro.natural killer (nk) cells have an important role in mounting protective innate responses against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections. however their role as effectors in adaptive immune responses against hsv-2 is unclear. here, we demonstrate that nk cells from c57bl/6 mice in an ex vivo splenocyte culture produce significantly more interferon γ (ifn-γ) upon re-exposure to hsv-2 antigens in a mouse model of genital hsv-2 immunization. we find that naïve nk cells do not require ...201727974365
zika virus, hsv-2 and placenta. 201727868270
efficient production of recombinant glycoprotein d of herpes simplex virus type 2 in pichia pastoris and its protective efficacy against viral challenge in mice.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection is the leading cause of genital ulcer disease and a significant public health concern. however, there are no approved vaccines available to prevent hsv-2 infection. the glycoprotein d (gd) of hsv-2 is the most important candidate antigen for vaccine development. in this study, a truncated form of gd (codons 1-340, gd1-340) was produced as a secretory protein in the methylotrophic yeast pichia pastoris. the recombinant gd1-340 with a his6 tag was puri ...201727868164
evaluation of recombinant adenovirus vaccines based on glycoprotein d and truncated ul25 against herpes simplex virus type 2 in mice.the high prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) infections in humans necessitates the development of a safe and effective vaccine that will need to induce vigorous t-cell responses to control the viral infection and transmission. we designed rad-gd2rad-gd2▵ul25rad-▵ul25 to investigate whether recombinant replication-defective adenoviruses vaccine could induce specific t cell responses and protect mice against intravaginal hsv-2 challenge compared with fi-hsv-2. the recombinant adenovirus-b ...201728378925
decline in herpes simplex virus type 2 among non-injecting heroin and cocaine users in new york city, 2005 to 2014: prospects for avoiding a resurgence of human immunodeficiency virus.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infection increases both susceptibility to and transmissibility of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), and hsv-2 and hiv are often strongly associated in hiv epidemics. we assessed trends in hsv-2 prevalence among non-injecting drug users (nidus) when hiv prevalence declined from 16% to 8% among nidus in new york city.201727898577
high seroprevalence of human herpesvirus 8 and herpes simplex virus 2 infections in men who have sex with men in shanghai, china.men who have sex with men (msm) are an important risk group for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and at high-risk of herpesvirus infection. however, limited information on epidemiologic patterns of hhv8 and hsv2 among msm is available in mainland china. a cross-sectional study of 486 participants was performed in shanghai, china from january 2013 to december 2014 to explore epidemiologic features of hhv8 and hsv2 among msm. serum samples were collected and tested for hhv8 by immunofluoresence ...201727769110
genital hsv shedding among kenyan women initiating antiretroviral therapy.genital ulcer disease (gud) prevalence increases in the first month of antiretroviral treatment (art), followed by a return to baseline prevalence by month 3. since most gud is caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), we hypothesized that genital hsv detection would follow a similar pattern after treatment initiation.201727683204
hsv2 reactivation and myelitis following influenza vaccination.we report the case of a 57 year-old woman who developed transverse myelitis and acute hsv-2 reactivation following influenza vaccination. over the next 5 years, she experienced a fluctuating course of improvement and regression for both myelitis and herpes.201727668461
mechanistic studies of viral entry: an overview of dendrimer-based microbicides as entry inhibitors against both hiv and hsv-2 overlapped infections.this review provides an overview of the development of different dendrimers, mainly polyanionic, against human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and genital herpes (hsv-2) as topical microbicides targeting the viral entry process. vaginal topical microbicides to prevent sexually transmitted infections such as hiv and hsv-2 are urgently needed. to inhibit hiv/hsv-2 entry processes, new preventive targets have been established to maximize the current therapies against wild-type and drug-resistant virus ...201727518199
self-collected genital swabs compared with cervicovaginal lavage for measuring hiv-1 and hsv-2 and the effect of acyclovir on viral shedding.hiv-1 and hsv-2 are frequent genital co-infections in women. to determine how self-collected genital swabs compare to provider-collected cervicovaginal lavage, paired self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage from women co-infected with hiv-1 and hsv-2 were evaluated. women were in an acyclovir clinical trial and their samples were tested for hiv-1 rna (361 samples) and hsv-2 dna (378 samples). virus shedding, quantity and acyclovir effect were compared. hiv-1 and hsv-2 were more fr ...201727179350
in situ detection of regulatory t cells in human genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) reactivation and their influence on spontaneous hsv-2 reactivation.herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) reactivation is accompanied by a sustained influx of cd4(+) and cd8(+) t cells that persist in genital tissue for extended periods. while cd4(+) t cells have long been recognized as being present in herpetic ulcerations, their role in subclinical reactivation and persistence is less well known, especially the role of cd4(+) regulatory t cells (tregs).201627117511
vaccination with the secreted glycoprotein g of herpes simplex virus 2 induces protective immunity after genital infection.herpes simplex virus 2 (hsv-2) infects the genital mucosa and establishes a life-long infection in sensory ganglia. after primary infection hsv-2 may reactivate causing recurrent genital ulcerations. hsv-2 infection is prevalent, and globally more than 400 million individuals are infected. as clinical trials have failed to show protection against hsv-2 infection, new vaccine candidates are warranted. the secreted glycoprotein g (sgg-2) of hsv-2 was evaluated as a prophylactic vaccine in mice usi ...201627110813
strong country level correlation between syphilis and hsv-2 prevalence.background. syphilis is curable but herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) is not. as a result, the prevalence of syphilis but not hsv-2 may be influenced by the efficacy of national sti screening and treatment capacity. if the prevalence of syphilis and hsv-2 is found to be correlated, then this makes it more likely that something other than differential sti treatment is responsible for variations in the prevalence of both hsv-2 and syphilis. methods. simple linear regression was used to evaluate the r ...201627069710
no evidence of pritelivir resistance among herpes simplex virus type 2 isolates after 4 weeks of daily therapy.pritelivir is a novel helicase-primase inhibitor in clinical development for treatment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) infections. in preclinical work, resistance-mediating mutations were identified in the hsv-2 genome at 3 loci in the ul5 gene and 1 locus in ul52.201627056950
the epidemiology of herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in a large cohort of hiv-infected patients, 2006-2014. 201627030927
regulatory t cells are essential to promote proper cd4 t-cell priming upon mucosal infection.regulatory t cells (tregs) limit autoimmunity and immunopathology using a variety of suppressive mechanisms, but their roles during pathogen-directed immune responses remain unclear. following herpes simplex virus-2 (hsv-2) infection, mice lacking tregs fail to control viral replication, pointing to a role for tregs in facilitating productive immune responses. using adoptive transfer of t-cell receptor transgenic cd4 t cells into treg-sufficient or treg-depleted mice prior to hsv-2 infection, we ...201627007674
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